Gear Pump

Aim
To determine the characteristics of Gear Pump and to plot the following performance characteristics:1. Head Vs Discharge. 2. Pump efficiency Vs Discharge. To check if the ratio of discharge Vs RPM is a constant.

Apparatus
Sump tank Overhead tank Gear pump mesh attached to DC motor Thyristor controlled DC drive to vary the RPM of motor: Single Phase, 220 Volts, 1KW Vacuum gauge Pressure gauge Oil used: SAE 20W/40 (30 liters)

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Page 1

Theory
The pump is defined as a device which transfers mechanical energy supplied to it to the fluid in the line. Here we are going to study characteristics of a gear pump. There are two main variations; external gear pumps which use two external spur gears, and internal gear pumps which use an external and an internal spur gear. Gear pumps are positive displacement (or fixed displacement), meaning they pump a constant amount of fluid for each revolution. Some gear pumps are designed to function as either a motor or a pump.

External gear pump

Internal Gear Pump

As the gears rotate they separate on the intake side of the pump, creating a void and suction which is filled by fluid. The fluid is carried by the gears to the discharge side of the pump, ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Page 2

where the meshing of the gears displaces the fluid. The mechanical clearances are small— in the order of 10 μm. The tight clearances, along with the speed of rotation, effectively prevent the fluid from leaking backwards. Gear pump has a fixed discharge per rotation. It entraps fluid from one side and pushes it to the other side. The volume of fluid trapped each time is constant. This rigid structural property makes it ideal to pump even the most viscous fluids. Discharge Vs RPM is constant for a gear pump even for fluids with different viscosity.

Procedure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Fill Sump tank .with oil (SAE 40) and ensure that no foreign particles are there. Open Flow Control Valve given on the discharge and suction line. Set the RPM of motor with the help of variac. Now switch on the Main Power Supply (220 V AC, 50 Hz) and switch on the Pump. Make sure that control valves are open. Record discharge pressure by means of Pressure Gauge, provided on discharge line. Record suction pressure by means of Vacuum Gauge, provided at suction of the pump. Record the power consumption by means of Energy meter and stop watch. Measure the discharged by using measuring tank and Stop Watch. Repeat the same procedure for different RMP of pump and calculate discharge. Closing Procedure: Switch OFF the pump first. Switch OFF Power Supply to Panel (MCB).

Notations
A = Area of measuring tank, m2 EMC = energy meter constant N = Speed of Pump, RPM. H = Total Head, m P = Pulses of energy meter Q = Discharge, m3/s R = Rise of height of fluid in measuring tank, m t = Time taken by R, sec t’ = Time tank by P, sec ƞ0 = Overall efficiency. ƞ𝑝 = Pump efficiency. ρ= Density of fluid, Kg/ m3

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Page 3

Formulae
 Electrical Power 𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐻𝑃 =  Shaft Power 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐻𝑃 = ƞ𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 ∗ 𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟(𝐻𝑃) ƞ𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑠𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑡𝑜𝑏𝑒 0.8 Discharge 𝑄 =  Total Head 𝐻 = 11.5 ∗ 𝑃𝑑 +  Pump Power 𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐻𝑃 =  Overall Efficiency ƞ0 =  Pump Efficiency ƞ𝑝 = 𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟(𝐻𝑃) ∗ 100 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟(𝐻𝑃) 𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟(𝐻𝑃) ∗ 100 𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟(𝐻𝑃) 𝜌 ∗ 𝑄 ∗ 𝐻 75 𝑃𝑠 + 0.8 760 𝐴 ∗ 𝑅 𝑡 𝑃 ∗ 3600 ∗ 1000 𝑡𝑝 ∗ 𝐸𝑀𝐶 ∗ 746

Data
            Area of measuring tank (A) = 0.0625 m2 Energy meter constant (EMC) = 6400 Pulses/ kW hr Density of oil, ρ= 868 Kg / m3 Motor efficiency = 0.8 Pump : Speed 1500 RPM (max.) Capacity 1 HP Head 5 kg/cm2 (max.) Pressure Gauge : Bourdon type. Medium Flow : Clear Oil Drive : 1 HP DC Motor with Thyristor controlled DC Drive for variable Speed (Standard Make) Sump tank : Made Of Stainless Steel, Capacity 30 Ltrs. (max.) Flow Measurement : Using Measuring Tank with Piezometer (StandardMake) capacity 20 liters. (Max.) Page 4

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Observation Table
Sr.No RPM Height(cm) Pulse/20 sec Gauge Pressure(mm Hg) Vacuum Pressure(mm Hg)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0417 0525 0618 0740 0800 0930 1014 1150

06.5 08.0 09.0 11.2 11.5 13.5 14.4 15.7

05 07 09 10 12 14 16 18

0.35 0.55 0.75 1.00 1.15 1.50 1.80 2.25

30 30 45 45 45 50 50 55

Calculation Table
S.No Elect.pow(HP) Shaft.pow(HP) Discharge(m3/s) Total head(m) Pump.pow(HP) ƞ𝑝 ƞ𝑜

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0.188505 0.263908 0.33931 0.377011 0.452413 0.527815 0.603217 0.678619

0.150804 0.211126 0.271448 0.301609 0.36193 0.422252 0.482574 0.542895

0.000203 0.00025 0.000281 0.00035 0.000359 0.000422 0.00045 0.000491

5.278947 7.578947 10.10592 12.98092 14.70592 18.80658 22.25658 27.50724

0.01241 0.021928 0.032895 0.052581 0.061164 0.091823 0.115912 0.156191

6.583328 8.309131 9.694618 13.94692 13.51959 17.39684 19.21568 23.01595

8.229159 10.38641 12.11827 17.43365 16.89949 21.74605 24.0196 28.76994

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Page 5

Characteristic Graphs

Head Vs Discharge
30 Total Head(m) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006

Discharge(m3/s)

Pump Efficiency Vs Discharge
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Pump efficiency

Discharge(m3/s)

Discharge Vs RPM
0.0006 Discharge(m3/s) 0.0005 0.0004 0.0003 0.0002 0.0001 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

RPM

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Page 6

Conclusion
The characteristics of gear pump were studied. The characteristic graphs were plotted and observed that: Head increases with Discharge Pump efficiency increases with increase in Discharge. Discharge Vs RPM graph is fairly a strait line.

Suggestion
Experiments were to be conducted with different viscosity fluids to check if ratio of discharge to RPM is constant.

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Page 7

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