You are on page 1of 38

1

AN ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH ON ICT, THE CURRICULUM AND TEACHER
TRAINING IN ICT USE

Royston Emmanuel (September, 2006; under revision

ABSTRACT

For quite a while now the issue oI ICT (InIormation and Communication Technology)
integration has been a major consideration oI St. Lucia`s Ministry oI Education.
Essentially, it is the ministry`s hope to integrate inIormation and communication
technologies at all levels within the education system, inclusive oI adult learning. It is
my belieI that despite issues oI the acquisition and management oI the necessary physical
resources to meet the requirements oI integration, the issues oI teacher competencies in,
and attitudes towards the use oI technology present the major challenges that our
educational planners must Iace. Adequate and appropriately designed teacher training in
ICT use is the only way oI resolving this issue. This requires a clear conceptualisation oI
the role oI ICT in the curriculum and an understanding oI teachers` perceptions oI the
useIulness oI this educational innovation, as well as their attitudes towards it.

This paper is the result oI a meta-analysis oI the research carried out worldwide on ICT
integration into the curriculum. Citing previous studies in the Iield, and examples oI
good practices as concerns teacher training in ICT use, the research goes on to present a
case Ior initial teacher training in ICT use that considers teachers need Ior increased
competency in ICT tools, and teachers need Ior pedagogical knowledge as concerns the
use oI technology.





2
INTRODUCTION

Teacher training, by itselI is not a new practice, but the involvement oI technology has
presented new dimensions that must be rationalised iI successIul integration oI ICT is to
take place. A number oI issues thereIore emerge in considering teacher training in ICT
use. These include:
The Impact oI ICT on the Curriculum
The Impact oI ICT on pedagogy
The Impact oI ICT on the role oI the teacher
#ationalising and enacting teacher training

The extent to which ICT impacts the education system is dependent on the ability oI
governments, Ministries oI Education, Schools and practitioners (education oIIicers,
principals and teachers) to negotiate these issues within the context oI theoretical and
practical delineations oI educational practice, and within the context oI what they believe
best suits their educational environment.

Inevitably, theorising and examining an innovation`s impact on teaching and learning
should be the Iirst consideration oI all innovations in education. Thus the Iollowing
intends to discuss the diIIerent ideas and philosophies that have guided the use and
integration oI ICT in education systems under the categories earlier demarcated. It
Iocuses on the philosophies and theories guided by rigorous research that have inIluenced
how ICT use is envisaged by educational innovators and policy makers, as well as the
practical applications and inIluences oI ICT in education systems.

ICT AND THE CURRICULUM

A review oI the literature on ICT integration in education reveals that educators have
appreciated the potential impact that new and emerging technologies can have on the
educational process. Jones and Knezek (1993), in attempting to provide a Iramework Ior
categorising distance learning systems and speciIic examples oI how teaching, learning,


3
and distance education technology interact to produce successIul teaching-learning
experiences, argued that ICT was originally intended to serve as a means oI improving
eIIiciency in the educational process. Dede (1998) more speciIically argued that the use
oI ICT in education can help improve memory retention, increase motivation and
generally deepen understanding among students. ICT, according to other researchers, can
also be used to encourage collaborative learning, including role playing, group problem
solving activities and articulated projects (Forcheri and MolIino, 2000). Furthermore,
Veen et al. (1995) stress the signiIicance oI ICT on curriculum development. They argue
that curricula innovations should go hand-in-hand with ICT implementation. Tweddle
(1993) maintains that technology will result in new approaches to the curriculum, whilst
Knight and Knight (1995) argue Iurther that to accommodate the technological Iunctions,
the curriculum content will likely change pragmatically when the implications oI the
technology Ior education are addressed. More speciIically, ICT will impact not only the
content oI what is taught, but also the environment in which it is taught and the
approaches, attitudes and methodologies oI teachers and learners alike.

Inevitably, the way ICT impacts the curriculum will have implications Ior teacher
practices in so Iar as those practices are inIormed by certain philosophies that guide the
educational process. The important considerations involved in this venture include
understanding how those practices change and why; and the implications oI these
changes on the preparation and training oI teachers.


THE IMPACT OF ICT ON PEDAGOGY

A large part oI rationalising the impact oI ICT on education has to with our
understanding oI the present applications oI the concept oI pedagogy. Bruner (1996)
claims that all teachers have theories about how their students learn that inIorm their
approach to teaching. He presents Iour models oI pedagogy. They include:
1) The acquisition oI know how`, where children are imitative learners.


4
2) The acquisition oI propositional knowledge, where children learn Irom didactic
exposure.
3) The development oI intersubjective interchange, where children are thinkers.
4) The management oI objective knowledge`, where children are knowledgeable.

It is possible to see pedagogies involving ICT in all Iour oI these models. In Bruner`s
Iirst model students learn how to use certain computer applications by activities such as
direct instruction, and drill and practice. In Bruner`s second model students learn Irom
Iollowing presentations and simulations on the computer. At this stage technology
becomes a temporary replacement Ior the teacher. In the third stage students begin to
question and make choices about which technological tools solve which problems, they
begin to use the technology as an exploratory tool. Bruner`s Iourth stage is realised when
students begin to use ICT in a selI-directed approach to learning. Students are able to
produce and share knowledge, and situate the use oI technology within contexts they
deem as valid to their progress.


Likewise, #esta et al. (2002: 23-29) in their examination oI the role oI ICT in teacher
education connect ICT use with old and emerging theories guiding educational practice.
They argue that the impact oI ICT on educational practice should be considered within
the context oI philosophies supporting views oI learning. Accordingly, these views oI the
learning process alongside the shiIt to student-centred approaches have emerged based on
cognitive learning research along with several other theories that have inIormed our
understanding oI the nature and context oI learning. Among these, they argue, include:
socio-cultural theory (based on Vygotsky`s intersubjectiveness and Zone oI Proximal
Development), constructivism theory, selI-regulated learning, situated cognition,
cognitive apprenticeship, problem-based learning, cognitive Ilexibility theory (Spiro et al,
1988), and distributed cognition (Salomon et al, 1993). In the true vein oI constructivism
these theories propose that learners are active agents, purposeIully seeking and
constructing knowledge within a meaningIul context. In such contexts the learner, the
centre oI the learning process, interacts with other learners, the teacher, inIormation


5
resources, and technology. The learner, they continue, engages in authentic tasks in
authentic contexts using authentic tools and is assessed through authentic perIormance.
The environment provides the learner with coaching and scaIIolding in developing
knowledge skills. It provides a rich collaborative environment enabling the learner to
consider diverse and multiple perspectives to address issues and solve problems. It also
provides students with opportunities to reIlect on his/ her learning.

The role oI ICTs in supporting such a learning environment is two Iold:
1. ICTs can provide powerIul tools to help learners access vast knowledge resources,
collaborate with others, consult with experts, share knowledge, and solve complex
problems using cognitive tools.
2. ICTs provide learners with powerIul new tools to represent their knowledge with text,
images, graphics, and video.

Similarly, twelve years beIore #esta et al`s (2002) publication, Hawkridge et al (1990), in
delineating the Iour rationales Ior introducing ICT into schools, highlighted particularly
the pedagogical capacity oI ICT to enhance teaching and learning, and by extension,
student outcomes. More importantly, they underscored the capacity oI ICT to promote
other educational innovations and change the way in which teaching and learning are
carried out, what they reIerred to as the catalytic rationale Ior introducing ICT into
education. Embracing this rationale enables education to shiIt its emphasis Irom teacher-
centred approaches where learners are treated as passive recipients oI inIormation to
learner-centred approaches which help learners develop the skills which enable them to
search Ior and acquire inIormation by themselves.

Considering ICT as a catalyst to learning also has major implications Ior views oI the
nature oI learning that should take place in schools and the role oI teachers in that process
oI learning. The idea oI ICT as a catalyst to learning Iocuses on the importance oI
learning to learn skills. It is based on the assumption that it is Iar more beneIicial Ior
learners to acquire skills that enable them to use technology resources to gather, validate
and apply inIormation in a meaningIul way. According to Somekh and Davis (1997) this


6
ensures continuity oI learning and personal growth and makes people more responsible
Ior their own learning throughout their lives. This means that the Iocus oI pedagogy
changes Irom rote learning and memorisation to discovery and individualised learning. It
is argued that this paradigm shiIt has signiIicant ramiIications Ior not only the learner, but
also the teacher. The teacher is no longer the dispenser oI knowledge, and the learner
now has the opportunity to participate actively in the learning process and in the
construction oI knowledge.

Watkins and Mortimore (1999:8) do not envisage the relationship between ICT and
pedagogy in such a dichotomous sense as #esta et al (2002) and Hawkridge et al (1990).
Acknowledging the complexity oI this relationship, they assert that there is a connection
between the present diIIiculties oI conceptualising pedagogy and the growing complexity
oI knowledge as our societies become more inIormation based. They argue that recent
developments in our understanding oI cognition and meta-cognition have inIluenced how
pedagogy is deIined and applied. For them the current model oI pedagogy oIIers an
increasingly integrated conceptualisation which speciIies relations between its elements:
the teacher, the classroom or other context, content, the view oI learning and learning
about learning. This model Iocuses on the active construction oI knowledge, and the
development oI learning to learn skills. This model oI pedagogy, they argue, would
undergo Iurther diIIerentiation when issues oI the context oI learning, content, age and
stage oI the learner, and purposes oI learning are considered.

Dalgarno (2001), in applying ideas oI constructivism to Computer Assisted Learning,
takes a similar interest in delineating the pedagogical issues that at times tend to
circumvent the application oI ICT in any learning environment. He points to the need to
understand the assumptions that guided cognitive and meta-cognitive views oI learning,
and how constructivist approaches to learning support the introduction and integration oI
ICT in learning. His delineation points to the importance oI particular principles oI
constructivism that inIorm a shiIt in our understanding oI education Irom teacher-centred
to learner-centred. With constructivism, he argues, the Iocus oI teaching becomes one oI
guiding the learner as they build on and modiIy their existing mental models. According


7
to McInerney and McInerney (1994) this entails a shiIt Irom a Iocus on knowledge
transmission to that oI knowledge creation.

Smeets and Mooij (2001) in observing teachers in an ICT based classroom environment
support the view that ICT encourages pupil-centred learning environments. They argue
that in such learning environments, co-operation and interaction play vital roles. #ich
contexts and tasks that are as authentic as possible should be provided to present links to
the world outside school. According to Jonassen (1999) discovery learning should be
stimulated and higher order thinking skills should be Iostered. Smeets and Mooij (2001)
observe Iurther that since pupil-centred learning environments Iit into constructivists`
view oI learning teachers should diIIer in the degree to which they act as coaches,
observers and Iacilitators.

Niederhauser and Stoddart (2001) in examining relationships between teachers'
instructional perspectives and their use oI technology in instruction present a diIIerent
perspective on the changing pedagogy encouraged by ICT use in which they Iactor in the
ontological assumptions oI teachers about learning (this concept is Iurther discussed in
the section 2.4). They Iound that teachers` approaches to teaching using technology are
heavily dependent on their belieIs about teaching and learning. In evaluating arguments
oI education reIormists that technology will automatically promote the use oI
constructivist approaches to teaching and learning, they argue that teachers knowledge
and belieIs about teaching and learning act as an 'intuitive Screen¨ through which
proIessional development and classroom teaching reIorms are interpreted.

This assumption is Iurther supported by a number oI researchers (Buchanan et al 1998;
Clark & Peterson, 1986; Fang, 1996; Johnson, 1992; Posner, Strike, Hewson, & Gertzog,
1982; #ichardson et al., 1991; Zeichner et al., 1987). They exempliIy this point oI view
by arguing that teachers who held more traditional belieIs about teaching and learning
tended to use didactic instructional methods while teachers with more constructivist
belieIs tended to use student-centered inquiry based methods (DeFord, 1985; Dwyer et
al., 1991; Johnson, 1992; Peterson, Fennema, Carpenter, & LoeI, 1989; Yocum, 1996).


8
Particularly, in observing teachers` use oI soItware in the ICT classroom, Niederhauser
and Stoddart (2001) Iound that teachers who adhere to traditional transmission
approaches to instruction preIer skill-based soItware, whereas most teachers who support
constructivist views oI teaching and learning use skilled-based as well as open-ended
soItware, soItware which, according to Davis (2001), is developmentally appropriate
because it allows learners to control the program, solve problems, and make decisions.

In using open-ended soItware, learners are not only acquiring new knowledge but are also
constructing ideas through the interactive processes taking place with the use oI the
soItware. This supports Kozma and Johnson`s (1991) earlier view that instructional
technology like open-ended soItware can support learning. Accordingly, apart Irom
providing simulations and real liIe experience and mastery oI the technology, the
soItware can also enable active engagement in the construction oI knowledge and
Iacilitate collaborative activity among students.

Somekh`s (1997) conceptualisation oI the impact oI ICT on pedagogy Iocuses on the
importance oI using the computer as a cognitive tool. This method supports inquiry-
based learning. Similarly, it uses open-ended applications such as databases,
spreadsheets and controlling and monitoring soItware. It requires the use oI higher order
skills which include Iormulating questions, planning, organising, and interpreting
Ieedback, testing hypotheses and evaluating outcomes. In this mode students take
responsibility Ior their own learning as they become able to make inquiries
independently.

Somekh`s (1997) model suggests that ICT allows students to be actively involved in the
learning process. Their experiences play a very important role in their approach to
content, and they actively raise and develop questions, gather inIormation, Iormulate and
test explanations and ideas. The role oI collaboration in this learning environment is
emphasised as they note that students also communicate and discuss their Iindings to
others. In this kind oI situated cognition students are more likely to want to engage in


9
challenging inquiries iI presented with authentic tasks, modelled on real-world problems
(Sheingold, 1990).

Inevitably, all these researchers show that ICT seriously inIluences the way teaching and
learning takes place in the classroom, and challenges our original conceptualisations oI
educational practice. Based on what has been discussed so Iar it is possible to argue that
pedagogical modes involving ICT use can be classiIied according to the degree oI
involvement oI the technology, the teacher and the learner. OI course, as has been
previously discussed, these are dependent on the ontological assumptions that guide the
teaching learning process. InIormed by the delineations oI Ertmer et al. (1999) and
Newby et al. (2000) I have presented a summary oI the possible changes in pedagogy
apparent with ICT (Figure 2.1). It is based on the notion that ICT use can be placed on a
continuum that begins with ICT as instruction, similar to the traditional classroom
teaching; and ends with ICT as construction, a way that Iacilitates Iull exploitation oI the
potential oI ICT, but demands that teachers rationalise ICT use within existing and
emerging ontological assumptions, a way that requires a rethinking and a redeIinition oI
the traditional approaches in education as well as the teacher-student relationship.



10






11
ICT AND THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER

Some researchers have argued that with the inevitable proliIeration oI ICT in the
classroom, the role oI the teacher must change (Hawkridge, 1990; #ussell & Bradley,
1997; Noss & Pachler, 1998; Wheeler, 2000). According to Wheeler (2000) there are
Iour key reasons why this must happen.

Firstly, ICT will cause certain teaching resources to become obsolete. The use oI
chalkboards may no longer be necessary iI learners all have access to the same networked
resource on which the teacher is presenting inIormation. At its extreme, iI students are
distributed throughout several classrooms localised resources such as chalkboards
become redundant and new electronic Iorms oI distributed communication must be
employed (Wheeler, 2000).

Secondly, ICT may also make some assessment methods redundant. In an ICT
environment, on-line tests can easily be used which instantly provide the teacher with a
wide range oI inIormation associated with the learner's score. Comparisons oI previous
scores and dates oI assessment Ior example, will indicate a child's progress, and each
student can be allocated an individual action plan data base stored in electronic Iormat
into which each successive test's results can be entered automatically.

Thirdly, in an ICT learning environment it is no longer suIIicient Ior teachers merely to
impart content knowledge. It will however, be crucial Ior teachers to encourage critical
thinking skills, promote inIormation literacy, and nurture collaborative working practices
to prepare children Ior a new world in which no job is guaranteed Ior liIe (#eil, 2000),
and where people switch careers several times. According to Wheeler (2000), one oI the
most ubiquitous Iorms oI ICT, the Internet, will aIIect the teacher in a number oI ways:
1. It will provide opportunities Ior inquiry-based learning
2. It will Iacilitate collaboration between students and teachers outside the
classroom.


12
3. It will encourage collaboration between teachers. Accordingly teaching
strategies and resources can be shared through communication with other
educators and may be integrated across the curriculum.
4. Because oI the degree oI misinIormation and inaccuracies the new roles oI the
teacher within the electronic classroom will be to separate out quality
inIormation Irom misinIormation. IdentiIication, classiIication and
authentication oI electronic inIormation sources will be critical new tasks Ior
teachers

Finally, teachers must begin to reappraise the methods by which they meet children`s
learning needs and match curricula to the requirements oI human thought. Traditional
methods oI imparting knowledge, such as lectures, and books are characterised by a
linear progression oI inIormation. Human minds are more adaptable than this, using non-
linear strategies Ior problem solving, representation and the storage and retrieval oI
inIormation. Hypertext soItware enables teachers to provide their students with the non-
linear means to match non-linear human thinking processes (Semenov, 2000: 29-30).

Wheeler`s (2000) demarcation situates the teacher as an essential element in the process
oI ICT integration, iI not the most important. Given this it can be argued that the teacher
is indeed a crucial Iactor in the process oI introducing ICT in the classroom (Cox et al,
1999; Ertmer, 1999; Luthra, 1997; Veen, 1995). It has been argued that apart Irom
learning new technologies, they will have to ultimately rethink and relearn pedagogical
approaches that have been derived through the use oI technology (#ussell and Bradley,
1997; Niederhuaser, 2001). Furthermore ICT presents challenges to the traditional
teacher-student relationship because students become active participants in the teacher-
learning process, even participating as experts as times. At such times students may
display more knowledge oI, a better understanding oI, and a more innate ability to grasp
new technologies than their teachers do. This inevitably necessitates that the nature oI
pedagogy changes.



13
A number oI researchers have sought to delineate the changing pedagogical roles oI
teachers (#ussell and Bradley, 1997; Niederhuaser, 2001; Hawkridge, 1990; Somekh and
Davies, 1991; Maier et al, 1998). Essentially teachers will no longer be seen as expert
transmitters oI knowledge, but will instead be seen as supporters/ Iacilitators whose roles
include setting collaborative tasks, promoting student autonomy and selI-direction in
learning, promoting multiple perspectives and approaches, and scaIIolding. This view oI
the change in the role oI the teacher supports Hawkridge`s (1990) earlier notion that
using ICT in schools will radically transIorm the teaching and learning process. This
transIormation, in the constructivist sense, means a radical change in perceptions,
attitudes and pedagogical approaches oI teachers.

These views oI pedagogical change encouraged through the use oI ICT assert that when
ICT is introduced within any education system, exploiting its true potential demands a re-
conceptualisation and redeIinition oI traditional approaches to teaching and learning as
well as changes in the perceptions oI the role oI teachers. This idea is supported by the
research oI Newhouse (2002) as he set out to identiIy the impact oI ICT in Western
Australian schools with regard to students, learning and the learning environment;
teachers and teaching strategies; organisational change; and other areas relevant to
teaching and learning.

His literature review on the impact oI ICT on teaching and learning rationalises the
teacher as a critical Iactor in the learning environment and consequently in the use oI ICT
in education. Newhouse (2002) notes however that though using ICT to support learning
requires change Ior all teachers, similar change can and has been undertaken by previous
educators without the involvement oI ICT.

Like Somekh and Davies (1991) Newhouse`s (2002) delineation oI this change considers
the impact oI ICT in speciIic areas in the teaching and learning process. His notion oI the
impact oI ICT on pedagogy can be summarised in the Iollowing:

Instructional processes become more learner-centred.


14
They require more co-operation and collaboration between students, and between
teachers in diIIerent departments and diIIerent schools.
It requires more active learning this oI course suggests the role oI constructivist
approaches to learning (discovery learning, scaIIolding etc.)
It is based on increased and Iar greater access to inIormation and sources oI
inIormation. This in itselI should be supported by new approaches to inIormation
gathering and deciphering. (Newhouse, 2002:38)

Newhouse`s (2002) explanation oI the impact oI ICT on teacher practices is supported by
the views oI Cradler and BridgIorth (2002) which stress changes in the role oI the teacher
and the teacher`s own perception oI this change in role. Firstly, there is a perceived risk
oI reduced inIluence among teachers. Essentially this is encompassed in the idea that
students may know more and may be able to use the technology better than they do.
Secondly, they will have to provide greater access to inIormation, leading to increased
interest in teaching and experimentation. Thirdly, there will be a need Ior increased
collaboration and communication with other teachers, administrators and parents.
Fourthly, the teacher will have to do more planning, which in turn requires more energy.
FiIthly, using ICT requires the teacher`s development oI skills and knowledge oI ICT,
and continuous retraining given the dynamic nature oI technology. Lastly, they will have
to provide more time to engage with students. Cradler and BridgIorth (2002) argue that
this will lead to greater productivity.

The extent to which traditional teaching practices will change with the inclusion oI ICT
has been evaluated by researchers like #eiber and Welliver (1989), Miller and Olson
(1994), Collis (1989), Becker (1994), Fullan (1996), and #eil (1998) (2000), among
others, who present a diIIerent point oI view to that oI Newhouse (2002). As early as
1989 Collis (1989) articulated that many elements oI the traditional school organisation
will, and should remain regardless oI ICT`s potential. He suggested that teachers will
always be instructional leaders, and that there is always a need Ior human to human
contact. Later Miller and Olson (1994:136) argued that technology has not
Iundamentally altered teaching practices and the curriculum because oI the 'inIluence oI


15
traditional teaching methods and routines oI practicing teachers.¨ They emphasise the
need to consider how these traditional classroom practices have aIIected its use. #eil
(1998:1) perceives that current notions oI using computer systems to provide just-in-time
learning 'massively undervalues the role oI the teacher.¨ He argues that teachers and
other experts will be required to support students in handling 'conIlict and multiple
perspectives¨ (ibid: 6) Inevitably #eil (1998) makes it clear that the role oI the teacher
will continue to be critical with the inclusion oI ICT. However, the nature and
composition oI that role is likely to alter to require a greater range oI skills, especially in
directing students through the huge quantities oI rich inIormation. Inevitably ICT use
demands that students will continue to need 'guidance and assessment by skilled
teachers.¨(ibid: 5)


ICT, PEDAGOGICAL CHANGE AND TEACHER ATTITUDES

Cuban (1993: 186), in explaining why new technologies have not changed schools as
much as other organisations, highlights teachers` belieIs about educational practice and
the traditional school structure as key issues. He argues:

First, cultural belieIs about what teaching is, how learning occurs, what
knowledge is proper in schools, and the student-teacher (not student-
machine) relationship dominate popular views oI proper schooling.
Second, the age-graded school, an organisational invention oI the late
nineteenth century, has proIoundly shaped what teachers do and do not do
in classrooms, including the persistent adaptation oI innovations to Iit
contours oI these age-graded settings.

In his delineation oI possible scenarios Ior ICT integration in the classroom oI 2003 the
technophile`s scenario, the preservationist`s scenario and the cautious optimist`s scenario,
Cuban Iocuses on the relationship between the student and the teacher, the role oI the


16
teacher and the degree oI ICT use by the teacher as important indicators oI the kind and
structure oI learning taking place (Cuban, 1993: 192-195).

Cuban`s (1993) Iocus on the teacher`s approach to technology in the classroom has been
impetus Ior many considerations oI how the teacher`s perceptions and belieIs about
learning and the impact oI technology can aIIect teachers` use oI technology, whether
positively or negatively.

Teachers` apprehension towards embracing new pedagogies involving ICT may be the
result oI a lack oI knowledge and lack oI conIidence in their ability to integrate ICT
eIIectively into the educational practice (O`#ielly, 2003: 420). But other research has
Iound overwhelming evidence that it is more a result oI the belieIs and values that
teachers bring into the classrooms with them, that inIorm how they view the student
teacher relationship and the instructional process.

In a study to describe the day to day practices oI Iour teachers Irom a Dutch secondary
school who were implementing ICT in their classrooms Veen (1993) Iound that teacher-
based Iactors Iar outweighed school-based Iactors in explaining teachers` use oI
computers. These teacher-based Iactors were grouped into two categories: belieIs and
skills. OI these the more inIluential were teachers` belieIs regarding what should be in
the curricula (content) and the way in which their subjects should be taught. The skills
that most inIluenced their uses oI computers, in hierarchical order oI importance, were
those related to the teacher`s competence in managing classroom activities; their
pedagogical skills; and their computer handling or technical skills. This is Iurther
supported by Brummelhuis (1995) who argues that in addition to teachers` pedagogical
views, the teachers` skills play an important role in the ability to create pupil-centred
learning environments which include innovative use oI ICT. Keeler (1996) emphasises
that a teacher`s adjustment to the use oI technology requires considerable eIIort, new
knowledge, and a willingness to change existing teaching strategies.



17
In another article which Iocused on the role oI teachers` belieIs in the use oI technology
and the implications Ior teacher education, Veen (1993b) stresses the importance oI
understanding how teachers` perceptions oI technology use inIorm their practice. He
considers the need Ior educational innovators to re-conceptualise how they perceive
teachers` uses oI technology in order to allow Ior its development through natural
processes and intervention where necessary.

Similarly, DesIorges (1995) Iocuses on the role oI teachers` belieIs in driving or retarding
changes in educational practice. In a literature review oI the shiIt Irom novice to expert
teachers, he Iound that 'many teachers are perIectly well satisIied with their practices and
are unlikely to question prevailing educational processes.¨ Accordingly, in order Ior
teachers to make changes to their proIessional practice, 'a considerable eIIort is
necessary to create the possibilities oI restructuring knowledge (about teaching and
learning) in the Iace oI experience . In regard to old knowledge we can speculate that
the impact oI new experience (e.g. using ICT) will be severely attenuated iI it is in
conIlict with teachers` basic ontological categories, e.g. their belieIs about the nature oI
their job or the nature oI childhood.¨ Likewise, Borko and Putman (1995), in considering
teacher proIessional development, argue that teachers` thinking and belieIs play an
important role in their classroom practices and aIIect their teaching and learning
interactions. They argue Iurther that in order Ior teachers to adopt education innovations,
such as ICT, they will need to 'think in new ways about students, subject matter, and the
teaching-learning process.¨

Dawes (1999), in examining some images oI teachers as computer users in cartoons and
comic strips, showed how these images reIlected unIortunate and unwarranted
stereotypes oI teachers and their relationship to ICT. She argues that such perpetuate
Iamiliar notions oI lack oI expertise in the teaching proIession by transmitting the ideas
that teachers are IearIul, teachers are inept, and teachers are less capable than their
students. In an eIIort to demystiIy the notion oI the teacher as resistant to change
involving ICT, Dawes (1999) argues that an alternative way to consider what happens
during implementation oI change is that, armed with their proIessional knowledge,


18
teachers make inIormed and rationale choices about programmes and materials they are
required to use. They take decisions that are intended to conIirm their belieIs about the
educational eIIectiveness oI innovations.

Inevitably, research shows that teachers` belieIs and attitudes are crucial considerations in
the implementation oI ICT in education. The extent to which ICT is integrated into
teaching practices depends largely on how teachers perceive the teaching learning
process, and how they perceive ICT use. From their research on teachers` belieIs and
technology integration, Honey and Moeller (1990) suggest that unless teaching practices
change, technology will not be widely integrated into primary classrooms because oI a
mismatch between teachers` belieIs about teaching and learning, and their perceived
value oI educational ICT. A review oI the available literature shows that this conclusion
is applicable in all classrooms.

ICT AND TEACHER TRAINING

How computers are used in education depends on the pedagogical competence and
technical skills oI the teaching staII who must know how to exploit these modern
technologies in pedagogically meaningIul ways. Consequently Carlson and Gadio (2002:
119) argue:

Educational technology is not, and never will be, transIormative on its
ownit requires teachers who can integrate technology into the
curriculum and use it to improve student learning. In other words,
computers cannot replace teachersteachers are the key to whether
technology is used appropriately and eIIectively.

They argue Iurther that since teachers remain the gatekeepers to students` access to
educational opportunities they cannot and should not be ignored with regards to ICT
integration. Accordingly, providing technical training to teachers cannot be enough.
Teachers also need proIessional development in the pedagogical application oI ICT skills


19
to improve teaching and learning (ibid). Furthermore because technology is so dynamic
and is continually evolving, apart Irom initial training in the use oI ICT in teaching,
teachers will need extended training throughout their tenure in the Iorm oI reIresher
courses in new applications and approaches to using ICT in education.

ICT training Ior teachers must thereIore consider two essential elements:
1. Teachers need technical training to learn how to use and maintain ICT equipment
and soItware.
2. Because integration oI ICT into education is a task oI immense magnitude
training in how to incorporate ICT into the curriculum is necessary (Foa et al.,
1998:1).
Mc Dougall and Squires (1997) Iurther sub-divide these considerations into Iive critical
areas that would encompass a possible Iramework Ior organising ICT training Ior
teachers:
1. skills with particular applications
2. integration into the existing curricula
3. ICT related changes in the curricula
4. changes in teachers` roles
5. underpinning theories oI education
They argue that the Iact that most teacher training Iocuses on simply helping teachers
understand computer applications is an oversight that does aIIect the use oI ICT in
teaching.

Van Den Dool and Kirschner (2003: 164-165) in considering the role oI ICT in education
and teacher training suggest a more detailed Iramework Ior ICT training. They present
what they believe should be benchmarks Ior the pedagogical application oI ICT and
consequently teacher training in ICT use. They argue Iirstly that programmes Ior teacher
training should train aspiring teachers to be able to make use oI ICT as mindtools. These
open-ended computer applications like the Internet Iacilitate meaningIul proIessional
thinking and working, help users represent what they know as they transIorm inIormation
into knowledge, and support critical thinking and higher-order learning. They argue that


20
as a minimum, teachers should have basic competencies involving using these Ior
cooperation (between teachers, teacher educators, and student teachers); and
collaboration on pedagogical projects (with other teachers, experts, designers, etc.).

Secondly, they propose that programmes Ior teacher training should train aspiring
teachers to be able to make use oI ICT within many diIIerent educational/pedagogical
settings - '|i|n other words, not in adapting their education to ICT, but rather oI adopting
ICT in their education.¨ (Van Den Dool and Kirschner, 2003:164) This means that
teachers should be able to rationalise the eIIects oI ICT on their own role as teacher and
on their students` approaches to learning. Van Den Dool and Kirschner (2003) suggest
that teachers should have basic competencies involving using ICT Ior collaboration in
both asynchronous (email, discussion lists, web-based Iorums) and synchronous (video,
audio, chat, whiteboard, Iile sharing) environments; and resource-based learning
(inIorming, asking questions, evaluating, comparing).

Finally, they argue that ICT as a tool Ior teaching must be used to meet educational
objectives in a way which is integrated into the school programme. Consequently, apart
Irom knowing the theory behind why and how to use ICT, teachers must also acquire
competencies in using technologies to teaching such that the teaching-learning process
can change Ior the better; planning Ior individual, group and whole-class activities;
preparing and producing learning materials with the help oI ICT; dealing with the
possibilities/consequences oI using ICT; and teaching and learning specialist subject(s)
with ICT.

Boshuizen and Wopereis (2003) delineate much oI the same requirements Ior teacher
training in ICT use that have been presented thus Iar. They however raise a very
signiIicant dimension to how the issue oI teacher training in ICT use is rationalised. In
support oI Evenson & Hmelo (2000) they argue that apart Irom the Iast-changing quality
oI ICT there are no major diIIerences between ICT training Ior (Iuture) teachers and
training Ior any other training strategy in any other domain, Ior example problem-based
learning in medicine (Boshuizen and Wopereis, 2003: 155). Their analysis oI the content


21
and strategies Ior teacher training in ICT use considers a number oI teacher training
initiatives undertaken by diIIerent MOEs and teacher training institutions across Europe.
Essentially they highlight what they believe to be good practices in teacher education and
set down the major implications Ior training in ICT pedagogy which these examples
exempliIy. As concerns the content oI training they note:

The community that deals with the topic oI ICT in education largely
agrees on the topics that teachers should be able to deal with. They should
be competent personal users oI ICT, competent users oI ICT as a tool Ior
teaching, competent users oI ICT as a mindtool, master a range oI
educational/pedagogical paradigms that make use oI ICT, master a range
oI assessment paradigms that make use oI ICT, understand the policy
dimensions oI the use oI ICT Ior teaching and learning, and Iinally have
insight into more Iar-reaching implications oI ICT Ior schools, schooling
and society.
(ibid: 153)

Apart Irom the content oI teacher training in ICT use, the literature Iocuses on the need to
consider two essential issues. Firstly, because ICT is dynamic (ever-evolving) it
challenges educational planners and teacher training institutions to devise strategies Ior
teacher training that will address the need Ior continuous revitalisation oI skills and
ideologies. The literature suggests that initial training should be brieI and Iocus on the
development oI skills and approaches that can Iacilitate scaIIolding. This kind oI
scaIIolding can take place through interaction/ collaboration with other teachers and
through selI-directed reIresher courses.

Secondly, the role oI teacher training institutions goes beyond providing initial training in
the pedagogy oI ICT use. They should also provide outreach services to marginalised
schools in order to encourage the use oI technology in teaching. Furthermore, teacher
training institutions should liaise with diIIerent educational partners MOEs, schools,
businesses and NGO`s Iorming communities oI practice within and across educational


22
institutions and other parts oI society. According to Boshuizen and Wopereis (2003), this
can help improve the Ilow oI knowledge about recent developments to the educational
Iield. It could also help develop a good grip on emerging technologies and act as a
platIorm Ior collaborative practices oI teachers Irom diIIerent schools.


FRAMING TEACHER TRAINING IN ICT USE

This brieI analysis oI literature on the impact oI ICT on the curriculum and teacher
training suggests that there is need to consider the localisation oI teacher training in ICT
pedagogy within the precincts oI teacher training institutions, and the provisions
necessary to successIully enable such activity. The research has highlighted a number oI
advantages oI this move, which Iocus on the ability oI such institutions to provide pre-
service and in-service training that is inIormed by an understanding oI the ideas about
teaching and learning that prevail; and to provide training that, by its very delivery, will
encourage the use oI technology in the teaching-learning process.

Inevitably, the issue oI teacher training in ICT use is a complex issue that needs
considerable time and eIIort to be eIIectively rationalised. It must be understood that
designing and implementing teacher training programmes in the pedagogical uses oI ICT
is not easy, nor is it inexpensive. #esearch has shown that there are more cases oI
inadequate and unsuccessIul training than there are success stories (Carlson and Gadio,
2002; Tearle, 2002; Newhouse, 2002). This calls Ior a more proIessional collaborative
approach Irom the MOE, teacher training institutions, principals and teachers, as well as
the business community, towards ICT integration.

The Iollowing is a list oI recommendations that have emerged based on the Iindings oI
this research. These recommendations are also inIormed by studies and issues
highlighted in the literature review, and by my own conclusions aIter going through the
process oI this research.


23
1. St. Lucia`s MOE and the teacher training institution needs to collaborate on
the most eIIective ways that each can contribute to providing teacher training
in ICT use to ensure that the integration oI ICT into education can work.
2. Training in ICT pedagogy at DTEEA should Iocus on
Thinking about the beneIits oI computer applications Ior students and
teachers, and not simply on how to use the technology - this will create the
interest and incentive to learn.
Increasing student teachers` awareness oI a wide range oI ICT resources,
with less emphasis on word-processing and more on resources which are
currently underused, such as web based technologies Ior instruction and
collaboration.
ICT as a tool Ior liIelong learning Ior teachers as well as their students.
This will allow Ior the continuous update oI skills and knowledge
necessary because oI the emergent nature oI ICT.
InIormation literacy as well as ICT literacy - by Iocusing on the content oI
ICT and not only on the technology, teachers will become more aware oI
the value and beneIits oI ICT to themselves and their students.
3. Training must be Iocused on the types oI ICT resources available to teachers
in school. Training in the use oI ICT resources beIore they are available to
teachers on a day-to-day basis will result in de-motivation and wasted eIIort.
4. Student teachers need to be encouraged to reIlect on, and make decisions
about, their own ICT development needs on an ongoing basis. This will ensure
more involvement and ownership, and greater integration oI ICT within the
teaching and learning process.
5. Training in ICT use must accommodate student teachers who are at diIIerent
stages oI ICT literacy, and who teach diIIerent levels and curricula.

FRAMEWORKS FOR ICT TRAINING



24
A possible Iramework Ior the provision teacher training in ICT pedagogy must start with
conceptualising the diIIerent training needs which must be addressed in order Ior teachers
to make eIIective use oI ICT in the classroom. My delineation oI these needs are
inIormed by the ideas oI #ussell & Bradley (1997), Phelps et at (2004), Niederhauser
(2001),Cox et al (1999), Jung (2001, 2003, 2005), Carlson & Gadio (2002:122) and Van
Den Dool and Kirschner, (2003).

Firstly, teachers must have comprehensive knowledge oI the ICT resources available to
them. This requires compulsory training in the use oI a wide range oI ICT tools and not
just the basic productivity tools and computer applications. This will allow teachers to
choose the resources they want to use in the teaching process rather than have those
imposed on them. This could lead to increased teacher conIidence. Limited conIidence
constrains ways in which a resource is used. As has been noted in the discussion, studies
have shown that many teachers still have anxieties about the technology, and about their
ability to manage its use in the unpredictable climate oI the classroom (#ussell &
Bradley, 1997; Phelps et al., 2004)

Secondly, teachers need pedagogical knowledge oI ICT use. #esearch by #ussell &
Bradley (1997), and Niederhauser (2001) show that iI signiIicant learning beneIits are to
be obtained through ICT use, a wide range oI pedagogical knowledge is necessary.
These include:
An understanding oI the relationships between a range oI ICT resources and
the concepts, processes, skills in their subject area.
Knowing how to select a resource to meet a speciIic need.
Knowing how and why a resource will help challenge learners` thinking and
extend their learning in that topic area.
Knowing how and why the introduction oI an ICT resource can change the
nature and representation oI knowledge and the ways in which learners
engage with the subject.


25
Knowing how and why to organise ICT-based group work (when to use pairs
rather than triads; how to compose groups etc.); knowing how to ensure group
work proceeds productively.
Knowing how to prepare lessons so that learners` thinking and understanding
is challenged and extended; knowing how to promote reIlection, productive
discussion etc.

Consequently, Jung (2005) presents three possible Irameworks Ior teacher training in ICT
pedagogy which can be considered given those needs. These include:
1. Teacher training in ICT use This involves selecting appropriate ICT tools
and supporting students in the use oI those tools; using ICT to promote
learning activities; and developing new methods oI Iacilitating learning and
evaluating student perIormance.
2. ICT use as part oI teaching methods This strategy integrates ICT into
teacher training to Iacilitate some aspects oI training. In this way teachers
learn how to use ICT in their classrooms by actually being engaged in the
process oI ICT integrated training.
3. ICT as core technology Ior delivering teacher training In this strategy ICT is
approached as the major way oI providing the learning experience oI teacher
training. The content does not necessarily Iocus on ICT skills but rather
covers a variety oI ICT applications. In this approach the Internet is used as
the main delivery technology and the Iocus is on ICT pedagogy integration in
an online learning environment. Support given by Iacilitators helps teachers
have positive experiences with technology and integrate technology into their
own teaching (Freeman, 1997).

A present assessment oI the position oI our teacher training institution suggests the need
Ior a three tier approach to teacher training in ICT use that is based on Jung`s (2005) Iirst
Iramework. This is primarily because the learning environment and the limited physical
resources highlight that the division is still at a stage oI inIancy as concerns
conceptualisations oI ICT pedagogy. Ideally, it is possible to integrate approaches that


26
allow Ior the incorporation ICT into teacher training through online instruction.
However, enabling this requires a cadre oI trainers versatile in online pedagogies.

The value oI the Iirst Iramework is that it allows Ior the use oI specialists, some oI whom
should have a pedagogical background, and some oI whom should have advanced
proIiciency skills in speciIic ICT applications. Furthermore, using a modular approach in
this Iramework would accommodate learners at diIIerent skill levels because oI how the
training is organised. Table 1 below provides a description oI this training.



27
Table 1- A Framework For ICT Training

Module Description Content Duration
Module One:
ICT Foundation
Course
This can operate as an elective.
Teachers with no prior training
in ICT use will be encouraged to
do this module. This module
Iocuses on developing learner`s
competency in ICT applications.

Productivity tools -Word
Processing, Spreadsheets etc
Presentation tools
Internet literacy accessing
inIormation, using
asynchronous and
synchronous communication
tools.
Technical skills
troubleshooting, basic
computer repair.

36 hours
Module Two:
Design and
Technology
This module Iocuses on using
the computer and other media to
Iacilitate learning. It involves
strategising the use oI computer-
based instruction to meet
particular educational objectives,
in discipline speciIic areas. The
soItware may be general, but the
design approaches should
include the beneIits oI using
particular tools Ior learning
particular concepts in speciIic
subject areas.

Authoring tools (e.g. Hyper-
studio, Macromedia Flash,
Start-Write, Presentation
soItware)
Web Design
Graphic Design
Visual Basic

36 hours
Module Three:
Instructional
Media and
Technology
This module Iocuses on how
teachers relate the use oI
technology to ideas about the
teaching-learning process.
Theories oI learning.
Learning, thinking and the
eIIective use oI instructional
technology.
Instructional planning
models.
Selecting, creating,
evaluating, and integrating
instructional technologies
and resource materials.
Promoting creativity and
complex thinking through
ICT project work activities.
Assessment and evaluation
through ICT.
36 hours


28
REFERENCES


Al-Naibi, S. (2002) n Investigation Of The Information nd Communications
Technology Provision In Initial Teacher Education In Oman. Unpublished PhD
thesis, School oI Education, University oI Birmingham, UK.

BECTa (1998) Connecting Schools, Networking People. ICT Planning,
Purchasing and Good Practice for the National Grid for Learning. Coventry:
BECTa.

Borko, H., Putman, # (1995) 'Expanding a Teacher`s Knowledge Base: a
cognitive psychological perspective on proIessional development.¨ In T.# Guskey
& M. Huberman (Eds.) Professional Development in Education. New Paradigms
and Practices, New York: Teachers College Press, pp.35-65

Boshuizen, H.P.A and Wopereis, I.G.J.H (2003) 'Pedagogy oI Training in
InIormation and Communications Technology Ior Teachers and Beyond .¨
Technology, Pedagogy and Education, Vol. 12, No. 1,

Brummelhuis, A.C. A ten (1995) Models of educational change. the introduction
of computers in Dutch secondary education Universiteit Twente, Enschede, The
Netherlands

Bruner, J. (1996) The Culture of Education. Harvard: Harvard University Press.

Buchanan, T., Burts, D. C., Bidner, J., White, V. F., & Charlesworth, #. (1998).
Predictors oI the developmental appropriateness oI the belieIs and practices oI
Iirst, second and third grade teachers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13(3),
459}483.

Carlson, S.; Gadio, C., T. (2002) 'Teacher ProIessional Development in the Use
oI Technology.¨ In Haddad, W.,D.; Draxler, A. (2002) (eds.) Technology for
Education. Potentials, Parameters and Prospects Paris: UNESCO

Carnoy, M. (1999) Globali:ation nd Education Reform. What Planners Need To
Know Paris: UNESCO.

Casey, J. (1997). 'Teacher Net: Building a New Cadre oI Technology Using
Teachers Online.¨ Paper presented at the National Educational Computing
ConIerence (NECC), Seattle, WA. (ON-LINE:
http://www.wce.wwu.edu/necccd/necchtml/proceeds/casey/proceed.htm)

Chalkley, T.W. and Nicholas, D. (1997) Teachers` use oI inIormation technology:
Observations oI primary school classroom practice. slib Proceedings, (4), 97


29
107.

Claeys, C., Lowyck, J. & Van der Perre, G. (1997) 'Innovating education through
the use oI new technologies: #eIlections Iorm the Iield'. Educational Media
International; 34: 144-152.

Claeys, L., Van Der Pierre. (1997) 'Innovative Education through the Use oI New
Technologies: #eIlections Irom the Field.¨ Educational Media International Vol.
34, No.3 pp. 144-52

Clark, C. M., & Peterson, P. L. (1986). Teachers' thought processes.
In: M.C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching. New York:
Macmillan.

Clark, M. (1994) Young Literacy Learners Leamington Spa: Scholastic.

Cohen, L. Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2000) Research Methods in Education
(5
th
Ed) London: #outledge Falmer.

Collis, B. (1989). Using inIormation technology to create new educational
situations. (pp. 19). Paris: UNESCO International Congress on Education and
InIormatics.

Cortazzi, M. (2002) "Analysing Narratives and Documents." in Coleman, M. and
Briggs, #.J (eds.) Research Methods in Educational Leadership and Management,
London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

Cox, C. et al (1999) 'What actors support or prevent teachers Irom using ICT in
their classrooms?¨ British Educational #esearch Association Annual ConIerence,
University oI Sussex at Brighton, September 2-5, 1999. (ONLINE:
http://www.lwwds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00001304.htm)

Cox, M., Preston, C., and Cox, K. (1999) 'What Motivates Teachers To Use
ICT?¨ Paper presented at the British Educational #esearch Association Annual
ConIerence, Brighton, September, 1999.

Cradler, J., & BridgIorth, E. (2002). Recent Research On The Effects Of
Technology On Teaching nd Learning. (ONLINE:
www.wested.org/techpolicy/research.html)

Cuban, L., (1993) 'Computers meet classrooms: classroom win.¨ Teacher College
Record, 95: 185-210

Czerniewicz, L., and Brown, C., (2005) 'Access to ICT Ior Teaching and
Learning: From a Single ArteIact to Inter-related resources.¨ International
Journal of Education and Development Using ICT Vol.1 No.2 (2005)


30

Dalgarno, B (2001) 'Interpretations oI constructivism and consequences Ior
Computer Assisted Learning¨ ritish Journal of Educational Technology Vol 32
No. 2 (183-194)

Dalton, D. (1989). 'Computers in the schools: A diIIusion/adoption perspective.¨
Educational Technology. 29(11). 20-27.

Davis, C.B. (2001). 'Integrate, Don't Isolate! Computers in the Early Childhood
Curriculum.¨ #etrieved October 3, 2001 Irom
(ONLINE: www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/integrate.computers.html)

Dawes, L. (1999) 'Chalky and interactive whiteboard: Media representation oI
teachers and technology.¨ Paper presented to British Education #esearch
Association (BE#A) London, March.

Dede, C. (1998) 'Learning about teaching and vice versa.¨ Paper presented at
ConIerence oI Society Ior InIormation Technology in Education. Washington
D.C., USA

DesIorges, C. (1995) 'How does experience aIIect theoretical Knowledge Ior
teaching¨ Learning and Instruction, V 5, pp.385-400, Elsevier Science Ltd.

Dwyer, D. C., #ingstaII, C., & Sandholtz, J. H. (1991). Changes in teachers'
belieIs and practices in technology-rich classrooms. Educational Technology,
48(8), 45}52.

Eib, B.J., (2001) "Beyond the Bells and Whistles: Evaluating Technology Use in
the Classroom," Principal Leadership 1,9 (May/June 2001): 16-23.

Ertmer, P., Addison, P., Lane, M., #oss, E. and Woods, D. (1999) 'Examining
Teachers` BelieIs about the role oI Technology in the Elementary Classroom.¨
Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32 (1) pp.54-74.

Ertmer, P.A (1999) 'Addressing First-And-Second-Order Barriers To Change:
Strategies For Techbnology Integration.¨ In Educational Technology Research
and Development 47(4) 47-61.

Evenson, D.H. & Hmelo, C. (2000) Problem-based Learning. a research
perspectiveon learning interactions. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fang, Z. (1996). A review oI research on teacher belieIs and practices.
Educational Research, 38(1), 47}65.

Fisher, E. (1993) 'The Teacher`s #ole.¨ In P. Scrimshaw (Ed.) Language,
Classrooms and Computers. London: #outledge. pp. 57-74.


31

Foa, L., Schwab, #., Johnson. M. (1998) 'Introducing Technologies into the
Schools: Triumph or Train Wreck?¨ NEA Technology BrieI, No.13.
(ONLINE: www.nea.org/cet/B#IEFS/brieI13.html)

Forcheri, P. and MolIino, M. T. (2000) 'ICT as a tool Ior learning to learn.¨ In
Watson, D. M. and Downes, T. (Eds.) Communications and Networking in
Education. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic. pp 175-184.

Freeman, M. (1997) 'Flexibility in access, interaction and assessment: the case Ior
web-based teaching programs.¨ ustralian Journal of Educational Technology
13(1) pp.23-29.

Fullan, M. (1995). The school as a learning organization: Distant dreams. Theory
into practice, 34(4), 230-235.

Haddad, W. & S. Jurich (2002) ÏCT Ior Education Potential and Potency.¨ In
Haddad, W.D and A. Draxler (eds.) Technologies for Education, Paris: UNESCO
and AED.

Hardy, V.H. (1998) 'Teacher Attitudes Toward Knowledge oI Computer
Technology.¨ Computers in Schools, 14 (3/4) pp. 119-136.

Hargreaves, L., Comber, C., and Galton, M. (1996) The national curriculum: Can
small schools deliver? ConIidence and competence levels oI teachers in small
rural primary schools. ritish Educational Research Journal, 22(1), 8999.

Hawkridge, D. (1990) 'Who needs computers in Schools, and Why?¨ Computers
and Education 15: 1-3.

Hawkridge, D. Jaworski, J. and McMahon, M. (1990) Computers in Third-World
Schools. London: Macmillan.

Hayes, D., Schuch, S., Segal, G., Dwyer, J., & McEwen, C. (2001) Net Gain. The
Integration of Computer-based Learning in Six NSW Government Schools, 2000.
Sydney: University oI Technology.

HoepIl, C (1997) "Choosing Qualitative #esearch: A Primer Ior Education
#esearchers" Journal of Technology Education Vol.9 Number 1 Fall 1997

Honey, M., Moeller, B., (1990) 'Teachers BelieIs and Technology Integration:
diIIerent values, diIIerent understandings.¨ CTE Technical Report, issue no.6,
August, 1990.

Hope, W. (1998). 'The next step: Integrating computers and related technologies
into practice.¨ Contemporary Education. 69(3). 137-142


32

Imel, S. (1999) 'Using Technology EIIectively in Adult and Vocational
Education.¨ Practice pplication rief No.2. E#IC.

Jager, A.K., and Lokman, A.H; (1999) 'Impacts oI ICT in Education. The #ole
oI the Teacher and teacher Training.¨ Paper presented at the European ConIerence
on Education #esearch, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September, 1999. (Online:
Education-Line)

Janssen #einen, I.A.M (1999) 'Beroepsonderwijs en Volwassenenededucatie¨
ICT Monitor . Enshede: University oI Twente.

Johnson, K. E. (1992). 'The relationship between teachers' belieIs and practices
during literacy instruction Ior non-native speakers oI English.¨ Journal of Reading
ehavior, 24(1), 83}108.

Jonassen, D.H (1999) Computers as Mindtools for schools. engaging critical
thinking (2
nd
Ed.) Prentice Hall, Englewood CliIIs, NJ

Jones, G. and Knezek, G. (1993) Non-commercial radio-satellite
telecommunications: aIIordable options Ior technology educators. Cited in S.
#omi (2000) 'Distance Learning and Non-Iormal Education: Existing Trends and
New Possibilities oI Distance Learning Experiences.¨ Educational Media
International. 37 (1), 39-44.

Jung, I.S. (2001) 'Singapore`s approach to preparing new teachers to use
technology in the classroom.¨ In J. Capper (Ed.) Case Studies of Innovations in
Teacher Training and Technology Washington D.C: World Bank. (ONLINE:
www.the3connection.org/singaporePrintVersion.pdI/ )

Jung, I.S. (2003) 'A comparative study on the cost-eIIectiveness oI three
approaches to ICT teacher training.¨ Journal of Korean ssociation of
Educational Information and roadcasting 9(2) pp.39-70.

Jung, I.S. (2005) 'ICT-Pedagogy Integration in Teacher Training: Application
Cases Worldwide.¨ Educational Technology & Society 8(2), pp. 94-101.

Keeler, C. M. (1996) 'Networked instructional computers in the elementary
classroom and their eIIect on the learning environment: a qualitative evaluation.¨
Journal of Research on Computing in Education 28(3): 329-345.

Kent, T. & McNergney #. (1999). Will technology really change
education? From blackboard to web. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Kerr, S., T. (2005) 'Why we all want it to work: towards a culturally based model
Ior technology and educational change.¨ ritish Journal of Educational


33
Technology Vol. 36 No. 6

Kleiman, G.M. (2000) Myths and realities about technology in K-12 Schools. In
The Digital Classroom. How Technology is Changing the Way We Teach and
Learn. D.T. Gordon (ed.), Cambridge, MA: The Harvard Education Letter.

Knight, B. A. and Knight, C. (1995) Cognitive theory and the use oI computers in
primary classroom. ritish Journal of Educational Technology, 26(2), 141148.

Kozma, #. B. & Johnston, J. (1991). The technological revolution comes to the
classroom. Change 23 (1), 10-23.

Lam, Y. (2000) 'Technophobia Or Technophilia? A Preliminary Look At Why
Second Language Teachers Do Or Do Not Use Technology In Their Classrooms.¨
Canadian Modern Language Review, 58 (3). pp. 389-420.

Luthra, S. (1997) 'Is anyone listening to the teacher?¨ in Berge Z.L. and Collins,
M.P. (eds) Wired Together. The Online Classroom in K-12. Jolume 3. Teacher
Education and Professional Development, Hampton Press Inc, Cresskill, NJ 121-
128.

McDougall, A., Squires, D. (1997) 'A Framework Ior #eviewing Teacher
ProIessional Development Programmes in InIormation Technology.¨ Journal of
Information Technology for Teacher Education Vol. 6, No.2 pp. 115-126.
ONLINE: www.triangle.co.uk/jit/03.htm

McInerney, D., McInerney, V. (1994) Educational Psychology Constructing
Learning Prentice Hall, Sydney.

Meadows, J. and Leask, M. (2000) Why use ICT? In Teaching and Learning with
ICT in the Primary School. M. Leask, and J. Meadows (eds.), London: #outledge
Falmer.

Merriam, S.B., and CaraIIella, #.S (1999) Learning in dulthood.
Comprehensive Guide (2
nd
Edition). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Miller, L. and Olson, J. (1994) Putting the computer in its place: a study oI
teaching with technology. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 26 (2), 121-141.

Moseley, D. & Higgins, S. (1999) Ways Forward With ICT. Effective Pedagogy
Using Information nd Communications Technology For Literacy nd Numeracy
In Primary Schools. London: Teacher Training Agency.

Naidoo, V., (2003) 'ICT in Education #eIlecting on Key Issues.¨ Paper
presented at 'ICTs in African Schools¨ A Pan-AIrican workshop Iocussing on
using ICT to support the education systems in AIrica, organised by the Ministry oI


34
Education (Botswana), Schoolnet AIrica and The Commonwealth oI Learning, in
partnership with other international agencies. ,-orone, Botsw,n,, 28 April
2ôô3.

Newby, T., Stepich, D., Lehman, J., and #ussell, J. (2000) Instructional
Technology for teaching and Learning Upper Saddle #iver: Merrill/ Prentice Hall,
New Jersey.

Newhouse C.P (2002) The Impact Of ICT On Learning nd Teaching Perth,
Western Australia: Specialist Educational Services.
(ONLINE: www.eddept.wa.edu.au/cmis/eval/downloads/pd/impactreview.pdI )

Niederhauser, D. & Stoddart, T. (2001) 'Teachers` instructional perspectives and
use oI educational soItware.¨ Teacher and Teacher Education 17 (1), pp.15-31.

Niederhauser, D. (2001) 'Technology and Teacher education: beyond preparing
preservice teachers.¨ Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 17(2)

Noss, #., Pachler, N. (1999) 'The Challenge oI New Technologies: doing old
things in a new way, or doing new things.¨ In P. Mortimore (Ed.) Understanding
Pedagogy nd Its Impact On Learning. London: Paul Chapman Publishing. pp.
195-211.

O`#eilly, D. (2003) 'Making InIormation and Communications Technology
Work.¨ Technology, Pedagogy and Education, Vol. 12, No.3

OFSTED (2001) ICT in Schools. The Impact of Government Initiatives. n
Interim Report pril 2001. London: OFSTED. (ONLINE:
http://www.oIsted.gov.uk)

Osin, L. (1998). Computers in Education in Developing Countries. Why and
How? Education and Technology Notes. .The World Bank.

Peterson, P. L., Fennema, E., Carpenter, T. P.,&LoeI, M. (1989). Teachers'
pedagogical content belieIs in mathematics. Cognition and Instruction, 6(1), 1}40.

Phelps, #., Graham, A. & Kerr, B. (2004) 'Teachers and ICT: Exploring a
Metacognitive approach to proIessional development.¨ ustralian Journal of
Educational Technology, 20 (1), pp. 49-68.

Poole, B. (1995) Education For n Information ge. Madison: WCB Brown &
Benchmark.

Preston, C., Cox, M. & Cox, K. (2000) 'Teachers As Innovators: An Evaluation
OI The Motivation OI Teachers To Use InIormation And Communications


35
Technology.¨ Mirandanet.

#esta, P., Allen, N., Anderson, J., Davis, N., Muranov, A., Thomas, L., Urarov,
A., (2002) Information and Communication Technology in Teacher Education,
Planning Guide Paris: UNESCO

#ichardson, V. (1994). The consideration oI teachers' belieIs. In V. #ichardson
(Ed.), Teacher change and the staw development process. case in reading
instruction. New York: Teachers College Press.

#ieber, L. P., & Welliver, P. W. (1989). InIusing educational technology into
mainstream educational computing. International Journal of Instructional Media,
16(1), 21-32.

#iel, M. (1998). Just-in-time learning or learning communities. (pp. 18). Abu
Dhabi: The Fourth Annual ConIerence oI the Emirates Center Ior Stategic Studies
and #esearch.

#iel, M. (2000) 'The Iuture oI technology and education: Where are we heading?¨
in: Watson, D. M. & Downes, T. (Eds.) Communications and Networking in
Education Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Press. pp 9-24.

#obertson, S.I., Calder, J., Fung, P., Jones, A., O`Shea, T., Lambrechts, G. (1996)
'Pupils, Teachers and Palmtop Computers¨ Journal of Computer ssisted
Learning, 12: 194-204.

#ussek, B. E., & Weinberg, S. L. (1993). "Mixed methods in a study oI
Technology Implementation oI technology-based materials in the elementary
classroom." Evaluation and Program Planning.16 (2), 131-142.

#ussell, G., Bradley, G., (1997) 'Teachers` computer anxiety: implications Ior
proIessional development.¨ Education and Information Technology, 2, 17-29.

#ussell, G., Finger, G., & #ussell, N. (2000) 'InIormation Technology Skills OI
Australian Teachers: Implications For Teacher Education.¨ Journal of Information
Technology for Teacher Education, 9 (2)

Salomon, G. (Ed.). (1993). Distributed cognitions. Psychological and educational
considerations. Cambridge University Press.

Sayed, Y. (2004) 'Missing the Connection? Using ICTs in Education.¨ *NEW*.
The Commonwealth Government & usiness Guide to Information and
Communication Technology. (ONLINE: www.cto-
ict.org/index.php?dir÷04&sd÷30&aid÷1151)

Schwandt, T.A (1994) "Constructivist, Interpretivist Approaches To Human


36
Inquiry" in N.K Demzin and y .S Lincoln (eds.) Handbook of Oualitative
Research Newbury Park, CA.

Seiber, J (1993) "The Ethics and Politics oI Sensitive #esearch", in C. #enzetti, C
Lee and #. Lee (eds) Research Sensitive Topics, London: Sage.

Semenov, A. L. (2000) 'Technology in transIorming education¨, in: Watson, D.
M. & Downes, T. (Eds.) Communications and Networking in Education. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Press. pp 25-36.

Sheingold, K. (1990). #estructuring Ior learning with technology: the potential
Ior synergy. Center for Technology in Education and the National Center on
Education and the Economy. 9-27.

Smeets, E., and Mooij, T. (2001) 'Pupil-centred Learning, ICT and Teacher
Behaviour Observations in educational Practice.¨ ritish Journal of Educational
Technology Vol.32, No.2 (403-417)

Somekh, B and Davies, #. (1991) 'Towards A Pedagogy For IT¨ in The
Curriculum Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, Summer.

Somekh, B. (1997) 'Classroom Investigations: Exploring And Evaluating How IT
Can Support Learning.¨ In Somehk, B. and Davis, N. (Eds.) Using Information
Technology Effectively in Teaching and Learning. Studies in the Pre-Service and
In-Service Teacher Education. London: #outledge

Somekh, B. and Davis, N. (1997) 'Using InIormation Technology eIIectively in
Teaching and Learning¨ in Studies in Pre-Service and In-Service Teacher
Education. London: #outledge.

Spiro, #.J., Coulson, #. L., Feltovich, P. J., and Anderson, D. (1988). Cognitive
Ilexibility theory: Advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. In
V. Patel (Ed.),Proceedings of the 10th nnual Conference of the Cognitive
Science Society. Hills-dale, NJ: Erlbaum. |#eprinted in #uddell, #. B. & #uddell,
M. #.(1994). Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading (4th ed.). Newark,
DE: International #eading Association.|

Tearle, P.A. (2003) 'ICT implementation: what makes a diIIerence?¨ ritish
Journal of Educational Technology Vol. 34, No.5 (567-583)

Tweddle, S. (1993) The Iuture curriculum and inIormation technology. Journal of
Information Technology for Teacher Education, 2(2), 105110.

Van Den Dool, P., Kirschner, P. (2003) 'Integrating the Educative Functions oI
InIormation and Communications Technology (ICT) In Teachers` and Learners`
Toolboxes: A #eIlection on Pedagogical Benchmarks Ior ICT in Teacher


37
Education.¨ Technology, Pedagogy and Education Vol. 12, No. 1

Veen W. (1993) 'How teachers use computers in instructional practice: Iour case
studies in a Dutch secondary school.¨ Computers in Education, 21(1/2): 1-8

Veen, W. (1993b) 'The role oI belieIs in the use oI technology: implications Ior
teacher education, or teaching the right thing a the right time.¨ Journal of
Information Technology for Education, 2(2): 139-153.

Veen, W., Hogenbirk, P., and Jansen, F. (1995) The implementation oI
communication and inIormation technologies in teacher education in the
Netherlands. In Information Technologies in Teacher Education. Issues and
Experiences for Countries in Transition, B. Collis, I. Nikolova, and K. Martcheva
(eds). UNESCO, France.

Wadi, D.H., and Draxler, A (2002) Technologies For Education. Potentials,
Parameters and Prospects Washington DC: UNESCO

Walker, D. (1989) 'Introducing InIormatics into Education at the National Level.¨
Higher Education Policy. 2(4):41-45.

Watkins, C. & Mortimore, P. (1999) 'Pedagogy: What do we know?¨ in
Understanding Pedagogy and its Impact on Learning P. Mortimore (Ed.) London,
Chapman.

Watson, G., Taylor, P. & #ussell, G. (1999) 'Putting Teachers in the IT Picture.¨
in Real Time. Computers, Change and Schooling. National Sample Study oI
InIormation Skills oI Australian School Students. Canberra: DETYA.
Wheeler, S. (2000) 'The #ole oI the Teacher in the Use oI ICT.¨ Keynote Speech
delivered to the National Czech Teachers ConIerence University oI Western
Bohemia, Czech #epublic, May 20, 2000

Williams, D., Wilson, K., #ichardson, A., Tuson, J. and Coles, L. (1998)
'Teachers' ICT skills and knowledge needs Final #eport to SOEID.¨ Aberdeen:
The #obert Gordon University.

Yocum, K. (1996). Teacher-centered staII development Ior integrating technology
into classrooms. Technology Hori:ons in Education, 24(4), 88}91.

Yuen, A., Ma, W. (2002) 'Gender DiIIerences In Teacher Computer Acceptance.¨
Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 4 (2), pp. 134-143.

Zeichner, K. M., Tabachnick, B. #., & Densmore, K. (1987). Individual
instructional and cultural inIluences on the development oI teachers' craIt
knowledge. In J. Calderhead (Ed.), Exploring teachers thinking (pp. 1}20).


38
Eastbourne, England

 %# &%   

%0,.0797,33  - 9801 8 349,3057,.9.0  -:990 3;4;020394190.344 ,8 57080390/30/20384389,92:89-07,943,80/18:..0881:3907,94341%894 9,0 5,.0   3:2-07 41 88:08 90701470 02070 3 .438/073 90,.07 97,33 3 % :80 %0803.:/0  %025,.941%4390:77.::2  %025,.941%4350/,4  %025,.941%4390740419090,.07  #,943,83,3/03,.9390,.0797,33  %0 09039 94 . % 25,.98 90 0/:.,943 88902 8 /0503/039 43 90 ,-9 41 4;07320398  389708 41 /:.,943  $.448 ,3/ 57,.9943078 0/:.,943 411.078  573.5,8 ,3/ 90,.078  94 3049,90 9080 88:08 93 90 .43909 41 904709., ,3/ 57,.9.,/030,9438410/:.,943,57,.9.0 ,3/9390.4390941,990-00;0 -0898:989070/:.,943,03;7432039   30;9,-  904783 ,3/ 0,233 ,3 334;,943 8 25,.9 43 90,.3 ,3/ 0,733 84:/ -0 90 1789 .438/07,943 41 , 334;,9438 3 0/:.,943   %:8 90 1443 3903/8 94 /8.:88 90 /1107039 /0,8 ,3/ 5484508 9,9 ,;0 :/0/ 90 :80 ,3/ 3907,943 41 % 3 0/:.,943 889028 :3/07 90 .,904708 0,707 /02,7.,90/   9 14.:80843905484508,3/904708:/0/-7474:87080,7.9,9,;031:03.0/ 4 % :80 8 03;8,0/ - 0/:.,943, 334;,9478 ,3/ 54. 2,078  ,8 0 ,8 90 57,.9.,,55.,9438,3/31:03.0841%30/:.,943889028   %%&##&&   70;0 41 90 907,9:70 43 % 3907,943 3 0/:.,943 70;0,8 9,9 0/:.,9478 ,;0 ,5570.,90/ 90 549039, 25,.9 9,9 30 ,3/ 02073 90.34408 .,3 ,;0 43 90 0/:.,943,574.088 4308,3/300  3,990259394574;/0,17,2047147 .,904783/89,3.0 0,733 889028,3/850.1.0,250841 490,.3  0,733  

 

,3/ /89,3.0 0/:.,943 90.344 3907,.9 94 574/:.0 8:..0881: 90,.3 
0,733 050703.08  ,7:0/ 9,9 % ,8473, 3903/0/ 94 807;0 ,8 , 20,38 41 2574;3 011.03.3900/:.,943,574.088 0/0  2470850.1.,,7:0/9,990:80 41 % 3 0/:.,943 .,3 05 2574;0 20247 70903943  3.70,80 249;,943 ,3/ 0307,/00503:3/0789,3/3,24389:/0398 % ,..47/39449077080,7.078 .,3 ,84-0:80/9403.4:7,0.4,-47,9;0 0,733  3.:/37405,3 74:5574-02 84;3 ,.9;908 ,3/ ,79.:,90/ 5740.98 47.07 ,3/ 4134     :79072470  '00309,   89708890831.,3.041%43.:77.::2/0;0452039 %0,7:0 9,9 .:77.:, 334;,9438 84:/ 4 ,3/ 
3 
,3/ 9 % 2502039,943  %0//0  2,39,389,990.344708:9330,5574,.089490.:77.::2 89 39,3/39  ,7:01:79079,994,..4224/,909090.344.,1:3.9438  90 .:77.::2 .439039  0 .,30 57,2,9., 03 90 25.,9438 41 90 90.3441470/:.,943,70,//70880/ 470850.1., %25,.93494390 .439039 41 ,9 8 9,:9  -:9 ,84 90 03;7432039 3 . 9 8 9,:9 ,3/ 90 ,5574,.08 ,999:/08,3/2094/44084190,.078,3/0,73078,0   30;9,-  90 , % 25,.98 90 .:77.::2  ,;0 25.,9438 147 90,.07 57,.9.083841,7,8948057,.9.08,70314720/-.079,354845089,9:/090 0/:.,943, 574.088   %0 25479,39 .438/07,9438 3;4;0/ 3 98 ;039:70 3.:/0 :3/0789,3/3 4 9480 57,.9.08 .,30 ,3/  ,3/ 90 25.,9438 41 9080 .,30843905705,7,943,3/97,334190,.078    %!% % !    ,70 5,79 41 7,943,83 90 25,.9 41 % 43 0/:.,943 ,8 94 9 4:7 :3/0789,3/3 41 90 5708039 ,55.,9438 41 90 .43.059 41 50/,4   7:307   .,28 9,9 , 90,.078 ,;0 904708 ,-4:9 4 907 89:/0398 0,73 9,9 31472 907 ,5574,.9490,.3 05708039814:724/084150/,4 %03.:/0   %0,.6:894341 344 070./703,7029,9;00,73078  

0 89:/0398 -03 94 6:08943 . 340/0  070 .90/ 0.7093078    %02.43943 $.9 41 %43 0/:.03970/./703.9..07  31472.947944 7:307 814:7989.90/ .9438 43 90 .80/43 ..439098 90 0.07   3 90 97/ 89.088  3907..3/ 8.. 09 ..70 .344 -0.0398  5:754801: 8003 ..3//897-:90/.0 0.4.8.43/ 24/0 89:/0398 0.0 314720/ 4:7 :3/0789.9 3897:.9.73078  90 90.       3 907 0.3/ .4208 .9438 .9 .-0 94 574/:.0.3/..70340/0.733  89:../949075747088    080  #089.73078 .9:70.439098 90 /002.331: .733   $9:/0398 .3 % 3 .0..70 340/0  .3/02073904708:/30/:.344.3/57.557039.425:907   9 98 89.574-028 90 -0394:809090. 4907 904708 9. 0.9..3//7.80/0..9%:8094/.0  %0 ..07..0870. 14:7 41 9080 24/08   3 7:307 8 178924/089:/03980.733 ./703 0.55.439094154845088:554793.80/ 43 '498 8 39078:-0.0 90.425:907.82 9080 904708 5745480 9.3/ 82:.93 340/0 93 ..43897:.  39097:0..943 41 90 740 41 % 3 90.733 574. .30547.. 0548:70    %0/0.6:8943 41 574548943.943.3.344 93 .43897:.5574.088.03088 . 9047 -.010-99047 $57409..23.0340/0 070.43897:.7307  90 .08.    %0 .439.733 .0 .57. 20.7:0  3.43 9 80.4 .733 2439080 90.5574.439.8 /70.944884.9.733574.8.3.43909   3 8:.079.990 25.70 .0 84:/ -0 .3/ 89:.0341..439.943.9438-.0 .084190 0.438/0908199489:/039 .-0   9 8 5488-0 94 800 50/.9.344.7 705.   .4330.82 9047  801 70:.3/ 2..943  .9 0. 57.98 9 4907 0.08. . 94 0.80/03 89:/0398 -03 94 :80 % 3 .733 7080.7:0 9.438/070/ 93 90.30 070.:9:7..03970 41 90 0.0452039  . 801 /70.73494:80.943.9..9088:.0 37:307 880.7..085 574-02 -.424309.04520394139078:-0.73 1742 1443 5708039.9.07 0/:.408 3.47/3 9080.73 1742 //.002070/-.3/34190 3.90 90 :80 41 90.43943  .90/ .02039 147 90 90.943 .9.-4:9..:/0 84..3/ 430 41 !742./703.9.03907.0.08410.9.9..0203941 4-0. 902547..90.4390941 0.4.

3/ 8 .9.08  .//708888:08.  7084:7.88 3 . 9.:9039. .7432039 03.114/3 3 /0.0  %0 03.3/84.7307 9 .438/07/.3.3 .0453 340/0 88   9 574.-47. 5071472.439098 :83 .:9039.9438.9.0574-028 9.-3 90 0.344   %0 0.880880/ 974: . . 7.3/ 90.0894.4.4393:0  03.3/2:950507850.0 03.3/ 8./08 90 0./08 ..0780.7307 94 . 9448 .84 574.4.:9039.:9039./0889:/03989455479:3908947010..08 3 .7307  90 .7432039 574.

./.743203989414/   %8 .070.088 41 0.770/ 4:9  .-090294:8090.73303.448 90/5.-090294 80.907 .9433.07839..0..3.0 70. 90.90 9 49078  . .7..9438 147 ..147..90/ ..09.5.7307 .733 14.05.3/..89 340/0 7084:7.88174290.470/90 .8 2.0 147 3974/:..733 .08  .6:7031472.:808 43 90 25479..84 .9 41 % 94 03.08 147 3974/:..9.78-01470#089. .  3 /030.88.733   %0 /0.439.08 7..8 5.73 88   9 8 -.3% 3948.. .9 9 8 1../0 54071: 9448 94 05 0.4250 574-028:83.9.438:9 9 050798  8.9438 ..9390 14:77.89 94 0.943.8 .73078/0.7/009.30 90 .3/.003./04   $2.3 574.73078 .8 .733 94 0.3/ 0.08.903.73078954071:30944894705708039907340/09909  2..0 41 0. .3 % 394 0/:.9.70 340/0  .00.80/ 43 90 .39  90 :3/078.50398 41 31472..08   438/073 % .8 90 .5574.8 .5531472.943 2-7.088 .3/ 0.20.73078 .733 .4208   470 25479.984:/9..943.03.943.70 970..3/907404190. 05 0.0 90.3/.943-90280.9439481998025.733  .3 .5... 147 0..4.07 ..-080/:.09448    %8574.7339.88:25943 9.9 41 %94 5742490 4907 0/:..3/.448..3 ..9 90 7010770/ 94 .3.0 .5.3/ 84.038..7 2470 -0301.4.08 41 90 3.47 25.70 . 8   5:-.9574.89 94 0.. 3 .9:70410.943 ..5574.03970/... 334.7 90 50/..8  98  .3/ . 41 % .331:.943 94 0.0894./00.3987.3447084:7.0459088..03970/ .-47.733   %074041%838:5547938:.90 .79.3/ - 0903843  89:/0394:9. 7.47/394$420..7 90.6:70889.08 070 0.7307894.943..9.:.

84 90 90.3/ 3 90 .0 .7:09..8831.7.94341%3.438/070/   .887442 47 4907 .70.7307.5..733 .:77039 24/0 41 50/.03970/ 9.3/90.3/ 4792470   /4 349 03.8350/.94385 -09003 % .7.943. .7432039 0543989490300/94 :3/0789.94341340/0   .83 3907.89.3/ 50/.0 41 5.03970/ 940.438:.90 .0 3 90 0.041900.0 .7:08 9014.733  ./2819.059:.3/ 90 /0.3/24/190708932039.9. 749 .3/ 0. .94341 % 3 0.420 2470 31472.733 574..943814734943900.3/ 89./.07..829..308174274900.3/ 2.938 .0/4 50/.49424:880380...9 .0 90 70.21.4.439.943 03 88:08 41 90 .08  %8 20.059:...0841 0.4393:9 41 0.93 90 50/..24/08 .8#089..8.4 8 /0130/ .9.   .734    3 .5574.550/  47 902 90 .43943.9438-09003980020398 90 90.70.84:784.90/.439039  .:2.397.9985.850.890-:/43.7307 .3/5:754808410. 88:08 9.943 -09003905708039/11.7:0  4:/ :3/074 1:7907 /1107039.733.439.031:03.79.4.43897:.9.970.733 9 8.7338:55479903974/:.733   8 /030.0908 -0.43.088 .9.340/390.733  %8 24/0 14..81934:7:3/0789.43897:.3/3410/:.4330.3 3.943.9 9208 903/ 94 .10870.7 573.3/90743.3/3907.7307 .-4:9 0.43897:.3-0.0 .88:2594389.4.733 .:808 43 90 .3/209.7307 -:9 .:84190.03990.733 974:4:9 907 .80/0..43909  .94394/8.733  9.3.80/  %0 .990708.0452039834:7:3/0789.3/ .4  90 .08 50450 2470 7085438-0 147 907 43 0..9.42509 41340/0.08 .3/ 209.43943.0 41 0.43...3/ 507843.8.3/3/.4 .039 /0.79.07  90 .7307 34 .3/4.3/.43909 41 0.9 90 14..7 3907089 3 /030./:.07 .55.38 9.94385 90.09.   .30..8 90 455479:39 94 5.82 0.47/3  .733  .3/ 90 0.43897:.07  %0 90.43897:.:.  038:708 .9.733 94 0.07 8 34 4307 90 /8503807 41 340/0  .43897:.3/341.:90841.4 411078 .943174290.553 /0.0452039 41 0.7/009.73303.:8 41 50/.943 -.733.73 88  %8 24/0 41 50/.508 41 .439039  90 .08940.931472..733 .9:/0/.42509419870..943 41 340/0  .82 94 425:907 88890/ 0.8 41 .420843041 :/3900. 82.0.943 54398 94 90 25479.3/202478.880799.7:0/9.

941340/0.3.0 1:7907 9.80/ 2094/8 047/   07 09 .88:25943 8 1:79078:554790/-.3/ $94//.08 94 90..3/0747/079338884:/-01489070/ $20098..9.03970/ 0..-4:9 90..8803   /8.3.85488-084:/-0574.9.70..8 .3 .078 9 2470 .7:3 9.403.-4:9 90..7 !0907843 .990.8 .078 340/0 . 0.0 - ..7432039 8:5547990.059 8 1:7907 /8.08  4-807.7:0 9.3%-.08 . 2094/8 0 90.37014728.9.. 90 .344. 819 1742 .943.9.078 .078 4 0/ 2470 97.943...9 90.30709..7003  974: ..8.74320398  .089490.73303.0 5:5 . 574108843.3/0. /1107039 507850.5574.4.0 41 0..74320398 19 394 .344  .7/84309.88744290.. 3:2-07417080.3 39:9.  %00025198543941. 3897:.:942.3:8390.4 4507..3/44    4-807..078.733 .3/44   34-807..3/ 907 :80 41 90.89 -0018 903/0/ 94 :80 89:/039 .3/ 0.943  %014:3/9.0452039.09. 0.:9039.901.439098.3350/. .078 84:/ /1107 3 90 /0700 94 .889.9 .30730   98 039. .43897:..8 .3/ 0..4:7.943 5708039 .74320398 %0.  ..085:5 .70...4:7..3/9. 14.3/ 0.344 3 3897:.733 84:/ -0 892:.79    3 0.80/.9. 5742490 90 :80 41 ..078 :.43.0783.3 ..3 43843 !48307 $970 0843  0794  #.9.9 90.44   .:807 .7:0 9.078  3897:..:880/ 3 9080.5574.733  90 .89 .9478   0/07.733 03.3/ -0018 .943 .9.9%03.7503907   401   4.309.233 70.9 3 8:.70390757090/   %8.078 .   43843   !0907843  03302. .9 .9 83..3/.93. 7408   #./0.943858 -09003 90.947390 43944.:.4.9. 507850.90/.9..43897:.9 90.3 .88:259438 41 90.07 0.:2     ..0/-%:803.47/3 94 43.039070/ 36:7 -.-4:9 0.943 5./0/9457080393894 90 47/ 4:98/0 8.733 90.733 30.88744203.  94 .3/1.70 0. ..3828843949.7:20398 41 0/:./943.9..03970/ 0.7.943   $20098..733 903/0/ 94 :80 //.943 701472898 9.43897:./0503/03943907-0018.898  .3/ 3907.04390.390.3/ . -0018 .:8 43 340/0 97.-4:990.30730 ...0 $.733 03..733 98 .

9.70 2470 094.8 90 3490 9..439.24389:/0398   $420 8   ...9.79.3/ 0.-47.47/3 94 .9438 ..733 574.07.4208   3 98 24/0 89:/0398 9.333  47.0 7085438-9 147 907 43 0.-0 ..9 89:/0398 .078 4 .0 03.90..943.80/ ..707 .02039 3 90 ..73078.8438   3:834503 03/0/8419.8    8 /0.5574.3 ..90/.0456:089438 .3/ 2.  ..70  8419.47/3  .480.9435701078 -.3 90.:/0 1472:.8. .9438 .. .43897:.7  3 4-807.3/2.0/390 0.0.4.89 .9.7034943.0/0..344 0 4503 03/0/ 8419.70.8 ..4.55. 97.:809.90731472. 3.943 41 90 25.0 944   %8 2094/ 8:554798 36:7 -.9.9 41 % 43 50/./80098.399403.9.9..943 41 340/0 .808  8570..880/ .9%.733   $2.3/ 43843 8   0.7432039 8 025.0 9.439743.3/ 70.3.80/ 0.93 /0.08943897:.8 /.43943 89:/0398.733   .9 90.3.0 574....84 .088   %07 050703.8248990.7307894. . 90.70 0.70 .943 3 98 0.7  9 :808 4503 03/0/ .943 1472:.3/ /0.422:3.3828843 .3/ 390757093 100/-.887442  0/07..0 41 :83 90 .70   %8 8:554798 42..0452039.9.3/ 1.383  .93 6:089438  5.80/8419.8 0 ..:./943.9.3//0.3/.5574.84 03.90 .733 :80 80/ -.70 . 94 .3/24394738419.2 84.0 .39 740 3 907 .43897:.43.90.79 1742 574.3/ $94//.4..6:7330340/0-:9.:807 .:.-.420 .0574-028 . .3/ /8.0 3  .8 4503 03/0/ 8419..70 3 90 % .557457.9 3897:. .439039 .08 41 90.  !.-0 94 2.0 36:708 3/0503/039   $420 8  24/08:08989.3 5.3/90.03.70 070.8 974: 90 3907.733 03.90 -0.733 .43897:.059:..08808 9.0 9 90 :80 41 90 8419.3/ 0..  90893 5490808 .07 25479.07848:55479 .70 9706:70890:80410747/07 88 ..79    14:3/ 9.08 5.9.5.8   %0 740 41 .425:907 .3 .:88 907 13/38 94 49078 3983/4189:./3 82:.:808 43 90 25479.3/ 9089 05.4 14. .3 8:55479 0./070 94 97.43974905747.4889:/039894-0.8907 41 90 90.344  90 8419.-47.078  :80 41 8419.84 .93 4:9.80. 10 050703.9.8 90 -0.9438 8:..70 .

.7....3/ .. ..943.8 -003 570.7 94 90 97.9438 41 0/:.4393::2 9. .344  90 90.7985488-094.9 50/.3 -0 ..733 574. .9 -038 9 % .43897:.  .0/43.70933.43./943.9 90.9706:708.90.4.4..308 3 50/.3-05..4:8/8.9:/090 90...7 41 90 5488-0 .887442 90.90807080..4.57.3.03336:708157080390/9.70399% :70  98-...80 % :80 93 0893 .9.943.88 24/00/4370.0 57080390/ ..9081:0549. 8:22.4 .7307   1 . 41 %  -:9 /02.70/0503/039439043944.7:09.    ..80/4390349439.47/3 94 90 /0700 41 3..88:2594389.:880/ 9080.:880/841.9.8 3897:.91.08 5..89090.943  82. 47/574-028 $034/    30.3/ 0- 09 .- .8.07 ..8810/ ..     .80/43.5574.9..3/ 90 0.02039 41 90 90..9./943.088   314720/ - 90 /030..0 3 90 .3  0.07 89:/03970.94385     ..059:.8 .9438 41 79207 09 .3.9.55.943 .3/ 0207343944.:9039.0890.3 % :80 . 24/08 3.9%8074:831:03.078849.733 9..8.0308 4:7473.0830/:.80.943.9.078 7.8-003/8..3/8 9....70/01394341 9097..887442  ..9..4:780  .9434190 549039.88:259438 .3/03/89%.9%:80.3/ 0.3/.0 .

         .

.7/0    #:880  7.0789403..9.3 -0 .03914790.07../703 147.07.70.-0 574107.-4. . .9.7:0/ 9.3/3:79:70. /0 7.073.4:7.3047/ 3.73303.943 5.943 .....439039340/0 9 40.088..4:8 8.9 9 90 30..07 8 57080393 31472../0   488  !..733   9  1.3:2-0741.7007880.07  -0.887442   .943 -09003 89:/0398 .7:.8 -0:80/.9.4708 .420 4-84090  %0 :80 41 .943 2:89 -0 02540/ 0007    $0.3/ /.0.08 945705..943 41 % 3 90 .9.30 . 344- 8:.8:..9743.3%0.90 .3 /.0.5503   789  %  . 93388 574249031472..0 43 ./0455479:390814736:7 -.088.078 ...3/ 30 00.078207094 25.3900/ 147 10 #0   ...-47...7432039 43 3090898.420 70/:3/.70 /897-:90/ 974:4:9 80./:.0. 14790. .39 .9208 .30.079.0 8420 ..344307-030.908 41 .880882039 147 0..47/3 94 0007   9070 .047357..7307 8 8.250   3/..422:3...887442  90 740 41 90 90..8   9574.39574.0 ..09089 8708:98..8 ..39  3 .73078.08 94 -0.3/ 0.90/ 9 90 0.-4. .884..3-0039070/..08894908.880882039 2094/8 70/:3/.7/82.4.. 389.3/0705045089. -.   %7/ 3.43/  % 2.470  425.110.. .80/ 7084:7..710.4.90/ .47/3940007  4304190 2489:-6:94:81472841% 903907309 .3/ 90..07 2:89 . 1472..79.9.8438982:89.943  9 98 097020  1 89:/0398 ..3 7084:7.7.3 90. .943907.079.8874428 4.90 .7.70 14:7070..84 2. 90 90.3 % 03.78438 41 570./ 8 5747088  .7432039983443078:11..99090.  %%#  %%#  $420 7080.7/8 -0.30 41 31472.9743. 14728 41 /897-:90/ .80/0... 89:/039 .08 8:./09090.4.3 3/..79.9 394.80 89470/ 3 00.20309470/ 7084:7.078 4:98/0 90 .-47.07   0007     .:80 .9.:942.

.3  705708039.79 1742 0.94385 -0.3 897.9.807      :79072470 % 57080398 ./0   0/07:./943.3/ 2.93 ..90 7093 .90.31472. .733 574..398 :83343 30.9..3/ 70970.943 1742 2831472.::2    0..309..398 3 90 90. 30.3/..8 050798 ..3/3..03 5.3/ -448 .9..    9  03.002039390574.088  0.4.9434100.887442 409.07.3/ 7084:7. 94 90 706:7020398 41 :2.943  .7.08-0.0889.078 /4   %8 30.908 9.-0890..943 ..90780/ - ..-47.4:7.79.793 340/0  8:.-03907.7...343 30.5.0 94 :92.943 :2.7003.3 94:9  %7..07894574. 90.3 -0 8.08808 $02034.947390574.5574.9743.:80 89:/0398 -0. 90 2009 .9478.08 ../943.88147 90.- 30..078  3.:77.078   ..9089090..557.90 4:9 6:.79.9 .7:..8 9208  9 8:.90/.70 .75747088434131472.70/ 974: .943 134990248925479.3/ ./.9.07 0...9743.720.07 93 90 00.39 .0 .-09..344 #:880.:7.73 50/.85 30 90.422:3.3/ 700.3-0.3% 390.881...5..59.      0007 8  /02...94389:.943 -09003 90..38942.7.08841 3974/:.:77.94384:7.9:708  .3/341 .-9947./090789:/0398990343 30.8 0.733 300/8 ..9..99090..4.4.:9039.80 90 2094/8 - .089.. /85.7 897.887442  -0 94 805. 2094/8 41 25.323/8.34408 9.9008 .8..9008 147 574-02 84..-09907:3/0789.. .07 8 3/00/.9:7041 50/.7:2.. 1..9 31472.3/2.943  /0391.3933574.3 907 90.7:0/9.:804190/0700412831472.420 .943 9 4907 0/:.08903074084190 90.088 41%3907.07 89:/039 70.308    .8 -003 .:. 9208 89:/0398 2.   '003     9 .5. .2470340/041 .9 90 3.247033.078 2:89 -03 94 70.0 .0308 94 90 97.3/ 90 8947.79..34408  90  ./703 8 0.  90. 41 31472.47/3 90.943 .3088039.3/ 7. .7:0/ 9.0 -003/07.943...0/974:90:804190.943 5079098419.702470.733 30 90.748890..   79207   :97.03989.0 5.

.90 90 .078 #:880.078 . 90.88:55479078.3/7.7.07 09 .0 84:9 94 /030.7/0  $420..08   .078  34 4307 -0 8003 .   3:2-07 41 7080.    88039.33 50/..807  .4.3/ . 7408 41 90.../0 0/07:./-08003.3829907841340/0 -:93890.8 05079 97..

07 8:554798 ./943.08 94 90..30147.39 94 90.08..3/0...9473900.88  5742493 89:/039 .448 9 70.7.3/0.733 03.0/974:90:8041%..079.5574..3 897..0 43 90 25...4.7/ 94 89:/0398  0.0203941%   0$420.3.947894:9903.5574.839090.041 90 .9434198.943  3 90 .30 3 507..1..94388902 054939897:0549039.3-08:22..88:554790/-90 7080.707 34943 9.733 57424932:950507850./.03-570..943 .8 0 809 4:9 94 /0391 90 25..9.79.7.3/ 801 /70..3/ 90.38 ...4:7.733   8 907.. 41 04:80    .8.880799.084190.808 90 90.42024700..30/:.-47.4..448  7..9 41 % 43 90..3/ 0..08 ./.733 7.43897:.8...3 8.43806:039390:8041% 30/:.73303.9.0/93.3 .078 .07.3/ 0.4.088 8349434190 25.8..3003.943.9 :83 % 3 8...780/3901443   3897:.08808-0.4.08  04:80 8   /030.733 706:708.078   %080.30 .3.3/ 70/013943 41 97.1.5574..941%3850.3 . .733 574...733 .:94342 .059:.38.4:8 0/:.084150/. .30 3 90 740 41 90 90.7432039.3/ 0.8 700.89 80380  20. .9 41 % 3 089073 :897..943 04:80   3490840.:/0 80993 .30..903 %83974/:..70 .3/.9008 47.43.999:/08.05943841907404190.70...438/078 9025.733 .9:70 70.94784807408 3.994::83%948:554790..0 9.3 .3/50/..3/8.3/. 97.8-003:3/079.03970/   ..059438  .3.1..4..7307 .30.943.088  %8 97.3/.078 82.308390507. 7.943..381472 90 90.3/8..733574.7/0 8   0.381472..3/ 90 0.941%4350/.9.3/ 4907 .114/3 %8.574..3/.8 0..078 %8/0.7432039 90.70../02.90.9.943 3 0.

.   9 8 -.3/ 340/0 41 %  .9 90.3 0020398419097.90.243 49078  4 5708039 .041  .9.507.3/ 1.4...07 843507..907 07 .0783/1107039/05.89 .9.9   ..3.0888:554790/- 90.3.08940..078   88039. 8.7:0/ 9.3/7/1479   .448   9706:7082470.733 9841.344 -09907 9.943 9 4907 90.3/7/1479   . 34 2470 . 300/ 147 :2.943419025.0 94 574./943.80/ .9.70.078  .70.243 90.07   07 .943./3 94 3. /1107039 5439 41 .3   .:84341% ..114/309..943   %7/  9070  -0 ..   0 8:0890/ 9..357.3 ....4.9.880/ 3 90 /0.9070/90.9:704190.43897:./024709209403.39:73706:70824700307  19  :83 % 706:708 90 90. -0 .3//0./078  ...07   :./07.3/ 843   .90/9.7 70./23897.3/ 0.33.422:3..7 .333 .941%4390. 9.0 .425..07 8 /0.08417.90/ - 7080.7/088 41 % 8 549039.:77.43/  90  .3/ .897088.344 .79.70..088 94 31472.9.3/-09003 90..3/ 5.8 -0 3897:..00.7920398.3/9090.5574.3/ 2...943  0.0 94574.344 ..-47.0 949.357.309903.733 /8.80/ .8 48  .9 90.4.08 41 31472./9470.9073.943 %83980184:/-08:554790/-30.7.0./0 70.:804190 31:03.308390740419090.3/.9 980.08.0989:/0398 7.89 90.4447.733 8.5574.0390/3. 0.4393:4:87097.38.70398  4:79 9090.-0 94 :80 90 90.3 .-47.80/ 43 3.943   .97.3//11070398.   %0706:702470..8 349 1:3/.089431472.907574/:.9.5073  04:80     04:80 8   05.3 94 :2.0/78 41 70/:.303740 789 90708.80/ 3907089 3 90. 300/ 147 3. 98 8 03.9 89:/0398 2..3/ 05072039.9 9070 8 .094/424705.943 ..439..943 .0452039 41 88 ...4 4507.907 .088 94 31472.943.7:09.8 ...943 .2039.3/..07 .0757.3/90./943.3 70.:.3/ #0     .08.2.078 0 #0-07 .3 90 /4  $0.3/ 9.9   %00903994.0/ 31:03.92..070../07.078  .907 .3/ 84:/ 702.9478 ..:.3/ 843   48   0..3/ 84:7.9 41 04:80     8 0.8 -003 0.4:7808:08989074041.059434198.943-0900389:/0398 ..07.::2-0.

50/.990 740 41 90 90.733 4.9.44  .9. 57.:843 41 %   40.42548943419./943.431.3/ ..- % :80 /02.03..9:70 .943.90/ 98 :80   #0  507.990. -0018 .34408 .07  . 31472.:94:8459289 88..90794706:70.93 89:/0398 974: 90 :0 6:.110.33  30 90..74  :-.07   0 .9438  98 90.3/ 74:9308 41 57.078 ..7:08  789  .9 90.39908 41 7.9.44897:..443  $0.03..9.3450 88..90 33090039.:78  .887442 57. 9 90 3.9 90.9:70.0 ..8874428  3.943..3 8  4 0.74 90570807.74./0/ 8.0 :3/07.943415488-08.880 90 300/ 94 .88.3 90.:808 43 90 70.:9:7.03.7 9.448 .30/ 8.3/ .733 2..078 -/    % ! %#%%%&$  :-.08  -/   30.438/07 4 9080 97.8.  97.4394:78419080.078   %0 025..078/4.943390.3    3 05.748147%3907./943..97408094.9.8 490747.0 .3/ 9097. .70.08 41 574507 8.3//4349/4 3 .07  90 3.38.880882039 - 80/ 90.3.08 . 90.94385 /423./.9 .3 2094/8 .9077..448  .304188 0850.9438 94 19 ..3 14..0.79.3 47.9.:/3 90 507889039 ./0:89 3 920 0.3/ 90 89:/039 90.. 3.0 7.943 41 334.90 545:.0 349 .:7703934943841:83...38.425:90788902894574.- #0   2./943.3/3 .4393:0 94 -0 ..94385 -09003 90 89:/039 ..9 340/0 8 574507 3 8.3/ 90 90..089..8 2:.03943 41 90 .43/  90 .30  70.-4:9 0/:.3/8 9.9.07  90 740 41 90  .-4:9 .0 7.7:08 9.07 349 89:/039 2.3 /70.08 9 .0 .943   30.0.4393:0 94 300/ :/..3/90. ....3/ 4907 050798  -0 706:70/ 94 8:55479 89:/0398 3 .7 .03.8088:08 0.88744241  90 90.94389 88../0/809938   38/030.9 89:/0398  ..078  -0018 .59.039:7 .857414:3/8.:08 90 740 41 90 90.3/ 2:950 507850.

7 4:900/ 8.078  -001870.:77.3     :-.078 -73 394 90 .7-090/.7:089.9 31472 4 90 ..4250903. .0 90 89:/039  90..43/..9478 070 74:50/ 394 94 ..8 14:3/ 4.438/07....431/03.3/.5574.-9 94 .078 50/.94385.:9 %088 9. 88   %8 8 1:7907 8:554790/-7:220:8  4.44407025020393%3907..8-003 2509:8 147 2.07023 0.80/ 1..04730.9 9 8 2470 .73303..9438 41 4 90 90...344  0907 5489.9.574.344 . .887442.4.3 8  14.0 :-.9 41 90.:8439090./:892039 94 90 :80 41 90...74320398..9008    .:.8874428 9 902  9..08  90 90.-0 011479  30 340/0 .57. 3.9 ..3 ..9884:/-09.078  :80 41 ..-4:9 0.3/90.557003843 94..9.07.425:9078   %080 90.733 ....3/ -0018 .0 9.  90.078 1742. 47/07 41 25479..344390.93.7 8..:/0 334.9.3/ 88  1908090 2470 31:039.408 3.7/3.39 740 3 90 .9 90.9.7/8 02-7.425:907 .3/ 897:.3 ..4.9 90.9490..425:9078  3 07.084114:790.07 8 ..3308894.0 394 90 0/:.90 5:5 .07 -.07 8 507.9:70410.07..3/90/070041%:80-9090.3/ .0  070 9480 70.3.44 -. . . 708:9 41 90 -0018 .-9 94 3907.110.3.0 3 907 .9..943.3897.89:/94/08.//9439490.3 % 2.8808 9.07090.07 -.7.7339.80/ 1.0/ 907 :808 41 . 57.3 30 50/..:08 9.0   %0.3/ 90 25.3 25479.80.9 2489 31:03.0 3 2.0 #0       :9 4907 7080.3 .9.7.3.078  88 5.90 % 0110.3/3 47 90.3/ 907 .8874428'003  14:3/9..984:/ -0 3 90.825479.078  :80 41 90.07 8 . 41 .90/ 94 90 90.30089390..3/903897:.94/.439039 .4...9478 3 05...70.078  .07 8.0 :8041%  0007  025. 3. 88 .438/07.80/ 1.35.908 907 50/..904708 -0018 . -0 90 708:9 41 .9078:-0./03..947841903/..344 706:708 .:9. 90.059438 .0770.3/ .943.... .03970/ 0....33 90.9478 1.393/.088   3.887442 . 41 340/0 .990.

733574.7 0814708  14.3/3907.79.943  '003 .943..70.0 0   :83 %   -0 80.078 ..3/ .078 ..390.23384202.14.-4:9903.94385 94 %   $0 .80 4 90 507.078 ..09405079 90.39 740 3 907 .0   0 ..9 8:.9.08.9:73 340/0 .9:7041 9074-47903.344 :80 31472 907 57... ..0 41 :3/0789.42.943334..57.733 3907.3/ 90 25.34907..8.92. 94 .47/3  3 47/07 147 90.078  :808 41 90..3 .-4:9 90. 574.9 90.9. 89708808 90 25479...0452039 974: 3.8.0.90 .794438.943 41 ..308 94 907 574108843.088   .078 -0018390:804190.2.70 10...438/07 .90 90 5488-908 41 70897:..08 7010.3 011479 94 /02891 90 34943 41 90 90.0  .3/90 90.07 .3850.9  . 340/0   ..9 90 25..059:.3 25479.70 3059  ...9438 147 90.:80843907404190..078.9438  8:.059438 41 90.720/ 9 907 574108843.7 94 .7/3 ...90/ 1 9 8 3 .08808.7:08 9.8.30 3..390/ 8907049508 41 90.0 .078 ..908.08   .7:0 9.078  933 .431.078.0452039  .3/ .43944.0 .438/073 90.088. 574.0 3.08  30.7:08 9..8 70889.9907 .3/ 90.3 0/:.43..070 ...3/3 4 90.. /0.9.078  -..110..30 8 9.084190.7   $2. 507509:.3/ -0018 5...3 0.:.:80/43907404190.9 907 90..3 ..4.55038 /:73 2502039.07 574108843./4590/:.07 0/:.3 ...8 9.3/ :3.77.08 .9478 94 70 .3/ .9073..-0 9.9:7041.3 907 89:/0398   3 .904708 0  907 -0018.-4:989:/0398 8:-0./44/ 080 474.9:7070.347709.438/07.0 370.734943841..078 -00183/7..078 94 2.9347/0714790. 334.3/ 0..3/ 0.078  507.38299390/0.909.41050798039090.70 088 .9. . 89758  840/ 4 9080 2.39 94 .9 .3 %  .  3.344 .90/ :31479:3..425:907:80783.....0.907.9810/990757..8% 90300/94 93330.733  390 1.9903:.078 014:3/9.9.344 3 47/07 94 .70 :30 94 6:08943 570.0 90.07894.9.3.3574108843-97.088.943.041050703.3/!:92. 57.438/078 90 300/ 147 0/:.30830/:.3/ 907 70.9 ..887442 57.04190819174234.08808   .9:7.7050710.9990.4 147 98 /0.71:  90.943..5.-0 011479 8 30.7/944/340/00.3  3..0394307030..9 41 30 050703.7:01:79079.9438 %0.9 2.90 1..9 90.

990.0/ .04190.3/4007  8:0899.078  -0018 .0.% 70..078 90.- 7080.3 89..078 702.3/.94341%88  .0.3 57.703903/0/94.3/.-0907.3.:80 41 .381472.9438   30.733  ..7:0 1:7907 9.08 /0503/8 .  90.9..90005078 94 89:/0398  .078  -0018 .088  .7:.0 89:/039 0.8874428 -0.0 90.33 94 90.0/0.8489.357.3 3907. 455479:3908 90 .7843.344  349 -0 /0 3907.4250903.47/3  574.-4:990 0/:.998.7 ....90/ 394 90... % 8 3907.3  0.43..045203939050/..08 ..55..907.:0410/:..0308841334.943 /0503/8 43 90 50/.733  3 4907 47/8  .3/ 90.0 43 98 43 9 706:708 90..943 430.733 574.:77.9:308890...078.890.0 .943.0   %0 .30  90.-4:95747..3/ 4 90 507.3349 705..70 90 0 94 0907 90.9 83..3349 -0 034:  %0.90 90.3 90 ...70 43 4 90.3 ...9.4.943.07  -0  97.70 :80/ 3 0/:. 43 90.3/ 30.. .9. 88 41 90 90.9.3448:80/.34408350/.9..2208.9.438/07.84389./0.0.43172907-0018.::2 .7..425:9078 ..3/ 907 507....999:/08.3/ :80 9 94 2574..7.:843 8.7/8 94 % 3907.4.078 4 .3443907../4    .08.425:9078 ./3 90.8 43806:039. 282..0 90 90.088 94 0/:..70.3/ 84:/ 349 -0 3470/ 9 70.3/7.943 41 % 3 0/:.9.4.94383 90 2502039.344 394 90 ..0..0110.3/ 0.344 8 349  .3/ 90.... 90.-03.84300/574108843.90/ 394 572.0 314720/..7:0  /:. -09003 90...943   %0 09039 94 .20.9..8874428   %%#%#  4 ... 97.943   .-4:9 90.331:.3/0110.557457.55..078 2..4.943.943.078 .9:708489.078 507.70 706:70/94:80 %09..078 -0018..90.3349 .3/ 2.11 4 2:89 34 4 94 0549 9080 24/073 90.943.078 .3.0 % :80   742 907 7080...0 90.

943 41 % ..79.33 147 90..55.344884/3.078 7408   :3/075333904708410/:.70    0. 5488-0 17.   .078   8895.943 41 % 394 0/:.943 394340/0 .70...33 14.55.:77.07 97.78 147 90 50/.4:7808330.857390.79.823/9448 %080 4503 03/0/ .110.39:/0 97..9 90 :80 41 % 3 90..9 90 -00.9 4:/ 03.79...::2 8 30.3/07 47/070.9 9.088.307    3..79 1742 39.8 9.38147231472.0797.:8090.99034.0020398   %0.4393:...07 97.5574.331: 574108843.078300/90.9438 8 .0..89097.    ./09080. 933.7:0 9. 9.933.5.3/$6:708  1:79078:- /.3/473 05:8078705708039.3384:/97.090.55..:..3/0..425.4.2047147%97.:808 43 825 053 90...733 %0..9438.90 % 394 90 .3%06:52039 .:80 3907.3.3/90.47547.. . 97.438/07.55.43806:03990.9 90 1.220814790.9.078 :3/0789.3   '.33 3 4 94 3.3/8:55479.33 %05708039 .:.73494:80.3/78.438/0739074041%30/:.  942574.943   %97.733 -/ :79072470-0.33 8:089..2.0894:83%30/:.4:.308390.90/.88 .9  .2.3314790.30344.3....7 4.39.333%:80 %0.425:907 .943 8 .2047 147 47.078  300/ 0903/0/ 97..425:907 .9 2489 90.-0942.9438 3941.4..0 84:/ -0 -03. 2470/09.943 .3  .33 974:4:9 907 903:70 3 90 1472 41 70170807 ..3/ .7:09.7.33 3 90 :80 41 % 3 90..:77.3 4.943394900893.. 09 ..308390.9 /408 .07894-0.9438 0 90 3907309 1.3/ 8 .3/ .7:017899. .943 %0 .0/ 17.0789 9..0782:8990701470.3  90.0797.8 41 220380 2..90 20.97.:77. . 0.   %70.3/8419.:.33940..55.95747..3.9438   3907.383 % 97.3/2..3/.0:8041%.438/0794088039..

 232:2  90.08 3..   ..3 /1107039 0/:.33 84:/ 97.-0 94 2.078 94 -0 .4250903.44507.943  $0.8.4..0 -.43/  90 5745480 9.3 ..8573 90... .9 5747.943.078 84:/ .8 .07 97.2208 147 90.0 :80 41 % 93 2.3 :83 9080 147 .

733 314723 .3 :83 % 147 .  90 .078 2:89 .30 147 90 -09907 5.088 .9841%4390743740.307   8:089 9. .3 0.9 90.34408 94 90.80/ 0.733 2.6:70 ..4250903.30344../4593 % 3 907 0/:.3/ 78.3 2:89 -0 :80/ 94 2009 0/:.890.-0947.90/394908..84 .80900110.836:089438 0.:.0 -./04  ..08 3 :83 90..38 9.88 .307     %8 20.908 5705.7/  10 8.733 '.3/ 40 ....9.943.  74:5 .08 3.907.93 .7434:8 ..83907...90741..333 147 3/./..7434:8 02.07884:/-0..083. 4-0..733 574.. 944 147 90.7:0 9.0 -.943 3 -49.94394% -:97.3/ 78.5574.9 90 90.3/ 7084:7.425.9  90-4.83.73  03.5939070/:.:/4  .220 43806:039 . /8.3/ 4390789:/0398 .4250903.4.078 84:/ ..9..-47.08940.4. 9.5.445747.:8843 898 0- -.. 809938  (3490747/8 3493..3 03 44 .3 0.07.73 ../:.50/.80/ 147:28 .3/ 574/:.943  '.3 9 90 5488-908.9 90.943.79 1742 343 90 9047 -03/  .8.9 % .73   3.74320398 .8 .3/83.3 .3/ 4 94 :80 %  90..3 8:.8 9 90 05 41 % /0.4.

5.439039 -09003 90..43806:03..4.943.33897..078 050798 /083078 09.07 0/:.47 /110703.3.333%:8087.3/ .39/2038439449088:04190.903.   .3490797. 41 90 8.7   %0 40..3/ 450708    /030.733320/.733 850..336:.07 831.078  .3/450708   %07.30 48:03.33 3 % :80 9.0797.4.9.70 34 2.3/ 89:/039 90.33147.3/ 97.9 41 % 9070 .80/ 0.98 9490790.9 8  9%   48:03 .3 1470.791742901.7:09.250574-02 -..80 .20 706:7020398 147 90.-47.078 ...34907/42..078  90.08 41 :83 % .89 8:-0.9434350/..08 -09003 % 97.9478  .. .884190.3/ 0.07 97.89 ..33 147 1:9:70  90..9 ..0 -003 57080390/ 9:8 1.07 7.3 .80/ 3 8:5547941.90 2:.5740.3/ 90..03843 204  90.

943 .8 9 90 945..990-00.438/078 .990.-094/0.89..9 /0..42509039507843.9008 147 90.3/ 897..:807841% .33 39.  .9..070/:.9.8 ..08:3/079.3/ 809 /43 90 2. 7.07884:/-0.094-044/57.33903490  %0 .2508 00251 8.07 97.3  .70084390945.073890. 23/944  2..42509039:807841%.03-/1107039 8.8907 .42509039 :8078 41 % ..30 41 0/:..3/90. 41 % 3 0/:.943.7488:7450  88039.9 %084:/ -0.70 ..33 3 % 50/.909..33 3 % :80 .4390394197.944147 90.422:39 9.9438 147 97.943.07 97.43.08390..4 .333899:9438..8.47 25.0797. 9080 0. 3:2-07 41 90.

3/ 90 54.07 0.50/.08 9.90 8. 88:08  789   -0.333%:80 90907.:80 % 8 /3.7 70..438/07 94 088039.07 97.443 .0 389 3942470 1.33078 .7.4.9008 147 90.448 8..33 9.30 41 .3/ 14.114/3   %8 3/ 41 8.943841%1478.79174290.3384:/ -0 -701 .9.3/ 90..9:708:08989.92..7.9..//7088 90 300/ 147 .3/ 13.07 97..3/84. 5.733 .. .3 9...09  -/   5.4393:4:8 70.0:8041%  2.3/ .4.9:7014.9 .. /20384384190:8041% 14790.80 897.3.2./28 9..0 974: 3907.943.8907.7. 0.8.5574..:84390 /0.114/3 .3 25.5..880882039 5.0797.3/ 0....0 :80 41 %  :3/0789.4390394190...0452039 41 88 ./289.9 2.33 3899:9438 94 /0.0308 0/:.3  9 .3 1.:8084390300/94 .9  ..97.943.0 5.3/ /04408 %0 907.9 39.943 41 88 .

-47.97.80/ 8.943.74880/:.90/70170807.448  -:8308808.3/.84 574..43/ 907404190.3   :79072470  90..793078   8  8./0 4:970.3/ 8 14723. 5.07 97.093.80 9 /1107039 0/:. . 807..4:7.943.33 3899:9438 84:/ .078 .08 94 2.4 41 % :80   %0 84:/ ..  .3/ 974:801 /70../339.9.943 9 4907 90.0797.73..333899:9438408-043/574.4:7808   $0..344 3 90..422:39084157.333 90 50/..0 90 :80 41 90.4.448 3 47/07 94 03..

8 ..0   #080.9434190.80/  9 2:89 -0 :3/078944/ 9./..3/ .34408 .70 8:.3/2502039390.8 .9 9070 .9:70 43 90 25.438/07904.3/ 90.084190.8  347 8 9 305038.9.339.733574.08841987080..91472147.7984184.088 894708 .88 41 907.70 2470 .3/90.088   30..8 147 .3/-243./0570 807.3:2-0741 .:77.9.3/49075..4.3/ .33 9.80/4390 13/3841 98 7080.7.8 90-:83088..3/ :38:.9.808 41 3.:80841% 8 349 0. 3899:943894574.42203/.-47.39..084198 24. .9 %07080.47/39448:03.448    #%#%#%&$  %8 -701 .04520398 94 90 0/:.438/07..90 .943.07 97..::2 .09 . 2470 574108843.3/ 90 574.943   %0 1443 8 .84 05 /0. .174290  90.7/8%3907.9:7070.3/ 88:08 90/390907.70 .890/.088.039 /0..3..0797.0 97.4. 894170..7843 .333899:9438 573.8.3/450708   98 ..0 90 14 41 340/0 ..07 97.7.-941 8:. 10/   9 .9.8438 30.943.-0 920 ./4    %0./06:.0 .0 .9438 ..9.-  90 88:0 41 90.70    04:80     %8 .0781742/11070398.7948:.422:39 94..9 /0833..0 .07  03.94389.0797.0 .  3899:9438.0881: 97.9.4:/ .07 97.3/ 3 807.333% 50/.335747...5.9 -98..:8438.:84390.0797.090:804190..3/3 41 90 /0.43.3.33 3 % :80 8 ..4 93 90 570.34439090.0 7.9 300/8 .5574..190743974:90 574.8..-47.057.9570.-08:. ...07/0.8 843 9.3/ 011479 94 -0 0110.002070/ -.9 .220839050/.3 :3/0789...-4:9 90.3 0. 5. 14.4:7.3/94574.045 .9...990708300/94.9 8 314720/ - .80.078 .3/0.33 3899:9438  .7.9 41 % 43 90 .0881:03.   ./097.3 05 2574.3..   %080 70..7.33 9..4.98 41 90.42203/.-4:9 70.7339.3 9070 .84 314720/ - 89:/08 . 44/ 75 43 02073 90.4250 88:0 9.338:08989.

8 .08 -01470 90 .3/490.9438 147 89:/0398 .4202470.9 43  .3/0.078-0.88 %8038:70 2470 3.70.-47.70 .:77039 :3/07:80/  8:.3/34943439090.:80/4390950841%7084:7.08.3/ 90..:843  %33 .33 3899:943 300/8 94 .70 .3/ 430785  .-4:9 90 -030198 41 .94341%3940/:...4393:4:8 :5/.9.4.3/ 90 90.9/1107039 89.3/ 70./..44   %7.943 .9089:/03990..0940..088    %7.0784..:80419002070393.    $9  :.8 907 89:/0398  %8  ..8438 .425:907 .332:89-014..0...43903941 %.-09490.34343-.08.0452039300/843...907 3907.733574. 94 /.884347/ 574..-4:9 90743%/0.07843. 944 147 1043 0.3/ 340/0 30.. .9043 9024890110.4.0 /0.0883.4.344 98..80.0841%907.943 41 % 93 90 90.70.4 147 90 .8389:/03990.7041 90..3/3.4:7.....4224/.   # #$ #%%#   ..4.7-0./11070390.0797.80/ 90./0 7.:...08.078 .9090 3907089./390. .078 ..890/011479    $9:/039 90.078 300/ 94 -0 03.344 90.0/ 94 7010.3/ 2.039.89..3/ .33 3%:8094038:709.088.3/.943.4397-:9094574.:77......-.02039 .07 97.34408 147 3897:.33 3 90 :80 41 % 7084:7. -14.3041%7084:7.90 41 88 .08  9 088025.943907.078 ..70308841.9%84:/14.9903907.70.08.3.9:7041%   31472.8 0 .-0 94 90..:834390.3/.90.3/90789:/0398    %7.:0.078 3 8.333%50/..943   % .73   3. 8   .-47..55.3/-03019841%9490280.3/ 2470437084:7.3/34982543494:809090.8 0- -.347    %7.88708:93/0 249..943.333%:802:89.8%907.733 147 90.3..

7084:7.059:. 0.   343 4 .574/:.83.7094 -0 4-9..90 41 90 .08:80/ 8..8 3 ./0  .84390./943.92.3/78.-094 902 %8706:708.55.80/90.0 0110.9438  %8.850.99448.42:8989..300/   343 4.0.8390/110703997.078 300/ 50/.2:89-0.030 0.799 ..088 7.70 314720/ - 90 /0.43.3 .4480 90 7084:7.3/0/07. 340/0 8 30.943858 -09003 .:/0  3:3/0789.  :3       .-9 94 2.425:84797.9   .3/349 :8990 -.2.3 .425:907.  5488-017.-0 .943 41 .30 90 3.//70880/347/0714790.08.08439.3041%9448...3/ .:8843 89:/08 ..3 % 7084:7..431/03..390.078 2:89.73078 933.-4:99090. /0 7.39 94 :80 3 90 90./0   !058 09 ..07894 ./4   .70.490.43/  90.4:/0.907 9.3/.943 41 340/0 .9.3/'..7  %0803.431/03.3/ 0903/9070.09908:-0..3 574.0942009.8.9:70 .0797.0 290/.3/  90 3974/:.8 41 #:880  7.30 41 50/.0340/04190%7084:7..43897.-4:9907 .078 94 2..9.9    0/07.9.204714790574.4.307      789 90.07889..0 .:807   409.7843 ..3/.887442 #:880  7.0 98 :80 3 90 :3570/.07.70. 340/0 41 % :80   #080. - #:880  7.0 05.0 :80 41 % 3 90 .390.30908.:807   849..30/ 974: % :80  ..3/3419070.7084:7.0.3.     $0..7084:7.1..   343494800.088.42570038../0 !05809.943 41 9080 300/8 .43.08808 8839078:-0.73339.91831.3/ 705708039.33300/8.9945..887442    /030..38.33390:8041..3 0344.4.3041%7084:7.9..0 9480 25480/43902 %8.8-0033490/390/8. 7.333%50/.0 .73078 03..733-030198./07.70.3/ 90 .344 .7.08 90 .9.3/ 90.08.0598 574.

3/9014.93 0.557457.90 8420 .9438 41 % 50/..93 .9.05489..90 % 9448 .9433 .07 97.43907.9490.4.333899:9438:089890300/ 147.42548074:5809.4..9478 058 90.0 /8.79 41 90..08990.733 03.943  574/:.00/8574/:....73303.33   3 98 .7 -0.380% -.07 97.80/43:3 8   1789 17.3/:3/0789.0797.0050703.08 800.438/070/.9  .90 ..078 0.333%:809..733050703.088.397.9.. 7084:7..0453 30 2094/8 41 1..3    5708039..47090.33 94 1..43.03 - 1.9079.850.   43806:039 :3   5708039897005488-017.:.3/9447.8874428 - .   3434..8808820394190548943414:790.3.030/ .8 902.8 5.9700907..73 4 94 :80 % 3 907 .33    %.3/0.3 7002. .:/0   %0.4.3 2094/8  %8 897.908 .059:.:884309..43..08 9.5574.70088438849.0790.78 7.3/3907.90/97.98 41 97.5574.3/ 0.47..9..4   /0.0797.:8843%50/..733 . 89..9 90 /.0797.9.5574.07 97.9..2047 %8 8572.078 .3/ 8:554793 89:/0398 3 90 :80 41 9480 9448 :83 % 94 5742490 0.55.3-0.8.73078 933.90%8 .98-.9:.33 398897.:8090 0.344147/0.04190..5574. 343494038:7074:5 47574.9389:/0395071472./8494.843 8 89 .3/90 290/58.08 9 9.344.33 3 % :80  %8 3.3/ /0..0 41 31.908 % 394 90.907 .2047814790.0797.07390.33   %0 .0/ 3 90 574.41574.7432039  $:55479 .:8 43 % 88 -:9 7./3900.3 4330 0.0/.08841%3907..078.90.9.9039073098:80/. -03 03..70941%.344394907 4390...333% 50/.3..9 .8902.0   3434945705.  9 8 5488-0 94 3907..8.3/3 8 .8 .344.0    % :80 .9438 398.0738 .9090.733 . 90.7 14.7432039.90 3907.039480300/8 %0803.439039 /408 349 30.80/74:547 0394:805.3/ 0903/0/ 343 4 94 5742490 7010.

/.0 .900.9/110703980.1...5574../08.99.24/:.-0-04574..4224/.08-0.. -.33 974: 4330 3897:.0/ 5741.73078.0 ..903433050/.4.078...:8041490 97.943 % 394 90.408   %0..943  40..33847.4 147 90 3.9438 :79072470 :83.03.3 9817.3078.%.47547.  .7.:04190178917.-398706:708.3/ 8420 41 42 84:/ .07 97.74:3/  ./704197.07 03.4814790:8041850./08.380/ %..20474:/.883850..898 84204142 84:/ .55.75943419897..3.204789.33     .. 50/..

33  4/:0 4/:0 30 %4:3/.0598 3 850.943.8   %8 24/:0 14.90.3%.9.3/7084:7.943.70.34408 . 0/. 90.93 3897:.33 3%:80-003.078934574797.08   3/8..5.93 .422:3.1. 8:-0. 4:78   %04708410.90 0.943.:808 43 4  90.:808 43 :83  90..3/ .8 %0  8419.0883 $570.0/94 /49824/:0 %824/:0 14.:.947.3/490720/.344  3897:.04530.90 90 :80 41  90.943 8419.3/90 0110.344 %8 24/:0 14.3.79.7434:8.7 .:.733574.9.79..:.70  0-083 7.344 4/:0%700 3897:.907.7434:8.0883 31472.0:80413897:.1.943 4:78   4/:0%4 083.943 9448  %0.9.8 .7307 8 .79 790 !708039.0  %0.943 :83 ..702.:80843/0.9438      439039 !74/:.4:7.943 974:%  4:78  ..3/ 83.733   9 3.4-0.83.9.93 .425:907 -...7  :7.3/ %0..88  974:-084493 -.9.8.9.08 897..8.425:907.-4:9 90 90.088    :94739448 0  507 89:/4 ..3/ %0.908390:8041.083 '8:.94 1.078 70.344 94 /0..3/0.5..9..4..8  !742493.93  0.3 0.530850.733  0.:/0 90 -030198 41 :83 5.908  880882039.43.80/ 3897:./8009809.5574.3/3907. .733 933.425:907705..9439448 3907309907.-00307.70.02.:.9. !708039.204747%%7.34507.70.79.943 94 2009  5..4250933974: %5740.  %.300...7 9448 147 0.333 24/08  $00..99448 47/ !74.943.70.943 4:780 08.943.9. .733 5.70/:..75943 %8.4250903.. -:990  /083 .8.90.-0 7.55.:.7420/.08 84:/ 3.8  $9.

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

.

 .0 : 0/:.

.30./..

.30.92.

00/8.574.

80...

8    %0.943841572.44.0 %  ..94390.344 -807.78.3/.00/ 92   ..88744257.00/38     .4.9...574.078 :804131472.0 8-!74.

94381742900/ /:...943974: 90 :80 41 30 90.08808  3    9974.08  '..#080.3  0 47 . 0/.9. 094/8 3 /:.9 7943  $05902-07       995.943 .3/ 78 #  0/8 #080.0.94333:..3  .0789 41 $:880 .08  4.943.943 9/ 43/43#4:90/0. 437088 43 /:.94788:5547947570.02039  43/43!.4310703.03990.884.7.943 90.7    !0907843 !    %0.943.3/4.730780.943.08.943.0/:.3   .34408 #010.943..8874428 798/:.7.3/ 477843      #080.   403    ..   . /  .52....3/-44 41 7080.343    .39073..3/07!0770     334.70.90 30 0/:.3/.9438  55    !..344 94 .0  &3..094/83/:.:20398 3402..    ..207   48      &83 31472..'4   4 55    .930/:.9.3/ 31472.307!0770    334.78 &$  39073.9.078 94:9574.$.77.7.23943$5...3!:-83   4  09.943.9438 1472 90 10/  /:.7. 43 90./0785.2.3.83.   '.89.943..943..7    4:3907.     3.0781742:83%3 907.      .9.0.8   479.4.0/.34408#010.943974:90&80410 %0. 39073.:. 89:.

.

:.. /8 .

0/:.4.

/4.:20398.

98 1 %0.943..3/ 4      . 884.9 49.9 90 798 /:.908 %0.0 7943 $05902-07    7.   92   4    !708943    .. 4310703. #080.733     0890/ 47.943 33:.507 57080390/ .344 3 %0./07     7/1479       #0.7..3 3/ 0.039 #080.078 %4 &80 %  !.. 3 %0 110.7..

90.54..

8874428.90/ 7084:7. 4:73..41/:..3/0.943.943.0452039&83%'4 4      .08  39073.733 742 ..3     425:90782009.088 94 % 147 %0.3/ 0.    ...9 94 3907 70.47/     0730.3 .07400 #0..8874423 %0. $30 7901.3/ 743       .7080. 92   :-.7..

.943     425:90783908.448/11:843.943.    .%0..82 .08 147 425:90788890/0.43806:03.3/ .41/:.733 7984:73.9.43897:.734      39075709.344'4 4      .9438 41 .

%0.::2 #0970.90 43 984..943.94-07  1742   /84:7./45943507850.0  /:.344       ..8       3907.9.0 .7/44/ :77.42.90425:9078390.0/ ..

0./84:7.

439039..

     043/9008.733 .-4:9 90.943 41 90.7.078  -0018 .90 .425:9078 92   .943  .3/3897:...3/ 90.9...7/ 0/.08 3 90.943 ' 55   80.344    <   .0.3 0../0785  . %0.3/ 3907.09 147 31472. 884.507 57080390/ . 340/0 147 90.07$.943 %0.93%0.3 .09/   07      #389.  !..344 7.344  !.3/49        .9..507 57080390/ 94 798 /:. .110..0 90-4..943.733...943 #080.3/ 57.344 3 /:..:.078.03.943 # 43/43 ..887442 !73.83943   &$  0814708      4 /408 050703.11     $.8874428  /:.7.308 3 90.0 .3907.3/ .9 904709.078 .9 4310703..3/8908.   0/0      0.344&803 90..08      .0 . .5. 705708039.0 41 $4.

7.:2   .728.344 3 90 02039.30    #488    .#080..77078 %4 .3/ 44/8      ..41#080.9008 47 %0.   <   807      %0 %0.07-. 7080.943.07 -0018 . 507850..7.7.7333907.7. 43 90.43/ 7/07 .80/ 0.3/ 57.-4:9 90 740 41 %0..233 %0.943...9438 .3:.887442  4:73.8874428.344 #080.30 $97.0 41 7080.703.9.3       70.07 8 #40  3 !  $. /  .9.3/425:9078 43/43#4:90/0 55     .7 .:30      79207  !  //843  !  .7.-344 3907. .733 .0452039      .943  3 /:.078  0018 .0  .03843      204      !74-02 -..43425:933/:.08  /:.0430..3/0..943   55     79207  !    //70883 789 3/ $0. %0..

 #  43843      3974/:.   4. 47.3 %0.448%7:2547%7.    $. %0.34408 394 90 $.370..344701 4    30..

09..

#$.

80/ 90.    % 147 /:.3/   .3     0-93. %0.3.088 3907.28 %047 39457.3/ 09473 3 /:.73  3 .34408147/:.943..3/ 4134    %    % ..943. .. 55    7002.3 5747.943 48943 :07.07  !  .3    %08.78&$  .344   55     :.//.7/  '     %0.8.  3 ..39/70.07 999:/08 %4..344 425:90783$..943 !.7/ 340/0 41 425:907 %0. 944 147 0.3 4:73..3/ 4308  %  /8  422:3..88088203990.0.3/ 7.943 !49039..-701 92   47.94389.0       ../     $  :7..44.07 0/8 %0..733 94 0.73347.3/ !4903./02..9.//.80147 0- -.448  ./  .3/..28  :897.9438 . 41 /:.9843      .8 .

943.0 #080.. 8.7/:.3/.3/70..943    ..478  .08 41 90.943    %03. $ $0.0 0.94341425:907 -...:.3.7/0     4300/8.4:73.08  42-07  .078 0018 .3%0 3907.03     09..::2.7333$$4.9.34408 39457.7.572..078 3 82.:77.41%0.943      .0 .80/0.448 /0.078941%0.943'4 :2-07 .3/.9.448   $/30&3.7/0  .7.08  $. #05479  88:0 34   ::89    450     %030989053907.3/ %0..7..3 82.943 #080.425:90783$.448 798/:.90/90.07 431/03. 55     .3/38  % %0.  430    4007      %0.93.344   4051     4483 ":.425:9078.2.:08  /1107039 :3/0789.0784:73.  07   .0732039$.344/:.0 43902547.       .3/ 425:9078 .3   .770.3/ .448 43/43..  !7207 147 /:.43    425:90783%7/ 47/ $.9.448 ..#080.4250903..344 3907.3//:.943 /1107039 ..78. 7:7..943.

80 $9:/08 41 334.   20  $    &83 %0.078941%0390   43843        %0 70.3897:..943893%703/8.3/43 1472.9437014  #   .9.. 0/.990:7450..3..90  % 43947 380/0&3.-0 459438 147 90.943.943 !7.344 110..0..344 3 90 .943 %0#40 4190%0.. 933 3// !7039.5507 /  .73 30 90.33 !.3/ 0 !488-908 41 89..79.  .0 0.3.733.. 7.733 50703..078 94 :80 90.8 3/9448 147 8..943 47.943.5470 8 . /:..3/90.50757080390/.38803 #0303       07405843/078 03 '4.9  3.41#0.3/42.8803030/0/:.344 0/:./3 0.9.9478  90/ 3 $  #42   89.       :3   $     $3.94385 -09003 90...943.9438 3 %0.08  /:.42207.344 .422:3.07..3      25.0 43 /:.07%7.055..0850.5574.3    90.8803      425:9078 ./4 8.078  -0018 ..34310703.08 /:73907...9090 900.3/ 300      43 ..9438 . 94 5705.0 3 /:9 .448 03./:.00. 39073.943147343 3.83943   47/ .3/ 57.47   <    43.3 .943 30   .9841%3/:.7...33 ..07 %7.9.0784138 4:73..887442  3   .1147/. 3044/118   4308    .3/ %0.4330..9.3/ '4.3/   $05902-07     330 /:.943 #080.07   ..

83.5470!739'07843 5/1.

0730#   90..3 884..   :3   $      ...:9:7. 41 /:..:.7...7 . .3/ 0/:.7/940- %4:8.344 $4..43425:933/:.80847//0 /:..-4.%0..80/24/0 147 90.  ...943742-.33 55.09  55      0007        09470/ 3897:..943900.893  55     :3   $     % !0/.489 0110.7/8.-.3/74.5574.4 3907.30 0/:... .943 3 %0.943 .8 473!7088   077 $ %     0.943.887442.00.31472.943  4:73.9.425:9078 3 90 002039.7.07 97.3/9070110.30  798 4:73..943.7432039.425... 41 470.399944794.943.0 89:/ 43 90 .41#080.9.03088 41 9700 .33  4:73.3/ .73303.943.344 .9.6:...9.943 41 /:.943.07 %7./.943.08 94 % 90.943      039 %  .34470.

.2047 147 #0..887442 .943.4208 94 90 .07 3070  .7 44 9  $0.943'4  4 55     97..  #     438943      %0 90.94309907   39   . 0 %0.07 /:.  !7023.0   55     :97.34/073..908. .3454-.344'4 4   02.0.8874428  .344.344  4:73./. $    8.943 %0.0#0.425:90783 572.3:.4:.2208 3 31472.3/90:8041.0%0. 7 %0. 41 31472.7//:.344 8 .0452039 ..2-7/0 %0. .4 :.    $6:708       7.0784 7449&80%0.%0.887442 7984:73.3/70.30 .448 3 %0 9.73  % 47/43 0/ .3/438   !  0/8  70/ %40907 %0 330 .3/39    439.3443%07.7.3.887442  4 %0.2      %0.33 90 .30      . 0.344 3  $..887442 3    '4:20  %0.3/!74108843..943%0.09047.03 %0..3:.3/ 0.-4:990..3     98.7.943.343089033949090.41/:.. 70..4:943 .25943!70883.0452039 !747.344       42.07/:.07 !74108843.  %0.43/.... 7088     .345.344147%0.

9.

44 43897:.0:/0 3//943 $.3 17.   .7339 %390!72. $/30   0.30730     ..2  $   .34447907.07%7.. 89:/ 41 90./44  '     % 3 /:.8.943.7/9%110.  # $   0.3/0..425:907 3 98 5..93 0.93 43 0 88:08  !.3990.733 3 /:944/  42570038./48 0/8 43/43#4:90/0 .344 4:73.3/:207..448   !.9433/422:3.3 47845 14..:883 43 :83%948:55479900/:...8 47..7.0!0/.37.30730  '    /:.733!7039. !8.44  0./48  . 3!72.943889028317.3.207   077.448 43/43%0...3303.3/ 843      !:993 90 .8 .9438%0.88   07    ..943  #010.3/0.3 $.  92  .507 57080390/ . 47.9 %8 3 17.3.7$.0 .3/ 0.0.8    :80%3%0.380/-90389741  .110.41:77.::2$9:/08       4800   38 $   .9.44880.3/ .4 &8331472..7$.

07077.7930785 9 4907 39073.4430917.//0#. .943 498.3/%0422430.  /:.943.    02.3/0.3    ..-47430  498.3/ #:880      3897:.3..9410.. %0.34414790.   57     0-  %  $905.943. $.03.3..3.733 3 5.08  .733&5507$.

9 1 % 3 0.08   0//059 .!7039..943.3 !079  089073:897.:.$50...$07. 0/: .  00780   04:80  !    %0 25.733 3/ %0.89/:...0..

28..

..0.

/434./8.

5/.

9438 %0.07 0/:..30.07/:.943  55     0/07.3/ %0..73 570807.970.07/:.9 3 0..3 !:-83  55      #0       .507850..733  43/43 !.9 41 4.943     488  #  !.79 %     %0..4.:807       %0.943 '4  4   $%    % 3 $.344 47 %0.943 .3/ 422:3.4 3/ 98 25.090..344 !0/.943.07..943 -043/ 5705.344 .078 4:73.448  %0 25..3/ :80410/:.34408 /43 4/ 9383.8419.52.3/%0....3 31472.08. 47/4330938 3! 4792470 / &3/0789.0 5/1   0/07..9.0732039 39..08 3 39072 #05479 57    43/43 $%   995.70 %0.943.: .07      %0 .25..3//:..078 3897:.030 41 0 %0.3/3 !0/.:807   $94//.41425:933%0.9...

.

.3/ 4/:..943.943 1 %0 49..3/3897:.0 ..8 43943.3/%0.2....7503907  %  ! 401      %0..0452039  :897.2     077       %0.943 3 0..439039-001832.3444908  %047/.. /0.7   !708943  4   4     %0.943 0  .3 4:73.94783.:.943 47 3 31472..0788334.3/ % 5473 ./843  743  03.344    55     !440      /:. 41890/ 4..9.5574.943 3/ 422:3.078 %4 &80 31472. 09.3   !0907843  !    03302. 94 574108843.943 1 %0.%0.. :   83      425:9078 3 /:..078 .9438  ...4.078  50/..439.943.    .902.943   <   !058  #  7. 41 /:.0453 4:39708  ..

.425:907 .9438 .94348943 :07.3/0/:.344$8 1 :897.943%0.733 .    %42.3/422:3.8    :7. .3/!747.943 &83 %8 3 /:.07 .887442 .733      #:880       03-07  $      0/ 2094/8 3 ./3  3 ..943.344 2502039.0732039  :83088 :/0 94 31472.344..7/843  '    %0 .8    &7.3/ !..90.907..   #0     %01:9:704190.333:/0!.3/ 90 89.943...943847%0.      31472.413897:..2!.9438 147 574108843.2-70.943    %0 422430.  !  03    3/07843    .943 41 90..333       #:880    7..3/ 09473 3 /:.8 3 90 002039..7/843 /  %0.07/:.38970.07/:.943.943 %0.943%0.74.344 7.309   #089.9 4.44.:..3/.30 .-%04:7933:.9 47.0452039 574.733 47 0.078400!7088   #0-07    !   0.07  !      31:83 0/:.7 . 90.425:93 39073..98     !:58  %0...309 25..78&$   #.94 .0452039 /:.438/07. % .2945 425:9078  4:73.943     $.07/:..90803907147$9.3/31472.3/0/:.3443%0.80 3 70.344      #:880  307   #:880     31472.344 -.80/ 2./3 3897:.        #0      :89 3 920 0.943 047%0.078  -0018  3 '  #....9438 .0/       883 90 4330.$9:/08 .943..4310703.344 394 2. /0..0419027.34.943.943. 41 425:907 88890/ 0.  %0.7000.0/.344    ../07  :3 ! 4308   $0..943 4:73.943.7.0789!7088   $.....438/07.943 %0.9843       4308  %  /8  422:3.078 ./0....07825.422:3908  55    -: .088  ..943.943 .078  .943070.2-7/0&3.344147%0.4131472..../02.3/ 422:3.3%0.4243   /   897-:90/.3/#080.4:73.!7088 55    #4-079843 $  .943%0.943  !.439438!8./0      %0.943 41 90.20/:. 89:/ 41 %0..

9.3/9  %    43897:..3  .89  39075709.89 5574.3/0 55/7  8/ ..08 %4 :2./   $.

3/ 0.9.7    $0-07   %09. 4310703...78 147 % 3 %0.9438..8.3.8     &8331472..3/-44 41 :.9.41/:.43 0/8  .733  3 $9:/08 3 !70 $07.3/90.733$9:/08390!70 $07.0 $.344147%0.3814723 0/:.0 7-.::2.:77.0#080.4 47 %  3 %0 :77.09 8 /.!7.        %0.41 31472./3884.3440110.3/ %0.3 $:55479 0.943 43 !0/.%0.3/ !74.344 90 549039.344 %  3 %0.3/!49.344 3 /:.::24:73.3/ .4342     $20098    .3/ 3 $07.3/0..41/:..8 43/43$..943 (  %0.3/.9.307  !     3907..0 :3.3/31472.03970/ 0..9438 %0..943..0 %0.0%45.733  % .3 .344110.08808 41 #0.733 9 90.943        '.943830/:.9.03.9. 03.07  .8874423.0/ 340/0 ./3 9 0/  0.93 90 /:.344'4  4       $420   .943%0.07 0.0   $02034.344'4  4      %0//0 $   %01:9:70. 4/08 . !  .3/094733/:.3..0 41 90 439.:. /110703.943 48943  :07.943%0..03%0.7.  36:7 3   023 .6:8943 3  897:..3/# 00 0/8 #080.943...03 %0.0  798 4:73..7/8  !0/.4.9..9 2..344 4:73.943 %0.07 /:..7  39073. 3 #03099  00..9:73 147 0.. 147 8307   03907 147 %0..3/ 0.078  .9:70/ /42.0 #080.943.38  3 '  !.9843      4308 %  /8 422:3. '4  4  $:2207   $420     .943.. %0.943 .70  !      % 2502039..8    /8  &83 31472.:2 #057390/3#://0 #   #://0    #   %04709..344 3 97..841$0389..$0389.943..9438 41 31472.07/:.3 03 44  !  78.943 .943854733/.#0..0$4..7. 03907 43 /:.3/ 3 $07.733  3 $420    .08  #    %4..2.3/ 422:3.07/:..3/ 3/07843    439.4:7  -807.0 10-9 9047 /.943..0-:7!.0..943 43/43#4:90/0   $574 #  4:843 #   094...943 ..3/ 44  %     !:5 .943 43/43#4:90/0  $420  .!7088 55    $034/       #0897:.00/38 41 90  9 33:.3/ ..73078  %44-408  #010.934% .3/  $ 3.7.0%0.90 / !74.94390./02.08 .0 .0 7984:73.089.3/ 90 .943  3 .

80 89:/083.078:80.943.344 !0/.:9.78.943 %0.44 425:90783/:.4.425:907833897:.43/...80..943'4  4   '003    490..9..943  ..57.3//:.014:7.  /:.

938     4792470  !    !0/.79. %20 425:9078  ...250 $9:/ 41 31472.. . 41 31472..070/ 94 90 . $.943 88:08 .059.07     3974/:./ /  5473 90.       .943.943.3 90 79 93 ..3/ 50703..3/ .943   <   :03  .28    843    #.943 90. .3.    #   0382470      3/.943!4.943       '003    403-7  !  .41%0.47 !  #:880     !:993%0.078 4310703.:9:7. 0/8 &$ 7.443  .4 .078  % 88 .9...3/ 340/0 300/8 3.3/ 31472.0  07/:.9:70  3 #0.331472.083%0. #0547994 $   -07/003 %0#4-07947/43&3. .%  0007 $    %0#404190%0.0452039 41 90..07 /:.    .04520391473907./:.3/%0.. %0.11/0.. 0. /0.07390&8041% 03490$500.3/9825.0 &3.9430.52.3$..943 3 90 0907.38943  48  44.3803      %0 2502039..0  4:73.3/ $.078390%!.7.4.7..3/ 7.07425:907..3-077.209078.8394/:.    '003    . 31:03.0789 41 089073 402.8874428 %0.07 0/:.3/!74850..039070/89.990.0.      03/07110703..#05:-.307      %.943 ..943.3.83943&$   .078 933 55  <   .943 41 .344.9438 147 90.344 25.44$9:/0398 .0   .3/ .07 .34408 3 90. 3897:.19 340/0  3   .943  47 90.3/ 408      %0...07/:.9 /4 0 34  3 &3/0789.943$841:897.422:3..98.3/ .943   55     0..3/3!0/....943.. 90 79 920  4:73./070.-...943.078  .34408 47 /:...344474383/:.733! 4792470 / 43/43  ./     .3/8  3 31472.30 .344147/:.7/843    %:843    .9390.8  !.943 %0.943 !49039..08 43 90 /0.:2    %0..07 0/:.943%0.0789   4. %074041 -0018 390:804190.9843  %.3   .34408 3 %0. 0.3.0.081474:397083%7.344 394.07      %0.

 .89-4:730 3.3/    .