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Germany

to 1401 Holy Roman Emperor's flag

1 Jul 1867 - 16 Apr 1871 (North German Confederation); 16 Apr 1871 - 31 Dec 1921; 11 Mar 1933 - 15 Sep 1935 (co-national flag)

9 Mar 1848 - 15 Aug 1852 (German Reich -Frankfurt); 14 Aug 1919 - 11 Mar 1933

11 Mar 1933 - 23 May 1945 (co-national flag to 15 Sep 1935)

12 Nov 1945 - 14 Aug 1950 Provisional Civil Ensign

Re-adopted 9 May 1949 ("West Germany" to 3 Oct 1990)

Hear National Anthem

Constitution

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Germany
"Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans) Currency: Euro (EUR); 1948 - 1 Jan 2002 Deutsche Mark (DEM) Exports: $1.13 trillion (2006) Imports: $916 billion (2006) (23 May 1949)

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Map of Germany Capital: Berlin (some ministries remain in Bonn) GDP: $2.58 trillion (2006)

Text of National Anthem Adopted 3 Oct 1990 National Holiday: 3 Oct (1990) German Unity Day

Population: 82,400,996 (2007)

Ethnic groups: German 88.2%, Turkish 3.4% (Kurdish 0.7%), Italian 1%, Greek 0.7%, Serb 0.6%, Russian 0.6%, Polish 0.4%, other 5.1% (2000) Religions: Christian 75.8% (of which Protestant 35.6% Total Armed Forces: 284,500 (2003) [Lutheran 33.9%], Roman Catholic 33.5%, Orthodox 0.9%, U.S. Troops: 75,600 (2004) other Christian 4.9%, independent Christian 0.9%), Muslim 4.4%, Merchant marine: 394 ships (2006) Jewish 0.1%, atheist 2.2%, non-religious 17.2%, other 0.3% (2000) International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), AfDB, ADB, AG, ANT, APM, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CBSS, CDB, CE, CTBT, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Germany Index

Chronology
25 Dec 800 25 Jul 1806 6 19 21 20 Aug Oct Oct Jun 1806 1813 1813 - 20 Jun 1815 1815 - 24 Aug 1866 Holy Roman Empire¹ ("First Reich"). Confederation of the Rhine founded (under French rule). Holy Roman Empire dissolved. Confederation of the Rhine dissolves. Attempted central coordination. German Confederation; members in official order: (1) Austria² (2) Prussia (announces exit 14 Jun 1866, permission denied by Federal Assembly 16 Jun 1866). (3) Bavaria (4) Saxony (5) Hanover (6) Württemberg (from 1 Sep 1815) (7) Baden (from 26 Jul 1815) (8) Hesse-Kassel (9) Hesse-Darmstadt (10) Holstein (plus Schleswig from 12 Apr 1848) (11) Luxembourg (12) Limburg (from 5 Sep 1839, see Netherlands) (13) Braunschweig (14) Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Federal Republic of Germany
(since 1949)

German states before 1918

A-E-F-M N-Q-R-Z

German States

since 1918

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Prussian Provinces (to 1945)

Holy Roman Empire
(1576-1806)

Confederation of the Rhine
(1806-1813)

Transitional Administration (1813-1815)

German Reich
(1815-1945)

12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849 1 Jul 1867 1 Jan 1871

l l l l l

Allied Military Occupation (1945-1949) American Zone British Zone French Zone Soviet Zone Dutch Zone

(15) Nassau-Usingen + Nassau-Weilburg, merged 24 Mar 1816 into Nassau. (16) Saxe-Weimar (17) Saxe-Gotha (18) Saxe-Coburg (19) Saxe-Meiningen (20) Saxe-Hildburghausen (21) Mecklenburg-Strelitz (22) Holstein-Oldenburg (23) Anhalt-Dessau (merged 30 Aug 1863 into Anhalt) (24) Anhalt-Bernburg (same as above) (25) Anhalt-Köthen (same as above) (26) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (27) Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (28) Hohenzollern-Hechingen (annexed by Prussia 12 Mar 1850) (29) Liechtenstein (30) Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (annexed by Prussia 12 Mar 1850) (31) Waldeck (32) Reuss Senior Line (33) Reuss Junior Line (34) Schaumburg-Lippe (35) Lippe (36) Hesse-Homburg (from 7 Jul 1817) (37) Lauenburg (38) Lübeck (39) Frankfurt (40) Bremen (41) Hamburg German Empire (Reich) (officially from 28 Mar 1849). North German Confederation; members in official order: (1) Prussia³ (with Lauenburg) (2) Saxony (3) Mecklenburg-Schwerin (4) Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (5) Mecklenburg-Strelitz (6) Oldenburg (7) Brunswick (8) Saxe-Meiningen (9) Saxe-Altenburg (10) Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (11) Anhalt (12) Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (13) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (14) Waldeck (15) Reuss Senior Line

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East Germany
(1949-1990)

East German 1 Jan 1871 Districts 18 Jan 1871 - 11 Nov 1918
(1952-1990) 1 Dec 1918 - 30 Jun 1930 28 Jun 1919

Heligoland (1807-1891) Saarland (1918-35, 1945-56)

Allied Occupation of the Rhineland (1918-1930) 14 Aug 1919 2 13 21 10 Aug Mar Oct Jul 1934 - 8 May 1945 1938 - 27 Apr 1945 1938 - 6 May 1945 1939

Rheinland Republic (1919, 1923, 1924)

French Départements in Germany (1800-1813)

1 Sep 1939 - 2 Apr 1945 1 Sep 1939 - Apr 1945

German Antarctica 15 Jun 1940 - 20 Mar 1945 (1938-1945) 23 May 1945 - 5 May 1955 Historical Maps of Germany 1 Aug 1945

Map of Germany 17 Oct 1945

(16) Reuss Junior Line (17) Schaumburg-Lippe (18) Lippe (19) Lübeck (20) Bremen (21) Hamburg (22) Hesse-Darmstadt (only the territories on the right bank of the Rhine). German Empire ("Second Reich"). Alsace-Lorraine annexed from France. Allied occupation of the Rhineland. By the Treaty of Versailles, Alsace-Lorraine restored to France; Eupen-Malmedy and Neutral Moresnet ceded to Belgium; Danzig made a Free City; most of West Prussia, part of Pomerania, Posen, a "Corridor" to the Baltic and part of Upper Silesia (after plebiscite) ceded to Poland; Memel and the Saarland to be under International administration; Rhineland to be demilitarized and under Allied occupation; Northern Schleswig ceded to Denmark after plebiscite; union with Austria forbidden; and all colonies surrendered to the Allies. Germany a republic (style German Reich not officially abandoned) "Weimar Republic" "Third Reich" Austria annexed. Sudetenland annexed from Czechoslovakia. Style Greater German Reich (Grossdeutsches Reich) only widely used from 1942. Danzig annexed. West Prussia, Wartheland (Posen), and Upper Silesia annexed from Poland. Alsace-Lorraine annexed. Allied occupation (formally assuming supreme power 5 Jun 1945). Pomerania and Silesia east of the Oder River, West Prussia (2 Apr), Posen and southern East Prussia (26 Dec) annexed to Poland. Soviet Union annexes northern East Prussia

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in 1789 7 Sep 1949 Map of Germany in 1807 7 Oct 1949 3 Oct 1990

(Königsberg). Federal Republic of Germany ("West Germany" to 3 Oct 1990) Soviet backed German Democratic Republic (GDR) ("East Germany") formed in the east. East Germany incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany.

Holy Roman Empire¹

to 1401 Holy Roman Emperor's Flag

c.1438 - 6 Aug 1806 Holy Roman Emperor's Flag

6 Aug 1806 Emperors-elect¹ 2 Nov 1576 - 20 Jan 1612 20 Jan 1612 - 13 Jun 1612

Reich dissolved.

24 Jun 1612 - 20 Mar 1619 20 Mar 1619 - 28 Aug 1619

Rudolf II (b. 1552 - d. 1612) (elected 27 Oct 1575) Imperial vicars - Friedrich V (1st time) (count palatine of the Rhine) - Johann Georg I (1st time) (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony) Matthias II (b. 1557 - d. 1619) (elected 13 Jun 1612) Imperial vicars

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28 Aug 1619 - 15 Feb 1637 15 Feb 1637 - 2 Apr 1657 2 Apr 1657 - 18 Jul 1658

1 Aug 1658 -

5 May 1705

5 May 1705 - 17 Apr 1711 17 Apr 1711 - 12 Oct 1711

22 Dec 1711 - 20 Oct 1740 20 Oct 1740 - 14 Jan 1742

12 Feb 1742 - 20 Jan 1745

20 Jan 1745 - 13 Sep 1745

- Friedrich V (2nd time) (count palatine of the Rhine) - Johann Georg I (2nd time) (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony) Ferdinand III (b. 1578 - d. 1637) Ferdinand IV (b. 1608 - d. 1657) (elected 22 Dec 1636) Imperial vicars - Karl I Ludwig (count palatine of the Rhine; in dispute with Ferdinand Maria) - Ferdinand Maria (in dispute with Karl I) (duke of Bavaria) - Johann Georg II (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony) Leopold I (b. 1640 - d. 1705) (elected 18 Jul 1658) Joseph I (b. 1678 - d. 1711) (elected 23 Jan 1690, crowned 26 Jan 1690) Imperial vicars - Johann Wilhelm (b. 1658 - d. 1716) (count palatine of the Rhine) - Friedrich August I "der Starke" (b. 1670 - d. 1740) (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony) Karl VI (b. 1685 - d. 1740) (elected 12 Oct 1711) Imperial vicars - Karl Albrecht (b. 1697 - d. 1745) (duke of Bavaria) - Friedrich August II (1st time) (b. 1696 - d. 1763) (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.) Karl VII (s.a.) (Karl Albrecht, duke of Bavaria) (elected 14 Jan 1742) Imperial vicars - Maximilian III Joseph (b. 1727 - d. 1777)

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(duke of Bavaria) - Friedrich August II (2nd time) (s.a.) (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.) Franz I (b. 1708 - d. 1765) (elected 13 Sep 1745) Joseph II (b. 1741 - d. 1790) (elected 27 Mar 1764, crowned 3 Apr 1764) Imperial vicars - Karl IV Philipp Theodor (b. 1724 - d. 1799) (1st time) (count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria) - Friedrich August III (b. 1750 - d. 1827) "der Gerechte" (1st time) (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.) Leopold II (b. 1747 - d. 1792) (elected 30 Sep 1790) Imperial vicars - Karl IV Philipp Theodor (s.a.) (2nd time) (count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria) - Friedrich August III (s.a.) "der Gerechte" (2nd time) (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.) Franz II (b. 1768 - d. 1835) (elected 7 Jul 1792)

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4 Oct 1745 - 18 Aug 1765 18 Aug 1765 - 20 Feb 1790 20 Feb 1790 - 30 Sep 1790

9 Oct 1790 1 Mar 1792 -

1 Mar 1792 7 Jul 1792

14 Jul 1792 -

6 Aug 1806

Archchancellors for Germany 30 Mar 1695 - 25 Jul 1806 the Archbishops of Mayence (Mainz) Archchancellors for Gaul and the Kingdom of Arles 13 Jul 1676 - 27 Apr 1803 the Archbishops of Trier Archchancellors for Italy 19 Jul 1688 - 27 Apr 1803 the Archbishops of Cologne

¹Constitutionally the entity dealt here is the Reich ruled by the king elected by the electors (Kurfürsten) and crowned king. (It is a matter of dispute whether the king acquires his ruling authority with the election or only with the coronation; both dates are given in the following record.) In theory, his title is just King (König) without territorial appendage. By the time period covered here, it was understood that the king had acquired the dignity and notional

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authority of a Roman emperor (see below), and the scope of his authority as such was styled the Holy Roman Empire (Heiliges Römisches Reich - Sacrum Romanum Imperium); the addition "of the German Nation" (deutscher Nation - nationis germanicae) comes into official use in the 15th century (e.g., Act of the Imperial Diet [Reichsschluss] of 1486); its meaning has been the subject of considerable dispute since the 17th century. In the time period covered, the imperial authority extended de facto (except for some vestigial remnants, such as the chartering of notaries-public throughout Western Europe) only to the (German) Reich, and official use made no distinctions. Upon his election (and coronation) the person acquired the style of king, whether during the lifetime of the ruler or after an interregnum. Theoretically, he was king just as much as an existing ruler, but this was just theory. In honor of the imperial status of the ruler, the elected and crowned king, if not yet emperor-elect (see above), was styled, not just King or German King, but Roman King (Römischer König - Rex Romanorum, literally "king of the Romans"). With the demise of the imperial authority, by death or abdication, if a Roman King was in existence, he took the style of Roman Emperor-Elect, King in Germany (see above). The imperial coronation by the pope having been discontinued (except for Karl V 24 Feb 1530), it was decided 4 Feb 1508 to forego the formal acquisition of the style of Roman Emperor and to fall back on the theory that an elected German king was ipso facto Roman emperor-elect and to make this point by incorporating this concept into the ruler's style. The full style during the period covered (to which were, of course, attached the styles belonging to the states ruled by the emperor-elect, such as Archduke of Austria) was as follows: Von Gottes Gnaden erwählter römischer Kaiser, R.I.S.A., König in Germanien - Divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator electus et semper augustus, R.I.S.A., rex in Germania. The initials R.I.S.A. stood for Romanorum imperator semper augustus, but were misinterpreted to stand for Romani imperii semper auctor, and this misinterpretation had by the period covered come into official use, being rendered in German as zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs ("at all times increaser of the empire"). Under the provisions of the Golden Bull of 1356, when there was no king the royal authority was exercised by two imperial vicars (Reichsvikare - vicarii imperii), each with a separate territorial jurisdiction. They were specified to be the count palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) and the count palatine of Saxony (Pfalzgraf von Sachsen). By the time period covered, the count palatine of Saxony was the duke of Saxony, elector; and the count palatine of the Rhine was the elector with that title, until the interregnum of 1657, when the electorate in question, and with it the county palatine, were in dispute with Bavaria.

The Confederation of the Rhine

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25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813

Note: Under the aegis of Napoléon I, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, a confederation of states resigning from the Reich was formed 25 Jul 1806, Napoléon becoming protecteur de la Confédération du Rhin in addition to his other styles. The Charter (Rheinbundsakte in German) was written in the French language, and called the entity États confédérés du Rhin, but used the term Confédération. The official German term was Rhein-Confoederation, but it was informally styled Rheinbund, the name by which it is known to history. The constituents of the Confederation were technically not states, but rulers. By joining the Confederation some had their rank elevated, notably a few who became grand-dukes (Grossherzöge), who were regarded as of royal status. The Diet of the Confederation, as well as its College of Kings, was chaired by the former Archbishop of Mayence, Imperial Archchancellor and Elector, in his capacity as Prince-Primate (Fürstprimas).

Map of Confederation of the Rhine 25 Jul 1806

Capital: Karlsruhe

Confederation of the Rhine founded. Charter members: - King of Bavaria - King of Württemberg - Elector-archchancellor (formerly archbishop of Mayence). - Elector of Baden, becomes a grand-duke. - Duke of Berg and Cleves, becomes a grand-duke. - Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, becomes a grand-duke. - Prince of Nassau-Usingen, senior of these two becomes a duke. - Prince of Nassau-Weilburg - Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen - Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen - Prince of Salm-Salm - Prince of Salm-Kyrburg

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19 Oct 1813

- Prince of Isenburg-Birstein - Duke of Arenberg - Prince of Liechtenstein - Count of Leyen, becomes a prince. From 15 Sep 1806: - Grand-duke of Würzburg From 11 Dec 1806: - King of Saxony From 15 Dec 1806: - Duke of Saxe-Weimar - Duke of Saxe-Gotha - Duke of Saxe-Meiningen - Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen - Duke of Saxe-Coburg - Duke of Anhalt-Dessau - Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg - Duke of Anhalt-Köthen - Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin - Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz - Duke of Oldenburg - Prince of Lippe-Detmold - Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe - four Princes of Reuss - two Princes of Schwarzburg - Prince of Waldeck From 15 Nov 1807: - King of Westphalia Confederation dissolves.

Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine 25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813 Napoléon I

(b. 1769 - d. 1821)

Prince-Primate (also Chairman of the Diet and the College of Kings) 25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813 Karl Theodor Anton Maria Kämmerer von Worms, Reichsfreiherr von Dalberg (b. 1744 - d. 1817) (1803 - 1806 Prince-archbishop of Regensburg;

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Germany
1806 - 1810 Grand duke of Frankfurt)

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Transitional Central Administration 1813-1815
Note: After the dissolution of the Rhine Confederation, there was no central authority in Germany until the creation of the German Confederation. An attempt at coordination was, however, made, and it was headed by a body called Central Administration Council (Zentralverwaltungsrat). 21 Oct 1813 - 20 Jun 1815 Attempted central coordination.

President of the Central Administration Council (Zentralverwaltungsrat) 21 Oct 1813 - 20 Jun 1815 Heinrich Friedrich Karl Freiherr (b. 1757 - d. 1831) vom und zum Stein

German Reich

9 Mar 1848 - 15 Aug 1852; 14 Aug 1919 - 11 Mar 1933

1 Jul 1867 - 31 Dec 1921; 11 Mar 1933 - 15 Sep 1935 (co-national flag)

11 Mar 1933 - 23 May 1945 (co-national flag to 15 Sep 1935)

Capital: Berlin (1871-1945) (Plön 29 Apr - 23 May 1945)

Currency: 1871-1918 German Paper Mark (DED); 1924-1948 German Reichsmark (DER)

National Holiday 1933-1945: 23 Apr (1889) Fuhrer's Birthday -------------------------1888-1918: Kaiser's Birthday 27 Jan (1859) National Anthem

Population: 89,930,700 (1939) 62,348,782 (1925) 67,812,000 (1914)

German Confederation

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Map German Confederation

Seat of Assembly: Frankfurt

(None)

Constitution (8 Jun 1815; in German)

Hear Imperial Anthem Imperial Constitution Text of National Anthem "'Heil Dir im Siegerkranz" (16 Apr 1871 - 14 Aug 1919; Map of German Empire (1 Jan 1871-11 Aug 1922) (Hail To Thee in in German) Victor's Laurels) HearAnthem 1922-1945 "Deutschland, Deutschland Text of National Anthem Weimar Constition Map of Germany 1920 ueber alles" (Germany, (11 Aug 1922 - 23 May 1945) (14 Aug 1919 - 5 Jun 1945) Germany above all) Hear NSDAP Anthem Text of "Horst Wessel" Nuremburg Laws "Horst Wessel Lied" Map of Germany 1942 (11 Mar 1933 - 23 May 1945) (15 Sep 1935-May 1945) (Host Wessel Song) International Organizations/Treaties 1871-1945: ICRM, ILO, IMO, IOC, ICPC, IPU, ITU, League of Nations, LORCS, PCA, PCIJ, UIBPIP, UPU 20 Jun 1815 12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849 28 Mar 1849 24 1 1 14 23 Aug Jul Jan Aug May 1866 1867 1871 1919 1945 German Confederation German Empire (declared at Frankfurt; officially from 28 Mar 1849). Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia elected Emperor; on 28 Apr 1849, he rejects the election. End of the German Confederation. North German Confederation German Empire (Deutsches Reich) Germany a republic (but style German Reich not abandoned). Allied occupation (formally assuming supreme power 5 Jun 1945).

Presidents of the German Confederation 20 Jun 1815 - 24 Aug 1866 the Emperors of Austria Presidential Envoys to the Federal Parliament (in Frankfurt)(all Austrian) 5 Oct 1815 - 16 Dec 1815 Franz Joseph Freiherr von Albini (b. 1748 - d. auf Dürrenried 16 Dec 1815 - 24 Feb 1823 Johann Rudolf Graf von Buol(b. 1763 - d. Schauenstein 24 Feb 1823 - 12 Mar 1848 Joachim Eduard Freiherr von (b. 1786 - d. Münch-Bellinghausen 12 Mar 1848 - 14 May 1848 Franz Graf von Colloredo-Wallsee (b. 1799 - d.

1816) 1834) 1866) 1859)

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14 1 2 12

May May Jan Oct

1848 1850 1853 1855

- 12 Jul 1848 - 1 Nov 1852 - 12 Oct 1855 - 4 May 1859

23 May 1859 - 24 Aug 1866

Anton von Schmerling Friedrich Graf von Thun-Hohenstein Anton Freiherr Prokesch Johann Bernhard Graf von Rechberg und Rothenlöwen Aloys Freiherr von Kübeck

(b. (b. (b. (b.

1805 1810 1795 1806

-

d. d. d. d.

1893) 1881) 1876) 1899)

(b. 1819 - d. 1873)

Presidents of the Constituent National Assembly (Frankfurt-am-Main) 18 May 1848 - 19 May 1848 Friedrich Lang (b. 1778 - d. 1859) (president by age of the Constituent National Assembly) 19 May 1848 - 12 Jul 1849 Heinrich Wilhelm August Freiherr (b. 1799 - d. 1880) von Gagern Provisional Central Authorities of the German Reich (Frankfurt-am-Main) 12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849 Johann, Erzherzog von Österreich (b. 1782 - d. 1859) (Imperial Vicar [Reichsverweser]) 6 Jun 1849 - 18 Jun 1849 German Imperial Regency (in Stuttgart; in rebellion) - Peter Franz Joseph Raveaux (b. 1810 - d. 1851) - August Christoph Carl Vogt (b. 1817 - d. 1895) - August Heinrich Simon (b. 1805 - d. 1860) - Friedrich Schüler (b. 1791 - d. 1873) - Heinrich August Becher (b. 1816 - d. 1890) 20 Dec 1849 - 1 May 1850 Federal Commission (Frankfurt-am-Main) (on behalf of the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia) - Karl Friedrich Kübeck Freiherr (b. 1780 - d. 1855) von Kübau (Austria) - Karl Freiherr von Schönhals (b. 1788 - d. 1857) (Austria) - Carl Wilhelm Boetticher (b. 1791 - d. 1868) (Prussia) - Joseph Maria von Radowitz (b. 1797 - d. 1853) (to 31 Mar 1850)(Prussia) - Eduard von Peucker (Prussia) (b. 1791 - d. 1876) (from 19 Jan 1850; acting to 31 Mar 1850) President of the North German Confederation

R-Lib

Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem

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1 Jul 1867 Emperors4 18 Jan 1871 4 Jun 1878 -

1 Jan 1871 9 Mar 1888 5 Dec 1878

the King of Prussia

Wilhelm I (b. 1797 - d. 1888) Friedrich Wilhelm von Prussen (b. 1831 - d. 1888) (acting) 9 Mar 1888 - 15 Jun 1888 Friedrich III (s.a.) 9 Mar 1888 - 15 Jun 1888 Wilhelm von Preussen (acting) (b. 1859 - d. 1941) 15 Jun 1888 - 9 Nov 1918 Wilhelm II (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Workers and Soldiers' Councils of Greater Berlin 11 Nov 1918 - 20 Dec 1918 Richard Müller (b. 1880 - d. 1943) USPD + Hans-Georg von Beerfelde (b. 1877 - d. 1960) Mil (to 12 Nov 1918) + Brutus Molkenbuhr (b. 1881 - d. 1959) SPD (from 12 Nov 1918) Chairmen of the Central Council of the German Socialist Republic 20 Dec 1918 - 6 Feb 1919 Robert Leinert (b. 1873 - d. 1940) SPD + Emmanuel "Max" Cohen-Reuss (b. 1876 - d. 1963) SPD + Hermann Müller (b. 1876 - d. 1931) SPD Presidents of the Constituent National Assembly 6 Feb 1919 - 7 Feb 1919 Wilhelm Pfannkuch (b. 1841 - d. 1923) SPD (president by age of the Constituent National Assembly) 7 Feb 1919 - 11 Feb 1919 Eduard Heinrich Rudolph David (b. 1863 - d. 1930) SPD Presidents 11 Feb 1919 - 28 Feb 1925 Friedrich Ebert (s.a.) SPD 28 Feb 1925 - 12 Mar 1925 Hans Luther (acting) (b. 1879 - d. 1962) Non-party 12 Mar 1925 - 12 May 1925 Walter Simons (acting) (b. 1861 - d. 1937) Non-party 12 May 1925 - 2 Aug 1934 Paul von Beneckendorff und (b. 1847 - d. 1934) Non-party Hindenburg 2 Aug 1934 - 30 Apr 1945 Adolf Hitler -Führer (b. 1889 - d. 1945) NSDAP 1 May 1945 - 23 May 1945 Karl Dönitz (b. 1891 - d. 1980) Mil

Prime ministers 15 Jul 1848 - 16 Sep 1848

Karl Emich Prinz von LeiningenWesterburg

(b. 1804 - d. 1856)

Lib-Con

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16 Sep 1848 - 18 Dec 1848 18 Dec 1848 - 16 May 1849 16 May 1849 - 21 May 1849 21 May 1849 - 20 Dec 1849 Federal Chancellor 14 Jul 1867 - 21 Mar 1871 Chancellors 21 Mar 1871 - 20 Mar 1890

Anton von Schmerling Heinrich Freiherr von Gagern Maximillian Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Grävell (provisional) August Prinz von Sayn-Wittgenstein zu Berleburg Otto Eduard Graf von BismarckSchönhausen

(b. 1805 - d. 1893) (s.a.) (b. 1781 - d. 1860) (b. 1788 - d. 1874)

Lib-Con Con Mil

(b. 1815 - d. 1898)

Non-party

Otto Eduard Fürst von Bismarck(s.a.) Schönhausen 20 Mar 1890 - 29 Oct 1894 Leo von Caprivi (b. 1831 (from 18 Dec 1891, Leo Graf von Caprivi) 29 Oct 1894 - 17 Oct 1900 Chlodwig Fürst zu (b. 1819 Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Prinz von Ratibor und Corvey 17 Oct 1900 - 14 Jul 1909 Bernhard Graf von Bülow (b. 1849 (from 6 Sep 1905, Bernhard Fürst von Bülow) 14 Jul 1909 - 16 Jul 1917 Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (b. 1856 16 Jul 1917 - 2 Dec 1917 Georg Michaelis (b. 1857 2 Dec 1917 - 5 Oct 1918 Georg Graf von Hertling (b. 1843 5 Oct 1918 - 9 Nov 1918 Maxmilian Prinz von Baden (b. 1867 9 Nov 1918 - 10 Nov 1918 Friedrich Ebert (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners 10 Nov 1918 - 27 Dec 1918 Friedrich Ebert (1st time) (s.a.) + Hugo Haase (b. 1863 27 Dec 1918 - 29 Dec 1918 Friedrich Ebert (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Dec 1918 - 30 Dec 1918 Friedrich Ebert (3rd time) (s.a.) + Philipp Scheidemann (b. 1865 30 Dec 1918 - 11 Feb 1919 Friedrich Ebert (4th time) (s.a.) (executive chairman) Prime Ministers (presidents of the imperial ministry) 13 Feb 1919 - 21 Jun 1919 Philipp Scheidemann (s.a.) 21 Jun 1919 - 14 Aug 1919 Gustav Bauer (b. 1870 Chancellors

Non-party d. 1899) d. 1901) Non-party Non-party

d. 1929) d. d. d. d. 1921) 1936) 1919) 1929)

Non-party Non-party Non-party Z Non-party SPD SPD USPD SPD SPD SPD SPD

d. 1919)

d. 1939)

d. 1944)

SPD SPD

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14 Aug 1919 13 Mar 1920 27 Mar 1920 21 Jun 1920 10 May 1921 22 Nov 1922 13 Aug 1923 30 Nov 1923 16 Jan 1925 13 May 1926 17 May 1926 28 Jun 1928 30 Mar 1930 1 Jun 1932 3 Dec 1932 30 Jan 1933 30 Apr 1945 Chairman of 2 May 1945

- 27 Mar 1920 Gustav Bauer - 17 Mar 1920 Wolfgang Kapp (in rebellion) - 21 Jun 1920 Hermann Müller (1st time) - 10 May 1921 Konstantin Fehrenbach - 22 Nov 1922 Joseph Karl Wirth - 13 Aug 1923 Wilhelm Carl Josef Cuno - 30 Nov 1923 Gustav Stresemann - 16 Jan 1925 Wilhelm Marx (1st time) - 13 May 1926 Hans Luther - 17 May 1926 Otto Gessler (acting) - 28 Jun 1928 Wilhelm Marx (2nd time) - 30 Mar 1930 Hermann Müller (2nd time) - 1 Jun 1932 Heinrich Brüning - 3 Dec 1932 Franz von Papen - 30 Jan 1933 Kurt von Schleicher - 30 Apr 1945 Adolf Hitler - 1 May 1945 Paul Joseph Goebbels the Interim Government - 23 May 1945 Johann Ludwig Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (at Flensburg)

(s.a.) (b. 1858 (s.a.) (b. 1852 (b. 1879 (b. 1876 (b. 1878 (b. 1863 (s.a.) (b. 1875 (s.a.) (s.a.) (b. 1885 (b. 1879 (b. 1882 (s.a.) (b. 1897

- d. 1922) d. d. d. d. d. 1926) 1956) 1933) 1929) 1946)

- d. 1955)

- d. 1970) - d. 1969) - d. 1934) - d. 1945)

SPD ADV SPD Z Z Non-party DVP Z Non-party DDP Z SDP Z Z/Non-party Non-party NSDAP NSDAP Non-party

(b. 1887 - d. 1977)

²According to the Charter of the German Confederation, "Austria has the chair in the Federal Assembly." Although the Charter does not use the term, this chairmanship is officially styled Präsidium or Bundespräsidium; it is ambiguous whether this style refers to the person or office of the Emperor of Austria. ³According to the Constitution of the North German Confederation, "The Crown of Prussia is entitled to the Presidency of the Confederation" (Präsidium des Bundes). The office does not confer a specific style on the King of Prussia; when exercising it, the style used is "King of Prussia in the name of the North German Confederation."
Full official style of the ruler: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preussen, Markgraf zu Brandenburg, Burggraf zu Nürnberg, Graf zu Hohenzollern, souveräner und oberster Herzog von Schlesien wie auch der Grafschaft Glatz, Grossherzog vom Niederrhein und Posen, Herzog zu Sachsen, Westfalen und Engern, zu Pommern, Lüneburg, Holstein und Schleswig, zu Magdeburg, Bremen, Geldern, Cleve, Jülich und Berg, sowie auch der Wenden und Kaschuben, zu Krossen,
4

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Lauenburg, Mecklenburg, Landgraf zu Hessen und Thüringen, Markgraf der Ober- und Niederlausitz, Prinz von Oranien, Fürst zu Rügen, zu Ostfriesland, zu Paderborn und Pyrmont, zu Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, zu Verden, Kammin, Fulda, Nassau und Moers, gefürsteter Graf zu Henneberg, Graf der Mark und zu Ravensberg, zu Hohnstein, Tecklenburg und Lingen, zu Mansfeld, Sigmaringen und Veringen, Herr zu Frankfurt ("German Emperor and King of Prussia; Margrave of Brandenburg; burgrave of Nürnberg, count of Hohenzollern; sovereign and highest Duke of Silesia as of the county of Glatz; Grand duke of the Lower Rhine and of Posen; Duke of Saxony, Wesphalia, and Angaria, of Pomerania, Lüneburg, Holstein and Schleswig, of Magdeburg, Bremen, Gelders, Cleves, Jülich and Berg, as well as of the Wendes and Kaschubs, of Krossen, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg; Landgrave of Hesse and Thuringia, Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia, Prince of Orange, Prince of Rügen, of East Frisia, of Paderborn and Pyrmont, of Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, of Verden, Kammin, Fulda, Nassau and Moers; Princely count of Henneberg; Count of the Mark and of Ravensberg, of Hohnstein, Tecklenburg and Lingen, of Mansfeld, Sigmaringen and Veringen, Lord of Frankfurt").

Noble titles: Ritter = Knight; Freiherr = Baron; Graf = Count; Fürst, Prinz = Prince; Herzog = Duke; Grossherzog = Grand Duke; König= King; Kaiser = Emperor Party abbreviations (from 1 Dec 1933 all political parties except NSDAP are banned): ADV = Alldeutscher Verband (All-German [or pan-German] Union, nationalist); DDP = Deutsche Demokratische Partei (German Democratic Party, democratic); DVP = Deutsche Volkspartei (German People's Party, Nationalist, right-liberal); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, nationalist -only legal party 14 Jul 1933-31 May 1945); SPD = Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democratic Party of Germany, social-democratic); USPD = Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Independent Social Democratic Party, socialistliberal, 1917-1922); Z = Zentrum (Center Party, catholic, centerist); Mil = Military; - Former parties: Con = Conservative; Dem = Democrat; Lib = Liberal; Lib-Con = LiberalConservative; R-Lib = Right Liberal

Allied Military Occupation

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23 May 1945 - 9 May 1949 Provisional Civil Ensign

Adopted 9 May 1949

Map of Allied Occupation Zones in Germany 2 8 23 1 8 7 21 7 5 21 3 May May May Jan May Sep Sep Oct May Sep Oct 1945 1945 1945 1947 1949 1949

Allied Occupation Commanders of Berlin Soviet forces begin Allied occupation of Berlin. Allies accept the unconditional of Germany surrender. Allied occupation (formally assuming supreme power 5 Jun 1945) Bizone ("Bizonia") created my economic merger of U.K. & U.S. zones. Trizone ("Trizonia") formed by addition of French zone to Bizone. American, British, and French zones become Federal Republic of Germany. American, French, and British form Allied High Commission. Soviet zone becomes German Democratic Republic. Allied Occupation of West Germany ends. Soviet military occupation of East Germany ends. Re-unification of Germany, end of allied control sectors in Berlin.

1949 - 23 Oct 1954 1949 1955 1955 1990

American Zone

Military governors 8 May 1945 - 10 Nov 1945 11 Nov 1945 - 25 Nov 1945 26 Nov 1945 - 5 Jan 1947

Dwight David Eisenhower George S. Patton, Jr. (acting) Joseph T. McNarney

(b. 1890 - d. 1960) (b. 1885 - d. 1945) (b. 1893 - d. 1972)

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6 Jan 1947 - 14 May 15 May 1949 - 1 Sep High commissioners 2 Sep 1949 - 1 Aug 1 Aug 1952 - 11 Dec 11 Dec 1952 - 10 Feb 10 Feb 1953 - 5 May

1949 1949 1952 1952 1953 1955

Lucius DuBignon Clay Clarence R. Huebner (acting) John J. McCloy Walter J. Donnelly Samuel Reber (acting) James B. Conant

(b. 1897 - d. 1978) (b. 1888 - d. 1972) (b. (b. (b. (b. 1895 1896 1903 1893 d. d. d. d. 1989) 1970) 1971) 1978)

British Zone

Military governors 22 May 1945 - 30 Apr 1946

1 May 1946 - 31 Oct 1 Nov 1947 - 21 Sep High commissioners 21 Sep 1949 - 24 Jun 24 Jun 1950 - 29 Sep 29 Sep 1953 - 5 May

1947 1949 1950 1953 1955

Sir Bernard Law Montgomery (from 1 Jan 1946, Bernard Law Montgomery, Viscount Montgomery of Alamein) Sir William Sholto Douglas Sir Brian Hubert Robertson Sir Brian Hubert Robertson Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick Sir Frederick Hoyer-Millar

(b. 1887 - d. 1976)

(b. 1893 - d. 1969) (b. 1896 - d. 1974) (s.a.) (b. 1897 - d. 1964) (b. 1900 - d. 1989)

French Zone

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Military commander May 1945 - Jul 1945 Military governor Jul 1945 - 21 Sep 1949 High commissioner 21 Sep 1949 - 5 May 1955

Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Marie-Pierre Koenig André François-Poncet

(b. 1889 - d. 1952) (b. 1898 - d. 1970) (b. 1887 - d. 1978)

Soviet Zone

Military commander Apr 1945 - 9 Jun 1945 Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov Military governors 9 Jun 1945 - 10 Apr 1946 Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov 10 Apr 1946 - 29 Mar 1949 Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky 29 Mar 1949 - 10 Oct 1949 Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission 10 Oct 1949 - 28 May 1953 Vasily Ivanoivich Chuikov High commissioners 28 May 1953 - 16 Jul 1954 Vladimir Semyonovich Semyonov 16 Jul 1954 - 20 Sep 1955 Georgy Maksimovich Pushkin

(b. 1896 - d. 1974) (s.a.) (b. 1897 - d. 1968) (b. 1900 - d. 1982) (s.a.) (b. 1911 - d. 1992) (b. 1909 - d. 1963)

Dutch Zone

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22 Mar 1949

23 Apr 1949 11 Aug 1963

Allies agree the let the Netherlands to occupy and annex some German border territories. Annexed areas include - municipalities of Havert, Hillensberg, Millen, Süsterseel, Tüddern (Dutch: Tudderen), Wehr, parts of Höngen, Gangelt, Schumm, Saeffelen as well as Elten and Hoch-Elten. Dutch annexation. Territories returned (except for minor frontier adjustments), following German agreement to pay war compensation.

Landdrost of Tudderen (subordinated to the Dutch government to Sep 1951, then to the Governor of Dutch Limburg) 1949 - 1963 Hubert M.J. Dassen Landdrosten of Elten (subordinated to the Dutch government to Sep 1951, then to the Commissioner of the Queen for Gelderland) 1949 - 19.. A. Blaauboer 1961 - 1963 Baron Hans Georg Inundat van Tuyll (b. 1917) van Serooskerken

Federal Republic of Germany

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Adopted 9 May 1949

Note: For data on Germany since 3 Oct 1990 see the table at the top of the entry. Hear Former Anthem "Hymne an Deutschland" (Hymn to Germany) Hear National Anthem (1950-1952) "Einigkeit und Recht Constitution und Freiheit" Map of West Germany -----------------------(23 May 1949) (Unity and Right and Liberty) Hear Former Anthem Adopted May 1952 "Ich hab mich ergeben" (I Am Devoted To You) (1949-1950) National Holiday: 17 Jun (1953) National Day (celebrates East German Currency: Deutsche Mark Population: 62,168,200 (1990) W. Ger. Capital: Bonn (DEM) uprising) -------------------------------------1949 -1953: 23 May (1949) Republic Day Exports: $323.4 billion (1988) GDP: $945.7 billion (1989) Ethnic groups: primarily German, Danish minority Imports: $250.6 billion (1988) Total Armed Forces: 495,000 (1990) Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, Protestant 44%, Merchant marine: 422 ships (1990) other 11% International Organizations/Treaties 1949-1990: ADB, AG, ANT, BTWC, CCC, CE, COCOM, CTBT, DC (observer), EC, EIB, ENMOD, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NPT, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

States
7 Sep 1949 Presidents 7 Sep 1949 12 Sep 1949 13 Sep 1959 1 Jul 1969 1 Jul 1974 1 Jul 1979 Federal Republic of Germany ("West Germany" to 2 Oct 1990).

-

12 12 30 30 30 30

Sep Sep Jun Jun Jun Jun

1949 1959 1969 1974 1979 1984

Karl Arnold (acting) Theodor Heuss Karl Heinrich Lübke Gustav Heinemann Walter Scheel Karl Carstens

(b. (b. (b. (b. (b. (b.

1901 1884 1894 1899 1919) 1914 -

d. d. d. d.

1958) 1963) 1972) 1976)

d. 1992)

CDU FDP CDU SPD FDP CDU

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1 1 1 1 Jul Jul Jul Jul 1984 1994 1999 2004 - 30 Jun 1994 - 30 Jun 1999 - 30 Jun 2004 Richard von Weizsäcker Roman Herzog Johannes Rau Horst Köhler (b. (b. (b. (b. 1920) 1934) 1931 - d. 2006) 1943) CDU CDU SPD CDU

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Chancellors 16 Sep 1949 16 Oct 1963 1 Dec 1966 21 Oct 1969 7 May 1974 16 May 1974 1 Oct 1982 27 Oct 1998 22 Nov 2005

-

16 1 21 7 16 1 27 22

Oct Dec Oct May May Oct Oct Nov

1963 1966 1969 1974 1974 1982 1998 2005

Konrad Adenauer (b. 1876 Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (b. 1897 Kurt Georg Kiesinger (b. 1904 Willy Brandt (b. 1913 Walter Scheel (acting) (s.a.) Helmut Schmidt (b. 1918) Helmut Kohl (b. 1930) Gerhard Schröder (b. 1944) Angela Dorothea Kasner Merkel(f)(b. 1954)

d. d. d. d.

1967) 1977) 1988) 1992)

CDU CDU CDU SPD FDP SPD CDU SPD CDU

Overall Director and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the United Economic Area 2 Mar 1948 - 15 Sep 1949 Hermann Pünder

(b. 1888 - d. 1976)

CDU

Party abbreviations: CDU = Christlich-Demokratische Union (Christian-Democratic Union, conservative christian-democratic); FDP = Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party, liberal); PDS =Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus (Party of Democratic Socialism, extreme left); SPD = Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democratic Party of Germany, social-democratic)

German Democratic Republic (East Germany)

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7 Oct 1949 - 1 Oct 1959

1 Oct 1959 - 3 Oct 1990

Hear National Anthem Text of National Anthem Constitution "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" Adopted 1952 (6 Apr 1968; in German) (Risen from Ruins) Currency: East German Mark National Holiday: 7 Oct (1949) Capital: East Berlin Population: 16,307,170 (1990) (DDM) Foundation of the G.D.R. Exports: $30.7 billion (1988) GNP: $159.5 billion (1989) Ethnic groups: German 99.7%, Slavic and other 0.3% Imports: $31.0 billion (1988) Religions: Protestant 47%, Roman Catholic 7%, Total Armed Forces: 225,300 (1987) unaffiliated or other 46%; less than 5% of Protestants Merchant marine: 145 ships (1990) and about 25% of Roman Catholics active participants International Organizations/Treaties: ANT, BTWC, CCC, Comecon, DC, ENMOD, IAEA, IBEC, ICRM, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intersputnik, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NPT, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WP, WToO Map of East Germany

East German Districts
7 Oct 1949 3 Oct 1990 German Democratic Republic ("East Germany"). Incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany.

General Secretaries of the Socialist Unity (Communist) Party (SED) 22 Apr 1946 - 25 Jul 1950 Wilhelm Pieck (b. + Otto Grotewohl (b. (co-chairmen) 25 Jul 1950 - 3 May 1971 Walter Ulbricht (b. 3 May 1971 - 18 Oct 1989 Erich Honecker (b. 18 Oct 1989 - 3 Dec 1989 Egon Krenz (b. ("leading role" of the party abolished 18 Dec 1989 - 4 Feb 1990 Gregor Gysi (b. (Chairman of the SED-PDS) Presidents 7 Oct 1949 - 11 Oct 1949 11 Oct 1949 - 7 Sep 1960 7 Sep 1960 - 12 Sep 1960

1876 - d. 1960) 1894 - d. 1964) 1893 - d. 1973) 1912 - d. 1994) 1937) 1 Dec 1989) 1948)

Johannes Dieckmann (1st time) (acting) Wilhelm Pieck Johannes Dieckmann (2nd time) (acting)

(b. 1893 - d. 1969) (s.a.) (s.a.)

LDPD SED LDPD

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Chairmen of the Council of State 12 Sep 1960 - 1 Aug 1973 Walter Ulbricht 1 Aug 1973 - 3 Oct 1973 Friedrich Ebert (acting) 3 Oct 1973 - 29 Oct 1976 Willi Stoph 29 Oct 1976 - 24 Oct 1989 Erich Honecker 24 Oct 1989 - 6 Dec 1989 Egon Krenz 6 Dec 1989 - 5 Apr 1990 Manfred Gerlach (acting) President of the People's Chamber 5 Apr 1990 - 2 Oct 1990 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (f) Chairman of 22 Oct 1948 Chairmen of 12 Oct 1949 24 Sep 1964 3 Oct 1973 29 Oct 1976 13 Nov 1989 12 Apr 1990 the All-German - 12 Oct 1949 the Council of - 21 Sep 1964 - 3 Oct 1973 - 29 Oct 1976 - 13 Nov 1989 - 12 Apr 1990 - 2 Oct 1990 People's Council Wilhelm Pieck Ministers (premiers) Otto Grotewohl Willi Stoph (1st time) Horst Sindermann Willi Stoph (2nd time) Hans Modrow Lothar de Maizière

(s.a.) (b. 1894 - d. 1979) (b. 1914 - d. 1999) (s.a.) (s.a.) (b. 1928) (b. 1946)

SED SED SED SED SED LDPD CDU

(s.a.) (s.a.) (s.a.) (b. 1915 - d. 1990) (s.a.) (b. 1928) (b. 1940)

SED SED SED SED SED SED/NFDDR CDU/AD

Chairman of the German Economic Council 10 Mar 1948 - 11 Oct 1949 Heinrich Rau Commanders of 27 May 1953 17 Nov 1957 15 Apr 1960 9 Aug 1961 19 Apr 1962 27 Jan 1965 1 Nov 1969 14 Sep 1971 20 Jul 1972 26 Nov 1980 7 Jul 1985 12 Jul 1986 26 Nov 1987 Soviet 16 Nov 14 Apr 9 Aug 18 Apr 26 Jan 31 Oct 13 Sep 19 Jul 25 Nov 6 Jul 11 Jul 12 Nov 13 Dec Forces in Germany 1957 Adrey Antonovich Grechko 1960 Matvey Vasilyevich Zakharov 1961 Ivan Ignatyevich Jakubovsky 1962 Ivan Stepanovich Konev 1965 Ivan Ignatyevich Jakubovsky 1969 Petr Kirillovich Koshevoy 1971 Viktor Georgyevich Kulikov 1972 Semen Konstantinovich Kurkotkin 1980 Evgeny Filippovich Ivanovski 1985 Mikhail Mitrofanovich Zaycev 1986 Petr Georgyevich Lusev 1987 Valery Aleksandrovich Belikov 1990 Boris Vasilyevich Snetkov

(b. 1899 - d. 1961)

SED

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Territorial Disputes: It is U.S. policy that the final borders of Germany have not been established; the U.S. is seeking to settle the property claims of U.S. nationals against the G.D.R.; East Berlin is not officially recognized as the capital of the G.D.R. by France, U.K., and U.S., which together with the U.S.S.R. have special rights and responsibilities in Berlin. Party abbreviations: SED = Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party of Germany, communist -only legal party 1946-1989, which 4 Feb 1990 became the PDS = Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus [Party of Democratic Socialism], From 15 Dec 1989 - 4 Feb 1990 called SED-PDS); - the Four "bloc parties" below were in alliance with the SED until 1989 (all 5 Parties, along with some mass organizations, formed the NFDD = Nationale Front des Demokratischen Deutschland [National Front of Democratic Germany], which from 1971 was the NFDDR = Nationale Front der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik [National Front of the German Democratic Republic]) LDPD = Liberaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, from 9 Feb 1990 LDP = Liberaldemokratische Partei, from 27 Mar 1990 BFD, which 11 Aug 1990 merges with FDP); CDU = Christlich-Demokratische Union (Christian Democratic Union); NDPD = Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (National Democratic Party of Germany); DBD = Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands (Democratic Peasant Party of Germany, 15 Sep 1990 merged into CDU); - new parties from 1989 DA = Demokratischer Aufbruch (Democratic Awakening, est. 1 Oct 1989, merged into CDU 1 Oct 1990); DSU = Deutsche Soziale Union (German Social Union, est. 20 Jan 1990); FDP = Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party, est. 4 Feb 1990); DFP = Deutsche Forumpartei (German Forum Party, 11 Aug 1990 merged into FDP); SDP = Sozialdemokratische Partei in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (Social Democratic Party in the German Democratic Republic, est. 7 Oct 1989, which is renamed on 13 Jan 1990 the SPD or Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands [Social Democratic Party of Germany]); AD = Allianz für Deutschland (Alliance for Germany, electoral alliance for 18 Mar 1990 elections by the CDU, DA, and DSU); BFD = Bund Freier Demokraten (Alliance of Free Democrats, est 27 Mar 1990 by former LDP/NDPD, merged into the FDP 11 Aug 1990)

Heligoland (Helgoland)

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5 Sep 1807 - 1 Jul 1890

1814 - 1 Jul 1890 Unofficial

Map of Heligoland

Capital: Heligoland

Population: 13,000 (1936); 12,307 (1900); 2,000 (1810)

1402 10 Aug 7 Aug 5 Sep 14 Jan 9 Aug 15 Dec

1490 1714 1807 1814 1890 1890 1 Mar 1952

8 May 1945 -

Part of the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein. Part of the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp. Part of Denmark. British occupation. British colony (officially ceded to U.K. by Treaty of Kiel). Formal handover to Germany by U.K. Annexed to Germany (from 18 Feb 1891 part of Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein). British occupation (population evacuated).

Lieutenant governors 1807 - 1814 1814 - 1817 1817 - 1839 28 Sep 1840 - 7 Mar 1857 1857 - 1863 1863 - 1868 Governors 1868 - 1881 1881 27 Nov German 9 Aug

Corbet James d'Auvergne Charles Hamilton Henry King Sir John Hindmarsh Richard Pattinson Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse

(b. (b. (b. (b.

1765? - d. 1826) 1767 - d. 1849) c.1770 - d. af.1849) 1775 - d. 1860)

(b. 1832 - d. 1883)

Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse (s.a.) (from 1877, Sir Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley 1888 John Terence Niolls O'Brien (b. 1830 1888 - 9 Aug 1890 Arthur Cecil Stuart Barkly (b. 1843 Imperial Commissioner 1890 - 1891 Adolf Wermuth (b. 1855 -

Maxse) d. 1903) d. 1890) d. 1927)

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Saarland (Saargebiet, Saarbecken)

28 Jul 1920 - 1 Mar 1935

17 Dec 1947 - 10 Sep 1956

Map of Saarland

Hear National Anthem "Saarlied" (The Saar Song) Currency 1945-1957: French Franc (FRF); 1920-1935 French Franc Germinal (FRG)

Text of National Anthem (1921-1935, 1947 - 1957) National Holiday: 15 Dec (1947) Constitution Day

Capital: Saarbrücken

Constitution (15 Dec 1947; in German) Population: 1, 019, 000 (1957) 812, 000 (1933) --------------------Religions: Roman Catholic 72.2%, Protestant 25.7%, Jewish 0.5% (1927)

International Organizations/Treaties: 1920-35: ITU, UPU; 1947-57: CE (associate), IOC, UPU Oct 1792 1814 - 20 Nov 1815 20 Nov 1815 Nov 1918 - 26 Feb 1920 26 Feb 1920 1 Mar 1935 22 Feb 1945 - Jun 1945 Jun 1945 3 Dec 1946 15 Dec 1947 1 Jan 1957 Chairmen of 26 Feb 1920 18 Mar 1926 8 Jun 1927 the Commission - 18 Mar 1926 - 8 Jun 1927 - 1 Apr 1932 French rule. Allied occupation. Annexed to Prussia (part of Rhine province); small parts annexed to Bavaria (part of Pfalz [Palatinate] province). Allied occupation. League of Nations administration (Saargebiet/Saar Territory) Re-incorporated into Germany. U.S. occupation. French occupation. Saargebiet renamed Saarland. Saar Territory, constituted under sovereignty of France. State of the Federal Republic of Germany. of Government Victor Rault (France) (b. 1858 - d. 19..) George Washington Stephens (Canada)(b. 1866 - d. 1942) Sir Ernest Colville Collins Wilton (b. 1870 - d. 1952)

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(U.K.) Geoffrey George Knox (U.K.) (b. 1884 - d. (from 1935, Sir Geoffrey George Knox) President of the Tripartite Committee of the League of Nations for the Saar 28 Feb 1935 - 1 Mar 1935 Barone Pompeo Aloisi, conte di (b. 1847 - d. Allumiere (Italy) Reichskommissar für die Rückgliederung des Saarlandes (from 17 Jun 1936, Reichskommissar für das Saarland; from 8 Apr 1940, Reichskommissar für die Saarpfalz; from 11 Mar 1941, Reichsstatthalter in der Westmark) 1 Mar 1935 - 28 Sep 1944 Josef Bürckel (b. 1895 - d. 29 Sep 1944 - 21 Mar 1945 Willi Stöhr (b. 1903) Military governor 30 Aug 1945 - 1 Jan 1948 Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval (b. 1904 - d. High Commissioner 1 Jan 1948 - Jan 1952 Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval (s.a.) Ambassadors Jan 1952 - Jun 1955 Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval (s.a.) Jul 1955 - 1956 Eric de Carbonnel (b. 1910 - d. 1 Apr 1932 - 28 Feb 1935 President of the Government 31 Jul 1945 - 8 Jun 1946 Hans Neureuther Chairman of the (until 15 Dec 1947, Provisional) Administration Commission 8 Jun 1946 - 20 Dec 1947 Erwin Müller (b. 1906 - d. Minister-presidents 20 Dec 1947 - 29 Oct 1955 Johannes Hoffmann (b. 1890 - d. 29 Oct 1955 - 10 Jan 1956 Heinrich Welsch (b. 1888 - d. 10 Jan 1956 - 1 Jan 1957 Hubert Ney (b. 1892 - d.

1958) Territory 1949)

1944)

NSDAP NSDAP Mil

1981)

1965)

Non-party 1968) 1967) 1976) 1984) Non-party CVP Non-party CDU

Party abbreviations: CDU = Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands (Christian Democratic Union); CVP = Christliche Volkspartei (Christian People's Party, merged into CDU 1957); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, Nazi fascist); Mil = Military

Allied Occupation of the Rhineland

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1 Dec 1918

8 24 11 31 30 7

Mar Jan Jan Jan Jun Mar

1921 - 25 Aug 1924 1923 1923 - 1 Aug 1924 1926 1930 1936

Allied occupation (Belgian zone: Aachen, Jülich, Neuss, Moers, and Kleve; British zone: Cologne; French zone: Mainz; and U.S. zone: Trier, Coblenz and Eifel). Allied occupation of Düsseldorf and Duisburg ("Sanktionsstädte"). U.S. zone taken over by France . Allied (French) occupation of the Ruhr. Withdrawal of British forces. End of Allied occupation, Rhineland demilitarized. Rhineland re-militarized by Germany.

Chairman of the Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission (in Coblenz) 14 Oct 1919 - 30 Jun 1930 Paul Tirard (France) (b. 1879 - d. 1945) Chairman of the Inter-Allied Military Control Commission 1919 - 1922 Charles Marie Edouard Nollet (b. 1865 - d. 1941) (France) Chairmen of the Inter-Allied Military Commission for Germany 1922 - 30 Jul 1924 Charles Marie Edouard Nollet (s.a.) (France) 1 Jul 1924 - 31 Jan 1927 Camille Welch (France) (b. 1870 - d. 1947)

American Zone
Commanding General of the Allied Expeditionary Force 1 Dec 1918 - 1 Jul 1919 John Joseph Pershing Commanding General of American Forces in Germany 2 Jul 1919 - 24 Jan 1923 Henry Tureman Allen U.S. Civil Commissioners Apr 1919 - 10 Jan 1920 10 Jan 1920 - 24 Jan 1923

(b. 1860 - d. 1948) (b. 1859 - d. 1930)

Pierrepont Burt Noyes ....

(b. 1870 - d. 19..)

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Belgian Zone
Commanders 1918 - 19.. c.Oct 1923 c.1923 - 30 Jun 1930

Albert I Deckers ....

(b. 1875 - d. 1934)

British Zone
Military Governor 26 Nov 1918 - 1920 British Commanders Nov 1918 Nov 1918 - 22 Apr 1919 22 Apr 1919 - 1920 3 Mar 1920 - 1922 8 Mar 1922 - 1924 17 Jun 1924 - 1927 30 Apr 1927 - Dec 1929

Sir Charles Ferguson Sir Douglas Haig Sir H. Plummer Sir William Robert Robertson Sir Thomas Lethbridge Napier Morland Sir Alexander John Godley Sir John Philip Du Cane Sir William Thwaites (b. 1861 - d. 1928) (b. 1860 - d. 1933) (b. 1865 - d. 1925) (b. 1867 - d. 1957) (b. 1865 - d. 1947) (b. 1868 - d. 1947)

French Zone
Commanders 19.. - 19.. 19.. - 19.. 19.. - 19..

Marie Emile Fayolle Paul André Marie Maistre Noël Marie Joseph Edouard de Curières de Castelnau Chief of the Allied Administration of the Ruhr Mar 1923 - 31 Jul 1924 Jean Marie Joseph Degoutte

(b. 1852 - d. 1928) (b. 1858 - d. 1922) (b. 1851 - d. 1944)

(b. 1866 - d. 1938)

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Rhineland Republic

1 Jun 1919 - 1919; 21 Oct 1923 - 17 Feb 1924

Also reported in use at the same times

1 Jun 1919 - 1919

21 Oct 1923 - 26 Nov 1924

12 Nov 1923 - 17 Feb 1924

Rhineland Republic, centered in Wiesbaden, proclaimed (French failed attempt to back a separatist Rhineland state as a buffer between Germany and France). Rhineland Republic proclaimed; as a confederation of three states North (Lower Rhine), South (Upper & Middle Rhine) and Rhur, with its capital at Cologne, (supported by French and Belgian occupation troops). Palatine Republic proclaimed at Speyer.

Chairman of the Government of the Rhenish Republic 1 Jun 1919 - 1919 Johannes Adam Dorten (b. 1880 - d. 1963) Plenipotentiaries of the Government of the Rhenish Republic 22 Oct 1923 - 27 Feb 1924 Johannes Adam Dorten (s.a.) + Josef Friedrich Matthes (b. 1886 - d. 1943) Chairmen of the Palatine Republic 12 Nov 1923 - 17 Feb 1924 Franz-Josef Heinz-Orbis

(b. 1884 - d. 1924)

French Départements in Germany 1797-1814
2 Oct 1794 French invasion of the Rhineland begins (Aachen on 6 Oct 1794,

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Nov 1794 18 Oct 1797 4 Nov 1797

9 Feb 1801 30 Jun 1802 23 Sep 1802 1813 - 1815

Cologne 26 Oct 1794, Bonn 8 Nov 1794). French create central administration (Pays d'entre Meuse et Rhin). Treaty of Campo Formio cedes de facto Rhineland territories to France. A French commissioner is appointed to supervise and organize the territories into départements (not yet considered to be part of France); Roer, Sarre, Mont Tonnerre, Rhin-et-Moselle. By the Treaty of Lunéville the Rhineland is de jure annexed to France. Rhine départements become regular départements of France. Unified administration terminated. Allied administration; territories later restored to Prussia, Bavaria, Oldenburg, etc.

the Army of the Sambre and Meuse (northern zone) 20 Dec 1794 Jean Baptiste Jourdan (1st time) (b. 1762 28 Feb 1795 Jacques Maurice Hatry (b. 1742 21 Jan 1796 Jean Baptiste Jourdan (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Feb 1796 Jean Baptiste Kléber (1st time) (b. 1753 30 Jul 1796 Jean Baptiste Jourdan (3rd time) (s.a.) 7 Aug 1796 Jean Baptiste Kléber (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Sep 1796 Jean Baptiste Jourdan (4th time) (s.a.) 23 Jan 1797 Pierre Riel de Beurnonville (b. 1752 - together with 14 Dec 1796 - 23 Jan 1797 Jean Baptiste Kléber (3rd time) (s.a.) 26 Feb 1797 - 18 Sep 1797 Louis Lazare Hoche (b. 1768 Commander of the Army of the Rhine (southern zone) 14 Jan 1794 - 10 Apr 1795 Claude Ignace François Michaud (b. 1751 Commander of the Army of the Moselle 2 Jul 1794 - 9 Feb 1795 Jean Victor Moreau (b. 1763 Commanders of the Army of the Rhine and Moselle 20 Apr 1795 - 4 Mar 1796 Jean Charles Pichegru (b. 1761 21 Apr 1796 - 9 Sep 1797 Jean Victor Moreau (s.a.) 10 Sep 1797 - Sep 1797 Louis Lazare Hoche (s.a.) Sep 1797 - 7 Oct 1797 .... Commander of the Army of Germany Commanders of 2 Jul 1794 21 Dec 1794 1 Mar 1795 22 Jan 1796 29 Feb 1796 31 Jul 1796 8 Aug 1796 23 Sep 1796 -

- d. 1833) - d. 1802) - d. 1800)

- d. 1821)

- d. 1797) - d. 1835) - d. 1813) - d. 1804)

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7 Oct French 4 Nov 179. 1799 22 Sep 20 Dec

1797 - 12 Dec 1797 Charles Pierre Francois Augereau Government Commissioners 1797 - 179. François Joseph Rudler 1799 Joseph Lakanal 1800 Henri Shée 1800 - 1801 Jean-Baptiste Moisë Jollivet 1801 - 22 Sep 1802 André Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon SaintAndré

(b. 1757 - d. 1816) (b. (b. (b. (b. (b. 1757 1762 1739 1753 1749 d. d. d. d. d. 1837) 1845) 1820) 1818) 1813)

Bouches-de-l'Elbe
13 Dec 1810 1814 Prefects 13 Dec 1810 - Mar 1813 25 Mar 1813 - 1814 French département of Bouches-de-l'Elbe formed from free cities of Hamburg and Lübeck and parts of Holstein. End of French rule.

Patrick Charles Ghislain De Coninck Achille Stanislas Émile Le (b. 1781 - d. 1864) Tonnelier, baron de Breteuil

Bouches-du-Weser
13 Dec 1810 French free Hoya End of département of Bouches-du-Weser formed from city of Bremen, duchy of Oldenburg, county of and part of Hanover. French rule.

1814 Prefect 13 Dec 1810 - 1814

Charles Philippe Alexandre d'Arberg

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Ems-Oriental
Jul 1807 Principality of East Frisa (Ostfriesland), Barony of Kniphausen (Knyphausen) and Häuptlingschaft Jever ceded to France by Prussia and Russia respectively. Incorporated into Kingdom of Holland as département of Oost-Friesland (East Friesland). Incorporated into France as département of Ems-Oriental (Eastern Ems).

11 Nov 1807 9 Jul 1810

Administrators 24 Nov 1806 - 6 6 Feb 1807 - 11 Landdrost 11 Nov 1807 - 5 5 Feb 1808 - 22

Feb 1807 Nov 1807 Feb 1808 Dec 1808

Henri Damas Bonhomme ....

(b. 1765 - d. 1826)

22 Dec 1808 - 25 Feb 1811 Prefect 25 Feb 1811 - 8 Nov 1813

.... Godert Alexander Gerard Philip (b. 1778 - d. 1848) van der Capellen Willem Queysen (arrived 1 Jan 1809)(b. 1754 - d. 1817) Sébastien Louis Joseph Jannesson (arrived 1 Mar 1811)

Ems-Supérieur
13 Dec 1810 1814 Prefect 13 Dec 1810 - 1814 French département of Ems-Supérieur formed from bishopric of Minden (Prefecture Osnabrück). End of French rule.

Charles Louis Joseph Keverberg

Lippe

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13 Dec 1810 1814 Prefect 13 Dec 1810 - 1813

French département of Lippe formed from parts of Bouche-l'Yssel, Ems-Occidental and Yssel-Supérieur. End of French rule.

Jean Charles Victorin de Lasteyrie du Saillant

Mont-Tonnerre
9 Mar 1801 French département of Mont-Tonnerre (German: Donnersberg) formed from southern parts of electorate of Mainz and parts of bishoprics of Speyer and Worms and of Palatinate and duchy of Zweibrücken. End of French rule.

1814 Prefects 9 Mar 1801 - 1801 1801 - 20 Dec 1801 20 Dec 1801 - 10 Dec 1813

Henri Shée Jean-Baptiste Moïse Jollivet André Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon SaintAndré (from 9 Jan 1810, André Jeanbon, baron de Saint-André)

(b. 1739 - d. 1820) (b. 1753 - d. 1818) (b. 1749 - d. 1813)

Rhin-et-Moselle
9 Mar 1801 1814 Prefects 9 Mar 1801 - 1803 French département of Rhin-et-Moselle (Rhine and Moselle) formed from parts of electorates of Trier and Cologne. End of French rule.

Boucqueau de Villeraie

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1803 - 1805 1 Feb 1805 1806 - 1810 1810 - 1813 3 May 1806 François Louis René Mouchard de Chaban Alexandre Théodore Victor de Lameth Paul Adrien François Marie de Lezay-Marnésia Jean Marie Thérèse Doazan

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(b. 1760 - d. 1829) (b. 1769 - d. 1814)

Roer
9 Mar 1801 French département of Roer formed from duchies of Jülich, Guelders, and Kleve, principality of Meurs, parts of electorate of Cologne, and free cities of Cologne and Aachen. End of French rule.

1814 Prefects 9 Mar 1801 - 4 Mar 1802 1802 - 1804 1804 - 1806 3 May 1806 - 19 Feb 1809 31 Mar 1809 - 1814

Nicolas Sébastien Simon (b. 1749 Alexandre Edme Méchin (b. 1772 Jean Charles Joseph Laumond (b. 1753 Alexandre Théodore Victor (b. 1760 de Lameth Jean Charles François de (b. 1772 Ladoucette (from 3 May 1809, Jean Charles François, chevalier de Ladoucette [from 31 Dec 1809, Jean Charles François, baron de Ladoucette])

-

d. d. d. d.

1802) 1849) 1825) 1829)

- d. 1848)

Sarre
9 Mar 1801 1814 French département of Sarre formed from parts of electorate of Trier and duchy of Zweibrücken. End of French rule.

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Prefects 1800 - 1803 22 Apr 1803 - 1810

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7 Aug 1810 - 1813

Joseph Bexon d'Ormschwiller Maximilien Xavier Képler (b. 1758 - d. 1837) (from 16 Sep 1808, Maximilien Xavier, chevalier Képler [from 14 Feb 1810, Maximilien Xavier, baron Képler]) Alexandre François de Bruneteau (b. 1769 - d. 1853) de Sainte-Suzanne (from 19 Jan 1812, Alexandre François de Bruneteau, baron de Sainte-Suzanne)

German New Swabia Land (German Antarctica)
Map of Deutsch Neuschwabenland 19 Jan 1939 20°E to 10°W claimed by Germany as Deutsch Neuschwabenland (German New Swabia Land), this claim overlaps Norwegian claim (claim not recognized). Claim abandoned.

8 May 1945

©2000 Ben Cahoon

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