U.S. Department of the Interior U.S.

Geological Survey

Data for Quaternary faults, liquefaction features, and possible tectonic features in the Central and Eastern United States, east of the Rocky Mountain front

By Anthony J. Crone and Russell L. Wheeler

Open-File Report 00-260
This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards nor with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

2000

Contents
Abstract........................................................................................................................................1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................2 Strategy for Quaternary fault map and database .......................................................................10 Synopsis of Quaternary faulting and liquefaction features in the Central and Eastern United States..........................................................................................................................................14 Overview of Quaternary faults and liquefaction features.......................................................14 Discussion ...............................................................................................................................15 Summary .................................................................................................................................18 Acknowledgments......................................................................................................................19 List of contributing individuals .................................................................................................20 Definition of database field names and selected geological terms............................................21 References cited in introduction ................................................................................................25 Fault and liquefaction features database....................................................................................27 Class A Features: 1020, Meers fault, Oklahoma .................................................................................................28 1020a, Unnamed (northwest) section..................................................................................29 1020b, Unnamed (southeast) section ..................................................................................30 1023, Reelfoot scarp and New Madrid seismic zone, Missouri-Arkansas-Tennessee...........37 Historical surface deformation, the New Madrid earthquakes...........................................50 1024, Wabash Valley liquefaction features, Indiana-Illinois ..................................................53 1027, Faults of Thebes Gap area, Missouri-Illinois ...............................................................58 1027a, English Hill fault zone .............................................................................................59 1027b, Commerce fault........................................................................................................60 1027c, Happy Hollow fault..................................................................................................62 1027d, Sassafras Canyon faults...........................................................................................63 1027e, Albrecht Creek fault .................................................................................................64 1027f, Lambert trench at intersection of English Hill and Albrecht Creek faults ..............65 1028, Fluorspar Area fault complex, Illinois-Kentucky .........................................................68 1028a, Rock Creek graben...................................................................................................70 1028b, Barnes Creek fault zone...........................................................................................71 1028c, Hobbs Creek fault zone............................................................................................73 1028d, Raum fault zone .......................................................................................................74 1028e, Lusk Creek fault zone...............................................................................................75 1028f, Kelley structure.........................................................................................................77 i

1029, Western Lowlands liquefaction features, Missouri-Arkansas ......................................80 1030, St. Louis–Cape Girardeau liquefaction features, Missouri-Illinois..............................86 2330, Cheraw fault, Colorado.................................................................................................90 2651, Newbury liquefaction features, Massachusetts.............................................................95 2653, Central Virginia seismic zone, Virginia ........................................................................98 2657, Charleston liquefaction features, South Carolina.......................................................102 2658, Bluffton liquefaction features, South Carolina...........................................................109 2659, Georgetown liquefaction features, South Carolina-North Carolina ...........................113 Class B Features: 707XX, Brockton-Froid fault zone, Montana ......................................................................117 924XX, Gulf-margin normal faults, Texas ...........................................................................125 1021XX, Crooked Creek fault, Kansas ................................................................................133 1022XX, Gulf-margin normal faults, Louisiana-Arkansas ..................................................137 2654XX, Gulf-margin normal faults, Alabama-Florida .......................................................143 2655XX, Gulf-margin normal faults, Mississippi ................................................................148 2653XX, Kentucky River fault system, Kentucky ...............................................................153 1025XX, Monroe uplift, Arkansas-Louisiana-Mississippi...................................................156 2652XX, Pembroke faults, Virginia......................................................................................160 1026XX, Saline River fault zone, Arkansas .........................................................................165 2660XX, Wiggins uplift, Mississippi-Alabama....................................................................169 Class C Features: Anna seismic zone, Ohio ......................................................................................................173 Belair fault zone, Georgia.....................................................................................................175 Cacoosing Valley earthquake, Pennsylvania ........................................................................178 Cape Fear arch, North Carolina-South Carolina ..................................................................181 Catlin Lake-Goodnow Pond lineament, New York ..............................................................184 Champlain lowlands normal faults, New York-Vermont ......................................................186 Clarendon-Linden fault zone, New York ..............................................................................190 Cooke fault, South Carolina .................................................................................................194 Cornwall-Massena earthquake, New York-Ontario ..............................................................196 Criner fault, Oklahoma .........................................................................................................198 Dobbs Ferry fault zone, New York .......................................................................................200 Everona fault-Mountain Run fault zone, Virginia ................................................................203 Hares Crossroads fault, North Carolina................................................................................207 ii

Helena Banks fault zone, offshore South Carolina ..............................................................209 Humboldt fault zone, Nebraska-Kansas-Oklahoma .............................................................211 Kingston fault, New Jersey...................................................................................................213 Lancaster seismic zone, Pennsylvania ..................................................................................215 Lebanon Church fault, Virginia ............................................................................................221 Lexington fault system, Kentucky ........................................................................................223 Lindside fault zone, West Virginia-Virginia .........................................................................226 Louisiana wrench faults, Louisiana-Arkansas-Mississippi ..................................................228 Moodus seismic zone, Connecticut ......................................................................................230 Mosholu fault, New York......................................................................................................233 New York Bight fault, offshore New York............................................................................238 Northeast Ohio seismic zone, Ohio ......................................................................................241 Norumbega fault system, Maine...........................................................................................243 Oak Bay fault, Maine............................................................................................................247 Offset glaciated surfaces, Maine-Massachusetts-New Hampshire-New York-Vermont ......249 Old Hickory faults, Virginia..................................................................................................252 Pen Branch fault, South Carolina .........................................................................................253 Pierre faults, South Dakota ...................................................................................................256 Plum River fault zone, Iowa-Illinois.....................................................................................258 Potter County fault, Texas ....................................................................................................259 Ramapo fault system, New Jersey-New York.......................................................................260 Rough Creek fault system, Kentucky ...................................................................................266 South Sebec seismic zone, Maine ........................................................................................269 Stanleytown-Villa Heights faults, Virginia ...........................................................................271 Upper Marlboro faults, Maryland.........................................................................................273 Washita Valley fault, Oklahoma............................................................................................275 Class D Features: Fowler fault, Colorado ..........................................................................................................277 Grossman’s Hammock rock reef fault, Florida ....................................................................280 Hain Quarry fissures, Connecticut........................................................................................282 Harlan County fault, Nebraska .............................................................................................284 Mount Toby, fractures on, Massachusetts.............................................................................287 Ord escarpment, Nebraska....................................................................................................291 Cumulative references list .......................................................................................................293 iii

List of Features by State:
Alabama Gulf-margin normal faults 2654XX (Class B) .....................................................................143 Wiggins uplift 2660XX (Class B) ........................................................................................169 Arkansas Gulf-margin normal faults 1022XX (Class B) .....................................................................137 Louisiana wrench faults (Class C)........................................................................................228 Monroe uplift 1025XX (Class B) .........................................................................................156 Reelfoot scarp and New Madrid seismic zone 1023 (Class A) .............................................37 Saline River fault zone 1026XX (Class B)...........................................................................165 Western Lowlands liquefaction features 1029 (Class A)........................................................80 Colorado Cheraw fault 2330 (Class A) ..................................................................................................90 Fowler fault (Class D)...........................................................................................................277 Connecticut Hain Quarry fissures (Class D).............................................................................................282 Moodus seismic zone (Class C) ...........................................................................................230 Florida Gulf-margin normal faults 2654XX (Class B) .....................................................................143 Grossman’s Hammock rock reef fault (Class D)..................................................................280 Georgia Belair fault zone (Class C)....................................................................................................175 Illinois Albrecht Creek fault 1027e (Class A) ...................................................................................64 Barnes Creek fault zone 1028b (Class A) ..............................................................................71 Commerce fault 1027b (Class A) ...........................................................................................60 English Hill fault zone 1027a (Class A).................................................................................59 Faults of Thebes Gap area 1027 (Class A) .............................................................................58 Fluorspar Area fault complex 1028 (Class A) .......................................................................68 Hobbs Creek fault zone 1028c (Class A) ...............................................................................73 Kelley structure 1028f (Class A) ............................................................................................77

iv

Lambert trench at intersection of English Hill and Albrecht Creek faults 1027f (Class A) .65 Lusk Creek fault zone 1028e (Class A) .................................................................................75 Plum River fault zone (Class C) ...........................................................................................258 Raum fault zone 1028d (Class A)...........................................................................................74 Rock Creek graben 1028a (Class A) ......................................................................................70 St. Louis–Cape Girardeau liquefaction features 1030 (Class A) ...........................................86 Wabash Valley liquefaction feature 1024 (Class A) ..............................................................53 Indiana Wabash Valley liquefaction feature 1024 (Class A) ..............................................................53 Iowa Plum River fault zone (Class C) ...........................................................................................258 Kansas Crooked Creek fault 1021XX (Class B)...............................................................................133 Humboldt fault zone (Class C) .............................................................................................211 Kentucky Barnes Creek fault zone 1028b (Class A) ..............................................................................71 Fluorspar Area fault complex 1028 (Class A) ........................................................................68 Hobbs Creek fault zone 1028c (Class A) ...............................................................................73 Kelley structure 1028f (Class A) ............................................................................................77 Kentucky River fault system 2653XX (Class B)..................................................................153 Lexington fault system (Class C) .........................................................................................223 Lusk Creek fault zone 1028e (Class A)..................................................................................75 Raum fault zone 1028d (Class A)...........................................................................................74 Rock Creek graben 1028a (Class A) ......................................................................................70 Rough Creek fault system (Class C) ....................................................................................266 Louisiana Gulf-margin normal faults 1022XX (Class B) .....................................................................137 Louisiana wrench faults (Class C)........................................................................................228 Monroe uplift 1025XX (Class B) .........................................................................................156 Maine Norumbega fault system (Class C) .......................................................................................243 Oak Bay fault (Class C)........................................................................................................247

v

......................................................269 Maryland Upper Marlboro faults (Class C) .284 Humboldt fault zone (Class C) .....156 Wiggins uplift 2660XX (Class B) .......................................................................................................................... Louis–Cape Girardeau liquefaction features 1030 (Class A) ..62 Reelfoot scarp and New Madrid seismic zone 1023 (Class A)................60 English Hill fault zone 1027a (Class A)....................................................................................249 South Sebec seismic zone (Class C).............................................................................................................59 Faults of Thebes Gap area 1027 (Class A) ...............................................................................86 Western Lowlands liquefaction features 1029 (Class A)...............228 Monroe uplift 1025XX (Class B) ...............................37 Sassafras Canyon faults 1027d (Class A) ........................249 vi ............169 Missouri Albrecht Creek fault 1027e (Class A) ...............................58 Happy Hollow fault 1027c (Class A) .............................................................................211 Ord escarpment (Class D)........................................................................................64 Commerce fault 1027b (Class A) .......................................273 Massachusetts Mount Toby...............................................117 Nebraska Harlan County fault (Class D) ..................................................287 Newbury liquefaction features 2651 (Class A) ....................................................................................................................................................................291 New Hampshire Offset glaciated surfaces (Class C)............................................................................................................................................ fractures on (Class D) .............................95 Offset glaciated surfaces (Class C)..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................80 Montana Brockton-Froid fault zone 707XX (Class B)......................................................................................................................148 Louisiana wrench faults (Class C).......63 St.....249 Mississippi Gulf-margin normal faults 2655XX (Class B) ................................................................................................................................Offset glaciated surfaces (Class C)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................196 Dobbs Ferry fault zone (Class C) ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................113 Hares Crossroads fault (Class C)............................................................................................................................................................................................................241 Oklahoma Criner fault (Class C).....28 Unnamed (northwest) section of Meers fault 1020a (Class A) ....................................233 New York Bight fault (offshore-Class C) .....................................................................................................198 Humboldt fault zone (Class C) .......................190 Cornwall-Massena earthquake (Class C)..................................................................................213 Ramapo fault system (Class C) ...........................................................................207 Ohio Anna seismic zone (Class C) .........................................................178 Lancaster seismic zone (Class C) ......................260 North Carolina Cape Fear arch (Class C) ............200 Mosholu fault (Class C)..............................................................................................29 Unnamed (southeast) section of Meers fault 1020b (Class A).260 New York Catlin Lake-Goodnow Pond lineament (Class C) ........................................238 Offset glaciated surfaces (Class C).....................................................................................................173 Northeast Ohio seismic zone (Class C) ............................................................................................................................................................................215 South Carolina Bluffton liquefaction features (Class A) 2658............................................................................................................................................................186 Clarendon-Linden fault zone (Class C) ..............................109 vii ............211 Meers fault 1020 (Class A).............................New Jersey Kingston fault (Class C) ...........................................................................................................................................................30 Washita Valley fault (Class C) ....................................................................................184 Champlain lowlands normal faults (Class C) .......................................................................................................................................................181 Georgetown liquefaction features 2659(Class A).................................................................................................275 Pennsylvania Cacoosing Valley earthquake (Class C)...........................................................................249 Ramapo fault system (Class C) ..........................................................

........................................................................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................................................................125 Potter County fault (Class C)............................................. Map of historical seismicity and location of 11 Class B features in the Central and Eastern United States...................8 Figure 3.......203 Lebanon Church fault (Class C) ..................................................................................................................................................................209 Pen Branch fault (Class C) .................................186 Offset glaciated surfaces (Class C)...............................................................................194 Georgetown liquefaction features (Class A) 2659........................................................256 Tennessee Reelfoot scarp and New Madrid seismic zone 1023 (Class A).............................................253 Pierre faults (Class C).................................................................................................. Map of historical seismicity and location of 13 Quaternary faults and liquefaction features in the Central and Eastern United States ....................................................................271 West Virginia Lindside fault zone (Class C) .........................................249 Virginia Central Virginia seismic zone 2653 (Class A)..............................252 Pembroke faults 2652XX (Class B) .......................................................37 Texas Gulf-margin normal faults 924XX (Class B) .......................102 Cooke fault (Class C)...........................................................................98 Everona fault-Mountain Run fault zone (Class C) .........................160 Stanleytown-Villa Heights faults (Class C) .......................226 Old Hickory faults (Class C) ..........................................................................................113 Helena Banks fault zone (offshore-Class C) ...............................................................259 Vermont Champlain lowlands normal faults (Class C) .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Figure 2.......................................................................................... Map of historical seismicity and location of 45 Class C & D features in the Central and Eastern United States ................................9 viii ....................................................226 Figures Figure 1....................................................221 Lindside fault zone (Class C) ..........................................................................181 Charleston liquefaction features (Class A) 2657.Cape Fear arch (Class C) ..................................

................49 Tables Table 1.......... Map of selected sites along the eastern section of the Meers fault scarp.......................................5 ix ....... earthquake...... and deformation in the Central and Eastern United States.......................................... Definitions of classes used in the compilation of Quaternary faults......... Map of Reelfoot scarp and selected features in the area of the New Madrid seismic zone.................................Figure 4...... Map and photograph of Cheraw fault. Map of the Charleston-Georgetown-Bluffton area....... Map and oblique aerial view of the Meers fault. liquefaction features. southeastern Oklahoma.....................................................16 Figure 7..5 Table 2.............36 Figure 9.........12 Figure 5............... and Tennessee...............17 Figure 8........... Map and photograph of liquefaction features in the New Madrid seismic zone........ ........... southeastern Colorado..........13 Figure 6........ liquefaction features.. central Mississippi River Valley.... Summary of Quaternary faults.......... and photograph of damage from the August 31.... South Carolina............ 1886.............. Missouri.... and deformation in the Central and Eastern United States............. Arkansas....................

Wheeler United States Geological Survey Geologic Hazards Team Mail Stop 966. CO 80225-0046 Prepared as part of the U. In addition to printed versions of regional and individual state compilations. Box 25046 Denver. east of the Rocky Mountain Front by Anthony J.. should be considered in assessing the seismic hazard throughout the country. is defined as the region extending from the Rocky Mountain Front eastward to the Atlantic seaboard. and earthquake-induced liquefaction in order to develop an internally consistent database on the locations. which encompasses more than 60 percent of the continuous U. which for the purposes of the compilation. The . C.S. and activity rates of major earthquake-related features throughout the United States. the database will be available on the World-Wide Web. The primary purpose of these compilations and the derivative database is to provide a comprehensive. World Map of Major Active Faults Michael N. This report is the compilation for such features in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). liquefaction features. and possible tectonic features in the Central and Eastern United States. Within our CEUS study area. B. Crone and Russell L. A key objective of this national compilation is to provide a comprehensive database of Quaternary features that might generate strong ground motion and therefore.Data for Quaternary faults.S. and D) based on what is known about the feature's Quaternary activity. uniform source of geological information that can by used to complement the other types of data that are used in seismic-hazard assessments. Machette. Co-chairman Abstract The USGS is currently leading an effort to compile published geological information on Quaternary faults. folds. we summarize the geological information on 69 features that are categorized into four classes (Class A. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) project on UNITED STATES MAP OF QUATERNARY FAULTS AND FOLDS In cooperation with the International Lithosphere Program's Task Group II-2. ages. where it will be readily available to everyone.

These relations indicate that the record of historical seismicity does not identify all potential seismic sources in the CEUS.S. Work in the Western Hemisphere is being coordinated by Michael N. more comprehensive seismic-hazard assessments. the combination of geological information and seismological data can provide better insight into potential earthquake sources and thereby.CEUS contains only 13 features of tectonic origin for which there is convincing evidence of Quaternary activity (Class A features). 11 require further study in order to confidently define their potential as possible sources of earthquake-induced ground motion (Class B).) These data compilations. and map data are being digitized and manipulated by Richard L. Furthermore. and map for the United States is funded largely by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) through the U. Introduction The "World Map of Major Active Faults" Task Group is compiling published fault data. Haller. developing a digital database of the fault data. 1996 #993). Open-File Report 98-521 for New Mexico (Machette and others. which probably reflects the long return times between successive movements on individual structures. the digital database. the data compilation.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-002 for West Texas (Collins and others. and fault-related folds. and the companion map summarize the published information on these known tectonic features and present the information in an internally consistent format. whereas the remaining features either lack convincing geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting or have been studied carefully enough to determine that they do not pose a significant seismic hazard (Classes C and D). which will be released as a Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology publication (Haller and others. State and regional compilations are being merged into a national digital database. This compilation of information for the Central and Eastern U. geological studies of some currently aseismic faults have shown that the faults have generated strong earthquakes in the geologically recent past. liquefaction features. Geological Survey. but no active folds are known or reported in the CEUS. ages. Dart. Thus. Colorado State Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-8 for Colorado (Widmann and others. the digital database is being designed and managed by Kathleen M. which provides a printed catalog of the data and (2) a digital database that is currently being assembled and will be available on the World-Wide Web in the near future. Some Quaternary faults and liquefaction features are located in aseismic areas or where historical seismicity is sparse. contribute to better. Previously released compilations include U. This report is the fourth in a series of state and regional data compilations that will ultimately constitute a Quaternary fold and fault database for the entire United States. This report presents the data that was compiled for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). The correlation between historical seismicity and Quaternary faults and liquefaction features in the CEUS is generally poor.S. Machette. (Data compiled for the Active Faults project also includes information on Quaternary folds. 1998). is presented in two forms: (1) this Open-File Report. Of the remaining 56 features. and preparing a series of maps for the United States and other countries in the Western Hemisphere that show the locations. so we do not include folds in this report. #1750). and a report for western Montana. Collectively. these efforts represent a key contribution to the new Global Seismic Hazards Assessment Program (ILP Task Group II-0) for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. database. The Western Hemisphere effort is sponsored by International Lithosphere Program (ILP) Task Group II-2. which 2 . 1998). and activity rates of major earthquake-related features such as faults.

geologic. the CEUS has few earthquakes compared to seismically active regions of the country such as the Intermountain West and the plate-margin settings of California. as a result. 3 . for the purposes of this report. the rates of deformation on features in the CEUS is generally low compared to the rate at which surficial geological processes modify the landscape. 1. and Quaternary deformation. The primary types of geological evidence summarized in this report include paleoseismological. Class C. Features categorized in Class A (fig. and is generally difficult to detect confidently. The time span encompassed by Quaternary period has been subject to numerous revisions and on-going discussion over the years. and paleoseismologic parameters for the features described here. but generally. but historical earthquakes are seismological evidence. Features described in this compilation are classified into one of four categories: Class A. With the notable exception of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. In contrast. Class B. which is that part of the country east of the Rocky Mountain Front. which we consider as distinct and separate from geological evidence. Thus. the Quaternary period is considered to begin at 1. structural. liquefaction features are a key type of evidence used in many areas to identify strong ground shaking. and Class D (Table 1) on the basis of geological evidence of Quaternary faulting or deformation. and Alaska. The publishedgeologic evidence describing these features compellingly demonstrates evidence of Quaternary activity.6 Ma. geomorphic. seismic faulting. A review of the opinions concerning the age of the Quaternary-Tertiary boundary is beyond the scope of this report. In the CEUS. Furthermore.contains referenced values for a variety of geographic. tables 1 and 2) have good geological evidence of tectonic origin and are potentially seismogenic. the Wabash Valley liquefaction features) has been described and is well documented in the scientific literature. We recognize that liquefaction features can be caused by non-tectonic processes. This large region. This general lack of preparedness can result in substantial damage and loss from even moderate-magnitude events. the geologic and geomorphic expression of most tectonic deformation in the CEUS is commonly subtle to obscure. the population and infrastructure are generally not well prepared to endure strong ground motion. For these features. liquefaction features. the Pacific Northwest. and by inference. Thus the occurrence of widespread liquefaction features is taken as evidence that a significant seismogenic fault is located nearby. we do not use this seismological evidence in this classification scheme. This compilation summarizes evidence of tectonic deformation that has occurred in Quaternary time. but for the purposes of this compilation and the project. This report and the companion digital database summarize the published evidence of known Quaternary surface faulting. stratigraphic. Historical earthquakes are direct evidence of Quaternary faulting. these non-tectonic liquefaction features tend to be localized and to occur in recognizable geomorphic settings. which encompasses more than 60 percent of the area of the contiguous United States. is generally regarded as being tectonically stable region. and sedimentological information. Each Class A feature is labeled by a four-digit integer (table 2) that corresponds to the feature's number listed in the digital database. the liquefaction features used to identify Class A features have been generally discovered over a significant area and in settings that are not conductive to artesian flow or landslides. detailed evidence of Quaternary deformation or strong ground motion (for example. strong earthquakes. and suspect tectonic features in the CEUS. even though the causative fault may not have been identified. as well as the written descriptions included in this report. These low rates of deformation in the CEUS present special challenges for seismic-hazard assessments and mitigation because damaging earthquakes are infrequent and. As a result. including artesian groundwater and landslides.

See text for explanation of classes. Study area extends from the Atlantic Coast to the eastern edge of the shaded area on the map. South Carolina-North Carolina. 4 . see discussions of individual features for details. 7. Cheraw fault. Meers fault. Louis-Cape Girardeau liquefaction features. 9. Western Lowlands liquefaction features. Thebes Gap area. 5. Massachusetts. Fluorspar Area fault complex. Indiana-Illinois. Illinois-Kentucky. 2. USGS. 10. Mueller. Wabash Valley liquefaction features. Central Virginia seismic zone. Solid dots are historical earthquakes of mb 3. 4. Quaternary faults and liquefaction features (Class A) are labeled by circled numbers and stars: 1. Reelfoot scarp and New Madrid seismic zone. CharlestonBluffton-Georgetown liquefaction features. St. 3. Missouri. 11. MissouriArkansas. Oklahoma. seismicity catalog provided by C. Missouri-Illinois.0 or greater. Colorado.11 1 10 2 9 8 4 0 300 600 Kilometers 900 7 6 3 5 Figure 1. Map of historical seismicity of the Central and Eastern United States and the location of 13 Quaternary faults and singular or groups of liquefaction features. 8. 6. Newbury liquefaction features. Missouri-Arkansas-Tennessee.

and we do not use them in this classification] Class Category Class A Definition Geologic evidence demonstrates the existence of a Quaternary fault of tectonic origin. The main types of geological evidence summarized in this report are paleoseismological. this category includes features such as demonstrated joints or joint zones. 1886 earthquake caused impressive liquefaction.Table 1. and deformation in the Central and Eastern United States. South Carolina. Definitions of classes used in the compilation of Quaternary faults. Geologic evidence demonstrates the existence of a fault or suggests Quaternary deformation. the slip-rate category is described as "unknown" because the faults that generated earthquakes at these sites have not been identified or characterized. Geologic evidence is insufficient to demonstrate (1) the existence of tectonic fault. Central Virginia seismic zone Charleston liquefaction features Virginia 2653 Latest Quaternary Historical unknown South Carolina 2657 unknown 5 . Summary of Quaternary faults. earthquake. For liquefaction features. Few small late Holocene sand dikes reported in area of modern seismicity. Class B Class C Class D Table 2. but historical earthquakes are seismological evidence. [ID Number refers to the number assigned to the structure in the fault compilation and the digital database. see the definition of terms in this report for explanation of the time of most recent event and the slip-rate category.] Structure Name (listed alphabetically) Bluffton liquefaction features Location South Carolina ID No. or (2) Quaternary slip or deformation associated with the feature. 2658 Time of MRE Latest Quaternary Slip-Rate Category unknown Comments Prehistoric liquefaction features southwest of the liquefaction from the 1886 Charleston. whether the fault is exposed for mapping or inferred from liquefaction or other deformational features. paleoseismic studies indicate multiple prehistoric events. or (2) the currently available geologic evidence is too strong to confidently assign the feature to Class C but not strong enough to assign it to Class A. liquefaction features. Geologic evidence demonstrates that the feature is not a tectonic fault or feature. and deformation in the Central and Eastern United States. Historical earthquakes are direct evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting. and geomorphological information. but either (1) the fault might not extend deeply enough to be a potential source of significant earthquakes. but of demonstrable non-tectonic origin. and therefore it is impossible to determine a slip rate. We use geological evidence to assign possible Quaternary faults and features to one of the four classed described below. stratigraphic. structural. landslides. [This report follow the standard usage in the earthquake-hazards community by distinguishing between seismological evidence and geological evidence. or landforms resembling fault scarps. liquefaction features. "Time of MRE" is time of most recent paleoevent. General locations of features are shown in figure 1. erosional or fluvial scarps. sedimentological.

trenching has documented multiple events on several faults. Tennessee 1023 Historical unknown St. Contains several fault zones and structures in the fluorspar mining district of southern Illinois and western Kentucky. 2330 2659 Time of MRE Latest Quaternary Latest Quaternary Slip-Rate Category <0.2 mm/yr unknown Comments In currently aseismic region. North Carolina Illinois. Illinois 1027 Late Quaternary unknown Wabash Valley liquefaction features Western Lowlands liquefaction features Illinois. possibly two events with younger event occurring in 1727 earthquake. little known about causative faults that are buried beneath thick Mississippi embayment sediments. Louis-Cape Girardeau liquefaction features Missouri. Sand dikes injected into glaciomarine sand. Illinois 1030 Latest Quaternary unknown Thebes Gap faults Missouri. South Carolina that have an age of about 1. Indiana Missouri.64 ka. three events in the past ~25 ka.2 mm/yr Meers fault Oklahoma 1020 Latest Quaternary 0. Structure Name (listed alphabetically) Cheraw fault Georgetown liquefaction features Location Colorado South Carolina.Table 2. Fluorspar area fault complex 1028 Late Quaternary <0. Three M~8 events in 18111812. two late Holocene events on SE section. Arkansas 1024 Latest Quaternary Latest Quaternary unknown 1029 unknown 6 . poor information on NW section. Prehistoric sand blows northeast of Charleston. Exposures in stream cuts in SE Missouri and adjacent SW Illinois revealed sand blows. Prehistoric liquefaction features in the area west of Crowleys Ridge adjacent to the New Madrid seismic zone indicate strong ground shaking from earthquake sources other than those that generated the New Madrid earthquakes. In currently aseismic region. (continued). Arkansas. Clastic dikes exposed in river banks define large area of prehistoric strong shaking. Reelfoot scarp is the only confirmed Quaternary tectonic fault scarp in the region. sand dikes or sand sills at 48 sites Detailed geologic mapping identified several faults.2-<1 mm/yr Newbury liquefaction features Massachusetts 2651 Latest Quaternary unknown Reelfoot scarp and New Madrid seismic zone Missouri. Kentucky ID No.

Class C and D features are included in this compilation and in the database because their inclusion provides a complete record of all features that have been examined. so the occurrence of earthquakes in a region is seismological proof that movement is occurring on faults. Quaternary tectonic faulting is occurring. and erosional scarps. the geologic and/or geomorphic evidence of Quaternary deformation is equivocal. 3). in our judgement. we cannot conclusively determine if they belong in the Class A "known Quaternary feature" category or in the Class C category. The second category in this compilation is Class B features (table 1. An example of these kind of structures might be surficial faults in young volcanic terrains or faults in areas of known modern subsidence (Gulf Coastal Plain).In several locales. but it is tantalizing enough that we cannot dismiss the feature as probably non-seismogenic. and the presence of this seismicity indicates the potential for future significant earthquakes. It is important to emphasize the distinction between the seismic hazard of an area and the proximity of Class C features. therefore. Earthquakes occur on faults. Faults and features assigned to Class C do not have demonstrated Quaternary activity and are not considered to be potential earthquake sources (table 1. In some cases. Class C features are not known to have Quaternary slip. the geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic activity on Class B features is far less compelling than for Class A features. This assignment largely ignores the fact that historically significant earthquakes may have occurred in the surrounding area. which are probably not true seismogenic structures even though they displace Quaternary-age deposits or rocks. Class B features are assigned a four-digit number followed by “XX". and other hazard assessments. which are also assigned a four-digit integer in the digital database. It is critical to understand that this compilation is based only on a collection of reported geological evidence of Quaternary faulting. Class B features may show clear evidence of Quaternary offset or deformation. which lack geologic evidence of Quaternary faulting. but given the present state of knowledge. This compilation was prepared to support efforts to update the USGS national seismic-hazard mapping efforts. Quaternary activity on these kinds of features is still a possibility. but it is uncertain if these surface structures extend to sufficient depths to generate strong earthquakes and therefore produce strong ground motion. This report is not a guide to seismic hazard. fig. and include features such as solution collapses. Thus. detailed studies have revealed evidence showing that specific features actually have a non-tectonic origin. but considerable uncertainty remains about the feature's future seismogenic potential. The evidence reported in the geological literature may be incomplete or inconclusive. These non-tectonic features are assigned to a separate class. Seismic-hazard assessments in the CEUS generally rely heavily on historical seismicity to quantify the hazard. 7 . which allows Class B features to be easily distinguished from Class A features in the database. Class D. fig. we base this assignment only on geological evidence. In some cases. landslides. This compilation summarizes geological information. and they use geological information secondarily. 2). when we designate a fault as a Class C feature. the evidence of this on-going Quaternary faulting may or may not be expressed geologically at the surface. The second basis for assigning a feature to Class B is because. Future studies of Class B features may yield evidence that permits them to be reclassified with greater confidence. Generally. As treated in this report. it does not focus on information about historical seismicity. However. features related to subsidence. Earthquake information is incorporated into hazard maps and assessments separately from geological information. detailed studies have shown that liquefaction has occurred multiple times in the past.

Shaded triangles show general locations of Class B features. Solid dots are historical earthquakes of mb 3. see text for details and description of features. USGS. See text for explanation of classes.0 300 600 Kilometers 900 Figure 2. Study area extends from the Atlantic Coast to the eastern boundary of the shaded area. 8 . seismicity catalog provided by C.0 or greater. Mueller. Index map showing historical seismicity of the Central and Eastern United States and the location of 11 Class B features.

USGS.0 or greater. Mueller.2 2 2 2 2 0 300 600 Kilometers 900 Figure 3. The study area extends from the Atlantic Coast to the eastern boundary of the shaded area. See text for explanation of classes. seismicity catalog provided by C. triangles containing a number indicate the number of closely spaced features near this location. Solid dots are historical earthquakes of mb 3. See text for additional details. Map of historical seismicity of the Central and Eastern United States and location of 45 Class C & D features. 9 . Shaded triangles show locations of Class C & D features.

the paleoseismic history of many faults in California is known in considerable detail because of they have been the subject of numerous studies.Strategy for Quaternary Fault Map and Database A primary objective of this national and global compilation of Quaternary faults and folds is to develop an internally consistent database of geological information that can be used in seismichazard assessments. and the geological data suggests that the age. when the information from the CEUS is merged with similar data from other parts of the country.e. This information implies that surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred on different parts of the fault at different times in the past. 1997a. especially in lowseismicity regions. To accommodate these large differences in the level of study. or recurrence interval for surface faulting changes along the strike of the feature. Sectioned faults are generally well studied. Therefore. including the CEUS. developing a more complete inventory of Quaternary seismogenic faults can be a useful contribution to improved seismic-hazard assessments in regions of low to moderate historic seismicity (Crone and others. systematic analysis of structures that can be assessed as potential seismic sources. these paleoseismic studies provide a longer-term perspective of hazards that augments the comparatively short historical record. 2000). the database fields will present a uniform. folds. Collectively. or limited descriptions). as significant new information becomes available. the fault can be logically subdivided into separate structural (or possibly seismogenic) entities (segments) that may rupture independently during surface-faulting 10 . most features elsewhere in the country. For example. such as the CEUS. Despite this incomplete appearance. the database will a valuable source of geological information that will be readily accessible to everyone. The database has been designed to accommodate data for a variety of faults. the inventory in the CEUS is likely incomplete because the region has not been uniformly and systematically examined for evidence in the field of Quaternary faulting. it will be used to update the digital database. therefore. such a systematic examination would be a worthy goal for future workers. The presence of incomplete fields in the database shows where future studies can add new information and increase our knowledge of specific features. slip rate. which is the source of information for the United States Map of Quaternary Folds and Faults. Wheeler and Frankel. the database is dynamic and will be updated through time. not accurately reflect the full seismic hazard. the fault compilation and digital database have two major subsets of fault descriptions: (1) simple faults or features or (2) sectioned faults or features. The data in this Open-File Report are being entered into the digital database. In contrast. Thus. geological data on Quaternary faults or liquefaction features provide valuable information that complements the record of historical seismicity. fields having no data.. Unfortunately. As a result. In many parts of the United States. Thus.to 300-year-long historical record is very short compared to the long recurrence times between significant earthquakes and the generally slow rates of deformation. are poorly studied. the database of these less-studied features contains many empty fields. unnamed faults. In regions of low to moderate seismicity. On the basis of this kind of geological information. the distribution of 200-300 years of historical earthquakes may not highlight all potential seismic sources and. As a result. the 200. giving an appearance of being incomplete (i. The information in this Open-File Report (and the database) is the first iteration of data for faults and structures in the CEUS. and neotectonic features that span a wide spectrum in terms of data quality and abundance. Paleoseismic studies commonly document a record of surface faulting or deformation that typically spans thousands to tens of thousands of years.

all of the features in the CEUS described in this report are simple features. geologic structures that may control physical segmentation. buried faults.earthquakes. 1991). By the project's standards (and definitions). In comparison.). the term "segments" has been dropped for this project in favor of the general term “sections". output in a wide variety of projections.6 million years). This database focuses on geological evidence only. The information fields in the database and in this Open-File Report provide a comprehensive summary of information that is known about these features. where recent paleoseismic studies have documented multiple deformation events in late Quaternary time. and assigning attributes to the geographic data (colors. 1993 #655). so although seismicity is suggestive of Quaternary activity. Fault traces or areas of liquefaction were taken from original sources and were digitized at an appropriate scale for use in Arc/Info*— Geographic Information System (GIS) software that permits rescaling. according to the standards established for this project. 1982). 4) is the only sectioned fault described in this report. pronounced contrasts in the geomorphic expression of faulting along strike combined with paleoseismic studies that define the chronology of the youngest events on the fault are sufficient to subdivide the structure into sections. Published or publicly available data are referenced extensively. it does not alone qualify a feature to be included in this geological database. The digital database contains an extensive listing of information and parameters for each Class A and B structure such as fault length and dip direction.S.. simple faults have limited detailed geological information and few or no paleoseismologic studies. Thus the CEUS faults and liquefaction features included in this report and in the database are defensible potential sources of future ground rupturing or strong shaking based on geologic evidence from the Quaternary period (1. but the term has many ambiguous meanings because different kinds of segments are described in the scientific literature (dePolo and others. stratigraphic control on times of faulting. although the series of major earthquakes that struck the New Madrid seismic zone (fig. are for descriptive purposes only and do not constitute endorsement by the U. With the exception of the Meers fault. Because the project is integrating data from the *Use of trade or brand names.g. and symbols for various maps). such as the Meers fault. Fourteen numbered features discussed in this report have documented evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting or evidence of liquefaction (table 2). or folds is not compelling enough evidence (by itself) to include these pre-Quaternary structures in the compilation and database. In the absence of this type of detailed information. 5) in 1811-1812 did produce considerable surface deformation (Russ. it is not possible to subdivide these features into sections. Haller and others. 11 . The Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma (fig. No faults in the CEUS are known to have had surface-rupturing earthquakes in historic time. etc. and cited in standard USGS format. geomorphic and paleoseismologic information. Geological Survey or the Department of Interior. a fault is subdivided into sections on the basis of geomorphologic and geologic data (scarp morphology. The term "segment" is popular and commonly used in the earthquake-geology community. with the exception that we include a database reference number (e. In some cases. such as Arc/Info. The occurrence of seismicity associated with or aligned along preQuaternary faults. line weights. which is defined above. To avoid confusion. as well as descriptive geologic. The most prominent expression of this deformation occurred as warping along the Reelfoot scarp. Structures having pre-Quaternary movement are not included in this compilation unless there is sufficient geological evidence of substantial Quaternary movement.

but paleoseismic studies have documented two surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Meers fault during the past 3. Luza.P. dashed where scarp is less prominent. The most recent event occurred about 1. Location map (A) and oblique aerial view (B) of the Meers fault. The fault is located in an aseismic part of the Central U.200 yr B. Open box shows approximate location of the oblique aerial view shown in (B). 12 .A 35°00´ 98°45´ 98°30´ 98°15´ KIOWA CADDO ME ER S FA UL T U D 34°45´ COMANCHE Cache Lawton 0 5 10 15 20 25 Kilometers 34°30´ B Scarp Figure 4.000 years. Fault is shown by solid bold line.. Open circles show approximate locations of sites where trenches were excavated. Upthrown and downthrown sides of scarp are designated by U and D. southeastern Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Suvey. respectively.S. Aerial photograph provided by Kenneth V.

central Mississippi River Valley. 13 i s siss ip p • • i River Poplar Bluff • . A series of magnitude 7-8 earthquakes struck the New Madrid region in the winter of 1811-1812. Paleoseismic studies have documented the occurrence of several Holocene events that produced wide-spread liquefaction.91°00' 37°00' 90°00' • •• • • • • • • • • • • • •• •• • •• • • • 89°00' • •• • • •• • •• •• • • • •• • • • •• • • A • • Sikeston • • • • •MISSOURI • • • • • • •• • • • •• ARKANSAS 36°00' Jonesboro • • • •• •• • A re ea Ar o M nt • • a • nd bu •• A • of a • •• • •• • • • • • •• • • •• • • • •• • • • •• •• • ••••••• • • •• • • • •• • • •• • • ••• • •M • •• • • • •• Reelfoot • • • • Lake • •• • •• • • • • •• • • • • • •• • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • •• •• s• • ity w c •• • i o • • bl sm • • • nd • ei • a • S • • n • fs• r • o • • de New Madrid Caruthersville Dyersburg Blytheville • • • • • ••• • •• • ••• • • • • ••• • • •• • • •• • • • •• • • • • • R i ver • TENNESSEE • Instrumentally recorded earthquake outside of area of abundant seismicity 0 10 20 30 40 50 Mississ ipp i Memphis 35°00' Kilometers B Event 2 sandblow Event 1 sandblow deposit and paleosol Event 2 feeder dike Figure 5. Location map (A) and photograph (B) of liquefaction features in the New Madrid seismic zone. Reelfoot scarp. is located along the western side of Reelfoot Lake. Photograph courtesy of E. Arkansas. USGS. shown by solid line with triangles on the upthrown side. and Tennessee. Schweig. Missouri. III.S.

Thus. and several detailed studies have been conducted to better constrain various paleoseismologic characteristics for selected faults.e. Synopsis of Quaternary Faulting and Liquefaction Features in the Central and Eastern United States The only previous compilations of Quaternary (and Neogene) faults and structures in the CEUS were regional studies by Howard and others (1978 #312) and Prowell (1983 #1951) Both compilations were traditional map products that showed the locations and additional information.. five are faults. especially where conflicting interpretations may be apparent. Structure names are determined from the literature and from common usage. over general geologic studies. 1. we classify 14 features in the CEUS as having demonstrable Quaternary tectonic faulting or deformation (Class A) (fig. 1). In most cases. general guidelines of Haller and others. trenching) and estimates of recurrence intervals. we include six features in Class D because they have been determined not to be tectonic faults. each Class A and B structure has a unique number. 1:250. table 2). Investigations based on detailed mapping (for example.entire United States. detailed studies have also discounted some suggested Quaternary faults. nine are hidden faults inferred from evidence of Quaternary liquefaction. In most cases. we assign a total of 39 other features to Class C because they lack geological evidence of Quaternary tectonic deformation. document the source of data and any pertinent details that the compiler deems worthy to explain further. either by showing them to be older than Quaternary or by demonstrating that they are non-tectonic features. and although some structures in different regions have the same name or a similar name. geomorphic expression. Lastly. although some older studies are helpful and authoritative. bedrock mapping. Overview of Quaternary faults and liquefaction features In this compilation.000 scale) or similar examinations are given priority over less detailed mapping (for example. additional Quaternary or potentially Quaternary faults have been recognized in the region. When the computer database of this report is implemented. particularly those addressing the Quaternary history of a fault. alternative interpretations based on other types of studies are provided in the appropriate "Comments" field. Additional paleoseismologic data include descriptions of paleoseismological studies (i. In addition. such as paleoseismic investigations. We have made an effort to include all pertinent data on a structure. no attempt was made to avoid such duplications. such as. 1:24. The small number of confirmed Quaternary features in such a large part of the country is first-order evi14 . we classify 11 features as Class B features. 1993 #655). Field names are shown in bold and are defined below in “Definition of Database Terms" (see also. We give highest priority to fault-related studies. As mentioned above. such as "Comments". more recent studies are given priority. we use a hierarchy that defines what data will be presented in the primary database fields in order to achieve some level of consistency. Nonsearchable fields. and age of faulted deposits. Geologic data fields include narratives describing the geologic setting. and. the features remained unnoticed for many years or are difficult to study because of their poor surficial expression. The 14 Quaternary faults and liquefaction features (or groups of features) in the CEUS are widely distributed across the region (fig. Of these features. the user will be able to search for data in a specific field or a combination of fields. Since these landmark efforts. even though we give the most weight to recent paleoseismological studies of Quaternary faulting.000 scale) or regional studies. Where multiple interpretations exist in the literature.

such as the New Madrid seismic zone and the Charleston. In some cases. 7). and no historical CEUS earthquakes have produced documented surface ruptures. Elsewhere. and the Cheraw fault. the correlation is strong because historical earthquakes have generated many of the geological features described in this report. in which short periods of activity are separated by relatively long quiescent intervals. documenting paleoliquefaction events provides valuable information that contributes to improved seismic-hazard assessments. this part of the United States is not devoid of seismic hazard nor is it immune to damaging and potentially devastating earthquakes. Recurrence intervals of most features described here are poorly known. In fact. Local and regional mapping and dating of Quaternary deposits associated with the liquefaction features permit estimates of paleoearthquake magnitudes and ages. 1999). fig. Paleoseismic studies of the Meers fault. The number of significant historical earthquakes in the CEUS is meager compared to the smaller area west of the Rocky Mountain Front. 1993. Oklahoma (Crone and Luza. systematic field examination of the entire CEUS would discover other features that would be classified as Class A or Class B features. South Carolina region (fig. Despite the evidence of low deformation rates. fig. This variable correlation indicates that. the correlation is weak or non-existent. 1). Discussion The 13 confirmed Quaternary faults and liquefaction features in the CEUS are widely distributed over an area that covers more than half of the contiguous 48 states. 4) and Cheraw fault (fig. Many parts of the CEUS have never been critically evaluated for field evidence of Quaternary deformation. 4). 1997a. It is worth emphasizing that only selected parts of the CEUS have been carefully and systematically examined in the field for evidence of Quaternary faulting. Much of the evidence of paleoearthquakes in the region is derived from evidence of liquefaction. indicate that surface-rupturing earthquakes on these faults occur in temporal clusters. but this type of secondary evidence does not identify nor provide detailed information on causative faults. 6). but based on evidence from other analogous plate-interior settings. 1994). and therefore. However.dence of the general tectonic stability of the CEUS. the average recurrence time for significant earthquakes on isolated individual faults could be tens of thousand of years or longer (Crone and others. We suspect that a more comprehensive. based on the relatively recent recognition of Quaternary activity on faults that were initially mapped decades ago. Colorado (Crone and others. 1997a). it is very likely that the inventory presented in this report is incomplete. 6). Some confirmed Quaternary faults and liquefaction features are located in areas that are aseismic or where the sparse seismicity is widely distributed. 15 . Machette and others. 1997b. Meers fault (fig. the historical seismicity may not identify all of the potential seismic source zones (Crone and others. The correlation between the distribution of historical seismicity in the CEUS and the confirmed Quaternary faults and liquefaction features is highly variable (fig. The generally low level of seismicity is testimony to the relative stability of the region and the low rates of deformation. Nevertheless. which is secondary evidence of strong ground motion inferred to result from large magnitude earthquakes (Obermeier and Pond. in plate-interior settings. moderate-magnitude events (M 4-6) can cause significant damage because many buildings and the infrastructure in the CEUS are relatively old and are not designed to withstand even a modest amount of strong ground motion. 1990. it is probable that our inventory of potential seismic sources in the CEUS is incomplete and other seismogenic features might be identified in the future.

104°00´

103° 30´

A
LINCOLN
38°30´

KIOWA CROWLEY

38°15´

Ordway

CH

W RA E

T UL FA

Trench location

BENT

Rocky Ford
38°00´ 0

Las Animas La Junta

OTERO
5 10 15 20 25

Kilometers

B

North

South

Buried Soils

Fault

Figure 6. Location map (A) and photograph (B) of Cheraw fault, southeastern Colorado. The combination of little historical seismicity in the region and the subdued expression of the 44-km-long fault scarp suggested that the Cheraw fault did not pose a notable seismic hazard. However, paleoseismic studies show that the most recent surface-faulting event occurred about 8 k.y. ago and that three events have produced surface rupture in the past approximately 25 k.y.

16

A
34°00'

81°00'

80°00'

79°00'

78°00'

NORTH CAROLINA
Wilmington

Columbia

SOUTH CAROLINA

Conway

Georgetown

Summerville
33°00'

Charleston

la At

n

tic

O

a ce

n

32°00'

Savannah

S av
ive r hR na an

Beaufort

Bluffton

Areas searched for liquefaction 0 20 40 60 Kilometers

GE

OR GI A

B

Figure 7. Location map (A) of the Charleston-Georgetown-Bluffton area in South Carolina and photograph (B) of damage from the August 31, 1886, earthquake. The 1886 earthquake produced significant liquefaction. Studies of paleoliquefaction features along the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and North Carolina have found evidence of multiple episodes of strong ground shaking during the past 3,000-5,000 years, but the faults that generated the earthquakes remain unidentified.

17

During active periods, the recurrence time between events is on the order of a few to several thousand years, whereas quiescent intervals commonly span several tens of thousands of years or longer. Because of the large variability in inter-event times, it is difficult, and perhaps inappropriate, to characterize these faults by a single recurrence interval. The New Madrid seismic zone (fig. 4) and Charleston, South Carolina, (fig. 7) region are the most active seismic zones in the CEUS and the sites of the most significant historical earthquakes in the region. In both zones, the geological expression of the seismic activity is best expressed by widespread liquefaction features; little or nothing is known about the causative faults. However, recent and on-going paleoseismic studies of liquefaction features have greatly improved our knowledge of recurrence of large earthquakes in these seismically active regions. These studies suggest that, during the late Holocene, earthquakes large enough to cause liquefaction have occurred in these zones at time intervals of several hundred to a few thousand years (for details, see discussions of these specific features). However, subsurface structural studies show that the rates of late Holocene deformation cannot have been sustained throughout the Quaternary because the underlying bedrock is not extensively deformed (Coppersmith, 1988; Schweig and Ellis, 1994; Pratt, 1994). This contrast between the high rates of modern seismicity versus the geologic evidence of lower, long-term rates indicates that either the deformation has only began in the very recent geologic past, or that the temporal pattern of deformation is very episodic on geological time scales. We have noted the value of including a list of non-Quaternary or possibly non-tectonic (Class C) and demonstrated non-tectonic (Class D) features in this compilation because their inclusion provides a comprehensive list of all features that we've evaluated to date. An additional benefit is that we provide a brief summary of what is currently known about these features. These summaries could furnish the starting point for future, more comprehensive studies that reexamine these features. In some cases, reexamination of previously dismissed features has revealed evidence of Quaternary activity. One example is the Meers fault, in southeastern Oklahoma (fig. 4). The Meers fault is one of a series of faults that define the southwestern margin of the Anadarko basin, a major, long-lived petroleum province in Oklahoma. A prominent scarp along the fault is present in resistant Paleozoic bedrock and was originally mapped in the 1930's. The scarp was explained as an exhumed scarp. However, nearly five decades later in the 1980's, the evidence of Quaternary activity became apparent when field geologists first recognized scarps on latest Quaternary fluvial deposits; subsequent paleoseismological studies have documented the occurrence of multiple late Holocene surface ruptures on the fault. This example demonstrates the merit of reevaluating features that are now discounted as potential seismic sources. Summary A systematic evaluation of published information on 69 features in the Central and Eastern U.S. has led to classifying 13 features as Quaternary tectonic faults or liquefaction features (Class A), 11 features as Class B features, and 45 features as either pre-Quaternary or non-tectonic (Class C & D) features. The information from this evaluation is part of a national compilation of Quaternary faults and folds being led by the USGS. The parameters used to classify features into the above-cited classes are part of the standards for the national compilation. Information for the compilation is being assembled and incorporated into a digital database that will be available on the World Wide Web.

18

In the CEUS, few Quaternary faults have conspicuous surface expression, and much of the evidence of Quaternary deformation and earthquakes is derived from historical and ancient liquefaction features. Although valuable as evidence of past strong ground shaking, liquefaction features do not identify a specific causative fault. Without identifying a specific fault, it is difficult to fully characterize the seismic source for hazard analyses. Nevertheless, liquefaction features provide invaluable information about the areas affected by strong ground shaking and the frequency of past earthquakes. In the absence of information about the causative fault, this type of information can contribute to better hazard evaluations. The correlation between the distribution of historical seismicity in the CEUS and the confirmed Quaternary faults and liquefaction features is highly variable, which substantiates the observation that historical seismicity is an imperfect indicator of potential sources of strong earthquakes in some tectonic settings. Furthermore, geological studies of aseismic faults such as the Meers fault show that currently aseismic faults have generated strong earthquakes in the recent geological past. Thus, a comprehensive inventory of potentially seismogenic structures in the CEUS must be derived from both seismological and geological information. This compilation provides a starting point for future systematic investigations of potentially seismogenic features in the CEUS. By assembling, summarizing, and classifying information in the published literature on Quaternary tectonic features, we are providing a resource that will permit geoscientists to efficiently review the status of knowledge for specific geological features. We acknowledge that the CEUS has not been systematically or uniformly examined for field evidence of Quaternary faulting, which suggests that evidence of Quaternary deformation on some features may yet remain undiscovered. It follows from this observation that our report is likely incomplete. Nevertheless, this report serves as a starting point to identify selected features that warrant additional detailed study in order to corroborate, better characterize, or refine the evidence of Quaternary deformation. As a result, this report will ultimately contribute to an improved understanding of the seismic hazards in the Central and Eastern United States.

Acknowledgments
The authors appreciate the support of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), which has funded the compilation effort and much of the work cited in this report. We thank the numerous colleagues who either reviewed portions of the report or supplied information for the report. In particular, we are grateful to our colleagues who contributed to this compilation by providing descriptions of features that they have studied or for which they have extensive knowledge; they are listed in the List of Contributors. We also thank Michael N. Machette and Kathleen M. Haller for their guidance in how to best resolve compilation problems that were unique to CEUS features and Richard Dart for his assistance in preparing digital location maps for many of the CEUS features. We appreciate the diligent efforts of Ms. Philadelphia Morrow for entering much of the information into the digital database. The advice and input from many of our colleagues and collaborators in assembling this collection of information was invaluable, but we accept responsibility for errors or omissions. Kathleen Haller carefully reviewed this report and provided numerous helpful comments and recommendations. We have also benefited from comments and recommendations provided by the State Geologists and their staffs from many of the states encompassed in this study area.

19

List of Contributing Individuals
Richard W. Harrison U.S. Geological Survey Mail Stop 926A, National Center 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive Reston, Virginia 20192 phone: (703) 648-6928 e-mail: rharrison@usgs.gov Paul V. Heinrich Louisiana Geological Survey Louisiana State University P.O. Box G, University Station Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70893 phone: (504) 388-4398 email: heinrich@intersurf.com W. John Nelson Illinois State Geological Survey 615 E. Peabody Drive Champaign, Illinois 61820 Phone: (214) 244-2428 e-mail: jnelson@isgs.uiuc.edu Wayne L. Newell U.S. Geological Survey 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 926A Reston, Virginia 20192 phone: (703) 648-6991 email: wnewell@usgs.gov David C. Prowell U.S. Geological Survey 3039 Amwiler Rd. Atlanta, Georgia 30360 phone: (770) 903-9185 email: dprowell@usgs.gov Stephen F. Obermeier U.S. Geological Survey Mail Stop 955, National Center 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive Reston, Virginia 20192 phone: (703) 648-6791 e-mail: sobermei@usgs.gov Charles K. Scharnberger Dept. of Earth Sciences Millersville University Millersville, Pennsylvania 17551 phone: (717) 872-3289 email: cscharnb@marauder.millersv.edu Eugene S. Schweig, III U.S. Geological Survey & Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) Campus Box 526590 University of Memphis Memphis, Tennessee 38152-6590 phone: (901) 678-4974 e-mail: schweig@ceri.memphis.edu Scott D. Stanford New Jersey Geological Survey P.O. Box 427 Trenton, New Jersey 08625 phone: (609) 292-1185 email: scotts@njgs.dep.state.nj.us Martitia P. Tuttle M. Tuttle and Associates HC 33, Box 48 Bay Point Road Georgetown, Maine 04548 phone: (207) 371-2796 email: mptuttle@erols.com

20

Definition of Database Field Names and Selected Geological Terms
Specialized fields (shown below in bold letters) provide abstracted data, many of which will be in searchable fields when the digital database is released. In addition to the searchable fields, more detailed information is provided in the "Comments" sections that follow selected fields. If no pertinent information was found in the published literature for a field, then we show "none" or "not reported". The following description provides definitions of fields (in alphabetical order) and indicates where various information, if known, can be found. In addition, selected definitions of geological terms are included to assist the reader in understanding the guidelines used to compile this report and the database. Parts of the descriptions in the following definitions are taken from standardized definitions for the entire digital database, and therefore, not all aspects of the definitions may necessarily apply to CEUS features discussed in this report. Age of faulted deposits This field includes the ages of faulted deposits at the surface. In general, these data are from surficial geologic mapping, but in some cases they may be from descriptions in referenced work. In some cases, the age of faulted deposits may not agree with the time of the most recent paleoevent. This inconsistency may arise because of the manner in which particular studies are given preferable citation based on recency and scope of the study. Average strike The average strike of the trace of the structure in degrees is computed from GIS software and is recorded for faults and fold axes. The strike bearings are confined to the northwest and northeast quadrants of the compass and are reported as -90° to 90° values, respectively). Compiler and affiliation The name and affiliation of the person(s) primarily responsible for compilation or revision of data presented for a structure. Full names and addresses of these compilers are shown in the list of contributors. County If the structure is in more than one county, the county containing the majority of the structure is listed first, followed by county name(s) for the remainder of the structure. In cases where the features encompass numerous counties, the counties are listed alphabetically by state. Date of compilation This field shows when data were compiled (or revised) for this project (e.g., 03/13/98; month/day/year). Dip Measured dip or range of dip values. In many cases, these data are near-surface measurements at specific locations. Additional data, such as approximate location and the type of material in which the fault is exposed, are included in "Comments". Dip direction General down-dip direction(s) of the structure defined by compass octants: north (N), west (W), south (S), east (E), northwest (NW), northeast (NE), southwest (SW), southeast (SE), or vertical (V). If separate faults dip in different directions, multiple directions may be listed. Fault A fracture or zone of fractures along which there has been differential movement. Three major categories of faults are widely recognized: normal faults, reverse or thrust faults, and strike-slip faults. Descriptions of these fault types are common in the geological literature.

21

various geographic limits that are different in other studies are also included. Minor changes in original name may have been made for reasons of clarity or consistency where appropriate. the part of the fault you would be over your head if you were in a tunnel that was excavated through a fault. fold. Only features assigned to Class A and Class B are assigned structure numbers. the geographic limits of the structure. The time interval encompassed by the Holocene has been the subject of various definitions. That is. 207c). Some lineaments are associated with faults. fold. the Holocene is considered to begin about 10. monoclines. The second type of length is the trace length. Geologic setting This description provides a generalized perspective of the fault in terms of its regional geologic setting. 22 . 207b. or liquefaction feature) is assigned a number within the predetermined limits for the region. The New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi River Valley is the only location in the CEUS where tectonically induced surface deformation has occurred in historical time. Historical Surface Faulting This field (and associated fields) describe surface faulting from historical earthquakes. amount of total offset. offset streams. "Comments" also contains other names and references in which they are used. This length is the sum of lengths of the actual map traces. References to the same structure shown in other compilations are included in "Comments". the part of the fault you would be standing on if you were in a tunnel that was excavated through a fault.000 years ago. or fault section (where appropriate) generally is given preference. All fault numbers cited in the text are bounded by brackets (i. Faults or fault zones with multiple (overlapping) strands typically have cumulative trace lengths that exceed the end-to-end length by a factor of 1. liquefaction feature. That is.. shutter ridges. fault 207 has three sections: 207a. as shown in this compilation.. associated landslides. Holocene The epoch of the Quaternary period that begins at the end of the Pleistocene and extends to the present.5 or more. this length is shown as "not applicable". except in cases where a more commonly accepted name is widely used in the recent literature. [2015]. north to south or west to east. The first is the end-to-end length of the Quaternary-age fault or fold axes as measured from the most distal ends of the digital data.g. In cases where numerous faults are collected under one description. Hanging wall The overlying side of a fault above an inclined fault plane. etc. Length This field specifies two types of length data. Lineament A linear topographic feature or alignment of topography that may be controlled by the underlying crustal structure.Footwall The underlying side of a fault beneath an inclined fault plane. and general age of offset strata. Number Structure number The structure (fault.. Geomorphic expression General description of the structure's geomorphic expression including the presence or absence of fault scarps.e. Section number A lower-case alpha character is assigned to the northernmost or westernmost section of a fault (e. Name (Structure name or Section name) The earliest referenced name for a fault. For the purposes of this report. the structure numbers for Class B features are appended with "XX" to easily identify Class B features.

6 million years ago and end at the beginning of the Holocene epoch. b). Sites of morphologic studies or detailed mapping (without trenching) are not described herein. Reliability of location Reliability of location (Good or Poor) is related to the scale of the source map for the trace of the structure and to the method by which the trace of the structure was mapped. (kiloyears) (based on less precise dating methods. For the purposes of this report. It includes the Pleistocene epoch and the Holocene. 1988a. an explanation of why "section" is used in the database is provided. if the term "segment" is used in the literature. starting with that which applies to the most recent time interval. 10-130 k. but transferred without photogrammetric methods. about 10. Study sites are numbered sequentially from north to south or west to east in the format of fault number.y.. Also includes the time interval (in parentheses) for which this recurrence interval is valid. Paleoseismological Studies This field includes a synopsis of detailed site-specific studies.. In-text citations of references are presented in a standard USGS format with the exception of the addition of a reference-specific number at the end.g.000 years ago. the Quaternary is considered to begin about 1. The time interval encompassed by the Quaternary has been the subject of various definitions. are included in "Comments". Quaternary period The time interval in the Cenozoic era between the Tertiary and the present. References Complete bibliographic citations for all references are included for each structure.g. "Comments" include reference in which sections are discussed. and collectively for all structures in the cumulative reference list. 4) defined in this compilation. or not reported. Province Field contains physiographic province names defined by Fenneman and Johnson (1946 #461). or geomorphology). in 14C yr (based on uncalibrated radiocarbon dates). in k. section letter. stratigraphy.Number of sections (only used for faults with sections) Numerical value for number of sections (e. calendric or calibrated radiocarbon dates). or the trace of the structure was published on a topographic base map at a scale of 1:100.y. typically those involving exploratory trenching.g. For the purposes of this compilation.. 1° x 2° sheet If the structure is mapped in more than one 1° x 2° quadrangle. (e. Recurrence interval Time interval in years (based on historical data. followed by quadrangle name(s) for the remainder of the structure. Traces that do not 23 . the trace of the structure must have been published on a topographic base map at a scale of 1:250. and site number (e.g.6 million years ago (Ma). the name of the quadrangle in which the majority of the structure is located is listed first. This reference number eliminates the need for the traditional alpha character for authors having multiple publications in the same year (e. To qualify for a "Good" location. The footwall is the one that you would stand one if the fault plane is exposed. 601c-3) Pleistocene The epoch in the Quaternary period that preceded the Holocene..000 or more detailed and have been accurately located on the original map using photogrammetry or similar methods. the Quaternary period is considered to begin about 1.) Alternative published recurrence intervals. Normal fault A fault in which the hanging wall appears to have moved down relative to the footwall.000 or more detailed.

reverse faulting.. The footwall is the one that you would stand one if the fault plane is exposed.g. Judgments of reliability may not directly relate to line symbols (solid. (on a fault having a dip greater than 45° dip). dextral/normal 3:1). however. where known. in order to better characterize sense of movement (e. planimetric base. sinistral slip (left lateral). Motion is commonly described as left-lateral (sinistral) or right-lateral (dextral) strike slip.meet the above standards (less detailed scale. and hence characterize the fault in one of the above-mentioned categories. dashed. The first type is termed a "geologic slip rate" and is typically derived from the age and amount of offset of surficial geologic deposits. dextral>normal). Strike-slip fault A fault in which the dominant sense of motion on the fault is parallel to the fault's trace along the ground surface. but do place broad limits on possible slip rates. Also known as a lateral-slip fault. followed by state name(s) for the remainder of the structure. The second type of slip rate is termed a "paleoseismic slip rate" and is derived from times of faulting events and amounts of offset of geologic datums or piercing points. the only rates that apply are the less than 0. "Comments" include a brief description of published slip rates and pertinent documentation. etc. dextral slip (right lateral). information on slip rates is rare because few discrete faults are known. the temporal clustering of surface-rupturing events on these faults makes it difficult to define a single slip-rate value. Slip-rate category The primary field shows one of four slip-rate categories: less than 0. 24 . These rates are not precise. 1 to 5 mm/yr. For structures in the CEUS. two types of slip rates are reported.e. Structure name (see Name) Structure number (see Number) Synopsis This field contains a short summary of information on the structure that follows in the database. Reverse fault A fault in which the hanging wall appears to have moved up relative to the footwall.. paleoseismologic investigations involving trenching and numeric dating).) constitute a "Poor" location. In the CEUS. Ratios of the slip components are included. Generally. but is rare owing to the need for detailed studies of the fault (i. 0. This type of slip rate is more precise. dotted) that are used. or normal slip. For oblique slip. greater than 5 mm/yr. Section name (see Name) Section number (see Number) Sense of movement Includes thrust faulting (motion on a fault having a dip of less than 45° dip). transfer by inspection. Furthermore.g..2 to less than 1 mm/yr.2 mm/yr and 0. "Unknown" precedes the most likely slip-rate category if no published slip rate is known. then the state in which the majority of the structure is located is listed first.2 mm/yr.2 to less than 1 mm/yr categories. and there is limited information on those faults. State If the structure is located in more than one state. principle sense of movement is followed by secondary sense (e. all concealed or inferred faults are considered poorly located.

M. v. Machette.000 and 1:7. 443 p.M. Personius. late Quaternary (Holocene and late Pleistocene. Geological Survey. S.. R.A.J. Aaron. scales 1:5. Geologic investigations of the 1988 Tennant Creek.. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Investigations Map MF-916. and Bowman. J.. folding. no. 1998. database and map... K. <15 ka). Clark.R. Physical divisions of the United States: U. K. Preliminary map of young faults in the United States as a guide to possible fault activity: U.I. Crone. Fenneman... A. References Cited in Introduction Coppersmith. The Tertiary era begins at the end of the Cretaceous period (about 65 million years ago) and ends at the beginning of the Quaternary period (about 1. 1990.. M. no.M. Historical surface faulting in the Basin and Range province. Machette. 1991.N. middle and late Quaternary (<750 ka)...6 Ma).. Crone. 2. and 11others.B. v.F.. and Dart. Machette. p. southwestern Oklahoma: Geological Society of America Bulletin.S. 1 plate (1:750. Kelson.000. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-338.. 2. it would be documented under "Historical Surface Faulting". Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-521. M. or Quaternary (<1. western hemisphere. Slemmons. p.Tertiary period The first period in the Cenozoic era of the geological time scale. C. If there is historical surface faulting or folding. J. D. L. 203-214. 25 . Machette. D. Ramelli. A. N. Episodic nature of earthquake activity in stable continental regions revealed by palaeoseismicity studies of Australian and North American Quaternary faults: Australian Journal of Earth Science.. no.....000.S. International Lithosphere program (ILP) project II-2. R.J. 13. M.. Australia. 4.N. 102. A.S. Time of most prehistoric faulting (faulting. June 1993: U.. 1993. 51p.000 scale). 1978. Bradley.. 1988.R. M. 1993. pamphlet.J. 1997b.A. Style and timing of Holocene surface faulting on the Meers fault. 1946. K. p.S.S. Haller.M. 2032-A.N.L.G. K. Geological Survey Bulletin.V. 45 p. A. 1997a. 299-304. Guidelines for U. Crone. Howard.. Maps of major active faults. K.. and Bowman.. Map and database of Quaternary faults and folds in New Mexico: U. southeastern Colorado: U. 59. M.. p.-A.L. Late Quaternary surface faulting on the Cheraw fault.500. S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Map I–2591. 123-136. and Dart. v. Crone. scale 1:7.R.5-2 million years ago).. and Johnson. Machette... and Mahan. 1 oversize pl. 117. Temporal and spatial clustering of earthquake activity in the Central and Eastern United States: Seismological Research Letters. Haller. J.W. This field only documents prehistoric surface faulting. and Luza.J. 44.. earthquakes—Implications for paleoseismicity in stable continental regions: U.000.S.M. K. dePolo.S. 7 p.N.000.. D. or liquefaction event) The primary field shows one of the four prehistoric time categories: latest Quaternary (Holocene and latest Pleistocene. <130 ka). v... western North America—implications for fault segmentation: Journal of Structural Geology.N. 2 oversize sheets.J. A.

N.. T. 1308-1311. M. J.L. 95-114.. and Frankel. M. 1994. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1236-H. p..P. no.Machette.. R. 71. 2032-B.A.000. B.. 172-179.S. 2 oversize sheets. R. earthquake—Implications for paleoseismicity in stable continental regions: U. and Ellis.S. 331p.. no. 26 . Australia.. D. 1983. 2. Widmann. Missouri: U. p.S. S. Obermeier. Issues in using liquefaction features for paleoseismic analysis: Seismological Research Letters. Geological Survey Bulletin.C.000. 264 . 273-282. 65... v.R. Geologic investigations of the 1986 Marryat Creek. Index of faults of Cretaceous and Cenozoic age in the Eastern United States: U.P.J. 1998.M. Crone. Style and significance of surface deformation in the vicinity of New Madrid. p.F.. D. 2. 70. p. 1994.500.. 1994. Geology in the 1996 USGS seismic-hazard maps. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1269..S.L. scale 1:500. 29p. E. p. W. Prowell. v. scale 1:2. How old is the New Madrid seismic zone?: Seismological Research Letters. Wheeler. Russ. 1999. Kirkham. Pratt.C. Preliminary Quaternary fault and fold map and database of Colorado: Colorado Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-8. and Rogers. 1 plate..... 1982. 34-58. A. v. v. E. Schweig.L. Central and Eastern United States: Seismological Research Letters. Reconciling short recurrence intervals with minor deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone: Science. A. and Bowman. and Pond.

27 .Fault and Liquefaction Features Database The following discussion of Quaternary faults and folds in the Central and Eastern United States east of the Rocky Mountain Front are presented in ascending numerical order by the structure's number and alphabetically for unnumbered features.

1963 #667. 1963 #667). 1990 #665). but subsequent common usage has shortened the name to the Meers fault. 1951 #670. Kiowa 1° x 2° sheet Lawton Province Central Lowland Geologic setting The fault is one of at least four west. was first recognized by M. formed on late Quaternary deposits. Synopsis: Fault originally mapped in about the late 1930's. Faults in the frontal fault system have a cumulative down-to-the-northeast throw of as much as 10 km. Crone.S. It was renamed the Meers Valley fault on the 1954 version of the Oklahoma Geologic map (Harlton. The sections of the fault discussed here extend from near Sugar Creek on the northwest to near Beef Creek (tributary of East Cache Creek) on the southeast. 1972 #666). Meers fault (Class A) Structure Number 1020 Structure Name Meers fault (Class A) Comments: Originally named the "Thomas fault" by Harlton (1951 #670). Geological Survey State Oklahoma County Comanche.1020. This 26. A poorly studied section is located northwest of 28 . Uncertain amounts of lateral slip have probably occurred on many faults in the frontal fault system. the Quaternary scarp indicates a down-to-the-southwest sense of throw on the fault. which is the boundary between the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Anadarko basin to the northeast and the Cambrian intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks that comprise the Wichita Mountains to the southwest. These studies have established the occurrence of two well-dated. Number of sections 2 Comments: The two sections described here are based on the distinctly different surficial expression of the fault along each section. Ramelli and Slemmons. In contrast.or possibly 37-km-long section is considered as section "b" in this compilation. continuous Holocene scarp is present along a 26-km-long section of the fault. 1987 #668. and scarp was considered to be an erosionally exhumed fault-line scarp. The scarp.to northwest-trending faults that form the Frontal Wichita fault system (Harlton. estimates range from a few kilometers to as much as 120 km. but low-sun angle photography suggests that the Holocene rupture along this section may be as much as 37 km long (Ramelli and others. U. Paleoseismic studies of the fault indicate a temporal clustering of events in the late Quaternary. late Holocene events. and a preceding event that occurred middle Pleistocene time or earlier. Date of compilation 03/03/94 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. Charles Gilbert in the early 1980's during field studies of the igneous rocks exposed in the nearby Wichita Mountains. A conspicuous. The location and trend of the fault system were probably controlled by zones of crustal weakness that developed during formation of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen in latest Precambrian to Early Cambrian time.

1989 #663.section "b". 1992 #674). 29 . Cumulative length is the collective length of all strands. Average strike -26. 1990 #658). Cetin (1990 #658) contends that evidence exists that indicates Holocene surface deformation extends about 30 km northwest of the northwestern end of the continuous scarp (1020b).000-scale sketch map in Cetin (1992 #674). the fault's dip is probably near vertical based on his schematic maps. but does not give it a name. Length End to end (km): 54. in press #673) data show that the fault extends for tens of kilometers to the northwest and southeast of the Quaternary scarp (section b). but subsurface (Harlton. Knowledge and information on this northwesterly section based solely on work by Cetin (1990 #658.85 Comments: This end-to-end length includes the poorly known and poorly mapped northwestern section of the fault.1° 1020a. The assigned dip value assumes that this section of the fault has a dip at depth that is similar to other major faults in the frontal fault system. Dip 30-40° Comments: Drill-hole and seismic-reflection data indicate that the faults in the frontal fault system dip at moderate angles (approximately 30-40°) to the southwest at depth. Other sections of the fault may exist at depth that are not expressed in Quaternary deposits. 1951 #670. Sense of movement Sinistral reverse Comments: Exposures in stream cuts reveal down-to-the-southwest vertical offset. Lateral slip is inferred to be the same as that for the adjacent section of the fault to the southeast (1020b). Main dip direction SW Geomorphic expression none Age of faulted deposits at the surface late Holocene?? (Cetin. which show steep dips ranging from about 80° NE to about 60° SW. The actual length and details of the subsurface extent of the Meers fault are not well known.16 Cumulative trace (km): 72. Unnamed (northwest) section Section number 1020a Section name Unnamed (northwest) section Comments: Cetin (1990 #658. Jones-Cecil. 1992 #674) discusses this section of the fault. 1963 #667) and magnetic (Jones-Cecil and Crone. Quality of location Poor Comments: Location based on 1:100. This section is confined to Kiowa County and extends from near Sugar Creek on the northwest to the Comanche County line on the southeast. In the exposures discussed by Cetin (1992 #674). and is referred to as section "a" in this compilation.

At these sites he reports folding in Paleozoic rocks that are commonly undeformed elsewhere.. he only discussed three exposures. 2) on Longhorn Creek (NW. (apparently uncalibrated ages) on soil organics in stream exposures.P. T. 23. He indicates that the faulting is late Holocene in age because of radiocarbon ages of 1090 yr B. and overthickened A horizons on the downthrown side of the fault. and Sugar Creek and their tributaries for evidence of deformation and possible faulting. but long-term slip rate is probably much less that 1 mm/yr due to poor surface expression of fault.. It is difficult to confidently determine the stratigraphic relations between the dated samples and the inferred faulting. Average strike (azimuth) -23. displaced terrace deposits. and 3) on Sugar Creek (SW. NE. as described above. deflected stream alignments. in most discussions of the region's Quaternary tectonics. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: The only studies of this section of the fault are those of Cetin (1990 #658.74 Comment: This section is poorly studied and poorly mapped. 5 N. Sec 16. all of which are in Kiowa County: 1) a site on a branch of Saddle Mountain Creek (NE. Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. 5 N. 14 W. R. and buried fragments of soil A horizons in colluvium on the downthrown side of the fault as evidence of Holocene fault movement in this area. 30.. NW. 14 W. cracks in the rocks that are filled with Quaternary sediments.). Without further study. Unnamed (southeast) section Section number 1020b Section name Unnamed (southeast) section Comments: Fault has not been formally divided into sections or segments. so the significance of these length values is uncertain. 14 W.). only part of the entire fault has a Quaternary scarp.P. but in the 1992 report. the "Meers fault" usually refers to this section 30 . He mapped seven exposures in detail. SW. R. R.3° 1020b.2 mm/yr Comments: Little is known about the surface-faulting events on this section. Sec.). probably <0. 1992 #674) in which he cites buried organic soil horizons. although. and 706 yr B.35 Cumulative: 27. 5 N. the evidence of late Holocene rupture on this section is suspect because relations between dated samples and stratigraphic units that are inferred to indicate faulting are unclear. Sec. T. T. The subdued geomorphic expression of the fault along this section argues that the late Quaternary slip rate on this section is lower than the rate on the southeastern section (1020b). Therefore. The absence of a conspicuous scarp along this section of the fault seems to be contrary to the inference of late Holocene faulting. Longhorn Mountain Creek.Paleoseismological studies Cetin (1992 #674) examined natural exposures along the banks of Saddle Mountain Creek. Length (km) End to end: 18.

1990 #659) to >5:1 (Crone and Luza. Army Fort Sill. Southeastward from the Richards Spur area. Quality of location Good Comments: The northwestern 26-km-long part of this section from the northern boundary of Comanche County to about 1. The northeasterly to vertical dips in the shallow subsurface may be the result of steepening and refraction of fault as it approaches the surface. At depth. the scarp is formed on the Hennessey Shale. In the Post Oak terrain. Sense of movement: Sinistral reverse Comments: Estimates of the ratio of sinistral to vertical displacement vary from approximately 1. Main dip direction SW Geomorphic expression This section has a prominent. discontinuous. The scarp is formed on two lithologically different Permianage rock types. Miller and others.000scale topographic maps. which is a well-indurated. The northwestern part of the scarp is formed on the Post Oak Conglomerate. A ratio of 2:1 is probably a good general estimate. Dip 40°SW-76°NE Comments: Drill-hole and seismic-reflection data indicate that the major faults in the frontal fault system dip at moderate angles to the southwest. which is much less resistant to erosion. discontinuous. these subtle scarps have not been carefully checked in the field because they are in an artillery range of the U. 1990 #665).000-scale map shown as figure 5 of Ramelli and others (1987 #668). more subtle scarps increase the total length of this section to 37 km (Ramelli and Slemmons. The location of the subtle scarps is based on a 1:160.S. 1987 #668). 31 . the fault probably dips to the southwest. linear scarp for 26 km and to the southeast. arcuate scarps. The part of the fault discussed in this section extends from the northern boundary of Comanche County southeastward to near Beef Creek. continuous.J. at depth.000-scale aerial photographs and transferring its location to 1:50. the scarp is very prominent and sharp. The 9-km-long subtle scarps at the eastern end of this section are not obvious on conventional aerial photography. 1990 #661). in contrast to the subsurface Meers fault which is much longer than the fault scarp. 1989 #660)). In the shallow subsurface.3:1 (Kelson and Swan. 1990 #664). Eastward from about 2 km west of Canyon Creek. The location of the 26-km-long section is based on A. whereas in the Hennessey terrain. The linear part of the scarp strikes N. especially on low-sun-angle photography (Ramelli and others. Crone's mapping of the scarp using 1: 18. the Meers fault has a moderate dip (about 40°) to southwest (McConnell. resistant limestone-pebble conglomerate in a calcareous matrix. The very linear trace of the fault suggests that it has a near-vertical dip in the shallow subsurface. an additional 9 km of subtle.of the fault that has a Quaternary scarp. it is more subdued but still obvious on conventional and low-sun-angle aerial photography and on the ground. 1987 #668). their existence was recognized from low-sun-angle photography (Ramelli and others. Reverse sense of movement is based on northeasterly dip in shallow subsurface. which is a tributary of East Cache Creek. nearvertical to northeasterly dips are common (Crone and Luza. 60° W.5 km southwest of Richards Spur has a prominent scarp that is very obvious. 1990 #661. however.

scarp profiles 32 . uphill-facing scarp on Post Oak Conglomerate that has disrupted the gradient of several small drainages and ponded alluvium against the scarp. Starting from the northwest. The most recent event immediately preceded deposition of a younger colluvial wedge that yielded a radiocarbon age of 1050 yr B. 1020b-3). The trenches exposed two fault-related colluvial wedges.4 to 5. Paleoseismological studies Detailed studies have been conducted at 5 locations along this section. 1988 #662. Madole.P. Swan and others. Ramelli and others.7 m to 2. A network of 7 trenches at this site indicate about 1.P for the age of the most recent event. Based on the similar size of the scarp here with the measured vertical offsets at sites in the Post Oak Conglomerate terrain (sites 1020b-1. Luza and others (1987 #669). Their best estimate of sinistral displacement is about 9 m. Here. Scarp-derived colluvial wedges indicate two late Holocene faulting events. 1987 #544. the two Holocene events recorded elsewhere along this section likely ruptured the fault at this site.6 m. Studies of these trenches yield estimates of vertical displacement that range from 0.8 m of vertical and 3. 1993 #675). At this site. the absence of this evidence may be related to the abundant ductile deformation in the shale. Site 1020b-4 is the "Canyon Creek" site of Luza and others (1987 #544). The older event preceded deposition of a colluvial-wedge deposit that yielded a radiocarbon age of 3400 yr B.1 m of sinistral displacement in a channel thalweg. Kelson and Swan. written commun. The vertical displacement from brittle deformation at this site is estimated to be about 1.P. Crone and Luza (1990 #661). 1990 #661. Holocene movement on the fault has created a 1. 1990 #659. Crone and Luza. 1987 #668. radiocarbon dating of stratigraphic units in the trenches indicates that the older event occurred sometime before 1700 years ago and the younger event probably occurred about 1050 years ago. 1987 #669. 1993 #675) where a 1. and the younger event occurred 800-1600 years ago. Two trenches at this site were excavated in Hennessey Shale and Quaternary alluvium. a small northeastward-flowing drainage has deposited alluvium against an uphill-facing scarp.1-m-high. Without a free face. At site 1020b-2 "Northwestern Ponded Alluvium" site of Kelson and Swan (1990 #659) and Swan and others (written commun. The trenches did not find convincing stratigraphic evidence of multiple Holocene faulting events. the age of the older event is bracketed between 2000 and 2900 years ago. 1020b-2. and the total vertical deformation from both faulting and folding is estimated to be about 3.0 m. These trenches did yield an estimate of 1100-1300 yr B.Age of faulted deposits at the surface late Holocene (Luza and others. 1993 #675). 1993 #675). Crone and Luza (1990 #661). which minimized the likelihood of a surface-rupturing earthquake forming a scarp with a discrete free face. Kelson and Swan (1990 #659) and Swan and others (written commun.7 m and estimates of sinistral displacement that range from 3.5-m-high scarp is formed on Holocene alluvium. 1993 #675). site 1020b-1 is named the "Valley site" of Kelson and Swan (1990 #659) and Swan and others (written commun. 1993 #675) excavated a network of trenches parallel to and across the scarp.8 m. faulting-related colluvial wedges never formed to leave a record of multiple rupturing events. Kelson and Swan (1990 #659) and Swan and others (written commun. A 21-m-long trench at this site exposed stratigraphic evidence of two late Holocene faulting events. Site 1020b-3 corresponds to the "Ponded Alluvium" sites of Crone and Luza (1990 #661) and the "Southeastern Ponded-Alluvium" site of Kelson and Swan (1990 #659) and Swan and others (written commun.

These relations indicate that the middle Pleistocene deposits have only been deformed by the late Holocene events. no surface faulting events have occurred for 100 k. or more. 1988 #662.000-2. 1993 #675) on both deposits. (written commun.4 m (Kelson and Swan.7 k. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: Two late Holocene events are documented--one between 1. Recurrence interval 0. Luza and others. Swan and others.300 yrs ago (Luza and others. Crone and Luza.4 m) (Kelson and Swan (1990 #659) and Swan and others. written commun.300 and 2. Madole. written commun. prior to the two late Holocene events. 1990 #659.4 m thick adjacent to the fault.900 yrs ago. Topographic profiles of scarps formed on Pleistocene deposits show that the Pleistocene deposits are vertically offset about the same amount as the Holocene deposits (Crone and Luza. Based on the time interval between the two late Holocene events. 1993 #675). 1990 #659.800 years based on the estimated ages of these events (1. prior to the two late Holocene events.360±100 years old and greater than 470±150 years old. 1993 #675). However. Kelson and Swan.100-1.4-m-per-event value was determined at site 1020b-4 where only the ver- 33 . earlier and possibly many hundreds of thousands of years earlier. These data suggest that. 1987 #669. no surface ruptures had occurred extending back to at least middle Pleistocene time.9-4. Stratigraphic evidence of pre-Holocene faulting events is lacking. Radiocarbon dating brackets the age of the fan alluvium to be less that 1.6 m and as large as 3.on Holocene deposits and on middle(?) Pleistocene deposits indicate a similar amount of vertical displacement (5. Based on the degree of soil development on these deposits. 1990 #659). Site 1020b-5 is the "Browns Creek" site of Madole (1988 #662). Swan and others. 1990 #661.800 years apart and any older events are more than about 130 ky.9 mm/yr.y. The discontinuous scarps east of the prominent linear scarp are unstudied but are presumed to be Holocene in age. 1987 #544.2 mm/yr Comments: There are no known published slip rates for this section of the Meers fault. respectively). Therefore. The only slip-per-event data available are the Holocene events are based on measuring the total slip for the two late Holocene events and dividing the value by 2. Kelson and Swan. they are thought to be middle Pleistocene in age (on the order of 130-790 ka) (Madole.y. and a preceding event between 2.1-5. (<2.100-1.6-1. probably 0. The 3. the late Holocene slip rate would be about 0. probably because slip rate is difficult to determine because geologic evidence indicates temporal clustering of events—the two late Holocene events occurred about 700-1. which yields slip-per-event estimates as small as 1. it is difficult to assign a conventional recurrence interval because the available data suggests temporal clustering of events. Slip-rate category unknown.900 yrs ago (Kelson and Swan. 1988 #662). 1990 #659). but these must be viewed as a maximum values. The only geologic constraints on the time of the surface deformation that preceded these two Holocene events is that it occurred more than 100 k.000-2. 1990 #661.y. Natural exposures along the creek reveal fault-related fan alluvium that is at least 1.9 ka) Comments: The recurrence interval is based on timing of the two documented Holocene events. The time between the late Holocene events is 700-1.

The conclusion is clear-—the long-term slip rate for this section of the Meers fault is very likely a small fraction of a millimeter per year. H.31 Cumulative: 45. If we use a conservative estimate of 200. 1990. The cumulative net slip in Quaternary deposits is on the order of 3. and Luza. Thus. 1990 #659. Proceedings.V. then the long-term slip rate is 0. then the slip rate is 0. written commun. which is computed using the time interval between the two late Holocene events. 22. The northwest continuation of the Meers fault and its tectonic activity in southwestern Oklahoma: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. April 1-3.059 mm/yr. Geological evidence indicates that the short-term.9–5. v. 1992.6 m in 1. #661 Crone.8° Endpoints (lat.6 m. and the short-term rate. ed.2 mm/yr because this value probably reflects the long-term rate of displacements on the fault Length (km) End to end: 35. Holocene slip rate is anomalously high compared to the fault's long-term behavior..000 years old. 1-17. p. The age of the scarp at this location is unknown. Thus we assign the Meers fault of a slip-rate category of less than 0.68"N.. Boise. then the calculated slip rates decrease accordingly.) 34° 50' 50.800 yr and 3. K..9 mm/yr (1.039-0. 1993 #675). A. The measurements of lateral and vertical displacement along the fault presented by Ramelli and others (1987 #668) and Ramelli and Slemmons (1990 #665) permit another estimate of a long-term slip rate. 98° 17' 24.000 years (the minimum estimated age of the Quaternary deposits). the scarp could be hundreds of thousands of years old.—long.J.83"N. 43-58. the values probably have very large uncertainties. 34 .. and the scarp is slightly less than 5 m high. p. H. Idaho. These authors note a location near the center of the scarp where the lateral slip may be about 20 m. in Sharma.1 mm/yr. S. indicates an anomalously high rate of fault slip. Average strike (azimuth) -27. 1990.04 mm/yr. but it is formed in the highly resistant Post Oak Conglomerate. These values suggest a net slip of about 20. v.9-4. 3. #674 Cetin. The northwest extension of the Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma. p. Style and timing of Holocene surface faulting on the Meers fault. then the maximum long-term slip rates are 0. 102.000 years for the age of the scarp in resistant bedrock. If these total slip values are divided by 100.9 m (Kelson and Swan. if the bedrock scarp is 500. Swan and others. 98° 38' 20..11 Comment: This section is relatively well studied and mapped using low-sun-angle air photography. southwestern Oklahoma: Geological Society of America Bulletin.74"W 34° 42' 41.tical component of slip was measured. If the Quaternary deposits are actually older. 1992.4 m in 700 yr). Proceedings of the 28th symposium on engineering geology and geotechnical engineering: 28th Symposium on Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering. These ranges of inter-event times and slip-per-event yield a short-term Holocene slip rate of 0.07"W References #658 Cetin. however.

. ed. Oklahoma: Geological Society of America Bulletin.I.B.. A.C. Seventeenth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings of the U. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. in Weiss. Shallow seismic reflection survey across the Meers fault.F. K. 1989.. p.000.. The Meers fault—Unusual aspects and possible tectonic consequences: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 53 p. and Crone.. 341-365. K. D. A.H. B. v. #671 Gilbert. 1990. Determination of offset across the northern margin of the Wichita uplift.J. Total-field aeromagnetic and derivative maps of the Lawton area.. ed. 75 p. 1989. p. Paleoseismic history of the Meers fault. K. P. 2 pls. D.. B.V. p.W. and Swan.J. 988-999. v. M. 102. 56. Madole. v.. v. R. 35 . M. v. A.]: EOS....C. 1. 64. #663 Jones-Cecil. p. Faulted fold belts of southern Anadarko basin adjacent to Frontal Wichitas: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. and implications for evaluations of earthquake hazards in the Central and Eastern United States. and Slemmons. #544 Luza.J.. #665 Ramelli.F.. 1987.H. 2 pls.F.. Madole. Faults in sedimentary part of Wichita Mountains of Oklahoma: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. 1988. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CP-0105. 1990. M.. 392-401. R. southwestern Oklahoma: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 100. 1988: Oklahoma Geological Survey Circular 90. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR-4937. The Meers fault of southwestern Oklahoma—Evidence for possible strong Quaternary seismicity in the midcontinent [abs.. #669 Luza. eds. scale 1:100. R. #666 Harlton. v. #664 Miller. Investigation of the Meers fault.S. F. #667 Harlton. R. p. 101.D.... 35.S..H. 1951. 1972.A. southwestern Oklahoma: U. p. p. and Crone. 1990.H. 18-25. A.. Frontal Wichita fault system of southwestern Oklahoma: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. 1963. Implications of the Meers fault on seismic potential in the Central United States. v. and Crone.. #659 Kelson. southwestern Oklahoma... 313. #673 Jones-Cecil.S. 47. 1983.. K.... 18.#672 Gilbert. #662 Madole. 1987. E. #660 McConnell. in Johnson. southwest Oklahoma: Geological Society of America Bulletin.J.B. 13171332.V. 1983. #670 Harlton.R. Constraints on the Anadarko basin-Wichita uplift boundary interpreted from aeromagnetic data. Stratigraphic evidence of Holocene faulting in the mid-continent— The Meers fault. v. in press. v. D. 1552-1580..S.. and Slemmons. p. Anadarko basin symposium. p. D. Geological Survey Geophysical Investigations Series Map GP-998-A. 1544-1551. A. in Krinitzsky. Investigation of the Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma: U. M. 228-232.. 2. 2 sheets. B. southwestern Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey Special Publication 87-1.B.. and Myers. Steeples.L. p.

Slemmons.R.. #668 Ramelli. 98°37'30" 34°52'30" 98°30'00" 98°22'30" KIOWA CO. 1993. and Perman.. D. Hanson. A. 59-75. Washington.B.. 1987. F.C. 8.. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. and Brocoum. K. R. Draft report—Investigation of the Quaternary structural and tectonic character of the Meers fault (southwestern Oklahoma): Technical report to U. The Meers fault—Tectonic activity in southwestern Oklahoma: U..H. under Contract NRC-04-87-007. K.C. 25 p. 36 .R. 3 pls. southeastern Oklahoma. D.Neotectonics in earthquake evaluation: Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology.S.I.S. #675 Swan.. J. v. Wesling. Solid dots identify location of sites that are discussed in the text. July 1993.. written commun. 104 p. S. SLI CK HIL CADDO COUNTY LS Can yon COMANCHE COUNTY 10 20 b- 1 20 b2 Jimm y Cree 10 Ke 10 20 b- 3 k tch Cr 10 20 b- 4 Cr ee k ee k Med icin e UP DO WN Meers Creek 58 Porter Hill 10 e 20 b- 5 62 L ak 115 WIC 34°45'00" L H I TA aw MOU to N TA nk INS a 49 44 49 49 0 1 2 3 4 5 kilometers Figure 8...J. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR-4852. p. Kelson.A.. Schematic diagram shows location of selected sites along the eastern section of the Meers fault scarp (1020b).

At present. U. Other than the pervasive sand blows throughout the seismic zone. revised May. Recent studies of the scarp have provided valuable information on the recurrence of deformation on the scarp. Date of compilation April 12. April. 37 . Mississippi. Missouri. 1999. 1994 #754. at least three major earthquakes occurred in the New Madrid seismic zone. Reelfoot scarp and the New Madrid seismic zone (Class A) Structure Number 1023 Structure Name Reelfoot scarp and the New Madrid seismic zone (Class A) Comments: These features are located in the central part of the Mississippi River Valley. Rhea and others. Mississippi. Dunklin. 2000.1023. in part because the seismogenic faults are not expressed or are poorly expressed at the surface. 1994. along the western margin of Reelfoot Lake. Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. The earthquakes produced widespread liquefaction throughout the seismic zone and prominent to subtle surface deformation is several areas. Crittenden. Furthermore. and (3) areas of abundant liquefaction during the 1811-1812 earthquakes. Kentucky County Craighead. The three most commonly noted features associated with the contemporary deformation are: (1) the Lake County uplift and Reelfoot scarp. Lake (Tennessee) 1° x 2° sheet Blytheville. and the history of faulting. structural and tectonic information about specific seismogenic faults is limited. Poplar Bluff Province Coastal Plain Quality of location Good Comments: Many features shown on maps of the New Madrid seismic zone are not discrete faults. but they did not produce any known surface faulting. calculated uplift rates. Schweig. Pemiscot (Missouri). the most notable exception is the Reelfoot scarp. Missouri. Missouri area (Wheeler and Rhea.S. to a point south of the lake. so only the geologically youngest deformation is expressed at the surface. Crone and E. It is the most prominent geomorphic feature in the entire seismic zone that is clearly known to have a tectonic origin. 1994 #3814). Tennessee. The Reelfoot scarp is a topographic escarpment that extends south-southeastward from near the town of New Madrid.S. Memphis. New Madrid. Dyersburg. Poinsett (Arkansas). and the area remains the most seismically active area in central and eastern North America. Dyer. the entire river valley is covered by latest Quaternary sediments. (2) areas of suspected coseismic subsidence. The locations of these features are derived from the digital data used to generate the suite of seismotectonic maps of the New Madrid. which is located along the western shore of Reelfoot Lake in extreme northwestern Tennessee. Synopsis: In the winter of 1811-1812. the Reelfoot scarp is the most prominent geomorphic feature that has been produced by the modern tectonism. The 1811-1812 earthquakes were among the largest historical earthquakes to occur in North America and were perhaps the largest historical intraplate earthquakes in the world. Geological Survey State Arkansas.

During the Late Paleozoic and much of the Mesozoic. The modern seismicity is largely associated with rift-related features. radiometric dating of a mica-peridotite dike in a drill hole near Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee yielded an age of 267 Ma. and the Reelfoot rift was filled with a 1. 1975 #735). The southwesternmost trend is a narrow. including the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. During the late Cretaceous and continuing through the Eocene. ancient faults. mafic igneous dikes and sills intruded the sedimentary rocks. and the Marathon rift (Thomas. subsidence resulted in formation of the Mississippi embayment. In early Holocene time. which also reveals the presence of major positive magnetic anomalies along the flanks and axis of the rift that are inferred to be mafic plutons (Hildenbrand and others. Braided streams that transported the meltwater deposited outwash sand and gravel in the embayment that is typically tens of meters thick in the New Madrid region. Within this stress field. 120-km-long zone of earthquakes in northeastern Arkansas and extreme southeastern Missouri. 1991 #678). Hildenbrand. 1982 #721. In late Quaternary time and probably in earlier episodes. It is likely that the Reelfoot rift is generally contemporaneous with other large-scale late Precambrian-Early Paleozoic. the Rough Creek-Rome graben system. a series of igneous intrusions were emplaced along the margins of the rift. the Mississippi River changed from a braided stream to a meandering regime and began developing the modern meander belt. this zone of earthquakes roughly coincides with the position of an axial fault zone that is commonly present 38 .Geologic setting The modern seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone is intimately associated with the Reelfoot rift (Ervin and McGinnis. have been reactivated mainly as strike-slip faults. The follow sequence of events summarizes the geologic history of the Reelfoot rift and the current tectonic setting of the New Madrid seismic zone. As a meandering river. The contemporary seismicity and current deformation in the New Madrid region is controlled by a regional stress field in which the maximum compressive stress is oriented approximately east-northeast-west-southwest. extensional features along the rifted margin of southeastern North America.to 4-km-thick sequence of marine clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks. Also in early Cretaceous time. 70-kmwide graben that has as much as 2 km of structural relief on magnetic basement (Hildenbrand and others. although extensional features are not known. Hildenbrand. Oligocene sediments are generally absent in the northern Mississippi embayment. probably beginning in early to middle Cretaceous time. the emplacement of these intrusions is cited as evidence of reactivation of the rift. The rift is best defined by magnetic data. Active rifting ceased by Late Cambrian time. 1985 #736). linear. tremendous volumes of glacial meltwater from much of North America flowed down the Mississippi-Ohio Rivers drainage system and through the northern embayment. The embayment was filled with a southward-thickening wedge of predominantly clastic marine and continental sediments. and several kilometers of sedimentary rocks were eroded from the crest of the Pascola arch. fine-grained overbank sediment that was deposited as annual floods spread across wide expanses of the modern river valley. a northeasterly-trending. In Permian time. 1985 #736). Near the end of the Mesozoic. Crustal extension that resulted in development of the Reelfoot rift began in latest Precambrian or Early Paleozoic time. The modern seismicity is concentrated into three major trends that form a zigzag pattern that has an overall northeasterly trend. regional subsidence occurred again. most of which originally formed as extensional features during rifting. the region was uplifted. 1982 #721.

but the available data indicates dextral slip on faults in this trend (Herrmann and Canas. Modeling of deformation and comparison with geomorphic features are consistent with this interpretation. Based on combined information from seismological. 2000 #3968). Pujol and others. which is an enigmatic subsurface structure that is only known from seismic-reflection data and is pre-middle Ordovician in age (Herrmann and Canas. 1979 #733). 1992 #730). Chiu and others.along the center of most rifts. At the northeastern end of this 120-kmlong zone. upward toward Reelfoot scarp. northeasterly trending seismicity zones (Herrmann and Canas. Few earthquakes in this trend have yielded good focal mechanisms. the scarp is composed of a series of flexures that collectively produce the total topographic relief on the scarp (Mueller and others. This zone of earthquakes is can be referred to as the "cross-rift" trend of seismicity because is cuts obliquely across the northeasterly trend of the Reelfoot rift. 1999 #3963. Herrmann. and at depths of less than 0. 1995 #3965. The two linear seismicity trends are linked by a zone of northwest-trending seismicity. Hypocenter locations indicate dips of about 31°-48° on faults in the cross-rift trend (Chiu and others. Crone and others. at depths of 7-14 km. 1992 #730). Kelson and others. the fault plane probably has a dip of 16° or less (Mueller and others. Missouri. Van Arsdale. Thus. Accurately located earthquakes in this northwesterly trend highlight the presence of a southwesterly dipping reverse fault (Chiu and others. 39 . 1992 #730.5 and 7 km. 1979 #733). recent studies suggest that many earthquakes in this cross-rift trend are occurring on southwesterly dipping reverse faults (Chiu and others. en echelon. Thus the current seismicity indicates that contemporary deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone is occurring on a two left-stepping.5 km. Herrmann. Focal mechanisms for earthquakes in this zone indicate mainly dextral slip (Herrmann and Canas. 1979 #733. 1996 #3811. 1978 #732. seismic-reflection profiling. 1978 #732. 1978 #732. which is summarized in the preceding section. the second seismicity trend extends north-northwestward from extreme northwestern Tennessee to near the town of New Madrid. In the shallow subsurface. Sense of movement dextral reverse Comments: The sense of movement on active faults is derived from seismological data. 1999 #3963). this plane has a dip of about 55° between depths of 0. These data indicate that the regional deformation is dominated by dextral slip in the two northeast-trending linear zones of seismicity. The third prominent zone of zone of earthquakes is a linear trend that extends northeasterly from the town of New Madrid and is close to the northwestern margin of the rift. 1992 #730). which is the down-dip extension of the Reelfoot fault. Herrmann. 1999 #3963) . Dip near-vertical to 31° Comments: Focal mechanisms and hypocenter locations indicate near-vertical dips for faults in the linear. Mueller and others. This zone of seismicity coincides with the Blytheville arch. Earthquakes in this trend form a diffuse pattern and have a variety of focal-mechanism solutions including reverse and normal faulting. 1998 #3793). Reelfoot scarp is interpreted as an east-dipping moncline which is the surface expression of a fault-propagation fold associated with the underlying blind Reelfoot thrust fault (Van Arsdale and others. 1985 #728). and geological studies. geomorphic. 1978 #732. the microseismicity indicates that the Reelfoot fault has a dip of about 34° (Chiu and others. 1992 #730). dextral slip faults.

even though the shallow sediments are only tilted to the east at slopes of 5-7° (Mueller and others. no scarps are known. Initial studies of the surficial effects of the 1811-1812 earthquakes suggested possible uplift elsewhere in the New Madrid region (Fuller. Missouri. appear on old maps. 1979 #753). and seismic-reflection data shows that the scarp coincides with the Reelfoot fault. A trench across the scarp exposed a group of normal faults at the scarp’s base (Russ. Francis (1023-4) "sunklands" in northeastern Arkansas (Guccione and others. 1912 #723). 1994 #739). 1998 #3966). Of the many "sunklands" described by Fuller (1912 #723). or a combination of both processes. 1992 #729. which is the result of a monoclinal flexure. uplift of the Lake County uplift. Guccione and others. a teardrop-shaped uplift in extreme northwestern Tennessee that has a maximum length of about 50 km and maximum width of about 23 km (Russ. One area of probable subsidence is Reelfoot Lake (Van Arsdale and others. only two have been studied in sufficient detail to provide insight into their origin: the Big Lake (feature 1023-3) and the St. 1999 #3963). 1982 #722). with secondary normal faulting across the crest of the flexure (Kelson and others. which includes the blind Reelfoot thrust fault. The scarp is the only tectonic scarp in the entire seismic zone. but recent work suggests that the scarp extends from west of New Madrid.Main dip direction SW for faults in cross-rift trend. but on the basis of seismic-reflection and geomorphic data. which separates the uplift from Reelfoot Lake on the east. 1979 #731). Part of the eastern margin of the Lake County uplift is defined by Reelfoot scarp (feature 1023-2). Farther southeastward. Historical accounts and geomorphic evidence indicate that the lake was enlarged as a result of the earthquakes (Russ. The most prominent geomorphic expression of the contemporary tectonism is the Lake County uplift (feature 1023-1). 1996 #3811). Guccione and Hehr. 1991 #737. 1999 #3963). along the west side of Reelfoot Lake to just south of the lake: a total distance of about 32 km. Original studies of the scarp traced its length for a distance of only 11 km. Kelson and others. but geologic and geomorphic studies have yet to confirm the presence of these features. a near-vertical down-to-the-east fault (Zoback. Van Arsdale and others (1999 #3967) propose that the subsurface fault may be approximately 70 km long. Geomorphic studies indicate that recent deformation the uplift has elevated the late Holocene fluvial sediments as much as 9 m. which resulted in damming of drainage through Reelfoot Lake. Bathymetric and sedimentologic evidence and radiocarbon dating suggest that these areas were drowned in a time frame that is consistent with subsidence induced by the 1811-1812 earthquakes. 1988 #3809. The surface expression of Reelfoot scarp is most distinctive along the western margin of Reelfoot Lake. Recent studies have revealed as much as 9 m of structural relief on the scarp (Mueller and others. described by Fuller (1912 #723) and predicted by modeling. but it is unclear if the enlargement was the result of subsidence beneath the lake. Fuller (1912 #723) also noted several areas where subsidence probably or possibly occurred during the 1811-1812 earthquakes. 40 . 1982 #722). Other "sunklands". but have not been studied. Geomorphic expression The geomorphology of the New Madrid seismic zone is dominated by the fluvial features of the Mississippi River and the latest Pleistocene braided stream terraces that are primarily composed of outwash sand and gravel. through the Kentucky bend.

Age of faulted deposits at the surface Late Holocene fluvial sediments are deformed in the Lake County uplift and along Reelfoot scarp. Crone and others. In detail. but the sense of topographic relief varies. 135-km-long lineament named the Bootheel lineament (feature 10235) has been speculated to be the surface expression of a coseismic fault related to the 18111812 earthquakes (Schweig and Marple. Eight trenches have been excavated across the feature at four sites. parts of the lineament are composed of individual. Schweig and others. 1988 #715). 1991 #725. Extensive liquefaction occurred during the 1811-1812 earthquakes. especially major sand-blow feeder dikes (Schweig and Marple. 1991 #725. in places the western side is high and elsewhere. and (4) meander scars that appear to truncate at the lineament (Schweig and Marple. en echelon. Wesnousky and Leffler (1992 #713). unconsolidated "substratum" sand and gravel. (3) continuous and discontinuous linear sand bodies at the surface. The most widespread expression of recent strong earthquakes in the New Madrid region is the abundant liquefaction features (sand blows and sand-filled fissures). The 1811-1812 earthquakes caused at least 221 landslides along the bluffs that define the eastern boundary of the Mississippi River alluvial plain (Jibson and Keefer. (2) shallow linear depressions along the feature. and Tuttle and Barstow (1996 #3815) describe the attributes of selected sand blows and liquefaction features from the 1811-1812 earthquakes. Missouri on the northeast to south of Marked Tree. 1992 #726. This implies that most of the landslides were triggered by a single event.to 60-km-wide belt from near Charleston. Geologic conditions in the New Madrid region are near optimum for the development of liquefaction features during strong earthquakes: a thin (2-8 m thick). locally the ground surface was buried by more than 1 m of liquefied sand. which are concentrated in a 40. The origin of the lineament is still unclear. The expression of the lineament varies along strike and is marked by (1) a distinct contrast in the density of sand blows and liquefied sand. Obermeier and others (1990 #717). Dynamic and static slope stability analyses of one landslide revealed that the landslide would be stable under all geologic conditions except those caused by strong earthquake-induced ground motion (Jibson and Keefer. Rodbell and Schweig (1993 #716). fine-grained "topstratum" deposit overlies water-saturated. small-displacement reverse faults are associated 41 .0 m of topographic relief across the feature. 1988 #3813). 1992 #726). using historical descriptions of the effects of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. 1995 #883). Locally there is as much as 1. suggest that the first large event occurred. in part. linear segments. These trenching studies have revealed that the lineament is typically associated with largescale liquefaction features. that is. which is likely to have been the 1811-1812 earthquakes. but Schweig and Marple (1991 #725) speculate that it may mark the location of a lateral-slip fault even though little of the modern seismicity is spatially associated with it. 1988 #715). Schweig and others. which indicates that they did not form within the last few decades and field evidence suggests that most of the landslides are approximately the same age (Jibson and Keefer. 1992 #714). The majority of the landslides are covered by mature vegetation. Arkansas (Obermeier. Schweig and others. Johnston and Schweig (1996 #3810). 1991 #725. and hundreds of square kilometers of the land surface are have been mapped as being more than 25 percent covered by liquefied sand (Obermeier.A recently recognized. 1988 #3813). Haller and Crone (1986 #718). 1992 #726). on the Bootheel lineament. the eastern side is high.

Rodbell and Schweig. others. 1992 #706) . 1996 #3811).L. 1996 #3811) have constrained the timing of the most recent paleoevent on the scarp to have occurred between A. Borehole data and trenches at three sites characterized the style of near-surface deformation associated with the scarp and constrain the timing of three deformation events on the scarp. numerous studies have examined diverse aspects of the geology. 1992 #705). Many of those studies are cited in other parts of this discussion. Paleoseismological studies The first detailed studies of the 1811-1812 earthquakes and their surficial effects was conducted by M. Late Holocene fluvial deposits are warped into an 8-m-high.D. 1912 #723). 1992 #705. geomorphology. including all recent studies by the same investigators.with the scarp but it is not clear if these faults are directly connected to the Reelfoot fault at depth. Detailed studies of the Reelfoot scarp in northwestern Tennessee have documented evidence of three deformation events within the past 2. in part.250 radiocarbon years for the fluvial sediments exposed in his trench across Reelfoot scarp (feature 1023-2). Although some earlier studies reported no definitive evidence of pervasive liquefaction similar to that which occurred in 1811-1812 in the region during the Holocene (Wesnousky and Leffler. 1310 and A. east-facing monocline. The lack of nearby stratigraphic control precluded determining if this reflector represented Holocene strata.D. 1992 #713. Subsequent trenching studies (Kelson and others. 900 (see below). 1995 #3820). coincides with the southeastern margin of the Reelfoot rift and has sense of vertical offset that is opposite to the net structural relief in the underlying rift (Crone. 539 and presents weaker evidence of a younger event about 42 . Timing of most prehistoric deformation latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: Some details of the chronology of prehistoric earthquakes in the New Madrid region are becoming clear after more than two decades of work. and tectonics of the New Madrid region. An exploratory trench coincident with the very high-resolution reflection profile failed to find any unequivocal evidence of Holocene movement on the fault zone (Crone and others. Fuller nearly a century after the shocks (Fuller.D. Deformation associated with the fault zone can be confidently traced through the Tertiary rocks that fill the Mississippi embayment (Luzietti and others. Since Fuller’s pioneering work. 1995 #883). Very high-resolution reflection data confirm that late Quaternary deposits are faulted. In the northern part of the seismic zone. The Crittenden County fault zone (feature 1023-6) in northeastern Arkansas has no known surface expression but extensive seismic-reflection studies suggest that Quaternary sediments are deformed by movement on the fault (Luzietti and others. Saucier (1991 #711) reported evidence of a strong earthquake north of New Madrid that occurred shortly before A. 1992 #705). 1540 and have yielded equivocal evidence of a preceding event that occurred prior to about A. Crone.D. Drill-hole and seismic-reflection data show that the top of Paleozoic rocks are vertically offset about 80 m across the fault zone and that shallower strata are offset progressively less (Luzietti and others.400 years and characterized the style of nearsurface deformation associated with the scarp (Kelson and others. and a deformed reflector as shallow as 6-7 m could be resolved with these data (Williams and others. 1992 #729. have demonstrated repeated late Holocene paleoliquefaction on a regional scale. The fault zone. 1992 #706). 1993 #716). Russ (1979 #753) described stratigraphic evidence of two prehistoric earthquakes that postdate the maximum age of 2.

It is not clear if these rate estimates reflect the overall behavior of major events for the entire seismic zone or only apply to the Reelfoot scarp. and caused minor reactivation of small faults that bound an extensional graben in the uplifted (hanging wall) of the Reelfoot scarp (Kelson and others. The oldest documented event associated with the scarp occurred between A.A. 1996 #3811) have suggested a recurrence interval of about 500-1100 years for earthquakes that are large enough to produce significant surface deformation or liquefaction in various parts of the seismic zone. 1996 #3819) and Tuttle and others (1996 #3816. potentially damaging earthquakes in the NMSZ has been elusive. Despite the lack of well-constrained slip-rate data for specific faults in the New Madrid region. 1996 #3811). 900. 1998 #3817) report widespread evidence throughout the New Madrid seismic zone of a prehistoric event around A. Tuttle and others. reliable geologic data on the recurrence of strong. 1996 #3819. Kelson and others. it is impossible to estimate reliable or even meaningful Holocene or late Quaternary slip rates.D. Paleoseismic studies (Russ. 1995 #3818. we choose to categorize the recurrence interval as unknown. Tuttle and others (1998 #3817) have found evidence from the central and northern parts of the seismic zone for an earthquake that occurred A. The most recent studies (Tuttle and Schweig. The penultimate deformation event occurred between A. 900 to A. In the absence of better data for the entire seismic zone. 1998 #3817) suggest that there were about 900 years between the last two New-Madrid-size events (A. However. 1992 #729. 780 and 1000 (1000-1120 yr B.D. folded the fluvial sediments. 1260 and 1650 (350-740 yr B.D. However.D.D.000 years ago is widespread and well dated archeologically and with radiocarbon age determinations.). the record studied thus far is too short to be used for a long-term recurrence rate. 1996 #3816.P. and initially produced the small graben in the hangingwall of the Reelfoot fault. produced about 1. Recurrence interval unknown Comments: Despite considerable efforts. currently available paleoseismic data in parts of the New Madrid region suggests the occurrence of a penultimate event about 470 years ago. Tuttle and Schweig (1995 #3818. 1979 #753. evidence for an event at 1. and the currently available data are limited. Deformation on the scarp associated with the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquake sequence produced extensive liquefaction. but the evidence is not uniform or widespread. some general inferences can be made about general deformation rates using structural 43 . Saucier. 991. 1530±130yr. inconclusive and contradictory.D. with a more likely range of about 400-500 years.D. The detailed investigations of the Reelfoot scarp described above provide information that permitted Kelson and others (1996 #3811) to estimate a recurrence interval of 150-900 years. 1991 #711.P.).3 m of throw in the grabenbounding faults. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: In the absence of well-determined data on the timing of paleoevents and the amount of tectonic slip produced by those events. 1811) and that widespread liquefaction occurs every few hundred years. and caused folding and development of the scarp. They have also found scattered evidence for earlier events that caused less liquefaction. Thus.

2 mmy/yr on the axial faults. 1999 #3963). discrete faults are not expressed at the surface. Also. 1999 #3964). there are other significant but unexposed faults in the seismic zone.and stratigraphic data (McKeown. The significance of the divergent results from these two studies remains unresolved and is the subject of considerable discussion. 1982 #709. which is a distance of about 180 km.8-2. these rates would have produced much more faulting and deformation in Paleozoic and Cretaceous rocks than actually exists. it is not possible 44 . and some of the short-term slip rates are comparable the rates of major plate-boundary faults. 1982 #709).001-0. very short-term rate. Mueller and others (1999 #3963) compute a slip rate of 1. Geodetic data analyzed by Newman and others (1999 #3964) indicate virtually no significant deformation is currently occurring. Because various studies yield such diverse slip-rate estimates. Long-term slip rates of 0. 2000 #3968). on the southwest to near Charleston. Based on the geometric relationship between the Reelfoot fault and faults along the main rift-axis zone of seismicity. One geodetic study in part of the New Madrid seismic zone yields a very high contemporary slip rate of 5-7 mm/yr (Liu and others.7 mm/yr (Mueller and others. considering the lack of regional topography. Mesozoic and Cenozoic stratigraphic horizons and assigning an age for those horizons (McKeown. Based on the historical seismicity. Based on the amount of Holocene deformation associated with the Lake County uplift (feature 1023-1) and the Reelfoot scarp (1023-2). but this high slip rate must be an anomalously high. Overall. Average strike (azimuth) Not applicable Comment The New Madrid seismic zone is not a single feature but is defined by the region of abundant seismicity in the central Mississippi River Valley. the abundant seismicity extends from near Marked Tree. Van Arsdale. Therefore it is difficult to assign a specific length for the entire zone. Geodetic studies in the New Madrid seismic zone have yielded results that imply contrasting slip rates. Arkansas.0009 mm/yr result from measuring the amount of vertical displacement of various Paleozoic. Recent studies have shown that the Reelfoot scarp is about 32 km long and the subjacent Reelfoot fault may be as much as 70 km long. Missouri. 1992 #708). that is. These concentrations of microseismicity and the major earthquakes that occurred in 1811-1812 indicate that Quaternary faulting is occurring in the seismic zone. if sustained. Estimated short-term slip rates are much higher than these long-term values. A more recent geodetic study has questioned whether the Liu and others (1992 #708) results are statistically significant (Newman and others. However. their results show that the measured rate does not differ significantly from zero. this fault is the only that has conspicuous surface expression and therefore can be studied at the surface. we choose to define the slip rate for deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone as unknown. but diffuse seismicity extends a greater distance. A wide range of fault slip rates can be calculated in the New Madrid region depending on time intervals and datums that are being considered. the calculated rate on the fault is as much as 6. on the northeast. Length (km) Not applicable Comment: The New Madrid seismic zone is defined on the basis of abundant and widespread historical and microseismicity that is concentrated in three prominent trends. but with the exception of the Reelfoot scarp. Accordingly.1±0.

#723 Fuller. #739 Guccione.S.D. Arkansas: U. D. Arkansas. 1 sheet. 1985. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1858. J.C.. 84. p. New Madrid special issue: Seismological Research Letters.L. v. Paleoseismic studies of the Bootheel lineament. Origin of the "sunklands" in the new Madrid seismic zone—Tectonic or alluvial drowning? [abs.J. northeastern Arkansas.M. Crowley’s Ridge. M. 1992. and Hehr. which has a northeasterly trend. R... Geological Survey Bulletin 494. p... L. A. ed. 26. R. A.G. #728 Crone. 119 p. 1988. C.M. The Reelfoot scarp is a well-defined feature.M. M.B. #883 Crone. K. and Yang. Shedlock. and Crone. but is small in comparison to the general dimensions of the seismic zone. E. 4. New Madrid special issue: Seismological Research Letters. 547-550. 1 sheet. New Madrid seismic zone.. 1991.. McKeown. v. 225-230... Surface wave focal mechanisms for eastern North American earthquakes with tectonic implications: Journal of Geophysical Research. Herrmann. 86.T. 1975... Russ.. S.C.D. 249-262. Amount and timing of deformation near the St. Harding. A. A. #737 Guccione. B7.S. 1287-1295.... A.M.P. Herrmann. W. Log of an exploratory trench in the New Madrid seismic zone near Blytheville. in Johnston. A. III. #706 Crone. #733 Herrmann.J. and Zoback. 13. #718 Haller. 63.... and McGinnis. M.. and the Crittenden County fault zone.Q.C. 7.. 1992. R. M. R. v. v.to define an average strike but most of the seismicity is associated with the Reelfoot rift.S.J. South-central section: Geological Society of America Centennial Field Guide... Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2279. M. and Hopper. and VanArsdale.. 63.... northeastern Arkansas. 171-172. p. 45 . O. 3543-3552..A. p.B..J. 1986. and Rutledge. M. #735 Ervin.J. The New Madrid earthquake: U. eds.J. 375-393.. 21 p. southeastern Missouri. E.H. Hamilton.]: Seismological Research Letters.S. A. K. Prior. 1994. K. M.L. 1 plate. and Schweig.. 62.T. #3809 Guccione. 1995. Johnston.T..M.G.. 1912. The average azimuth of the Reelfoot scarp is 337°.. eds. M. Reelfoot rift—Reactivated precursor to the Mississippi embayment: Geological Society of America Bulletin. p. p. 1979. Y.. and Hopper. L. References #730 Chiu. J.B.P. F. Miller. R. Imaging the active faults of the central New Madrid seismic zone using PANDA array data. p.. Giardino. Structure of the New Madrid seismic source zone in southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas: Geology.M... central United States: U. northeastern Arkansas: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. pamphlet. Francis "sunklands". in Hayward.. v. no.B... v. Shedlock. Structural relations and earthquake hazards of the Crittenden County fault zone.. in Johnston. p.J. v. v.

1992. 1666-1669.A. K. Herrmann.. p.R...D. v. G. M. eds. K.C.D. p. E. Multiple Holocene earthquakes along the Reelfoot fault. 46 . Van Arsdale. J. #705 Luzietti. K. Focal mechanism studies in the New Madrid seismic zone: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America...B.. Analysis of the seismic origin of a landslide in the New Madrid seismic zone. L. C.. 1982. Simpson.. #3810 Johnston. 1996.C. 63. T. New Madrid special issue: Seismological Research Letters.W.. p. and Hendricks.S. 1988. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1236. 1-14. B14. #714 Jibson. 63.S. Landslides triggered by earthquakes in the central Mississippi Valley.. p. K. and geotechnical studies: U. and Segall. K.. Kane.P. Haraden. 257. and Keefer.. C1-C24.. A.M. 68.S. Missouri..M.. New Madrid special issue: Seismological Research Letters. earthquake region: U.D.B. L.B.. in Johnston. J. 101. and Crone.. W. p. Tennessee. eds.#732 Herrmann. #721 Hildenbrand.I.C. Lake County. 39-53. Magnetic basement in the upper Mississippi embayment region—A preliminary report. K... M. 1982.A. and Canas.. and Hopper. Shedlock. Champion. in McKeown. R. P. Shedlock. 12. 1992. Zoback. A. and Lettis. New Madrid special issue: Seismological Research Letters.. M. and Kelson. earthquake region: U... M.. Overview and discussion.622. and VanArsdale. in Johnston. Rift structure of the northern Mississippi embayment from the analysis of gravity and magnetic data: Journal of Geophysical Research. 339-384. D. and Hopper. 1095-1102. #708 Liu.. eds.. R.A. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone: Science. G. J. R. 1135-1138.M..G.. The enigma of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.. E. Herrmann. 1992.. 1985. Kanter.. v.G.K. p. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1236. Guccione.R.... 6151-6170. 24.J. v. central New Madrid seismic zone: Journal of Geophysical Research.. F. and Pakiser. v. Tennessee and Kentucky....607-12. J.F. v. #3963 Mueller. seismological.. p.B. Assessment of the style and timing of surficial deformation along the central Reelfoot scarp. R...C.B. in Johnston. Simpson. v. v.. A..G. F. Fault slip rates in the modern New Madrid seismic zone: Science.D.. A. R.. The New Madrid.I.-A. L. and Lettis. 286.C. D..C. Schweig. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1336-C. Missouri. A. 1999. 427-437. #3811 Kelson. R. G. #709 McKeown. p. in McKeown.. 349356.. #736 Hildenbrand. #715 Jibson. Harris. eds.W. 1996. VanArsdale. K. 90. W. and Hopper.D.M. Herrmann.. D.. M.. Missouri.. 1978.G. eds. and Keefer. no. #729 Kelson. v..B. p. L.. T. R. Shedlock. Shallow deformation along the Crittenden County fault zone near the southeastern boundary of the Reelfoot rift. and Pakiser. K. F.. northeast Arkansas.S. v. p.K.B. Investigations of the New Madrid. 263-275. Shedlock. in Russ. earthquake region—Geological. and Schweig. 63..G. 1992.C.B.. M. R. R..A. eds. p..R. Investigations of the New Madrid. p.

Geological Survey Professional Paper 1236-H. E. in Johnston.M.S.. M. v.T. #3815 Tuttle. III. Geoarchaeological evidence of strong prehistoric earthquakes in the New Madrid (Missouri) seismic zone: Geology. and Marple. E. 296-298..C. p. III. v. northwest Tennessee: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Dyer-Williams. 5668. Guccione.. R.G. v. 69. 103. F. T. v.. Liquefaction potential in the central Mississippi Valley: U.B.. #722 Russ.E. #678 Thomas. 1996. #3814 Rhea. D.F.T. and Li.. 44 p.B. Constrained joint location of New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes: Seismological Research Letters... 1998. D. Map showing seismicity and sandblows in the vicinity of New Madrid. An update of studies of the Bootheel lineament in the New Madrid seismic zone. R. 1025-1028. A. S.. and Barstow.. 1991... III. p.S. 83. 1999. 1982.. 636-645.#3964 Newman. p. #3816 Tuttle. #711 Saucier. S. Weems. M. 277-284. 1996. 1 plate. 19. Geological Survey Bulletin 1832. and Haynes. Shedlock. 90. Lopinot. v. v. p.. Bootheel lineament—A possible coseismic fault of the great New Madrid earthquakes: Geology. D.. Cande. 269-278. and Chiu. p. 21. S.. scale 1:250. Missouri. S. M. Herrmann. Jacobson.. #726 Schweig... 63.. and Dixon. III..S. #717 Obermeier. Marple. and Hopper.P. 1994. III. p.P.. R. 619-621.E. D. 1991. R. Mao. v. Gohn. R. M. p.T. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2264-A. The record of seismically induced liquefaction on late Quaternary terraces in northwestern Tennessee: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. #3793 Pujol. M. K. p. Herrman..S. eds.. New Madrid special issue: Seismological Research Letters. J. and Schweig. and Tarr... Weber.F. #753 Russ. J.H. 415-431.C.A. Schwig.S.. E.T. R.. 1988. Engeln. Earthquake-induced liquefaction features in the coastal setting of South Carolina and in the fluvial setting of the New Madrid seismic zone: U.. 1991.. N.. Monroe.. A. W...S. p. R. J. southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas.L... eds. L. earthquake region: U.. Wheeler. G.C. R. 95-114. A. Late Holocene faulting and earthquake recurrence in the Reelfoot Lake area.P.J.B.. N... Y. Central United States: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.P.. 10131018.S. 1992. and Pakiser. #725 Schweig. #716 Rodbell.S.. p. R. The Appalachian-Ouachita rifted margin of southeastern North America: Geological Society of America Bulletin. and Powars. K. J.-C. J. Chiu.. 86. Lafferty. 1979... S. Use of archaeology to date liquefac- 47 . v. Liquefaction-related ground failure: A case study in the New Madrid seismic zone. Investigations of the New Madrid. Slow deformation and lower seismic hazard at the New Madrid seismic zone: Science.000. Stein. v.. 19. E.S. p. J... 1990. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1504.. in McKeown. 1993.. Missouri: U. #3813 Obermeier. Style and significance of surface deformation in the vicinity of New Madrid. Missouri. 284.-M. Smoot..A.S.F. A. R.

90. Central United States: Geology. v.tion features and seismic events in the New Madrid seismic zone.S. northeastern Arkansas: Seismological Research Letters.M. p. and Lurnsden. R. S. 6177-6178. 5. 77 p... and Odurn. #3819 Tuttle. R.. p. 2000. New Madrid seismic zone.D. M. and Schweig. #3966 Van Arsdale. Cox. 348-359. Map showing surficial and hydrologic features in the vicinity of New Madrid.L. no. 1998. 1995.K.I. p. #3967 Van Arsdale. 57-62. Recurrent faulting in the vicinity of Reelfoot Lake..S. 253-256. 1994.G.S.. Southeastern extension of the Reelfoot fault: Seismological Research Letters.B. 515-518.C. M.S. p. The repeat time of the 1811 and 1812 New Madrid earthquakes—A geological perspective: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.. no. M.. Johnston. S. v. #731 Zoback. no. Dating of liquefaction in the New Madrid seismic zone and implications for seismic hazard: U. 26. 451-480. and Guccione. p. v. #713 Wesnousky. p. v. W. Stephenson. 1979. K. v. and Schweig.. 219-226. Central United States: Geoarchaeology.. R. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR-0017. J. 66. 66. Earthquake signals in tree-ring data from the New Madrid seismic zone and implications for paleoseismicity: Geology.000. Cleaveland. M. R. v. p. #3817 Tuttle. Recognizing and dating prehistoric liquefaction features: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone.A. E.. 42-57. 1 sheet.. L.J. v.P. and Carver. D. 23.. 1756-1785. northwestern Tennessee: Geological Society of America Bulletin.. III. 1019-1024. E.P.J.A... 101. III.. scale 1:250.S. 70. Luzietti. 6. Northern extension of the Tennessee Reelfoot scarp into Kentucky and Missouri: Seismological Research Letters.. p. 1995. and Rhea. p. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2264-E. D. 82. 3.T..B. E.P... #3965 Van Arsdale.. 11. #3820 Williams..B.W. Stahle.. v. Central United States: Journal of Geophysical Research. M.. R. 1992. 1995. M.. Lafferty. Archeological and pedological evidence for large prehistoric earthquakes in the New Madrid seismic zone. R. Kelson. High-resolution seismic imaging of Quaternary faulting in the Crittenden County fault zone.. R. 1998. #3968 Van Arsdale. and Leffler. p.K. A.. C. and Schweig. R.H. v. v..H. Missouri: U. 1999. 55. 1996. Displacement history and slip rate on the Reelfoot fault of the New Madrid seismic zone: Engineering Geology. 48 . #754 Wheeler. E.B. #3818 Tuttle.L.

SFSL. I I CCFZ I 49 I I SFSL Mi I I is ss I I I p si p I I iR TENNESSEE I I I I r I I I I Jonesboro I I Blytheville I I BLSL ip p I MISSOURI New Madrid I I iR iver I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . RS. St. Light shaded area shows location of abundant sand blows and medium shaded area shows location of abundant modern seismicity. Frances sunklands (1023-4). Selected features are: LCU. Bootheel lineament (1023-5). Crittenden County fault zone (1023-6).91°00' 37°00' 90°00' Sikeston 89°00' Poplar Bluff I A Sa rea nd I blo of I ws I I I I I I M is I I Reelfoot Lake I RS LCU I ARKANSAS 36°00' I I I I I I I I I I I I I Caruthersville I I BHL Dyersburg I I ss I I si iv e I I I I I Area of abundant modern seismicity 0 35°00' 10 20 30 40 Memphis Kilometers Figure 9. Lake County uplift (1023-1). Big Lake sunklands (1023-3). Schematic diagram showing the Reelfoot scarp and selected features in the area of the New Madrid seismic zone. BHL. Reelfoot scarp (1023-2). BLSL. CCFZ.

1982 #720). 1996 #1842). M 8.6°W. The last and largest earthquake occurred at 3:45 a. 1983). and this event is commonly not cited as one of the principle earthquakes. Johnston assumed a reduced felt area west of the Mississippi River. 1979) assigned body-wave estimates of 7.Historical surface deformation.0. Nuttli (1973 #745) reported the majority of the available intensity data that was obtained from published accounts of the earthquakes. as noted in the 1895 Charleston. These estimates are not based on measurements from seismograms.3° N.m. 1979). It was followed by another major earthquake at 8:15 a.4 for the three principle shocks.4.8±0.8 x 10287. Location of epicenter 36° N. 1811.0±0.3. Segment(s). earthquake was about 4. 90° W. historical accounts suggest that this event was intermediate in size between the first and last major shocks. and 8. and Estimated ssurface-wave magnitudes for the three principle shocks are 8. 7.. 1912. (all times are local times) on December 16.56. 1811. Because these moment magnitude and seismic moment values are estimates.. on February 7. the New Madrid earthquakes Comments: Consisted of a series of at least 3 and possibly 4 major (M ≥ 7.01-7.8 in subsequent reports (Nuttli. Strong aftershocks persisted in the region for at least one year (Street and Nuttli. Comments: Epicentral locations are for the three principleprincipal shocks in the series. 1984 #724. The next major event occurred at 9 a. seismologists continue to discuss the accuracy of these estimates. 36. 1812.2 (Nuttli. 50 .m. but he later revised the estimates slightly upward to 7. M 8.m. Affected Structure(s). M 7.5. Nuttli (1979 #756) reported that the felt areas for the three principleprincipal shocks was were about 5.000 km2. earthquake. Comments: Estimates of seismic moment (Mo) and moment magnitude (M) are from Nuttli Johnston (1996 #1842). therefore all magnitude and moment estimates are based on establishing scaling relations between earthquake intesnsityintensity data and various magnitude scales. 2. Johnston.5° N. Johnston (1996 #1842) used Stover and Coffman’s (1993 #1986) revised contours to estimate that the felt area for the first December 16. 1984 #724).01.3. he revised these values upward toof 8.1±0. .3 x 1027. 36. 8.1-7. updated 5/14/99 Magnitude or intensity maximum MMI=X-XII. most reports of the New Madrid earthquakes note three principle events. or Section Numbers 1023 Date 04/7/94.54 Comments: The New Madrid earthquakes predate modern seismological instruments. and 8.0 x 10287 dyne-cm..200.91.2-7. 1979).5 (Nuttli and others. 89.. 7. but are based on regression of seismic moment against isoseismal areas for global and eastern North America stable continental regionsscaling relations between intensity data and the moment of recent historical earthquakes. Missouri. the same day that was the smallest of the 4 major events. Moment magnitude or seismic moment Mo=4.m. The first major earthquake occurred at 2:15 a. Originally Nuttli (1983 #743) Nuttli (1973. 89.8.3.5) events during a period of 2 months in the winter of 1811 and 1812 (Street and Nuttli. The locations are very generalized and are based solely on isoseismal maps that were constructed from limited historical accounts of the earthquakes (Nuttli..000. on January 23. estimated mb=7..000 km2.6° W.

However.Depth of epicenter unknown Comments: no data is available to offer insight into the depths of the 1811-1812 earthquakes. 46. northwestern Tennessee (Russ. monitoring of the recent seismicity indicates that the depth of the brittle-ductile transition zone in the crust (that is.. no. M. then one can speculate that the depths of the epicenters was in the range of 15 km deep.A.G. with a stepover zone dipping about 31°-48° to the southwest. F380. 1994 #739) and southeastern Missouri (Ellis and others. Maximum slip at surface unknown Comments: Recent studies have suggested that the stream bed of Running Reelfoot Bayou was uplifted perhaps 2 m probably during the February 7. Sense of movement unknown Comments: Based on focal mechanisms of the current seismicity. 1988 #742). Rupture scenario for the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes based on static stress relaxation and change of topography: Eos. 1982 #722. p. but could have ruptured downward to 33 km. 1988 #738. v. Guccione and Hehr. Guccione and others. 51 . 76. 1812. 1999 #3795). Prejean. 1991 #737. Schweig. A. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Missouri. the change from brittle faulting in the upper part to ductile deformation below) ranges from about 14 km deep in the southwestern part of the seismic zone to 16-17 km in the northwestern part of the seismic zone (Himes and others. and New Madrid.. 1995. They did produce additional uplift of the Lake County uplift. E.C. S.. the depth at which feldspardeformation converts from brittle to ductile processes. 1995 #3474). 1992 #3794) and may have caused subsidence in the “sunk lands” in northeastern Arkansas (Guccione and others. which he takes as about 20 km. References #3474 Ellis. Geophysical average slip unknown Length of surface rupture unknown Comments: The great historical earthquakes did not produce any discrete surface rupture. earthquake (Van Arsdale and others.S. Stahle and others.Johnston (1996 #1842) suggests that rupture must have initiated in the brittle zone. it is likely that some of the major events were dextral slip events and others probably had a significant component of reverse slip. and Johnston. Tennessee. Dip unknown Comments: Joint hypocentral determination studies by Pujol and others (1998 #3793) indicate that modern faulting is occurring on nearly vertical faults.. This stepover zone is located in extreme western Tennessee and adjacent southeastern Missouri in the are approximately between Dyersburg. If the 1811-12 earthquakes were similar to other large intraplate earthquakes in the world and nucleated at the base of the brittle crust.

ground motion and magnitudes: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.. p. #1842 Johnston. 1988.... 65-84. Indication of active faults in the New Madrid seismic zone from precise location of hypocenters: Seismological Research Letters.W. M.. Average seismic source-parameter relations for mid-plate earthquakes: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. A.W. III.. D... 1993. #738 Guccione. R. Chiu. L. 69. v.... Amount and timing of deformation near the St. #724 Street. The central Mississippi Valley earthquakes of 1811-1812.S. Seismicity of the United States. #3793 Pujol. and Cleaveland. O. v. and McClure. W. 439448. v. and Herrmann.. v. O. Origin of the “sunklands” in the new Madrid seismic zone—Tectonic or alluvial drowning? [abs. Johnston. in McKeown. 33-63.. 1994.-C.K. 4..S.J. #742 Himes..J. A. 519-535. the lower Mississippi Valley: Geoarchaeology.... p. Jr. New Madrid 1811-1812. and Nuttli.C. earthquake region: U.R.. #739 Guccione. W. northeastern Arkansas: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. J..W..H. Cox.. v. in McKeown. Francis “sunklands”. 62.S. Missouri. R. 1983. Geology in the siting of nuclear power plants: Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology. 63. M. A. Lafferty. 1999. p. 1998. F. 1991. F. 95-114..S. 1979. eds. 70... M.]: Seismological Research Letters. eds. Investigations of the New Madrid.Q.W. #3795 Van Arsdale. #745 Nuttli.. M. v.B. O.A. L. and Hehr. 15-20. Geological Survey Open-File Report 84-770. 1996. and VanArsdale. Damaging earthquakes of the central Mississippi Valley.W. 52 . Geological Survey Professional Paper 1236. L.. Tennessee: Seismological Research Letters... and Pakiser. #722 Russ. p.. p.. The Mississippi Valley earthquakes of 1811 and 1812—Intensities.. R. Proceedings of the symposium on “the New Madrid seismic zone”: U. J. earthquake region: U. p. eds. p.J.C. 7. v.. v.L. and Cummings. 59...W.. Southeastern estension of the Reelfoot fault: Seismological Research Letters. 1982. Seismicity of the Central United States. 123-131. R.T.. Tectonic signal in baldcypress trees at Reelfoot Lake.. 418 p. and Hays. 1984. S. 67-93. #1986 Stover. L. 1992. O. L. p. p. and Pakiser. Missouri.A. v.#737 Guccione.H. C. 1568-1989 (revised): U. Seismic moment assessment of earthquakes in stable continental regions—III. p.. p. 26.-M.. O. 126.C.J.L. 73. 56-68. P. 3. Style and significance of surface deformation in the vicinity of New Madrid. 1988. 63. 348-359.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1236-H. 1973. 314-344. Miller. p.. #743 Nuttli.W. #756 Nuttli.C. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527. in Hatheway. Stauder. D. R. Charleston 1886 and Lisbon 1755: Geophysical Journal International.P. J. eds. p. and Chiu. 227-248.. #720 Nuttli. and Coffman..B. and Odurn. 1982. J. J. VanArsdale. v. #3794 Stahle. v. R. W... 171-172. Missouri. R. p. Investigations of the New Madrid. Constrained joint location of New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes: Seismological Research Letters.B. Stephenson.. Environmental constraints of human settlement in an evolving Holocene alluvial system. Herrman. in Gori. R. C.B.K.W.

Nearly all of these liquefaction features originated from earthquakes centered in southern Indiana and Illinois. 1979 #756) and the site of several moderate magnitude (M=4. White (Illinois). and especially the following counties: Clark. Geologic setting The Wabash Valley region in southeastern Illinois and southwestern Indiana has been an area of persistent seismicity (Nuttli. Wabash. where the valley borders both Indiana and Illinois.5. they are listed as Class A features in this compilation. Wabash Valley Liquefaction Features (Class A) Structure Number 1024 Structure Name Wabash Valley liquefaction features (Class A) Comments: Includes the southern halves of Indiana and Illinois. On the basis of the strong evidence that these liquefaction features are late Quaternary in age. Lawrence. updated 02/27/97. as well as. is unknown. There is no known Quaternary surface rupture on faults in the Wabash Valley region. Vigo (Indiana) 1° x 2° sheet Evansville. occur throughout much of southern Indiana and adjacent parts of Illinois. but some earthquakes have been recognized only by geotechnical testing at sites of liquefaction. which greatly exceeds the largest historical earthquakes of M 5. Paducah. Date of compilation 04/15/94. The most prominent net- 53 . Illinois County Southern halves of Indiana-Illinois.1024. Decatur Province Interior Low Plateaus. and not further south in the nearby source region of the great 1811-12 New Madrid earthquakes. Jasper. Posey. The following discussion focuses on the presence of paleoliquefaction features throughout the study area. Synopsis: Clastic dikes filled with sand and gravel. Daviess. Geological Survey State Indiana. Belleville.5-5. Sullivan. Know. U. Obermeier & Anthony J. At least seven and probably eight prehistoric earthquakes have been documented during the Holocene. Indianapolis. 04/03/00 Compiler and affiliation Steven F. Pike.8) historical earthquakes (Taylor and others. Quaternary faults have recently been reported in southernmost Illinois. Crawford.S. Gibson. 1989 #699. but none can be linked with liquefaction features throughout the southern halves of Indiana and Illinois. near Metropolis (Nelson.5 in the region. 1991 #700). but little is known about the causative faults. The strongest prehistoric earthquakes had epicenters in the vicinity of the lower Wabash Valley. Vincennes. Central Lowland Reliability of location Poor Comments: Precise location of the structures that produced the strong ground motion. interpreted to be the result of earthquakeinduced liquefaction. Crone. Prehistoric magnitudes were probably on the order of moment magnitude M 7. which formed the liquefaction features. 1996 #2837). at least one during the latest Pleistocene. The recognition of different earthquakes is based mainly on establishing limits on the timing of liquefaction features in combination with the regional pattern of liquefaction effects. Langer and Bollinger.

McNulty and Obermeier. Alternatively. 1996 #2836). 22-km-wide graben named the Grayville graben (Bear and others. 1997 #2840. Dip-slip displacements on some of the faults are as much as 0. Taylor and others. Sense of movement unknown Comments: Earthquake focal mechanisms for events in the Wabash Valley region indicate dominantly strike-slip and reverse-slip motion (Herrmann. extends from Arkansas into the Wabash Valley.1). 1995 #2834. but the strongest events are concentrated in the vicinity of the Wabash Valley. Hajic and others. the seismicity in the region cannot be directly associated with any bedrock structures at shallow depth. 1992 #697. and terminates in the epicentral region of the strongest paleoearthquakes (M~7. 1997 #2840.5 and 7. 1999 #3906). 1991 #601. 1989 #699. Langer and Bollinger. 1993 #704. a series of north-northeast-trending normal faults that are mapped at the surface. On the basis of gravity and magnetic data. The lineament. 54 . 1996 #2838. Obermeier and others. Munson and others. Some historical seismicity also persists throughout southern Indiana-Illinois. Seismic-reflection data show that the faults are rooted in Precambrian basement and define a 40-km-long. McBride and others (1996 #2836) have identified structural features in the upper crust that might correlate with the location of a M 5. (1982 #702) proposed that the Wabash Valley fault zone is part of the northeastern arm of a late Precambrian-early Phanerozoic rift complex in the central mid-continent. and a possible fault zone has been located at depth (McBride and others. However subsequent studies indicate that the Wabash Valley faults are the expression of relatively minor tectonic structures and are probably not part of a failed rift arm (Hildenbrand and Ravat. Munson and Munson. 1996 #2838.6 km. 1997 #1363. 1997 #2835). Braile and others. At present. The only evidence of the paleoearthquakes (related to the strong ground motion) is liquefaction features exposed along the banks of major rivers in the study area (Obermeier and others. Without knowledge of the structural features that are present at hypocentral depths. 1999 #3906). McNulty and Obermeier. 1968. Munson and others. 1979 #703).work of faults in the region is the Wabash Valley fault system (Bristol and Treworgy. 1997 #2839. Age of faulted deposits Holocene and late Pleistocene Paleoseismological studies Detailed studies of these paleoliquefaction features are those of (Obermeier and others. 1979 #733. Dip unknown Dip direction unknown Geomorphic expression Causative fault do not have any surface expression. it is impossible to determine the preferred nodal planes for the focal mechanisms. 1997 #2835). although a geophysical magnetic and gravity lineament seems to be a good candidate (Hildenbrand and Ravat. These studies describe the characteristics and distribution of the dikes and offer magnitude estimates of earthquakes that likely caused the liquefaction.5 earthquake that occurred in the area on November 9. 1993 #2841. Pond and Martin. Munson and Munson. 1997 #2839. Obermeier. and laterally offset structural trends suggest 2-4 km of lateral displacement on some faults. 1992 #698. 1997 #2833). Munson and others. 1991 #700). some 600 km in length.

: Final Report to the U. 1982. Central U. Distribution and dating of prehistoric earthquake liquefaction in southeastern Illinois.W.100 yr BP in the Wabash Valley.5 m at one site.S. In the absence of well-determined data on the timing of paleoevents and the amount of tectonic slip associated with those events.R. and Treworgy. Wiant. and Oliver.J. a magnitude of about 7. A. the source region for the strongest earthquakes is in the vicinity of Vincennes. W.. L.G. 1997. v. p.A. J. are planar.W. M. and Rudman.J. Length (km) Not applicable Average strike (azimuth) Not applicable References #2833 Bear. 68.M. based on the size and distribution of the dikes.. no. Seismic interpretation of the deep structure of the Wabash Valley fault system: Seismological Research Letters.000 years is reasonable in the southern half of Indiana and Illinois. Keller. Indiana. it is impossible to estimate reliable or even meaningful Holocene or late Quaternary slip rates. No historical earthquakes in the Wabash Valley region have been strong enough to cause liquefaction. 1979. however a regional recurrence interval for M >6 earthquakes of at least every 500-1. cover an area that has a diameter of about 300 km. #2834 Hajic. and more than 1000 paleoliquefaction dikes have been discovered. 225-237. 1995. but did not leave a record because of the lack of liquefiable deposits in large parts of the region.. E.. A systematic search for paleoliquefaction features was begun in 1990.. S.. 50 cm at 8 sites and 30 cm at several tens of sites. #703 Bristol.D. In the river-bank exposures. It is likely that numerous other M 6-7 Holocene earthquakes have struck the region. p... G. and one occurred about 12. 33 p. An ancient rift complex and its relation to contemporary seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone: Tectonics. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: Causative faults have not been identified in the Wabash Valley area.The persistent historical seismicity in the region suggested the possibility of significant seismic source zones in the region. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: At least seven notable paleoevents probably occurred during the Holocene. G..R. Geological Survey. J. v. Hinze. E. many of the dikes extend as much as 4 m above the source beds. Liquefaction features from the strongest paleoearthquake.000 yr BP.. 4.D. Nearly all events probably had magnitudes in excess of M 6. The Wabash Valley fault system in southeastern Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 509. 624-640. The maximum dike widths exceed 2. 55 . 19 p.5 event that struck in about 6. J.. 1. H. and Lidiak. The dikes are typically filled with sand and gravel.J. #702 Braile. Rupp. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Studies have not definitively determined recurrence intervals on individual faults. and have a near-vertical orientation..

p. C.M. p. D. and Hopper. J.J. p. USA: Environmental & Engineering Geoscience.B. no. 1996.A.. T.. eds. Distribution and dating of prehistoric earthquake liquefaction in the Wabash Valley of the Central U.F. v.. Investigating possible earthquakerelated structure beneath the southern Illinois basin from seismic reflection: Seismological Research Letters.. D. 48. 4.. J. Tabaczynski. 133-146.A.L. Bleuer.G.. v. 1979. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1536.S. M.. 4. Shedlock. Liquefaction evidence for one or more strong Holocene earthquakes in the Wabash Valley of southern Indiana and Illinois. v. S. Geology in the siting of nuclear power plants: Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology. #2837 Nelson. P. 337-342. 27 p. and Potter. W.K.B. 68.H.. T. p.A. in Johnston... p. v. 1999. #697 Munson..F. C.. P.. eds. Odum.. S. C.S. Geological Survey Final Report. 3543-3552. no... Evidence of strong earthquake shaking in the lower Wabash Valley from prehistoric liquefaction features: Science. in Hatheway.C.M. 81. P.. B7. 39 p.J. 67-93. C. 1997. #3906 McNulty.W. Bleuer. Surface wave focal mechanisms for eastern North American earthquakes with tectonic implications: Journal of Geophysical Research. no.. and Bollinger. #2839 Munson. Sargent. v. 1979..J. 521-536. A.K.R.R. and Obermeier. 1997. #2840 Obermeier. 251.. G. #2836 McBride.. v. #756 Nuttli... 4. Liquefaction evidence for Holocene and latest Pleistocene seismicity in the southern halves of Indiana and Illinois—A preliminary overview: Seismological Research Letters. S. Munson. Martin.L. 63. M..D..J. and Pond. E. #601 Obermeier. 1061-1063.J.E. Late Tertiary/Quaternary tectonism in southernmost Illinois [abs]: Seismological Research Letters.S. Jr. N..L... Seismicity of the Central United States. p. W.A. M..F.. and Hajic. 567-585. 1992.. p.. no. no.D.000 yr BP in the Wabash Valley area of Indiana: U. p. New Madrid special issue: Seismological Research Letters. 68. v. v.. R. K. N..S. Munson.R.. Frankel. S. Paleoliquefaction evidence for recurrent strong earthquakes since 20.F. and Eggert. C.A. P. S. Herrmann. and Ravat.. and McClure.S. 1991. Munson. A.A. Liquefaction evidence for at least two strong Holocene paleo-earthquakes in central and southwestern Illinois. and Labitzke. 4. Youd. The southeastern Illinois earthquake of 10 June 1987—The later aftershocks: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. p. D. 641-649. 84. 5.. Munson. Overview of liquefaction evidence for strong earthquakes of Holocene and latest Pleistocene ages in southern Indiana and Illinois: U. #704 Obermeier. McWilliams.A.. J. C. Munson.. Obermeier. 1996.#733 Herrmann.W.. no. K. 2. R..F.. Rubin.C. 1991. M. 2..R. 67. O..G. E.. #700 Langer. with a preliminary estimate of magnitude: U. A. W. p.J. 56 . Munson.. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-724. 67. Geophysical setting of the Wabash Valley fault system: Seismological Research Letters. C. P. Martin.. 137 p. #2835 Hildenbrand. v.J.J. 1996. 423-445. and Munson. C. 1997... v. #2838 Munson.. 1993.

... #699 Taylor. 1993. #698 Obermeier. Munson.L.. C. M. and Pond. Munson.B. P.L. Langer.W. E.A.R. Frankel. no. p.. C. J. Martin. T. C. M. and Martin. v. p.. v. G.F. 611-623. 57 . A. #1363 Pond.R. A. p. v. K. S. in Johnston.D. A.C. P.B..F. Herrmann. S. 321-335.. The southeastern Illinois earthquake of 10 June 1987: Seismological Research Letters. Shedlock.C.M.. estimated magnitudes and accelerations associated with prehistoric earthquakes in the Wabash Valley region of the Central United States: Seismological Research Letters. Martin. 60. R. p. New Madrid special issue: Seismological Research Letters. Estimated magnitudes and accelerations associated with prehistoric earthquakes in the Wabash Valley region of the Central United States: Seismological Research Letters.. and Pond.. Munson. Munson. 611-623.. R. Hamburger.. 1992. K..C.C.. and Lam.. Liquefaction evidence for strong Holocene earthquake(s) in the Wabash Valley of Indiana-Illinois. E. 68. Youd.. Herrmann.J.. eds.. Liquefaction evidence for one or more strong Holocene earthquakes in the Wabash Valley of southern Indiana and Illinois—U. J.. 1989. T. 4.R. 68..A.L.. Johnston.J. v.S. Pavlis.. 1997.#2841 Obermeier. J... 101-110... and Hopper. 63.G.B. C. E. Frankel.

Albrecht Creek fault. individual faults typically display complex patterns. These structures have had a long-lived and complex Phanerozoic tectonic history. slip senses. Harrison. Commerce fault. they are individual strands in a fault complex. Kentucky. U. Illinois County Scott (Missouri).1027. Sassafras Canyon faults. and Quaternary faulting along the Albrecht Creek fault was discovered from detailed geologic mapping in 1994. and slip histories. Geological Survey State Missouri. Harrison and others. and transtensional pull-apart grabens have been recognized in the area (Harrison and Schultz. Faults of Thebes Gap area (Class A) Structure Number 1027 Structure Name Faults of Thebes Gap area (Class A) Comments: The individual named faults discussed here are not sections of a single long fault. Most individual faults in the fault complex. 1999 #3415). Instead. The better known faults recognized to date are: English Hill fault zone. Harrison. These studies included trenching and geophysical investigations. approximately 15-20 miles north of the New Madrid seismic zone.to northeast-striking faults. Several Quaternary faults occur in the Thebes Gap area. Synopsis Quaternary faulting at English Hill was first recognized by in the early 1940's and described as a northeast-striking graben that down dropped the late Wisconsinan Peoria Loess. Missouri. Alexander (Illinois) 1° x 2° sheet Paducah. Missouri. Date of compilation 11/17/97. Step-overs 58 .to northeast-striking strike-slip faults and associated normal faults. dips. folds. No further investigations were made on faulting at English Hill until the 1990's when the U. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources/Division of Geology and Land Survey (MDNR/DGLS) began cooperative studies in the area.S. and the longest faults. The possibility of Quaternary faulting at the intersection of the English Hill and Albrecht Creek faults was raised by detailed geologic mapping and was substantiated by the Lambert trench. 1999 #2821. Illinois.S. Indiana Province Coastal Plain Geologic setting The Thebes Gap area is located at the head of the Mississippi Embayment. strike northeasterly to northnortheasterly. Fault-zone kinematics indicate an overall right-lateral sense of movement on the north-northeast. They have different strikes. 1994 #2822. Happy Hollow fault. Numerous north-northeast. the Happy Hollow fault and Sassafras Canyon faults were discovered in 1997 from fault-exploration trenching. edited and reformatted as sectioned fault 5/27/99 by R. high-angle reverse faults. and they are only the best studied faults in an unnamed complex of named and unnamed faults that covers most of two adjacent 7. Quaternary faulting along the Commerce fault was first recognized in 1994 from exposures in a road cut in Commerce. but numerous shorter cross faults strike easterly and northwest. Wheeler Compiler and affiliation Richard W. However. and Lambert trench at intersection of English Hill and Albrecht Creek faults.5-minute quadrangles.L.

Reverse and Normal Comments: Strike-slip. continuous fault.000 by (Harrison. it is difficult. Length not determined Comments: The lengths of these individual faults is difficult to determine because they are part of an array of subparallel and interconnected faults that merge and diverge along strike. if not impossible. See Harrison and others (1997 #2823. English Hill fault zone Section number 1027a Section name English Hill fault zone Quality of location Good Comments: The fault zone was mapped at a scale of 1:24.vertical Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890) for details. Sense of movement Dextral or Sinistral. to clearly identify terminations of specific faults. and high-angle reverse faults are all represented at English Hill. 59 . thrust. State Missouri. cut banks. extensive colluvial sedimentation. but rather are descriptions of parts of individual faults that are members of this complex system. Illinois 1° x 2° sheet Paducah Province Coastal Plain Sense of movement Dip 8° . Illinois County Scott. extensions along strike are poorly constrained because of dense vegetation. The individual "sections" described below are not sections of a single. Number of sections 6 Comments: The faults discussed in detail in the following sections are part of a complex network of faults mapped by Harrison [1999 #2821]. 1027a. normal. but the converging and diverging character of the individual faults makes it difficult to identify termination points and thus compute an average strike. Missouri. Because of these complex relations.in displacement between different strands have produced zones of transtension and transpression. Fault locations in trenches. 1999 #2821). Alexander. Average strike (azimuth) not determined Comments: The major faults in the complex system of faults in the Thebes Gap area trend north-northeasterly to northeasterly. 1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890) for details. and the blanket-like nature of Quaternary loess that covers the area. Thrust. and road cuts are well known.

1997 #1364. cut banks. 1997 #2823.740 yr B.P. 1027b. 1999 #3890).310-1. Age of faulted deposits At least six and possibly seven Quaternary fault episodes are recognized at English Hill (Harrison and others. Palmer and others. (Harrison and others. Harrison and others. sec. Fault locations in trenches. Nelson and others. it is difficult. and 1.210 yr B. Wisconsinan Roxana Silt. which should leave a detectable geologic record.P. 1997 #2824. Nelson and others. The length of the English Hill fault zone is difficult to determine because it is part of an array of subparallel and interconnected faults that merge and diverge along strike. Faulted Holocene colluvial-wedge material contains charcoal that has yielded bimodal 14C ages: eight samples from 4. a sustained slip rate of 0. 1999 #3415). to clearly identify the termination of a specific fault. 1999 #3415). if not impossible. If the English Hill. then their joint length could be as much as 12. but the converging and diverging character of the individual faults makes it difficult to identify termination points and thus compute an average strike. late Wisconsinan Peoria Loess. Albrecht Creek. In the absence of any significant geomorphic expression of the fault. a slip rate of less than 0. and road cuts are well known. Because of these complex relations. and Holocene colluvial-wedge deposits. 89° 30'W. 34.2 mm/yr Comments: No slip rate has been reported. The identification of faulted loesses was confirmed by thermoluminescence dating (see Harrison and others. center W1/2. SE. The approximate center of the English Hill site and its 11 trenches is at 37° 08'N. 1997 #2823. Paleoseismological studies English Hill: (Palmer and others. NE Geomorphic expression Subtle breaks in slope observed along some faults at English Hill. extensions along strike are 60 .2 mm/yr would produce a cumulative slip of more than 2 m in Holocene time. Length not determined Comments: Fault length is uncertain. R14E.8 km Average strike (azimuth) not determined Comments: The major faults in the complex system of faults in the Thebes Gap area trend north-northeasterly to northeasterly. and Lambert trench faults are the same and continuous. probably <0. Sangamon Geosol.980-4. Timing of most prehistoric faulting latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. However. 1997 #2823. 1999 #3890). Commerce fault Section number 1027b Section name Commerce fault Quality of location Good Comments: The fault was mapped at a scale of 1:24.2 mm/yr seems likely.Main dip direction NW. T29N.000 by Harrison (1999 #2821). Faulted deposits include Pliocene-Pleistocene Mounds Gravel.

Thus. Because of the poor exposure and these complex relations. or SW1/4 SW1/4 sec9. which should leave a detectable geologic record. 89° 26' 57"W. In the absence of any significant geomorphic expression of the fault. a slip rate of less than 0.poorly constrained because of dense vegetation. State Missouri. Alexander. Length:not determined Comments: Fault length is uncertain. dextral faulting might be of Pliocene age. the Commerce fault is poorly exposed. Dip vertical Comments: See Harrison (1995 #2820) for details. and no proven Quaternary faulting is reported on this section of the fault complex. Illinois 1° x 2° sheet Paducah Province Coastal Plain Sense of movement Not reported Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) for details.2 mm/yr Comments: No slip rate has been reported. Missouri. extensive colluvial sedimentation. probably <0. a fault length has not been computed. and studies of the fault are based on examination of limited exposures.2 mm/yr seem likely. Main dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression none Age of faulted deposits Cuts Pliocene-Pleistocene Mounds Gravel. it is difficult to clearly identify the termination of a specific fault. Dextral faulting is constrained only to post-date the Pliocene-Miocene Mounds Gravel and pre-date the post-Wisconsinan Peoria Loess. Also. The studied exposure of the Commerce fault is at 37° 09' 31"N. a sustained slip rate of 0. and the blanket-like nature of Quaternary loess that covers the area. and is part of an array of subparallel and interconnected faults that merge and diverge along strike. T16S. Paleoseismological studies Harrison and others (1999 #3415). but the converging and 61 . Average strike (azimuth) not determined Comments: The general strike of the fault is northeasterly. However. R3W. Therefore. it is a member of a complex system of faults in the Thebes Gap area that trend north-northeasterly to northeasterly. However. is mapped largely as a concealed structure.2 mm/yr would produce a cumulative slip of more than 2 m in Holocene time. Timing of most recent paleoevent late Quaternary (<130 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. does not cut late Wisconsinan Peoria Loess. is largely mapped as a concealed structure. Illinois County Scott. The length of the Commerce fault is difficult to determine because it is poorly exposed.

89° 27' 01. extensive colluvial sedimentation.2 mm/yr seem likely. cut banks. 1999 #2821).8"W.000 by (Harrison. The trench exposure of the Happy Hollow fault is at 37° 09' 36. Main dip direction NW. SW Geomorphic expression none Age of faulted deposits Cuts Sangamon Geosol. Fault length is uncertain. Illinoian (?) colluvial-fluvial deposits of Metropolis Fm. a sustained slip rate of 0. and the blanket-like nature of Quaternary loess that covers the area. However.85° Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890) for details. Thrust Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890) for details.diverging character of the individual faults makes it difficult to identify termination points and thus compute an average strike. probably <0. SE. T29N. or SE1/4 SE1/4 sec24. 1027c. Missouri 1° x 2° sheet Paducah Province Coastal Plain Dip 42° . Timing of most recent paleoevent late Quaternary (<130 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. Paleoseismological studies Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890). R14E. Fault locations in trenches. Sense of movement Reverse.2 mm/yr Comments: No slip rate has been reported. Happy Hollow fault Section number 1027c Section name Happy Hollow fault Quality of location Good Comments: The fault was mapped at a scale of 1:24. and road cuts are well known. extensions along strike are poorly constrained because of dense vegetation. State Missouri County Scott. which should leave a detectable geologic record. In the absence of any significant geomorphic expression of the fault.3"N. a slip rate of less than 0.2 mm/yr would produce a cumulative slip of more than 2 m in Holocene time. 62 . (informal). and Pliocene-Pleistocene Mounds Gravel.

However. extensions along strike are poorly constrained because of dense vegetation. and studies of the fault are based on examination of limited exposures. Sassafras Canyon faults Section number 1027d Section name Sassafras Canyon faults Quality of location Good Comments: The faults were mapped at a scale of 1:24. Dextral Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890) for details.000 by (Harrison. Also. SW. is mapped largely as a concealed structure. a fault length has not been computed. NE Geomorphic expression none Age of faulted deposits Faults cut Pliocene-Pleistocene Mounds Gravel and Holocene colluvial deposits (14C ages pending). it is difficult to clearly identify the termination of a specific fault. 63 . and the blanket-like nature of Quaternary loess that covers the area. The length of the Happy Hollow fault is difficult to determine because it is poorly exposed and is part of an array of subparallel and interconnected faults that merge and diverge along strike.vertical Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890) for details. it is a member of a complex system of faults in the Thebes Gap area that trend north-northeasterly to northeasterly. but the converging and diverging character of the individual faults makes it difficult to identify termination points and thus compute an average strike.Length:not determined Comments: Fault length is uncertain. and road cuts are well known. related folds deform Illinoisian (?) Metropolis Fm. Dip 20° . Therefore. Missouri 1° x 2° sheet Paducah Province Coastal Plain Sense of movement Reverse. Main dip direction NW. Fault locations in trenches. SE. the Happy Hollow fault is poorly exposed. Thrust. 1999 #2821). cut banks. 1027d. State Missouri County Scott. Average strike (azimuth) not determined Comments: The general strike of the fault is northeasterly. Because of the poor exposure and these complex relations. extensive colluvial sedimentation.

However. 1027e. Fault locations in trenches. Because of the poor exposure and these complex relations. Alexander. R14E.2 mm/yr seem likely. the Sassafras Canyon fault is poorly exposed.Paleoseismological studies Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890). Missouri. However. extensions along strike are poorly constrained because of dense vegetation. and studies of the fault are based on examination of limited exposures. and road cuts are well known. cut banks. a slip rate of less than 0. Length not determined Comments: Fault length is uncertain. which should leave a detectable geologic record. Therefore. Illinois 1° x 2° sheet Paducah Province Coastal Plain Sense of movement Sinistral. The length of the Sassafras Canyon fault is difficult to determine because it is poorly exposed and is part of an array of subparallel and interconnected faults that merge and diverge along strike. T29N. but the converging and diverging character of the individual faults makes it difficult to identify termination points and thus compute an average strike. or NW1/4 SE1/4 sec24. Albrecht Creek fault Section number 1027e Section name Albrecht Creek fault Quality of location Good Comments: The fault was mapped at a scale of 1:24. a sustained slip rate of 0. Average strike (azimuth) not determined Comments: The general strike of the fault is northeasterly. State Missouri. Also. Illinois County Scott.000 by (Harrison. extensive colluvial sedimentation. The trench exposures of the faults in Sassafras Canyon are at 37° 09' 39. 1999 #2821). 89° 27' 10. it is a member of a complex system of faults in the Thebes Gap area that trend north-northeasterly to northeasterly. In the absence of any significant geomorphic expression of the fault. a fault length has not been computed. is mapped largely as a concealed structure.3"N.4"W. Reverse Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890) for details.2 mm/yr Comments: No slip rate has been reported. probably <0.2 mm/yr would produce a cumulative slip of more than 2 m in Holocene time. and the blanket-like nature of Quaternary loess that covers the area. Timing of most recent paleoevent late Quaternary (<130 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. it is difficult to clearly identify the termination of a specific fault. 64 .

Lambert trench at intersection of English Hill and Albrecht Creek faults Section number 1027f Section name Lambert trench at intersection of English Hill and Albrecht Creek faults Quality of location Good Comments: The faults were mapped at a scale of 1:24.8"W. extensions along strike are 65 . 1027f. the Albrecht Creek fault is poorly exposed and studies of the fault are based on examination of limited exposures. then their joint length could be as much as 12. Fault locations in trenches. and road cuts are well known. 1999 #2821). Therefore.85° Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890) for details. T29N. However. However. it is a member of a complex system of faults in the Thebes Gap area that trend north-northeasterly to northeasterly.2 mm/yr Comments: No slip rate has been reported.8 km. a slip rate of less than 0. which should leave a detectable geologic record. probably <0. R14E. Paleoseismological studies Harrison and others (1999 #3415) and Nelson and others (1999 #3890). If the English Hill. cut banks.Dip 68° . Albrecht Creek and Lambert trench faults are the same structure and are continuous. NW.5"N. Timing of most recent paleoevent late Quaternary (<130 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. In the absence of any significant geomorphic expression of the fault. Also. 89° 27' 54.2 mm/yr seem likely. Main dip direction NE.540 B.000 by (Harrison. The length of the Albrecht Creek fault is difficult to determine because it is poorly exposed and is part of an array of subparallel and interconnected faults that merge and diverge along strike. or NW1/4 SW1/4 sec13. The cutbank that exposes the Albrecht Creek fault is at 37° 10' 58. it is difficult to clearly identify the termination of a specific fault.2 mm/yr would produce a cumulative slip of more than 2 m in Holocene time. Average strike (azimuth) not determined Comments: The general strike of the fault is north-northeasterly.P. a sustained slip rate of 0. but the converging and diverging character of the individual faults makes it difficult to identify termination points and thus compute an average strike. Because of the poor exposure and these complex relations. it does not cut Holocene terrace deposits that contains charcoal dated by 14C at 1. SW Geomorphic expression none Age of faulted deposits Fault cuts Pliocene-Pleistocene Mounds Gravel and Ilinoisian (?) Metropolis Formation. Length:not determined Comments: Fault length is uncertain. a fault length has not been computed.

a slip rate of less than 0.8"W. Albrecht Creek and Lambert trench faults are the same structure and are continuous.2 mm/yr would produce a cumulative slip of more than 2 m in Holocene time. if the English Hill. In the absence of any significant geomorphic expression of the fault. unpublished #2826). Furthermore.2 mm/yr Comments: No slip rate has been reported. Faults dipping nearly vertically to the SE and W were exposed in the bottom of a trench. extensive colluvial sedimentation. R3W. W Geomorphic expression none Age of faulted deposits Fault offsets Holocene gravel dated by the radiocarbon method at 6. Length End to end (km): Not applicable Cumulative trace (km): Not applicable Comments: This discussion refers to a paleoseismic study at a specific site where the Engish Hill and Albrecht Creek faults converge.8 km. Average strike (azimuth) not determined Comments: The general strikes of faults in the Thebes Gap area are north-northeasterly to northeasterly. Main dip direction SE. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. T15S. However. 66 . then their joint length could be as much as 12. and the blanket-like nature of Quaternary loess that covers the area. Two faults show normal slip.poorly constrained because of dense vegetation. However. 1997.2 mm/yr seem likely. the relations of faults studied at this site to faults that were mapped in the area are not definitively known.310+100 yr B. State Illinois County Alexander 1° x 2° sheet Paducah Province Coastal Plain Sense of movement Not reported Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) for details.P. Paleoseismological studies Lambert trench: (Wiscombe. probably <0. Dip Not reported Comments: See Harrison and others (1999 #3415) for details. which should leave a detectable geologic record.085±95 yr B. or NE1/4 SW1/4 sec3. The trench is at 37° 14' 45.P. but the converging and diverging character of the individual faults makes it difficult to identify termination points and thus compute an average strike. Therefore it is not appropriate to determine a length from a single point on a fault. 89° 25' 50.6"N. by 14C but does not cut Holocene gravel dated at 6. a sustained slip rate of 0. but dip values are not reported.

1-3. scale 1:24. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-474. v.. J..L.. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1779. #2823 Harrison.D. #2821 Harrison. Southern Illinois University. 1995. McGeehin. D. J.. southeast Missouri: Seismological Research Letters.D.. 1942.R.5-minute quadrangle. Evidence of Neotectonic activity north of the New Madrid seismic zone. J.. S.... The Mesozoic and Cenozoic geology of southeastern Missouri: Missouri Division of Geology and Water Resources. An example of neotectonism in a continental interior—Thebes Gap. 1995. no. R. J. S. v. 42nd Annual Meeting.. United States: Tectonophysics. 650-661. D. Missouri: U.. 1999.. and Frederiksen. Palmer. Scott County.D. unpublished M.. Hoffman. Williams. J. Chapter 7. Hoffman.. #2824 Palmer.. #1364 Palmer.. 399-417..W. M. 67 ..R. Geologic map of the Thebes 7. and Williams.. Illinois: Southern Illinois University. in Esling.. Vaughn.R.. Stephenson. D. Neotectonics of the northern Mississippi embayment: Illinois State Geological Survey Guidebook 30.J. Anderson.W. and Forman.W. 1997. eds. v.A.. Shallow seismic reflection profiles and geologic structure in the Benton Hills.L. Profiles and documentation of fault-exploration trenches in the English Hill area.P. R. 217-233. 1994. R.S.. Odum. 246-257..S.K. p. J.W. #2822 Harrison.L. J. no. W. J.. 13. Carbondale. N. May 19-21. R.D.. M... unpublished. and Blum. Palmer. S. W. 111 p. Midcontinent... McGeehin. #2825 Stewart. J. Hoffman.J. R. Forman. and Harrison.. Harrison.References #2820 Harrison. Vaughn. 1999. Report on investigations of the Benton Hills. N. and Hoffman.S.. R. Scott City 7. 2. W.W.. Vaughn. Seismic evidence of Quaternary faulting in the Benton Hills area. Guidebook. Shoemaker. D.W. 68. 115 p.P. R. 177 p.L.J. MissouriIllinois—Implications for New Madrid tectonism: Tectonics. Thebes quadrangle.. C.. #2826 Wiscombe.A.5-minute quadrangle.000.O.. p. Strike-slip faulting at Thebes Gap. 46. #3415 Harrison. R.R. v. A. 305. D. Missouri. 1997. R. Illinois and Missouri: U.. 34 p. 1999. and Schultz..R. #3890 Nelson. Quaternary sections in southern Illinois and southeast Missouri: Midwest Friends of the Pleistocene. p.W. J.. 1997. J. thesis.K. C. D. Wiscombe. p. southeast Missouri: Engineering Geology. Hoffman. Stephenson. 1997.. Odum.

Good overviews of the structure of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex are found in Hook (1974 #3885). In Kentucky. sills. Date of compilation 12/28/99. Associated with faulting are Permian ultramafic dikes. Tertiary and Quaternary activity in the Fluorspar Area fault complex finally was documented through detailed geologic mapping combined with test drilling. Several grabens show more than 30 m of dip-slip offset on Pleistocene units. in one case the throw may exceed 150 m.L. zinc. concluded that no post-Cretaceous tectonism could be demonstrated. Younger movement comes to light where the faults pass southwestward into thicker Cretaceous. which is of late Miocene to early Pleistocene age (Amos and Wolfe. Fluorspar Area Fault Complex (Class A) Structure Number 1028 Structure Name Fluorspar Area Fault Complex (class A) Comments: The name Fluorspar Area fault complex refers to the multitude of fractures in the fluorspar-mining district of southern Illinois and western Kentucky. This was historically the richest fluorite-mining district in the United States. 1964 #3894) interpreted Tertiary and possible Quaternary displacements on some faults of the complex. Wheeler Compiler and affiliation W. and obliqueslip faults. barite. Kolata and others (1981 #3886). Narrow NE. geologic quadrangle maps depict faults of the Fluorspar Area fault complex displacing the Mounds Gravel. Deformation of Wisconsinan sediments is localized and small. The Fluorspar Area Fault Complex overlies the junction area of a Proterozoic-Cambrian failed rift complex that consists of the northeasttrending Reelfoot rift and the east-trending Rough Creek graben. Nelson (1991 #3887). Mapping in southernmost Illinois. and trenching (Nelson and others. Fault orientations vary. these studies reveal multiple episodes of post-Cretaceous tectonic activity in the Fluorspar Area fault complex. strike-slip. John Nelson.1028. Of more than passing significance. many showing evidence of two or more episodes of movement. diatremes. See other fields on individual sections that show Quaternary movement. but most trend NE-SW in Illinois. 1999 #3889. Illinois State Geological Survey State Illinois. 1974 #3881). 1999 #3890). Trace and Amos (1984 #3895). thin and patchy Quaternary sediments overlie Paleozoic bedrock. and other minerals also were mined from vein and bedded-replacement deposits. No Holocene movement has been detected. However. Tertiary. Ross (1963 #3893. Amos. Most faults dip 65 degrees or steeper and they comprise normal. 1966 #3882. less than 3 m. 1997 #3888. and the time of faulting is known only to be postPennsylvanian. Kentucky 68 .to NNE-trending grabens that contain Tertiary and Pleistocene (Illinoian and older) sediments are characteristic. highresolution seismic surveys. reviewing the evidence. reverse. silver. Sizeable quantities of lead. curving to ENE-WSW eastward into Kentucky. the New Madrid seismic zone also lies within the Reelfoot Rift and is directly in line with the Fluorspar Area fault complex. 1967 #3880. edited 1/28/00 by R. Together. Synopsis: In most of the area of the Fluorspar Area fault complex. and Potter and others (1995 #3892). and Quaternary deposits of the Mississippi Embayment. and a large intrusive breccia structure known as Hicks Dome.

cored test hole (Nelson and others. 1964 #3894) and Kolata and others (1981 #3886) reported an outcrop of tilted Mounds Gravel at abnormally low elevation along a narrow. Follow-up studies included two seismic-reflection surveys. finding additional outcrops that strengthened the tectonic hypothesis. All uplands are mantled in wind-blown Pleistocene silt known as loess. 1999 #3890). See Nelson and others (1997 #3888. Follow-up studies included a seismic reflection survey. Masters.000 scale.000 scale (W. No datable material was found. deeper. Nelson and others. The faults described by Kolata and others now are covered by concrete and riprap. Following are descriptions of field work done on each section. Section 1028a (Rock Creek graben): A 10-meter-wide section of the bank of Mallard Creek was cleared with a backhoe. four others displaced Cretaceous strata but not the Mounds.J. Section 1028d (Raum fault zone): Post-Cretaceous tectonic faulting along this zone was first identified at the Reineking Hill site (Nelson. Section 1028b (Barnes Creek fault zone): Exposures in the banks of Barnes Creek were examined repeatedly and logged. 1999 #3889). Nelson and J. a ground-penetrating radar survey (inconclusive). and locally the Metropolis Formation is faulted. The study area lies just south of the southernmost limit of Pleistocene continental glaciation. Nelson 69 . 1999 #3889. Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sediments of the Embayment overlap mainly Mississippian-age bedrock of the Shawnee Hills. and we drilled several shallow test holes close to the creek (Nelson and others. and numerous test borings (Nelson and others. Coastal Plain Geologic setting The area where Quaternary displacements of the Fluorspar Area fault complex are known is at the northern edge of the Mississippi Embayment. was conducted along the creek. 2 km long. Nelson (1996 #3898) mapped the area at 1:24. 1999 #3890). 1999 #3889. 1997 #3888). which may be part of the Barnes Creek fault zone. an extension of the Coastal Plain. Section 1028c (Hobbs Creek fault zone): Ross (1963 #3893. A cored test hole drilled in 1995 demonstrated a deep graben filled with Neogene to Quaternary sediment. Section 1028e (Lusk Creek fault zone): Geologic mapping in the Joppa Quadrangle at 1:24. and origin of the structure remained unknown. Geologic mapping farther southwest at 1:24. The test holes did not indicate significant displacement of Quaternary deposits. Valley bottoms contain a variety of Quaternary fluvial and lacustrine deposits. However. Livingston (Kentucky) 1° x 2° sheet Paducah Province Interior Low Plateaus. 1997 #3888. A seismic reflection profile. and a second. Kolata and others conducted seismic and earth-resistivity surveys. linear valley in line with known faults. many shallow test holes. the backhoe exposure showed two episodes of Quaternary faulting. but the results were ambiguous. Faults formerly were exposed (at low water) on the bank of the Ohio River near historic Fort Massac in the city of Metropolis. and some were improved using hand tools and heavy equipment. unpublished data) indicated that the Mounds Gravel.M. One fault displaced the Mounds Gravel.J.000 scale indicated possible Quaternary displacement along the Lusk Creek (W. 1996 #3898. Kolata and others (1981 #3886) discussed the "Metropolis site".County Massac. 1999 #3889). and numerous test borings were made. Pulaski (Illinois). ground-penetrating radar (which yielded no useful data).

instead of adjoining sections of the same fault. Two seismic-reflection profiles were run. Masters. 1999 #3889). Reliability of location Good Comments: Like other structures of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex. back into Kentucky. Illinois. complex graben of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex. Then we drilled a cored test hole to bedrock at the Maple Grove School. 10° E. Kentucky into Hardin County. Dip 80°-90° Comments: At Mallard Creek. where available. The sections are parallel. the Rock Creek graben is composed dominantly of high-angle normal faults that trend northeast. Sec. 1028a. Illinois where Quaternary activity is in evidence. Number of sections 6 Length Not applicable Comments: Nelson and others (1999 #3889) demonstrated Quaternary faulting at seven sites on six fault sections. the bank of Mallard Creek in NE 1/4 SW 1/4. Sense of movement Normal. We ran a high-resolution seismic survey and drilled seven shallow test holes along the seismic line. and one that strikes N. Quaternary displacements are known from a single site. The Rock Creek follows a curving path southwestward from Union County. The log and samples (incomplete) from a water well at the Maple Grove School suggested a graben. On none of these were any slip indicators observed. Rock Creek graben Section number 1028a Section name Rock Creek graben Comments: The Rock Creek graben is a large. Section 1028f (Kelley structure): Many test pits and soil borings were made in the railroad cut. 70 . one adjacent to the railroad. accurately mapped at some. the other about 0. and it revealed two faults that strike N. finally returning to Pope and Massac Counties.M. unpublished data). reverse Comments: The exposure on Mallard Creek that showed Quaternary faulting was only 10 m wide. The lengths of Quaternary ruptures are unknown. two that strike N. 20.. Average strike Not applicable Comments: Average strikes are given for each section. independent faults.4 km south of and parallel to the tracks (Nelson and others. Illinois. R6E. 25° E. 55° W. the Rock Creek graben is exposed directly in a few places. T15S.and J. then a backhoe removed soil from the entire width of the structure on the north side of the tracks.. Massac County. and the geology was logged in detail. and covered by surficial materials along much of its trace. Overall.

as the strike of the fault zone at the Mallard Creek site. At Mallard Creek the fault zone is not expressed in the topography.000 years old are displaced only about 1 meter. Age of faulted deposits At Mallard Creek. NW Comments: The small exposure on Mallard Creek shows faults having a variety of trends (see "Sense of movement" entry). Nelson. is not deformed (Nelson and others. which almost certainly is Holocene. and along most of its length consists of either a single fault or a pair of faults that outline a graben less than 300 m wide. most likely. Age of the younger gravel was not determined due to lack of dateable material. It is here that Quaternary deformation has been demonstrated. Quaternary displacements are principally known from Barnes Creek in Massac County. Reliability of location Good Comments: Like other elements of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex. Illinois (Sec. 1028b. NE. 1999 #3889). Within the Mississippi Embayment area. R5E). 2 of Nelson and others (1999 #3889). T15S. Length Not applicable Comments: The length of Quaternary rupture is unknown because it was demonstrated at only one site. the Metropolis Formation (Pleistocene. Illinoian and older).2 mm/yr Comments: Sediments more than 100. The uppermost 1 m of sediment. Paleoseismological studies None Timing of most recent paleoevent late Quaternary (<130 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category <0. W. 71 . the Barnes Creek widens to nearly 2 km and becomes much more complex. Barnes Creek fault zone Section number 1028b Section name Barnes Creek fault zone Comments: The fault zone has been mapped about 40 km across Illinois (Baxter and others. W. unpublished mapping). Average strike +35 ˚ Comments: This value was measured on fig. 9. but it is accurately mapped in a number of places. Where it enters the Mississippi Embayment. It strikes NE-SW. the Barnes Creek fault zone is largely concealed by surficial materials. the gravel is Wisconsinan. Geomorphic expression Linear ridges and valleys along the fault zone reflect differential erosion of hard and soft material. several streams run parallel with the inferred fault trace.Dip direction E. but this may be coincidence.J. and numerous exposures of fault surfaces have been found or dug out. faults offset a gravel younger than the Pleistocene Metropolis Formation. 1967 #3883. and the McNairy Formation (Cretaceous).

northeast-southwest alignment of ridges and valleys is apparent in some places. Timing of most recent paleoevent late Quaternary (<130 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Nelson and others (1999 #3889. A seismic reflection profile 2 km long was conducted along the creek. No datable material was found. A seismic profile shows positive and negative flower structures. narrow grabens that resemble pull-apart grabens are common. 394) estimated tens of thousands of years between events that produced surface rupture. which may be part of the Barnes Creek fault zone. but not in others. Within the Mississippi Embayment. 1999 #3889. Slip-rate category <0. and numerous test borings were made.Sense of movement Normal. although Holocene age cannot be ruled out. A few faults offset the Sangamon Geosol itself. but some faults dip E-W to ENE-WSW. which is probably Holocene. The largest post-Sangamon displacement is approximately 1 meter. Geomorphic expression In Paleozoic bedrock uplands. Kolata and others (1981 #3886) discussed the "Metropolis site". Dip direction E. the base of the Metropolis is displaced at least 27 m. One fault displaced the Mounds Gravel. Pairs of faults commonly outline grabens that range from a few cm to tens of meters wide.2 mm/yr Comments: Nelson and others (1999 #3889. Dip 45°-90° Comments: Most faults dip 65 degrees or steeper. These deposits most likely are Wisconsinan age. a pebbly silt/sand unit of early to middle Pleistocene age. p. and some were improved using hand tools and heavy equipment. Paleoseismological studies Exposures in the banks of Barnes Creek were examined repeatedly and logged. Faults formerly were exposed (at low water) on the bank of the Ohio River near historic Fort Massac in the city of Metropolis.03 mm/year 72 . reverse Comments: Strike-slip component is strongly suspected. p. and probably reflect enhanced erosion of fractured rock in the fault zone. Deep. 1999 #3890). as indicated by Sangamon Geosol developed in the upper part of the unit. Age of faulted deposits Many faults juxtapose the Cretaceous McNairy Formation with the Metropolis Formation. four others displaced Cretaceous strata but not the Mounds. There is no sign of the fault zone where it passes under late Wisconsinan and Holocene alluvial/lacustrine valley fill. another exposure of the Barnes Creek fault zone also shows Quaternary faulting. along with overlying silts and gravels. W Comments: Most common is ESE-WNW to SE-NW. The faults described by Kolata and others now are covered by concrete and riprap. The youngest part of the Metropolis is probably Illinoian. See Nelson and others (1997 #3888. Five kilometers north of the Barnes Creek site. East and west dips are about equally represented. 394) estimated a rate of 0. No faults penetrate the uppermost 3 m of sediment. well-defined linear valleys mark the fault trace(s). but unproven. In one graben. along Massac Creek.01 to 0.

Hobbs Creek fault zone Section number 1028c Section name Hobbs Creek fault zone Reliability of location Good Comments: Like other elements of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex. 1997 #3888). and totally concealed by surficial deposits in other places. Average strike +45˚ Comments: This value was measured on fig. the net slip rate may be considerably different from the measured dip-slip. The southeast dip is listed first and regarded as dominant. Pairs of faults commonly outline grabens and horsts. Age of faulted deposits At the Massac Creek site the youngest unit known to be faulted is the Metropolis Formation. 11 m of Paleocene Midway Group. silt. Sense of movement Normal. Core-drilling in a deep graben shows the Metropolis downthrown approximately 30 m. which comprises Illinoian and older Pleistocene alluvial deposits. Dip 70°-90° Dip direction SE. Geomorphic expression Like other fault zones of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex. but no information on the magnitude or direction of strike-slip is available. Evidently. because Quaternary ruptures were demonstrated at two sites that far apart along the fault zone (see "Paleoseismological studies"). but a few reverse faults are present. as the strike of the fault zone at the Westerman graben site. reverse Comments: Seismic profiles show that most faults are high-angle normal. the Hobbs Creek is exposed in a few places. Length 5 km Comments: Probably the length of Quaternary rupture is at least 5 km. where Quaternary deformation is documented. and finally 37 m of Cretaceous strata (bottom not reached).for dip-slip displacement in Quaternary grabens. and clay. Beneath the Metropolis are found. 1028c. this graben subsided intermittently through much of Tertiary and Pleistocene time. 73 . strike-slip appears likely. At the Massac Creek site. in descending order. within the Mississippi Embayment. 12 m of Miocene to Pliocene Mounds Gravel. the Hobbs Creek is expressed by linear ridges and valleys where it crosses bedrock uplands. NW Comments: Northwest and southeast dips are about equally represented. accurately located in many places. 2 of Nelson and others (1999 #3889). a valley coincides with the fault zone. No displacement of Wisconsinan loess or Holocene alluvium can be detected. because the interior of the Massac Creek graben at the study site dips northwest into the southeast-dipping normal fault (Nelson and others. Faults have no expression where they pass under Quaternary alluvium. At the Massac Creek site. If the faults have a strike-slip component. 79 m of unidentified Neogene to lower Pleistocene sand. the faults are accurately located by means of borehole and geophysical data. As with other faults listed here.

complex grabens within the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex. 74 . 1028d. 394) estimated tens of thousands of years between events that produced surface rupture. A strikeslip component is suspected. Drilling showed that the Pleistocene Metropolis Formation is displaced in the Massac Creek graben at Weaver farms and Rosebud Road. but large extents of the zone are concealed by surficial deposits.012 mm/year for the average rate of graben subsidence. it displaces Cretaceous strata and the Miocene to lower Pleistocene Mounds Gravel. Raum fault zone Section number 1028d Section name Raum fault zone Comments: The Raum fault zone outlines the southeast side of the Dixon Springs graben. This estimate does not allow for possible strike-slip motion. as the strike of the fault zone at the Massac Creek site. 1 km apart. but cannot be documented. p. Detailed investigations were carried out at the Choat site in western Massac County. Where the Raum enters the Mississippi Embayment. Average strike +20˚ Comments: This value was measured on fig. but high-angle reverse faults are present. some are accurately located by outcrop and borehole data.Paleoseismological studies None Timing of most recent paleoevent middle and late Quaternary (<750 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Nelson and others (1999 #3889. Dividing 120 m into roughly 10 million years yields 0. Slip-rate category <0. 1993 #3896). Sense of movement Normal. a few faults of the Raum fault zone are exposed. reverse Comments: Most faults are high-angle normal. one of several large. Reliability of location Good Comments: As with other segments of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex. Illinois.2 mm/yr Comments: The Massac Creek graben contains about 120 m of upper Miocene and younger sediments. Two or more episodes of displacement are indicated (Weibel and others. Dip 70°-90° Comments: Most faults dip 70 degrees or steeper. Length 1 km Comments: The length of Quaternary rupture is probably at least 1 km. 2 of Nelson and others (1999 #3889).

The net displacement is down to the southeast and increases toward the northeast. Lusk Creek fault zone Section number 1028e Section name Lusk Creek fault zone Comments: The Lusk Creek fault zone delimits the northwest margin of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and also was a northwest boundary fault of the Proterozoic-Cambrian Reelfoot Rift. At the Metropolis city landfill. The southeast dip is listed first and considered dominant. Drilling elsewhere in the Choat area suggests the Metropolis Formation is faulted. the Mounds Gravel (Miocene to lower Pleistocene) is tilted and faulted. Within the Mississippi Embayment. 2 of Nelson and others (1999 #3889). Faults commonly outline narrow grabens and horsts. Average strike +24˚ Comments: This value was measured on fig. 1997 #3888). 1028e. a reverse fault during the Alleghenian Orogeny. mapping is 75 . Small northeast-trending faults having 1 m or less of throw were observed cutting Metropolis Formation along a stream southwest of Choat. Paleoseismological studies None Timing of most recent paleoevent middle and late Quaternary (<750 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. and unconformably overlain by horizontal. part of the Choat site. There is no topographic expression in alluvial bottom lands. and the Roxana and Peoria Silts (Wisconsinan). Geomorphic expression Linear ridges and valleys mark the fault trace across bedrock uplands.2 mm/yr Length Not applicable Comments: The length of Quaternary rupture is unknown because it was demonstrated at only two sites. as the average of the strikes of the fault zone at Reineking Hill site (+20˚) and the Choat site (+27˚). an alluvial deposit of early to middle Pleistocene (Illinoian) age. NW Comments: Southeast and northwest dips are about equally represented. where the Lusk Creek merges with the western end of the Rough Creek Fault System. unfaulted loesses: the Loveland Silt (Illinoian). probably <0. Age of faulted deposits The youngest unit affected is the Metropolis Formation. Reliability of location Good Comments: In bedrock uplands this fault zone has strong geomorphic expression. 1991 #3887).Dip direction SE. but younger sediments are unaffected. The southeast-dipping master fault was a normal fault during the Cambrian. and outcrops of deformed rocks are numerous. These faults are truncated by undisturbed Holocene alluvium. because the southeast-dipping border fault of a graben that contains the study site is longer than the northwest-dipping border fault (Nelson and others. Subtle alignment of ridges and valleys can be detected within the Mississippi Embayment. which are on different strands of the same fault zone. and a normal fault again later (Nelson.

Along a stream west of Maple Grove School. In the northeastern part of the fault zone.based almost entirely on subsurface data.2 mm/yr Length Not applicable Comments: The length of Quaternary rupture is unknown because it was demonstrated at only one site. The fault zone has undergone at least two reversals of displacement. tentatively identified as Eocene. Sense of movement Normal. Core-drilling at the Maple Grove School revealed a graben that contains sand and gravel. as the strike of the fault zone at Maple Grove site. Paleoseismological studies None Timing of most recent paleoevent middle and late Quaternary (<750 ka) Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. faults are imaged on a high-resolution seismic profile. Smaller faults. probably <0. We interpret the Metropolis to be displaced a maximum of 10 m. Topographic expression in the Mississippi Embayment is subtle. Dip direction SE Comments: The master fault dips southeast and becomes slightly listric at depth (Bertagne and Leising. dip either northwest or southeast and probably intersect the master fault at depth. at best. The fault zone has no topographic expression in alluvial bottom lands. the Cretaceous McNairy Formation is faulted extensively. outcrop data signify dominantly dip-slip displacements. systematic vertical joints and a few small (< 30 cm throw) normal faults were observed in the Metropolis Formation. mainly in the hanging wall of the master fault. The Peoria and Roxana Silts (Wisconsinan) and the Loveland Silt (Illinoian) are not faulted. Geomorphic expression Strongly linear ridges and valleys mark the fault zone across bedrock uplands. reverse Comments: Principally high-angle normal faults. 2 of Nelson and others (1999 #3889). Dip 70°-90° Comments: Most faults dip 70 degrees or steeper. Age of faulted deposits At the Maple Grove site. but high-angle reverse faults are present. At the Maple Grove site. 1991 #3884). Average strike +30˚ Comments: This value was measured on fig. 76 . overlain by the lower to middle Pleistocene (Illinoian and older) Metropolis Formation.

and the geology was logged in detail. this structure underwent (1) an episode of compression. These observations imply that major faulting was pre-Illinoian. and may be faulted. but are not faulted.4 km south of and parallel to the tracks (Nelson and others. then a backhoe removed soil from the entire width of the structure on the north side of the tracks. larger. in Paleozoic bedrock. Dip direction E. The site takes its name from exposures in a railroad cut known as Kelley Switch (Nelson and others. so the stratigraphic age constraints were used instead. Projected to the north. 1999 #3889). one adjacent to the railroad. Six thermo-luminescence analyses on silts produced dates much younger than expected from the stratigraphy. No slip indicators were found. containing high-angle reverse faults. but seismic reflection profiles indicate a positive flower structure. There is no evidence with which to select faults dipping in either direction as dominant. reverse Comments: The near-surface structure visible in the railroad cut is a graben. the other about 0. Two seismic-reflection profiles were run. Dip 45°-90° Comments: Faults that dip as gently as 40-50 degrees at the surface appear to steepen to nearly vertical at depth. Age of faulted deposits The Mounds Gravel (Miocene to lower Pleistocene) is downdropped at least 30 m into a graben. Paleoseismological studies Many test pits and soil borings were made in the railroad cut. Seismicreflection profiles (see "Geologic setting") indicate the graben is nearly symmetrical with respect to fault displacements. Timing of most recent paleoevent late Quaternary (<130 ka) 77 . 1999 #3889). Sense of movement Normal.5 km apart.1028f. Evidently. Reliability of location Good Comments: The structure is known from exposures in a railroad cut and two seismic profiles less than 0. Its extent beyond these points is not known. Kelley structure Section number 1028f Section name Kelley structure Comments: The Kelley structure. but the graben continued to subside approximately 3 m during the Wisconsinan. lies along what may be a cross-fault connecting the Lusk Creek and Raum fault zones. Geomorphic expression No linear topography is evident. which trends N-S to NNW-SSE. W Comments: East and west dips are about equally represented. The Loveland Silt (Illinoian) is confined to the central trough of the structure. The Roxana Silt (mid-Wisconsinan) and Peoria Silt (late Wisconsinan) both thicken into the trough. followed by extension. and/or (2) a component of strike-slip motion. the Kelley structure passes beneath alluvial bottom lands of the Cache Valley. or younger.

000.R. in Hutcheson. 1967.000. W. and Masters.H.D.5 km.. D. J.R. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-554.W..R. 41 p. the eastern boundary fault of the graben strikes N.W.F. 1981. D.... Kentucky-Illinois: U.J.J.. D. 1999.. C. 1 sheet. J. 1991.J. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. J. and Leising. Denny..H.W..000.F. ed. scale 1:24.2 mm/yr Length Comments: Known length is only 0. References #3880 Amos. 1 sheet.. Interior cratonic basins: Tulsa. Geologic map of the Burna quadrangle. W. B. #3887 Nelson. Interior cratonic basins: Tulsa.Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown.000. W. #3883 Baxter. p. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. 20° W... 77-86. Geologic map of the Reevesville quadrangle. 199-208.. 209-243. in Leighton. eds.. we map a cluster of faults that seems to be narrowing and converging toward the north. 30 p.W..J.. Illinois: Illinois Geologic Quadrangle Map IGQ-18. and the western fault trends N.S. #3898 Nelson. Desborough. Structural framework of the Mississippi embayment of southern Illinois: Illinois Institute of Natural Resources State Geological Survey Division Circular 516. 1991. A symposium of the geology of Fluorspar: Kentucky Geological Survey Special Publication 22. Quaternary grabens in southernmost Illinois—Deformation near an active intraplate seismic zone: Tectonophysics. scale 1:24. M.S. 1974. In the railroad cut. 1 sheet. T. #3882 Amos. Oltz. it may be as long as 8 km.W. p. p. D. Interpretation of seismic data from the Rough Creek Graben of Western Kentucky and Southern Illinois..F.. Areal geology of the Illinois Fluorspar District—Part 3-Herod and Shetlerville quadrangles: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 413.W.M. p. D.. Kentucky: U. 1966.. J. Oltz. M. eds.. Geologic map of the Little Cypress quadrangle. D...C. 10° E. #3884 Bertagne.H.R. Kentucky: U. Memoir 51. E. J.000. A. v. and Eidel.J. probably <0. J. Treworgy. G... Oklahoma. Structure of the fault systems in the Illinois-Kentucky Fluorspar District. 78 . scale 1:24. D.. Livingston County.. 1 sheet. Kolata. Kolata.J. 1 plate. Geologic map of part of the Smithland quadrangle. but if this fault zone links the Lusk Creek and Raum fault zones. Livingston County. Average strike -10˚ Comments: North-south. Follmer..S. Memoir 51. L. in Leighton. #3886 Kolata. Structural styles of the Illinois Basin.A. and Shaw. and Eidel.. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-657.. D. 1967. and Wolfe. scale 1:24. #3889 Nelson.W.M. J. #3881 Amos. #3885 Hook. Using the two seismic profiles along with the outcrop data. 305. scale 1:24. D. Oklahoma.. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1150. 381-397. and Masters. 1996. 1974..

1 plate. and Heigold. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1151-D. R. L. scale 1:48. Harrison.. Investigations of the New Madrid Seismic Zone: U.. p. P. Geology of the Waltersburg quadrangle Pope County. p. S. Devera.B. 1997. Stratigraphy and structure of the western Kentucky Fluorspar District: U.C. 235-258. Neotectonics of the northern Mississippi embayment: Illinois State Geological Survey Guidebook 30..R. F. in Shedlock . Geological Survey Professional Paper 1539-Q. J.D. 28 p. Goldhaber. 34 p.C. and Hoffman. W. Nelson.M.B. W. and Esling.J.. D. southern Illinois and western Kentucky—New constraints from regional seismic reflection data. Follmer. eds.... 32 p. 1964.S.A. Fluorspar Area Fault Complex.. #3893 Ross.. C.500.J.J. 41 p.S. #3894 Ross.H... 1999.A.B..J. 1 plate. 1963. #3892 Potter. Oliver. 1 plate. A.. 41 p. 79 . #3895 Trace. Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 98. Structure of the Reelfoot-Rough Creek Rift System. 1984.#3888 Nelson. L. R. #3890 Nelson.M. #3896 Weibel. K.A. Structural framework of southernmost Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 351. and Masters..W... 1995. v... and Johnston. and Hicks Dome. W.P.. D. 1993.. Geology of the Paducah and Smithland quadrangles in Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 360.. M.P. C. 19..000... scale 1:62. Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic faulting in southernmost Illinois: Engineering Geology. J. C. Denny. 46. and Amos. C.

West of the Holocene meander belt of the river. and also northwest of the wide. 1996 #2256). The New Madrid seismic zone is spatially associated with the Reelfoot rift. However. Synopsis: The evidence for Quaternary faulting in the Western Lowlands of Missouri and Arkansas consists of late Quaternary liquefaction features that are attributed to prehistoric earthquakes. 1994 #754). (Obermeier. The part of the embayment west of the Mississippi River is itself approximately bisected by the uplands of north-northeast-trending Crowleys Ridge. revised 04/20/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. and smaller areas of late Wisconsinan dunes and Holocene floodplains. and Tuttle (1999 #3921) lie several tens of kilometers northwest of the floor of the graben. U. 1991 #2021). Therefore. Thus. into the Western Lowlands and Eastern Lowlands (Vaughn. Geological Survey State Missouri.S. However. and of seismic-reflection profiles that show offsets of Quaternary reflectors. the causative faults have not been identified and the locations and sizes of the liquefaction features identified to date provide poor constraints on the sources of the shaking. in and east of the Eastern Lowlands and the Mississippi River (for example. Date of compilation 02/23/00. terraced. All of the Western Lowlands paleoseismological sites studied by Vaughn (1994 #3924). 1996 #3925). Geologic setting The northern Mississippi embayment is approximately bisected by the Mississippi River. The main upper crustal expression of the rift is the Mississippi Valley graben.1029. Several prehistoric liquefaction features west of Crowleys Ridge are here informally grouped under the name Western Lowlands. step-faulted margin of the graben (see summary by Rhea and Wheeler. several of the sites lie near or on an aeromagnetic lineament that trends 80 . Randolph (Arkansas) 1° x 2° sheet Poplar Bluff Province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: The liquefaction was recognized as the type that is caused by strong ground motion for example. and the strong motions are presumed to have been caused by slip on one or more preexisting faults. Wheeler and Rhea. the seismic zone is generally 30 km or more east of the area summarized here. the ridge divides the outwash deposits. New Madrid (Missouri). Wheeler. outwash deposits of late Wisconsinan braided streams (Saucier and Snead. the embayment is dominated by lowlands of nearly flat. 1994 #3924. Vaughn and others. 1994 #3919). Arkansas County Stoddard. Western Lowlands liquefaction features (Class A) Structure Number 1029 Structure Name Western Lowlands liquefaction features (Class A) Comments: The Western Lowlands of Missouri and Arkansas form the part of the northwestern Mississippi embayment that lies west of the uplands of northeast-trending Crowleys Ridge (Saucier and Snead. 1991 #2021). The New Madrid seismic zone is east of Crowleys Ridge. Tuttle and others (1998 #3817).

Another high-resolution reflection profile across the Commerce geophysical lineament approximately 30 km southwest of Dudley ridge shows about 20 m of dip separation on a reflector within the Quaternary sequence (Stephenson and others. Tuttle and others (1998 #3817). Tuttle. 6. Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression The liquefaction features generally lack geomorphic expression. 1999 #3921). this assessment of the Western Lowlands focuses on paleoseismological evidence for prehistoric earthquakes. 1998 #3955). Sense of movement Not reported Comments: The prehistoric earthquakes are known only from locations and age estimates of liquefaction. Thus. in the Western Lowlands. No surface ruptures are known from the earthquakes. being exposed in walls of excavations and cut banks. However. Paleoliquefaction sites 1. Four of the sites are east of Crowleys Ridge in the Eastern Lowlands and will not be considered further here. 1991 #3922. site DM-1 of Wheeler and Rhea. Thus. the formation of the source of the Commerce geophysical lineament may have involved at least a component of normal faulting. which. 81 . Age of faulted deposits late Wisconsinan (Saucier and Snead. and Tuttle (1999 #3921). Accordingly. 1994 #754. 1999 #3954). then likely the mafic magmas intruded fractures that formed or reopened with an extensional component of movement. dateable materials were recovered only at sites 1 (Dudley Main Ditch. Two high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles across the western slope of the ridge are interpreted as showing three faults that extend from Paleozoic and Cretaceous bedrock upward into Quaternary sediments (Shoemaker and others. after magnetic and gravity modeling. any such tectonism need not occur coseismically.northeast (Vaughn. 1994 #3924. and the rift formed coevally. even if the sites lie outside the main part of the step-faulted rift margin. Tuttle. This reasoning indicates that the paleoseismological sites in the Western Lowlands may lie near one of the northwesternmost normal or normal-oblique faults of the rift. and 7 of Vaughn (1994 #3924) surround Dudley ridge. 1999 #3921). Dip Not reported Comments: The causative fault or faults remain unidentified and uncharacterized. or even involve faulting. Some sand blows are exposed at ground level (Vaughn. 2 (Mingo Ditch. including diverted rivers. If this part of the lineament. The lineament is part of the Commerce geophysical lineament. Of the eight sites in the Western Lowlands. However. Shoemaker and others. 1999 #3921). all contained liquefaction features attributed to prehistoric earthquakes. Vaughn (1994 #3924) summarized results from 12 sites. and speculated about possible Quaternary tectonism. the inferred dike swarm. 1997 #3920. 1991 #2021) Paleoseismological studies The main reports on liquefaction features in the Western Lowlands are those of Vaughn (1994 #3924). 2. Vaughn (1991 #3922) and Boyd and Schumm (1995 #3916) identified several geomorphic anomalies. Langenheim and Hildenbrand (1997 #3917) attributed to a mafic dike swarm that they suggested may have formed parallel to and coevally with the Reelfoot rift. site V1 of Tuttle. the profile interpretations support the liquefaction evidence (see "Paleoseismological studies") of Quaternary faulting.

including the Western Lowlands. organic material from the soil horizon immediately beneath the smaller sand blow was dated as A. 82 . which give calibrated ages of A. These episodes might or might not correspond to events 1 and 2. indicating that the event predated 9. 1994 #3924). Events 3 and 4 are known only from site 3 (Vaughn. a late Wisconsinan channel deposit contained a bone dated at 12. the bone gave a date of 17. Both events are bracketed by dates of 22. 1999 #3921).990 yr B. depending on the validity of the correlations elsewhere in site 1 and to site 6.site MD-1 of Wheeler and Rhea. Francis River. respectively (Vaughn and others. Elsewhere at site 1. 240-560 and 770-1020. Note that. late Holocene channel deposit with wood at its base that yielded a date of 590 yr B.P. 15 contained prehistoric liquefaction features attributed to earthquakes. and of 3. Most of the features are sand dikes..000 yr B. Similarly. and 590 yr B.P.P.P. Thus.P. 1994 #3924).D. 240-1020. Organic material in the soil horizon immediately beneath the larger sand blow was dated as 1660±70 and 1110±65 yr. deformed beds beneath a sand blow contain wood and bone. site V3 of Tuttle.P. and sand blow. and Current River 2 is newly discovered. of which 25 are in the Western Lowlands. She summarized results from 116 liquefaction and archeological sites. and 6 (Dudley Main Ditch). events 1 and 2 occurred before 3. Alternatively. A dike of event 1 fed a crater and a sand blow.P.P.750 yr B. 1994 #3924.P. both events may be younger than 17. and Vaughn (1994 #3924) suggested that the ages of the soils approximate the ages of the events. site SF-2 of Wheeler and Rhea.P. The younger dike is truncated by a second. B. Thus.430±170 yr B.P. The sites are within 27 km of each other (Vaughn.570 yr B.P. crater. The channel deposit is cut by a dike.D. 2). Two surficial sand blows about 100 m apart bury dated soils. from wood 35 cm below the event 1 sand blow. Vaughn (1994 #3924) suggested that a small surficial sand blow at site 3 may have formed during the 181112 New Madrid earthquakes. which is itself cut by a younger dike. At site 6. and Tuttle (1999 #3921) sought to define the ages and size distribution of liquefaction features in and near the New Madrid seismic zone.750 radiocarbon yr B. Three dikes of event 2 cut the older dike. Regardless.570 yr B. Of these 25 sites.. The first two events are best represented by crosscutting dikes at site 1. Vaughn. event 3 was estimated to have occurred during A. Dikes and buried sand blows at site 2 were attributed to event 2. site V2 of Tuttle. from wood at the base of a paleochannel that postdates both events. Tuttle and others (1998 #3817). the two dikes represent two liquefaction episodes between 12. which is the estimated age of event 4.D. A carbonaceous silt 58-62 cm below a sand blow was dated at 13. 1440-1540 (calibrated). 1994 #3924).570 yr B. Vaughn (1994 #3924) assumed that the sand blow was coeval with event 1. the dikes elsewhere in site 1 might have formed in unrecognized events between events 2 and 3. 1994 #754. 1993 #3923. These four sites yielded evidence of at least four prehistoric events (individual earthquakes or sequences of earthquakes). 1999 #3921). events 1 and 2 are younger than 22. 3 (Wilhelmina Cutoff of the St. Therefore. Only three sand blows were found and two of these were dated at Current River 8 and at Current River 2 of Tuttle (1999 #3921). 1994 #754. Early Archaic archeological artifacts are on the terrace surface that overlies the sand blow..00010. (Vaughn. Current River 8 is at or near site 4 of Vaughn (1994 #3924). fig.570 yr B.990±150 yr B.P.

D. Earlier. neither potential source is known to have had more than one earthquake. including that of Vaughn (1994 #3924). at which Vaughn (1994 #3924) suggested that a smaller surficial sand blow may be attributed to the 1811-12 New Madrid earthquakes. and. 1380±70 yr to a Western Lowlands source. which formed in A. 1999 #3921).750 yr BP and 3. now burned. 900±100 yr and A.D. 83 . episodes I-IV postdate 3490 B. the two events were recognized at sites approximately 70 km apart. One or more of liquefaction episodes II-IV at Current River 8 might have been coeval with the single episode at Current River 2 (Tuttle. 1380±70 yr (Tuttle. Later. 1530±130 yr earthquakes or earthquake sequences in the New Madrid seismic zone (Tuttle.570 yr BP. 1999 #3921). Sand dikes and a sand blow (episode I) were intruded by later sand sills (episode II). Calibrated dates on the cypress knee and the burned root constrained the sand blow to have formed during A. Tuttle (1999 #3921) combined her results with those of several other paleoliquefaction studies.C. figure 47).C. 1999 #3921).D. 1999 #3921). penetrated a paleosol above the sand blow. 900±100 yr. Tuttle (1999 #3921) also attributed a liquefaction event at A. Accordingly. but their ages and geographic distributions remain poorly constrained. of course. to deduce the occurrence of very large to great earthquakes or earthquake sequences in the New Madrid seismic zone in A. However. The Current River 8 site records two to four liquefaction episodes (Tuttle. Additional liquefaction events occurred before A. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: Probably A.C.D. Instead. 1380±70 yr. a sand blow buried a cypress knee. 1999 #3921) are attributed to the A.D. and 3380-3090 B.D. The sills of episode III were themselves cut by younger dikes (episode IV). No structural or stratigraphic evidence precludes episodes II-IV from having formed during the same earthquake or earthquake sequence. Because no sand blows were found in the area that could be attributed to the 1811-12 New Madrid earthquakes. and are poorly characterized as to the geographic distributions of coeval liquefaction features. 1999 #3921. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Vaughn (1994 #3924) attributed his event 2 to a possible source in the Western Lowlands between 22.D.D. Other sills were intruded (episode III) into sediment that had been deposited on top of the sand blow. a tree root. A. The zone is only approximately 50 km away from site 3. 1999 #3921) (see "Paleoseismological studies"). The two to four liquefaction episodes at Current River 8 (site V4 of Vaughn. The only age control is from wood found 15 cm below the episode I sand blow. Tuttle (1999 #3921) suggested that the sand blow may be related to a separate source in the Western Lowlands. The wood yielded a calibrated date of 3490-3470 B. may be too large to have been caused by an earthquake in the New Madrid seismic zone 80 km or more distant. Vaughn (1994 #3924) had attributed his event 2 to a possible source in a different part of the Western Lowlands. 1811-12. Events 3 and 4 at site 3 of Vaughn (1994 #3924. Thus.C. site V3 of Tuttle. Tuttle (1999 #3921) suggested that the sand blow at Current River 2.At the Current River 2 site. so no recurrence interval can be calculated. 1530±130 yr. 1994 #3924) are known only to postdate 3490 B. (Tuttle.D. 1310-1450 (Tuttle. 900.

J. References #3916 Boyd. 1991.. Hoffman. and Wheeler.. Length Not applicable Comments: No causal fault is known. and Harrison. #3920 Shoemaker. Anderson.. D.A. plate 6.... V.000. Missouri. Late Quaternary faulting and earthquake liquefaction features in southeast Missouri—The identification of new earthquake hazards: Missouri Division of Geology and Land Survey Open File Report OFR-97-96-GS. The Geology of North America.T.S.B. J. R. 1 sheet. v.. R.. J. Association of Missouri Geologist 43rd annual meeting and field trip. R..S. #3917 Langenheim. 1998. Dudley Ridge—Late Wisconsinan terrace of fault scarp?. N. 1996. 5. and Palmer. Geomorphic evidence of deformation in the northern part of the New Madrid seismic zone: U. Vaughn. 1997. 1995. surface rupture. in Morrison. D..F. #2256 Obermeier. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1538-R. Geological Society of America. and Palmer.. v. p. 44.. 35 p. J.. R.D.. Colorado. 1994..S. Quaternary nonglacial geology.. and relation to the Reelfoot rift and New Madrid seismic zone: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Vaughn. p. K-2. v.F. v. ed. and Snead.R. 1997.. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2264-B. J. 580-595. 1113-1120. K. Anderson.R. J.: Boulder. T. Hoffman.I. eds. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis— An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes: Engineering Geology.Slip-rate category unknown Comments: No causal fault. p. scale 1:250. S. J. p. and Schumm. in Palmer. S.. The only paleoseismological expression of faulting is prehistoric liquefaction features of poorly constrained and widely different ages at widely separated sites.D. 1996.. conterminous U. September 20-21. N.000. Average strike Not applicable Comments: No causal fault is known. A shallow high-resolution seismic reflection study of Dudley Ridge. Quaternary geology of the Lower Mississippi Valley.. 13-22. geometry. Missouri: U. 1-76.. scale 1:1.L. no. 109.E. #3955 Shoemaker. or dated fault offset is known. M.G. Cape Girardeau. and Hildenbrand. 84 .000.. south-east Missouri: Computers & Geosciences. Map showing large structures interpreted from geophysical data in the vicinity of New Madrid.. #3919 Rhea.. Hoffman. Vaughn.W. S... M. The only paleoseismological expression of faulting is prehistoric liquefaction features of poorly constrained and widely different ages at widely separated sites. no.D. Commerce geophysical lineament—Its source.L. D. 23. 10. #2021 Saucier.

Rolla. conference on the geology of the Mid-Mississippi Valley. #3817 Tuttle.S... v.D. 1999. p. 54-59. p.. Geological Survey. Williams... 1999.S. Missouri: U. A Late-Holocene surficial sandblow in the western lowlands of southeast Missouri—A paleoseismic milestone: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. R.K. #754 Wheeler.. and Hoffman. D.R. Map showing surficial and hydrologic features in the vicinity of New Madrid. J. Vaughn.. 1994. 85 . scale 1:250. Pratt. Lafferty. Harrison.. 1994. J. #3922 Vaughn. and Palmer. 1996. in Palmer. #3923 Vaughn. central United States: University of Maryland. J. Paleoseismological studies in the western lowlands of southeast Missouri: Technical report to U. Dating of liquefaction in the New Madrid seismic zone and implications for seismic hazard: U. E..#3954 Stephenson.D. v. Palmer. in Louis Unfer Jr.. J. Late Quaternary faulting and earthquake liquefaction features in southeast Missouri—The identification of new earthquake hazards: Missouri Division of Geology and Land Survey Open File Report OFR-97-96-GS. 1-12. Late Holocene earthquakes and their implications for earthquake potential of the New Madrid seismic zone. Cape Girardeau Missouri. and Schweig...L.P. p. W. under Contract 14-08-0001-G1931. M. III. 140-155.. Deformation and Quaternary faulting in southeast Missouri across the Commerce geophysical lineament: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 1996. and Harrison. 3. R..W. and Rhea.L.A.D.. 250 p. Association of Missouri Geologist 43rd annual meeting and field trip. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2264-E. J. p.R. R.. 89. J. #3924 Vaughn... T. 25. D. unpublished Ph. 27 p. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR-0017. 77 p.S. 1993. Missouri. J. Hoffman. September 20-21. D. Active tectonics in the Western Lowlands of southeast Missouri—An initial assessment. #3921 Tuttle. Missouri. J. Cape Girardeau. no.D dissertation. Odum.. R..S. M. #3925 Vaughn.. Hoffman. 1998. and Hoffman. J. extended abstracts: Missouri Division of Geology and Land Survey Special Publication 8.D.. 87.W..000. 1 sheet. 1991. S. III. D. Dudley Main Ditch—Multiple late Quaternary earthquake induced liquefaction events. eds. R.H.J.P.D.. no.. 1.

the causative faults have not been identified and the locations and sizes of the liquefaction features studied to date provide poor constraints on the sources of the shaking. St. Jackson.500 years ago. Louis-Cape Girardeau liquefaction features (class A) Comments: Tuttle and others (1999 #3904) examined sand blows. The present interpretation involves an earthquake of moment magnitude M > 6. Genevieve. Pulaski. and sand sills that were found during systematic searches of streams in southeastern Missouri and southwestern Illinois. U. Perry. Louis. Jefferson. Geological Survey State Missouri. St. Louis area on the northwest and the Cape Girardeau area on the southeast. Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: The liquefaction was recognized as the type that is caused by strong ground motion (Obermeier. Date of compilation 01/28/00. St. The search extended approximately 50 to 90 km west and east of the Mississippi River. Numerous large faults. Ste. Francois.1030. The smaller the earthquake east of St. Louis. 86 . Randolph. Washington. Cape Girardeau. sand dikes. Ozark Plateaus. Sense of movement Not reported Comments: The prehistoric earthquakes are known only from locations and age estimates of liquefaction. However. and other folds of Paleozoic age are known throughout the region. Louis-Cape Girardeau liquefaction features (class A) Structure Number 1030 Structure Name St. Franklin. Interior Low Plateaus. occurring approximately 6. 1996 #2256). revised 04/26/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. A second earthquake caused strong ground shaking in the area during the past 4. bedrock consists of Paleozoic strata that dip northeastward from the Ozark uplift toward the center of the Illinois basin. and the strong motions are presumed to have been caused by slip on one or more preexisting faults.2 occurred in or very near St. Immediately southeast of the study area is the New Madrid seismic zone. Belleville. The earthquakes are part of the broad. Louis. Clair.000 years. Historical earthquakes are scattered throughout the study area. Illinois County Bollinger. Johnson. Synopsis: Correlation and dating of the liquefaction features remain uncertain. No surface ruptures or other deformation are known from the earthquakes. Madison. Wayne (Missouri).S. Louis. Regionally. Wheeler. Monroe. Washington (Illinois) 1° x 2° sheet St. and most involved the basement. Paducah. Massac. between the St. Geologic setting The study area straddles the Mississippi River and the western edge of the Illinois basin. Louis. spanning approximately 37°-39° N. the more likely it is that another earthquake of M > 5. diffuse halo of scattered seismicity that surrounds the New Madrid seismic zone. The study area is named here informally after these two cities. Rolla Province Central Lowland. and perhaps exceeding 7. monoclines. St. roughly 60 km east of St. Clinton.

sand dikes are far more numerous than sills or sand blows. and the like) at some of these sites as well as at another 24 sites. Consistent with scenario (1). or (3) three separate earthquakes. Obermeier. 1997 #3900. perhaps on the Centralia fault-Du Quoin monocline. 1999 #3906). The absence of dikes in liquefiable deposits of suitable age near Centralia argues against scenario (2) (McNulty and Obermeier. 1997 #2839.Dip Not reported Comments: The causative fault or faults remain unidentified and uncharacterized. 1999 #3906). 1999 #3904) searched for liquefaction features along 447 km of stream cutbanks in southeastern Missouri and southwestern Illinois. Tuttle and others (1999 #3904) documented 308 sites having liquefaction and soft-sediment structures and dateable materials. Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression None. near Germantown. Missouri. no faults were found to cut Quaternary strata. Illinois. McNulty and Obermeier. and sills are exposed in cut banks of streams. sand diapirs. 900 +/. 1997 #3901. Age of faulted deposits The liquefaction features are in late Wisconsinan and Holocene deposits (Tuttle and others. multiple-year studies covered areas that overlap in west-central Illinois.000 years might have been caused by one or more of the very large earthquakes that other studies have shown occurred in the New Madrid seismic zone in approximately A. 1997 #3901. Munson and others. 1999 #3906) reported results from 21 sites. Among the recognized liquefaction features. and during the winter of 1811-1812 (see review in Tuttle and others.D. 1997 #3901. Paleoseismological studies Two coeval. dikes. 1999. (2) McNulty and Obermeier (1997 #3900. within approximately 50 to 90 km east and west of the Mississippi River. and overlapped by.5 with an epicentral area 35 km farther east near Centralia. McNulty and Obermeier. 1998 #3957. 1996 #3903. 1530 +/. Illinois. (2) an earthquake of M > 7. Geotechnical data from 51 boreholes at 15 locations near liquefaction features allowed estimation of the magnitudes and distances of earthquakes that could have produced the observed liquefaction features.2 near St. 1999 #3904. slumps.140 yr.5 near New Madrid. McNulty and Obermeier. based on the greatest distance to observed liquefaction features. (1) Tuttle and others (1996 #3956.100 yr and A. or sills) at 48 sites.D. an M > 5. Louis. p. the study area of Tuttle and others (1999 #3904) (Obermeier. an M > 6 near Germantown (McNulty and Obermeier. blows. however. 1997 #3900. load structures. McNulty and Obermeier (1999 #3906) estimated that the earthquake near Germantown was at least as large as M 6. Under scenarios (1) and (2). 1999 #3906). 1-5). 87 . They found possible or confirmed liquefaction features (sand dikes. The search area was chosen to include several large faults and anticlines that are near clusters of epicenters. Tuttle and others (1999 #3904) suggested three alternative scenarios that could explain the results: (1) an earthquake of moment magnitude M > 7 with an epicentral area 50-60 km east of St. 1999 #3906). Louis. some of which were also documented by Tuttle and others (1999 #3904). 1998 #3902. The 21 sites had been found during extensive surveys of the region that is immediately to the east of. Sand blows. and an M > 7. small faults. In addition. other liquefaction features that formed during the last 4.5. and soft-sediment structures of less certain origin (folds.

133-146. McNulty and Obermeier.. and Obermeier. 1996. S.E. Resolution of the uncertainty requires more study. 68. no. This rate has no other meaning and should not be used for hazard estimates. 521-536. W.A. prehistoric liquefaction features are recognized over a large area and attributed to several earthquakes that occurred on unidentified faults. C. so no slip rate can be calculated. probably <0. v. 78. Obermeier. Length (km) Not applicable Comments: Individual Quaternary faults have not been identified. 1997. 1999 #3904.F. 5. 22 p. E. S. References #3900 McNulty. no.F. location." Slip-rate category unknown. Instead.. Liquefaction evidence for at least two strong Holocene paleo-earthquakes in central and southwestern Illinois. #2839 Munson. v. the plotting program that makes maps of the active faults in this compilation requires an estimation of the slip rate.2 mm/yr Comments: No dated fault offset is known.. #3906 McNulty.J. S.E. so the slowest was chosen for this reason alone. p. See "Paleoseismological studies. 2. and Hajic. and Obermeier. 1997. W. 4. 1999 #3906). 17.E. v. dates. p.. S. and depend on uncertain correlation of liquefaction features. p. Liquefaction evidence for Holocene paleoearthquakes in central and southwestern Illinois: Eos. Average strike (azimuth) Not applicable Comments: Individual Quaternary faults have not been identified. Liquefaction evidence for Holocene and latest Pleistocene seismicity in the southern halves of Indiana and Illinois—A preliminary overview: Seismological Research Letters. P. and depends on how liquefaction features are correlated. W. #2256 Obermeier... Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis— An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other fea- 88 .Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: Timing remains uncertain.. Munson." Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: The number..R. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Nonetheless. S.F. and geotechnical work (Tuttle and others. See "Paleoseismological studies. Liquefaction evidence for two Holocene paleo-earthquakes in central and southwestern Illinois: U. S316..S. Geological Survey OpenFile Report 97-435.. prehistoric liquefaction features are recognized over a large area and attributed to several earthquakes that occurred on unidentified faults. 1999.. and size of prehistoric earthquakes in the study area remain uncertain. Instead. and Obermeier. 1997.F. USA: Environmental & Engineering Geoscience.F. no. #3901 McNulty.

S.. Dyer-Williams. v. K. 89 . 44. Cande. Lafferty.S. 50.F.. 1998.F..tures and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes: Engineering Geology. USA: Engineering Geology.. Chester. M. R.. J. S342.. Lafferty. no. J. 67. R. M.. 1998. M. Dyer-Williams.H... Chester. v. Liquefaction features in southwestern Illinois and southeastern Missouri and thier implications for paleoseismicity: Eos. and Sierzchula. Haynes.. 2. 67. M. 79. and Haynes. R.F.. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union..P. 2. S. no... Paleoseismology study northwest of the New Madrid seismic zone: U. Evidence of earthquake-induced liquefaction north of the New Madrid seismic zone. 1996. #3956 Tuttle. R. #3902 Obermeier. p. K. p. v. p. #3904 Tuttle. M. #3903 Obermeier. v. v.. J. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-5730. 17. Central United States: Seismological Research Letters. Lafferty. 1-76. 1999. 49. Cande.S.. R. p.. xi + 155 p. M. 227-254. #3957 Tuttle. R.. no. 58.. Liquefaction evidence for strong earthquakes of Holocene and latest Pleistocene ages in the states of Indiana and Illinois. 1996. Seismically induced paleoliquefaction features in southern half of Illinois: Seismological Research Letters. p. Chester. and Cande.

the fault lies on the western side of the arch and along the southeastern margin of the basin.000-scale base. Structurally. Date of compilation 10/31/97 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. and vegetation is sparse). 1997 #2680).2330. U. the reliability of the fault's location is considered to be good. Along much of its trace. Geological Survey State Colorado County Crowley. the fault is conspicuous because of its down-to-the-northwest sense of throw that opposes the southeasterly regional slope. For this reason. This sense of motion results in overland flow forming local ponds against the scarp and enhancing vegetation adjacent to the scarp (the region has a semi-arid climate.000-scale Geologic setting The Cheraw fault is located on the High Plains of southeastern Colorado. 1976 #2741). The down-to-the northwest sense of motion that occurred during late Quaternary faulting events has the same vertical sense as the tectonic relief on the Precambrian crystalline rocks.000-scale mapping. 300-km-long. accordingly. In 1994 a trench was excavated across the scarp and exposed a record of late Quaternary surface ruptures.S. transferred to 1:250. and about 140 km east of the range front of the Rocky Mountains (Crone and others. 1988 #2682). Colorado. Cheraw fault (Class A) Structure Number 2330 Structure Name Cheraw fault (Class A) Comments: The Cheraw fault was first recognized during regional geologic mapping in the late 1960's and 1970's (Sharps. Colorado. The crest of the arch is approximately 20-40 km east of 90 . This documentation establishes the Cheraw fault as only the second confirmed (after the Meers fault. Kirkham and Rogers (1981 #792) formally named the fault for the small town of Cheraw. about 100 km east of the city of Pueblo. Thus the trenching confirmed the fault as a potential source of future strong earthquakes. Kiowa. but relatively low-relief. the fault is located above the west-northwesterly sloping basement surface between the north-trending Las Animas arch to the east and the Denver basin to the northwest (Curtis. Oklahoma) late Quaternary fault east of the Rocky Mountains in the U. No detailed studies of the fault were conducted during the next two decades. The Las Animas arch is a prominent. positive structural element in southeastern Colorado.000 scale) and was considered as a possible source of earthquakes. Crone. which is located about 10 km south of the scarp. Scale of digital trace 1:250. Otero 1° x 2° sheet: Lamar Province Great Plains Quality of location Good Comments: Trace from 1:24. Synopsis: The Cheraw fault was originally mapped in the 1970's as part of a regional mapping program (1:250.S. The increase in the density of vegetation along the scarp makes it a distinctive feature that is relatively easy to map on aerial photographs.

and showed it as inferred or concealed where it crosses lower Pleistocene Rocky Flats Alluvium and middle (?) Pleistocene Verdos Alluvium. thus the fault does not appear to have a long history of recurrent movement. Nevertheless. this scarp vertically offsets the alluvium about 7-8 m (Crone and Machette. Sharps (1976 #2741) drew a structure-contour map on the top of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone. Sharps (1976 #2741) showed the fault as approximately located where it crosses the Upper Cretaceous Smoky Hill Shale member of the Niobrara Formation. with is comparable with the amount of throw on early Quaternary alluvial deposits. 1988 #2682). Minor uplift probably occurred along the arch in late Paleozoic time. the fault forms a rounded but distinct scarp on lower Pleistocene Rocky Flats Alluvium. Dip 66° Comments: Dip measurement is based on the average dip of the main fault as mapped by Crone and others (1997 #2680) the trench across the fault. these rocks have a gradient of about 5 m/km. The subsurface control for the structure contours is sparse.6 m high and has a maximum slope angle of 11°. As part of his regional mapping. There is little evidence that throw on the fault has substantially offset the bedrock (only tens of meters are demonstrable). but most of the present structural relief formed in Laramide time when the gentle westward slope on the western side of the arch developed as a result of downwarping of the Denver basin (Curtis. Sense of movement Normal Comments: The sense of motion on the fault is not well known. the average Neogene slip rate on the fault is very low. and the fault could not have a long history of movement at rates comparable to the latest Pleistocene rate. and west of the fault they have a gradient of about 8 m/km. a direct interpretation of the contours indicates an estimated 6-8 m of down-to-the-northwest throw on the fault.the fault. are exposed along the fault. For example. but is inferred to be a downto-the-northwest motion on a normal fault based on the attitude of the faults exposed in the trench across the scarp (Crone and others. which are stratigraphically below and above the Smoky Hill Shale Member. Main dip direction NW Comments: Dip direction and attitude are based on the fault exposed in trench of Crone and others (1997 #2680). This 3-4 m deep trench provided the only known exposure of the fault. respectively. As the basin subsided. Geomorphic expression In his regional mapping. Locally. Even if the cumulative offset of Cretaceous rocks is four or five times greater than the estimated 6-8 m. 1995 #2679). and the elevation control suggests that the contours could contain a significant amount of uncertainty. The Cheraw fault disrupts the gradual westward gradient of Cretaceous rocks that rise up onto the arch. the cumulative throw on the fault is less than the thickness of the Smoky Hill Shale Member (150–215 m thick in the area) because neither the Fort Hays Limestone Member nor the Pierre Shale (all Upper Cretaceous). immediately east of the fault. Cretaceous rocks were tilted westward from their original eastward-sloping depositional gradient. the scarp is 3. Based on fault-scarp morphology studies in the nearby Basin and 91 . At the trench site of Crone and others (1997 #2680). 1997 #2680).

and backfill the paleo-stream channel that is now filled with latest Pleistocene deposits. they excavated a 110m-long trench across a 3. must have occurred before about 100 ka because of the time needed to incise. but only exposed a mixture of scarp-derived colluvium and paludal deposits on the hanging wall side. eolian deposition and ponded alluvium has partially buried the hanging wall of the Cheraw scarp fault. 1997 #2680). both of which contribute to the scarp's subdued morphology. the scarp appears to be an older feature than was documented by the trenching study. The trench exposed Cretaceous Smoky Hill Shale bedrock in the footwall of the fault. comparing the scarp on the Cheraw fault with Basin and Range fault scarps is complicated by the fact that the Cheraw scarp is the product of multiple surface-faulting events. In addition. widen. The length of time required to erode this wide channel down through older Pleistocene alluvial deposits and into the bedrock is thought to be on the order of 100.1 m. In that study. 92 . The timing of these events was constrained by one radiocarbon age on charcoal fragments..y. there is clear evidence of three events.y. which is the total offset from the three late Quaternary events.4 ka. The net result is that. The cumulative vertical offset on the Cretaceous shale is 3.S. Based on the proximity of these charcoal fragments to the paleo-ground surface. four radiocarbon ages on soil organic concentrates. 12 ka. Paleoseismological studies The only detailed paleoseismologic study of the fault conducted to date is that reported by Crone and others (1997 #2680). However.6-m-high scarp and reported evidence of two latest Pleistocene faulting events and an early Holocene event. the only surface-faulting events have occurred in the past 25. They also speculated that events older than about 25 k. middle (?) Pleistocene Verdos Alluvium. although these estimates only provide a maximum limit on the timing of the events.2-4. Crone and others (1997 #2680) estimated that surfacerupturing events on the fault occurred at about 8 ka.000 years. a fault scarp of this size having this morphology would be inferred to be considerably older than the Holocene age indicated by the trenching studies. and nine thermoluminescence age estimates. whereas Basin and Range scarp-morphology studies focus on features formed during single rupture events. morphologically. Comments: The average recurrence interval is about 8 ka in the past about 25 ka with a range of 4-12 ka between individual events. The latest Pleistocene deposits at the trench site was deposited in a low-gradient paleo-stream channel that was cut into Cretaceous shale. Thus the evidence suggests that during the past 100. locally unnamed latest Pleistocene loess and alluvium. Detrital charcoal fragments deposited within a faulted A-horizon (soil) have a calibrated AMS radiocarbon age of 8.000 years or longer. and 20-25 ka based on their trenching study. and Holocene colluvium. Recurrence interval 8 k. Timing of most prehistoric faulting: latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: The age of the most recent event is relatively well constrained by radiocarbon and TL age estimates (Crone and others.000 years or longer. Age of faulted deposits at the surface Lower Pleistocene (Rocky Flats Alluvium).Range Province of the Western U. Crone and others (1997 #2680) argue that the most recent event has an age of about 8 ka (early Holocene). Within the colluvial sequence.

g. However.). The cumulative vertical offset of these two events ranges between 1. this pattern of temporal clustering makes it difficult to assign a realistic recurrence interval for the fault.. 15-20 k.2 Ma) would have to be more than 100 m high. Length End to end (km): 44. If correct. this yields a slip rate of 0. during a quiescent phase.) are separated by long intervals of quiescence (e. These rough slip rates are determined by dividing the amount of offset (3.225 mm/yr.2 Ma Rocky Flats Alluvium. More simplistic calculations (but not rigorously correct) of a latest Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate are between 0.y.27 Cumulative trace (km): 45. These slip-rate values apply to periods of time when the fault is in an active phase. two surface-faulting events occurred. the Rocky Flats Alluvium is only offset about 7 to 8 m by the fault.7 m). because of the apparent temporal clustering of events. The best estimate of a long-term slip rate is ≤0. The suggested 8 ka average recurrence interval is based solely on the estimated timing of the latest Pleistocene and Holocene events documented in the trenching study. in which relatively short time intervals of activity (e.007 mm/yr based on a cumulative offset of about 8 m on the 1.094 mm/yr.The frequency of surface-faulting earthquakes that occurred in the past about 25 ky could not have been sustained throughout all of the Pleistocene because. then a scarp on the Rocky Flats Alluvium (estimated age of about 1. if this frequency had been sustained. surface-faulting earthquakes may not occur for hundreds of thousands of years. one might question whether using a single slip-rate value is an appropriate way to characterize the rate of movement on this fault. A maximum latest Pleistocene slip rate would be based on the shortest time interval between these events (20 ka to 8 ka) and the maximum vertical offset in that time interval (2. A rigorous calculation of latest Pleistocene to Holocene slip rates yields values of 0.2 mm/yr Comments: The latest Pleistocene to Holocene slip rate on the Cheraw fault is much less than 1 mm/yr.7 m. probably <0.6 m) on the oldest faulted deposits by the age of the deposits (20-25 ka).g. 100 k.6 m). Average strike +45. these resulting slip rates are similar to the more rigorous values described above.6° 93 .39 Comments: The length of the fault is about 44 km based on mapping by Sharps (1976 #2741). Similarly. The long-term slip rate on the Cheraw fault would be extremely low if one were to include the effect of quiescent phases of activity. Crone and others speculated that the fault's longterm behavior is characterized by temporal clustering of earthquakes.18 mm/yr. Slip-rate category unknown.y. During the time interval between 20-25 ka and 8 ka.23-0. this yields a slip rat of 0. a minimum latest Pleistocene slip rate would be calculated by taking the longest time interval between events (25 ka and 8 ka) and the minimum vertical offset during that time interval (1. This recurrence interval may only apply to periods of time when the fault is in an active phase.14-0.09 mm/yr based on the data of Crone and others (1997 #2680).6 m and 2. However.. Based on this apparent temporal pattern.

L. 46... Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. eds. 1997. W.S. Holocene movement on the Cheraw fault.000. 1988. no. G. Late Quaternary surface faulting on the Cheraw fault... scale 1:250. 94 . Colorado and Kansas: U. 1995. A...References #2679 Crone. 1976. B.N. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations I-2591. p. Colorado. D-2. L. Quaternary faulting and potential earthquakes in east-central Colorado: U. #2680 Crone. C11-C18 p. The Geology of North America. 109-221. 1 oversize pl. M. M.P. November 7. southeastern Colorado: U... Machette.A. S. and Machette. 7 p.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 700-C. v. D. #2682 Curtis.. and Mahan.S. Sedimentary rocks in the Denver basin. in Baars. #792 Kirkham. and Rogers.. 1981.J.R. F362.A.J. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations I-944. Earthquake potential in Colorado—A preliminary evaluation: Colorado Geological Survey Bulletin 43. 171 p. R. and 15 others. A. p. Geologic map of the Lamar quadrangle. Basins of the Rocky Mountain region—Decade of North American geology: Boulder. Bradley.N. SE Colorado—Another hazardous late Quaternary fault in the stable continental interior: Eos. 76. #2741 Sharps. v. 1970. #1141 Scott.-A..M. pamphlet.F. J. 1995 supplement. 3 pls... Geological Society of America..

1991 #2008). Johnston (1994 #2042) estimated the moment magnitude as M 4. 1987 #2061). In addition.S. 1991 #1911).8) in 1727. Date of compilation 04/10/98. The causative fault remains unidentified. Martitia P.2651. the fault responsible for the liquefaction remains unidentified. Sense of movement Not reported Comments: The 1727 earthquake is known only from reports of shaking and of liquefaction. Geological Survey. However. However. 1991 #1911). and (3) mid. Newbury liquefaction features (Class A) Structure Number 2651 Structure Name Newbury liquefaction features (Class A) Synopsis: The evidence for Quaternary faulting at this locale in northeastern Massachusetts consists of (1) eyewitness reports of liquefaction during an earthquake of MMI VII ( moment magnitude M 4. mapped faults in the vicinity (Tuttle and Seeber. Tuttle. and the strong ground motion is presumed to have been caused by slip on a preexisting fault (for example Hamilton. Dip Not reported Comments: The causative fault remains unidentified and uncharacterized. U. Thus. 1983 #1960). the locations of both earthquakes and faults at depth have large uncertainties. No other deformation is known from this or any older earthquake at the site. Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression The geomorphic expression is chiefly liquefaction features: sandblows at the surface and sand dikes in excavations (Tuttle and Seeber. 1981 #2035). University of Maryland State Massachusetts County Essex 1° x 2° sheet Boston Province New England Reliability of location Poor Comments: The liquefaction was recognized as the type that is caused by strong ground motion (Tuttle and Seeber. Wheeler. despite the presence of large. This part of New England has been seismically active during and since colonial times (Ebel and Kafka. The area is underlain by Paleozoic and Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks that were folded and juxtaposed by slip on numerous mapped faults during the assembly of the northern Appalachians (Zen and others. (2) sand dikes found in trenches and attributed to the 1727 earthquake. Geologic setting The study site in northeasternmost coastal Massachusetts is within the area in which liquefaction occurred during an earthquake of MMI VII in 1727 (Tuttle and others.to late Holocene sand dikes and a sand sill that are cut by the 1727 dikes. 1991 #1911).8. two 95 . to date no New England earthquakes have been convincingly associated with known faults. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L.

) Comments: From the AMS dates. transfer of property through wills and deeds. 1987 #2061). None of the features could be attributed solely to earthquakes. which Tuttle and Seeber (1991 #1911) interpreted as a sill emplaced beneath possibly frozen ground. They then excavated trenches at these sites.P. A separate reconnaissance of riverbank and marsh outcrops in northeastern Massachusetts and nearby New Hampshire found no evidence of liquefaction in salt marsh deposits that are 1500-3000 years old and underlain by highly liquefiable sands (Gelinas and others.y. and old maps. whereas other dikes cut across it.new springs formed in 1727. Tuttle and Seeber (1991 #1911) found abundant soft-sediment deformation features. Some dikes appear to feed the sill. 1993 #1826). The only evidence of prehistoric faulting is sand dikes at two sites 5 km apart. glaciomarine clay and a sandy soil B horizon. 96 . During reconnaissance of sand and gravel pits and other excavations in Late Pleistocene glacial deposits in northeastern Massachusetts and southeastern New Hampshire. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: Accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) dates on wood samples that are stratigraphically related to the sand dikes constrain both liquefaction episodes to between 110 and 4.D. silty. medium-grained sand domains that Tuttle and Seeber (1991 #1911) suggested are remnants of dikes older than those of the white. Tuttle and Seeber (1991 #1911) relocated these areas by studying family genealogies. (4. virtually unweathered sand. Recurrence interval 4 k.430 yr B. 1987 #2061).000 years for earthquakes large enough to cause liquefaction in the study area. At a second site 5 km away. Tuttle and Seeber (1991 #1911) suggested that the younger liquefaction episode was caused by the 1727 earthquake. Slip-rate category Unknown Comments: No dated fault offset is known.P. they observed that dikes of white. In one or more trenches at a single site. Paleoseismological studies The only paleoseismological study is that of Tuttle and Seeber (1991 #1911). Tuttle and Seeber (1991 #1911) presumed the sand to be the source of the sand dikes. accounts of the 1727 earthquake described several areas of ground failure typical of earthquake-induced liquefaction. The sand is very susceptible to liquefaction. – 1727 A. Length Not applicable Comments: The causative fault or faults are unknown. Tuttle and Seeber (1991 #1911) took the sill and the dikes that cut it as evidence of two episodes of liquefaction. Age of faulted deposits The location of the fault is unknown. very finegrained sand cut the Late Pleistocene. so no slip rate can be calculated. fine-grained sand. The glaciomarine clay also contains reddish. and localized elevation of marshland at the same time might have been caused by a lateral spread (Tuttle and others. Tuttle and Seeber (1991 #1911) suggested a maximum recurrence interval of approximately 4. The area is underlain by Late Pleistocene. the sandy B horizon contains a basal layer of gray.430yr B. glaciomarine deposits: clay at the surface is underlain by sand and then bedrock (Tuttle and others. However.

B..Average strike Not applicable Comments: The causative fault or faults are unknown.P.. and Amick. eds... Geologic Survey in cooperation with The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Public Works. D. M. D. #2042 Johnston.D. p. The only evidence of prehistoric faulting is sand dikes at two sites 5 km apart.. ed. 277-290. Michigan.R.. Goldsmith. in Slemmons.C.. Massachusetts. R. M. Hatch..R..-a. Shride..E. Neotectonics of North America: Boulder. A.F.L. December 1994.. Geological Society of America. Geologic origin of Eastern U. E. A. in Schneider. Ann Arbor Science. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. Bedrock geologic map of Massachusetts: U. compilers. ed. p. R.. in Beavers. p. Zoback. R. Appendix C—Summary tables. Kemppinen...L. 467-479. ground motions.S.C. California.M. 64. N... C-1—C-46... Liquefaction of glaciomarine sediments during the 1727 earthquake in Newburyport. 2—Appendices A to E: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V2. Ratcliffe. L. Palo Alto. #1826 Gelinas.. soil-liquefaction and engineering practice in eastern North America: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research Technical Report NCEER-87-0025. #2035 Hamilton. R. 1991. and Kafka. Engdahl. v. SCR seismicity data base. M. E.. Stanley. J. Colorado. 1983. #1960 Zen.. and Wones. and Blackwell. P. Earthquakes and earthquake engineering—The Eastern United States: Ann Arbor.L.. Decade Map Volume 1. #1911 Tuttle. A. Jr. 1981.F. H. 3-23.M. and Bradley. Evaluation of liquefactionsusceptible materials near moderate magnitude historical earthquakes in New England [abs.H... ed. p.. K. #2061 Tuttle. References #2008 Ebel. L.D.. Proceedings from the symposium on seismic hazards.S. Robinson. N. Historic and prehistoric earthquake-induced liquefaction in Newbury.S. ed. L. 594-597. 97 . p. 1987..G. Seeber. scale 1:250. J... 1993. Earthquake activity in the northeastern United States.E... 259-260.A. 1991. p. E. D. 1994. Weed. D.000. in Jacob. seismicity.. Massachusetts: Geology.A. 19.]: Seismological Research Letters. v. 3 sheets.. and Seeber.. J.M.

Synopsis: The geologic evidence for Quaternary faulting in the Central Virginia seismic zone consists of one site with a few. Washington. Richmond. It is a roughly circular area with a diameter of 120-150 km. and no surface ruptures are known. Louisa.2653. but the locational uncertainties of both the hypocenters and the individual thrust faults are typically a few kilometers. No surface rupture or liquefaction is reported.0 and M 4. 1994 #2042). 1985 #1867. Geological Survey State Virginia County Amelia. 98 . so no systematic sense of movement is known. Hanover. The result is that the individual seismogenic faults in the Central Virginia seismic zone remain unidentified. Bollinger and Sibol. 1989 #2034. 1989 #2036). latest Holocene sand dikes. Goochland. Geologic setting The Central Virginia seismic zone is underlain by Precambrian and Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks that were folded. Caroline. Intensity was MMI VII and magnitude was mb 5. 1983 #1827. Roanoke. 1971 #1799. three-quarters of which is in the upper 11 km of the crust (1985 #1801). 1988 #2027). with a low level of diffuse seismicity. and a second site several tens of kilometers away with a few. Hatcher and others. and the only reported paleoliquefaction features are those few described below under "Paleoseismological studies". Chesterfield. revised 9/11/98 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. 1973 #1798). However. U. juxtaposed. small. 1988 #1807). Date of compilation 05/21/98. Orange. Buckingham. Therefore. Henrico. 1986 #2216).8 (Bollinger and Hopper. Fluvanna. Hypocenters of microearthquakes plot within an upper crustal complex of thrust sheets (Çoruh and others. The causative faults remain unidentified. possible dikes of early Holocene or lesser age (Obermeier and McNulty. Davison. Powhatan. 1998 #1872). 1985 #1801. Similarly. Central Virginia seismic zone (Class A) Structure Number 2653 Structure Name Central Virginia seismic zone (Class A) Comments: The Central Virginia seismic zone was named by Bollinger (1973 #1797. Cumberland. during the assembly of the Appalachians (for example Glover and others. the associated hypocenters are scattered geographically. Charlottesville Physiographic province Piedmont Reliability of location Poor Comments: The largest historical earthquake in the zone occurred in 1875 near the center of the zone (Oaks and Bollinger. Spotsylvania 1° x 2° sheet Richmond. Wheeler. and superimposed by numerous nappes and thrust faults. hypocenters and faults cannot be convincingly associated with each other. Sense of movement Not reported Comments: Single-earthquake focal mechanisms from the seismic zone are variously oriented and show reverse and strike-slip faulting (Munsey and Bollinger. Johnston. no prehistoric surface rupture is known in the seismic zone. Glover and others. small. mostly southeast-dipping.S.

Paleoseismological studies Obermeier and McNulty (1998 #1872) examined cutbanks along more than 300 km of many streams throughout the seismic zone.000 years throughout the seismic zone. However. singleearthquake focal mechanisms have nodal planes with generally steep dips. Radiocarbon data and lack of severe weathering indicate that the dikes in one exposure are a few centuries old.000 years in the east. severely weathered. Average strike (azimuth) Not applicable Comments: The causal fault or faults are unknown.000-3.000 years in the east. 99 . Severity of weathering indicates that the dikes in the other exposure could be as old as early Holocene. and at least 5. 1998 #1872).000 years. One site has a few small clastic dikes that formed within the last few centuries. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Two exposures each contain a few small dikes (Obermeier and McNulty.000-3. no recurrence interval for an individual Quaternary fault can be calculated. The geologic record that should have recorded any paleoliquefaction extends back 2. 1987 #2196). The evidence for prehistoric faulting consists of sand dikes at two sites tens of kilometers apart. Length Not applicable Comments: The causal fault or faults are unknown. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: No dated offset is known. small sand dikes described in "Paleoseismological studies" below. Obermeier and McNulty (1998 #1872) concluded that (1) the seismic zone has not had an earthquake of magnitude larger than approximately 7 for the last 2. and for the last 5. Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression There is no geomorphic expression of the seismic zone beyond the few. From the close spacing of the searched streams and the paucity of observed dikes. so they are unlikely to record earthquakes on the same fault. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: One and perhaps two sites contain clastic dikes of Holocene age. but such earthquakes could not have been abundant in the seismic zone. The evidence for prehistoric faulting consists of sand dikes at two sites tens of kilometers apart. so no slip rate can be calculated. the two exposures are several tens of kilometers apart across the regional structural grain. However.Dip Not reported Comments: The causative faults remain unidentified and uncharacterized. A second site tens of kilometers away has a few small. Accordingly. averaging 61°(Bollinger. probable dikes that might have formed as long ago as early Holocene. Age of faulted deposits No Quaternary fault is known. and (2) the geologic records of one or a few earthquakes of magnitudes 6-7 might be concealed between streams or between cutbanks. searching for geologic evidence of paleoliquefaction.

Seismicity and crustal uplift in the southeastern United States: American Journal of Science.S. Wehr.. Jr. and Sibol.G.A. v.W.H.D.. plate 1.A. December 1994. 1973. R. in Schneider. 2—Appendices A to E: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V2. A. #1807 Çoruh. 1897: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. p. Evans. Russell. Seismogenic structures in the central Virginia seismic zone: Geology. G.A. v. L. J.References #1797 Bollinger. 1988. p..D. Seismicity of the southeastern United States: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.. Jr. v. G. p. C-1—C-46. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 16. Stress tensor estimates derived from focal mechanism solutions of sparse data sets—Applications to seismic zones in Virginia and eastern Tennessee: Blacksburg.S. 16. p. ed. eds.. #2034 Glover.. 1988... Appendix C—Summary tables. 1875 and May 31. #2196 Bollinger. 49-57. S. Symposium on seismic hazards. F. 1994. 59 p.. K. #1799 Bollinger. 1985. #1801 Bollinger. Patterson. A.. 28th International Geological Congress Field Trip Guidebook T363.. SCR seismicity data base.. Focal mechanism analyses for Virginia earthquakes (1978-1984): Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Geological Society of America. F-2. W. v. 223-245. p.. #1867 Munsey. v. and Farrar. M. and Thomas. J. 189 p. G. F.A. and Costain. p. Colorado... Robinson..A. Virginia's two largest earthquakes—December 22. G. in Jacob. unpublished Ph. III. Palo Alto... Appalachians. Brown.G.... gravity and geology of the central Virginia seismic zone—Part I. G.. p.. J.F. Seismicity: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Speer. D. W. J. The Geology of North America.D. Jr.. 63. 75.C. Tectonic map of the U.. C. and Viele. The Appalachian-Ouachita orogen in the United States: Boulder. Osberg. American Geophysical Union..H. soil-liquefaction and engineering practice in eastern North America: Proceedings—National Center for Earthquake Engineering Reserach Technical Report NCEER-87-0025. P. 100 .. #2036 Hatcher. Bollinger. 1973. ed.. 202216. v.C.A. 1989..A... III. 61. and Bollinger. 1989.. dissertation.A.S.. Thomas. Seimotectonics of the Virginia and eastern Tennesse seismic zones.H. Ages of regional metamorphism and ductile deformation in the central and southern Appalachians: Lithos. v.C.W. W. and Mose.. R. and Hopper.. Tectonics of the Virginia Blue Ridge and Piedmont: Washington.A.. v. G.R. seismic reflection studies. Drake. 16131636. J. D. #2027 Davison. G. 1971..S. 273-A. L. 96. 1985.K. 1987.A. in Hatcher. #1798 Bollinger. California. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v.. Seismicity. p. M. 396-408. #1827 Glover. G. #2042 Johnston.. Jr. p.. N. ground motions.. 1033-1039. 1785-1808. 1983.A. 748-751. P. G..

v. 65-75. Paleoliquefaction evidence for seismic quiescence in central Virginia during late and middle Holocene time [abs.. 101 .F. 17. S. no.#2216 Oaks. 1998. v. December 22. 1875 Virginia earthquake—New finds from documentary sources: Earthquake Notes.. The epicenter of the mb5.]: Eos. no. p. and McNulty.. 57. 3. 1986..E.A. G. 79. S342. S. #1872 Obermeier. and Bollinger. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.D. W. p.

1991 #2005). Dorchester. 1996 #2256. prehistoric earthquakes. and preceding reports summarized by these authors). Bollinger and others. U. Talwani. and fluvial deposits overlie 500-1100 m of Tertiary and Cretaceous Coastal Plain strata. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and D. Geologic setting The land is flat and near sea level. Daniels and others. 1983 #1961. Obermeier. 1973 #1798. and sand fissures produced by large. 1977 #1967. 1996 #2256). which in turn overlie Triassic and Jurassic basalt and rift basins and Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks (Ackermann. (2) middle to late Holocene craters. 1987 #2050.S. Berkeley 1° x 2° sheet Savannah. Five to 25 meters of Quaternary beach. and still lower before 102 . sand blows. 1998) noted that ground-water level was lower before 3 ka than at present.2657. 1996 #2234. and (3) the recognition that the liquefaction and paleoliquefaction features are attributable to strong shaking caused by seismic faulting (Obermeier and others. marine. Geological Survey State South Carolina County Charleston. The Charleston area is part of a seismically active region that spans most of South Carolina (Bollinger. McCartan and others (1990 #1969) reported that no faults were known to cut Quaternary deposits. Seismicity in the region surrounding the 1886 earthquake has been higher than typical for the Southeast as a whole since 1886. 1996 #2256). 1977 #1966. revised 12/15/98 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. study of paleoliquefaction features has led to a chronology of large. the causative fault or faults have not been identified and the locations and sizes of the liquefaction features provide poor constraints on the source or sources of the shaking. Charleston liquefaction features (Class A) Structure Number 2657 Structure Name Charleston liquefaction features (Class A) Synopsis The evidence for Quaternary faulting at this locale in central coastal South Carolina consists of (1) eyewitness reports of widespread liquefaction during an earthquake in 1886 of moment magnitude M 7. James Island. 1996 #2256). 1984 #1790).. However. 1994 #1977. but was markedly lower during the preceding half century than it has been since 1886 (Bollinger and Visvanathan. and the strong motions are presumed to have been caused by slip on one or more preexisting faults. and the water table is near or at the surface (Obermeier. Obermeier. Armbruster and Seeber. 1996 #1842). McCartan and others. Johnston. Augusta. prehistoric earthquakes that spans at least the latter half of the Holocene (Amick and Gelinas. Wheeler. 1983 #1962. Georgetown Physiographic province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: The liquefaction was recognized as the type that is caused by strong ground motion (Obermeier. 1991 #1787. 1990 #1969). Talwani. Date of compilation 08/05/98. However. Amick (oral commun.3 and intensity MMI X (Bollinger.

shaking. and Amick and others (1990 #1788) described criteria for searching for. because older deposits have low liquefaction susceptibility and younger ones have too high a water table to permit searches of excavation walls (Obermeier. 1996 #2256). Talwani and Marple. Marple and Talwani. 1989 #2218). Consequently. and Talwani (1994 #1977. 1996 #2048). seismological. 1993 #1857. approximately 100 km to the northeast near Georgetown. and their magnitudes may be underestimated. Talwani. and large enough to cause liquefaction may be underrepresented in the South Carolina earthquake chronology. 1990 #2013). Talwani and others. Single-earthquake focal mechanisms and hypocenter locations that were calculated with corrected polarities and a three-dimensional velocity structure (Shedlock. 1990 #2013. 1989 #1886. Dewey.5 ka. Most areas searched for liquefaction features are those underlain by deposits 80. Interpretations of the number of large Charleston earthquakes are complicated by the fact that the main source at Charleston appears to be flanked on both sides by secondary sources of liquefaction. the prehistoric craters lack geomorphic expression and are recognized only in the walls of excavations (Obermeier. No surface ruptures or other deformation are known from any of the earthquakes.000 years old. Gohn. 1997 #2236). South Carolina. 1985 #2030. Sense of movement Not reported Comments: The 1886 earthquake is known only from reports of damage. Talwani. However. and 103 . Dip Not reported Comments: The causative fault or faults remain unidentified and uncharacterized. Rajendran and Talwani (1993 #1882). 1990 #1969). lateral spreading. Age of faulted deposits The liquefaction features formed in Quaternary deposits (McCartan and others. 1997 #2058. Despite considerable geological. and other geophysical work conducted over more than two decades. 1987 #1982) have not yet yielded constraints on the movement sense of the 1886 earthquake. Low water tables can suppress liquefaction (Obermeier. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787). Thus. Obermeier and others (1987 #2050. 1977 #1970. the fault or faults that slipped to produce the 1886 earthquake remain unknown (for example Rankin. 1996 #2234) reported results in the form of an evolving chronology of large earthquakes. Weems and Obermeier (1989 #2241). and dating prehistoric liquefaction features throughout coastal South Carolina. and liquefaction.000-250. partly because many kinds of neotectonic evidence cannot demonstrate that prehistoric deformation of the ground surface occurred suddenly (Rhea. 1983 #1964. The prehistoric earthquakes are known only from locations and dates of liquefaction. earthquakes older than 3-5 ka. all craters of prehistoric sandblows are filled with sediment. recognizing. Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression The numerous sandblows that formed in 1886 can be expressed as shallow craters as wide as several meters. Paleoseismological studies Obermeier and others (1985 #1871) and Talwani and Cox (1985 #1902) first reported pre-1886 liquefaction features of the sorts produced by prehistoric earthquakes. Geomorphic and geodetic anomalies in and near the meizoseismal area of the 1886 earthquake have not yet been clearly linked to seismogenic faulting. 1996 #2048).

in 1886. Rajendran and Talwani (1993 #1882). Talwani. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and Obermeier (1996 #2256) considered the relative sizes of the prehistoric liquefaction features as compared to those from 1886 and elsewhere in the world.72 ka (Amick and Gelinas. written commun. the geographic distribution of features of a particular age. or by smaller. 1996 #2234. Evidence for the 1. source sand compactness. Amick (oral commun.00 ka. 1998) noted that ground-water level was lower before 3 ka than at present. 1. Obermeier. The first two and last three age estimates correspond straightforwardly to estimates reported by earlier workers.55 ka (Amick and Gelinas. and their magnitudes might be underestimated. Talwani..00 ka corresponds to the events dated between 1.55 ka. 1998). and still lower before 5 ka. Approximately synchronous liquefaction at two adjacent sources or at all three sources could be caused by a single large earthquake at one of the sources.). Paleoliquefaction features attributed to the 1.80 ka.96 ka earthquake has thus far been reported only from the Bluffton source area.approximately 100 km to the southwest near Bluffton. However. The following chronology of large. and Talwani (1994 #1977). liquefying earthquakes follows Talwani (1996 #2234). for example. The earthquake at 1.5. who applied dendrochronological corrections to all previous age estimates (P. Obermeier. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: The most recent prehistoric earthquake at the Charleston source that was large enough to produce liquefaction occurred at 0.35 ka (Rajendran and Talwani.. 1996 #2234) 104 .04 ka.25 ka by Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787). 1993 #1882) and 2. and S.20 ka (Talwani. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) reported evidence of a liquefying earthquake at or near the Charleston source 580 ± 104 years ago. and other factors in arguing that the prehistoric earthquakes were larger than M 5 and probably larger than M 5.64 ka earthquake have been reported only from the Georgetown source area thus far.13 ka and 1. Thus. South Carolina.64 ka.64 ka corresponds to the events dated at 1.96 ka (1754-2177 yr B.80 ka (Talwani. and 5. 3. 1991 #1787) and 1. continuing fieldwork leads to the recognition of additional paleoliquefaction features and to revised age estimates for the liquefying earthquakes. and prehistorically at 0. water table depth.F. 1996 #2048.96 ka corresponds to the events dated at 2.P. 1991 #1787. 1994 #1977). More complete results returned the most likely location to the Charleston area and revised the estimated age to 546 ± 17 years ago (Talwani. 1. 1998). coeval earthquakes at each source. Thus. 1. 1994 #1977). 5. Obermeier (1996 #2256). The earthquake at 1. and that some might have exceeded the magnitude of the 1886 shock. Each secondary source is described separately in this compilation.. The earthquake at 1. large earthquakes older than 3-5 ka might be underrepresented in the South Carolina earthquake chronology. Rajendran and Talwani (1993 #1882) reported new results and revised the estimated location to the Bluffton area and the estimated time to 500 ± 180 years ago. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and D. oral communs. Eight earthquakes occurred in coastal South Carolina. Additional complications arise because a prehistoric liquefying earthquake is assigned to one source or another according to the number and sizes of liquefaction features of appropriate ages that have been found at each source.55 ka.

and 1.69 k. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: No causal fault. 1998).64 ka earthquake occurring at or near Georgetown and the 1.44 k. The five earthquakes since 3 ka occurred 0. apart. If the 1. (4 intervals) if all earthquakes were in the Charleston source area.. near Bluffton.64. Excluding the two earthquakes that occurred before 5 ka. eight liquefying earthquakes occurred at approximately 0. 1998). the water table was lower than at present before 3 ka.00.y.46 k. In either case.44 and 0. and 5. Lower water tables could produce an incomplete record of large prehistoric earthquakes. Excluding all three earthquakes that occurred before 3 ka. would result in a recurrence estimate of 0.46 k. (2 intervals) if the 1.96 ka earthquakes were at or near Georgetown and Bluffton. earthquakes since 3 ka are the most likely to represent the current and continuing behavior of the Charleston source. If all eight earthquakes occurred in the Charleston source area. One chronology has all occurring in the Charleston source area. the resulting five intervals would average to 1. or dated fault offset is known. Talwani (1999 #2235) showed that a slip rate estimated from Global Positioning System data could produce an 1886-sized earthquake in approximately the recurrence interval given above ("Recurrence interval").80 ka (Talwani.. 1997.04. Talwani.32-0.55. would result in a recurrence estimate of 0. respectively. Two possible explanations for this decrease in recurrence intervals are that (1) lower water tables before 3 ka produced an incomplete paleoseismological record of liquefaction.y. near Georgetown. 1991 #1787. The only recognized expression of the prehistoric faulting is liquefaction features scattered over an area. and (2) the record is complete and recurrence intervals decreased markedly between 3.11. 1.y.64 and 1.Recurrence interval 0. 0.y.76-1.y. The area adjoins of merges with the areas of liquefaction that can be attributed to earthquakes farther southwest. 5.55 and 1. Note also that whether the earthquakes at 1. As noted above under "Detailed studies".y. The last two estimates.64 and 1. In addition. (5 intervals) if all earthquakes were in the Charleston source area. and father northeast.64 k. 1.2 ka) Comments: There are two suggested earthquake chronologies for the Charleston source.15 k.14 k.96 ka earthquake at or near Bluffton (P. whereas the three before 3 ka occurred 0. are preferred. 1996). and still lower prior to 5 ka (Amick and Gelinas.55. 0. or at Georgetown and Bluffton.81 k.y. and D. (< 3.64 and 1. (3 intervals) if the 1. as noted above under "Geologic setting".96.y.96 ka earthquakes occurred at or near Georgetown and Bluffton. Amick. and 0.59 k. Length Not applicable Comments: The causative fault of faults are unknown.64 and 1. 3. when the water table was lower than at present. when the water table was lowest. the resulting seven intervals would have a mean of 0.y. oral commun.96 ka earthquakes occurred at or near Georgetown and Bluffton.96 ka occurred at Charleston. surface rupture.44 or 0. has only a negligible effect on the recurrence rate estimated for the Charleston source.. 105 .46 k. apart.y. and the second has the 1. oral communs.96 ka. The preferred estimates use only earthquakes younger than 3 ka. 1.

earthquake of 1886—A preliminary report: U. and Gelinas. R.W.M..R. Long. in Gohn. The only recognized expression of the prehistoric faulting is liquefaction features scattered over an area. J. 655-658. 1985. South Carolina. earthquake. 65. p. 1984.. Characteristics of seismically induced liquefaction sites and features located in the vicinity of the 1886 Charleston. in Rankin. 33-41. H. D.D. D. G. South Carolina. p.A.. #2005 Bollinger. p. 241. G.. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1028C. p. 1785-1808. and Visvanathan. ed. 1983. earthquake of 1886—A Preliminary Report: U. 1990. v.S. G. ed.. G.. Seismicity of the southeastern United States. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U.. L.. Sibol. Seismic-refraction study in the area of the Charleston. References #1961 Ackermann. Studies related to the Charleston. 1973. K1-K24. and farther northeast. 251. #1798 Bollinger. 117-130. D.. Zietz. in Gohn. as interpreted from regional aeromagnetic and gravity maps.. South Carolina. A. The seismicity of South Carolina prior to 1886.S. #1787 Amick.... 17-32. p. South Carolina.W.A. and Gelinas. near Georgetown. D. and Blackwell. T. The area adjoins of merges with the areas of liquefaction that can be attributed to earthquakes farther southwest.T. D.. 1977. 63.L....B. #1788 Amick. P. 106 . Maurath. 1977. G.. Low seismicity in South Carolina prior to the 1886 earthquake [abs.G.S. #1967 Bollinger.. D.. p.. P.. Colorado. J. v..... ed. 1991. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1028-B. M. South Carolina earthquake: Seismological Research Letters. I..C. and Chapman. Shedlock. D. 1698 to 1986.C.A. 1886 earthquake. and Popenoe. E. in Slemmons. eds.]: Eos. Geological Society of America. and Seeber. Zoback.S. p. Studies related to the Charleston. #1790 Armbruster.W. Studies related to the Charleston. 291-308.. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.D. ed. Talwani. 1983. Reinterpretation of the intensity data for the 1886 Charleston. Engdahl. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313-K. v. Neotectonics of North America: Boulder. Studies related to the Charleston... The search for evidence of large prehistoric earthquakes along the Atlantic seaboard: Science. G. South Carolina. #2030 Dewey.A. 1991. Johnston.R. R.D. A review of recent research on the seismotectonics of the southeastern seaboard and an evaluation of hypotheses on the source of the 1886 Charleston. Distribution of subsurface lower Mesozoic rocks in southeastern United States. G. p.. in Rankin. Seismicity of the southeastern United States: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. #1966 Bollinger. L.S. 1-20.. near Bluffton.. v.S. p. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313-F. M. South Carolina. K..S. 61. M.. #1962 Daniels.Average strike Not applicable Comments: The causative fault of faults are unknown.. Decade Map Volume 1.

South Carolina. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis— An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes: Engineering Geology.. South Carolina: Science.. in Studies related to the Charleston.H. eds. and Gohn. 480-493. K. S. 558. L. v..H.. 44.. #1964 Gohn. R.. in Jacob. earthquake of 1886—Neogene and Quaternary lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy: U. p.. Gelinas. 423 p.S..S. R. 651-654...P. Proceedings from the symposium on seismic hazards. J. 39. 183-195.F. S.. South Carolina.. 227. 126. #2218 Obermeier. ground motions. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR4339. v. 987-990.South Carolina. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1028.. v. B. G. Using liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis.. M. R. p.S. South Carolina—An appraisal of their tectonic implications: Geology. South Carolina. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U. 1993. Academic Press. p.. 8 pls. C. 204 p.. D. #1970 Rankin. A.T. 1-76. Paleoseismic indicators near Bluffton. 1996.J. in Jacob. R. 1996. Gohn..B.E. earthquake of 1886—A preliminary report: U. R. #1857 Marple. 331-396. 1987.F.E. soil-liquefaction and engineering practice in eastern North America: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research Technical Report NCEER-87-0025.. #1842 Johnston. and Rubin. in McCalpin. and its relationship to local seismicity and regional tectonism. 44 p.. #1969 McCartan. and Talwani. #2050 Obermeier. Jr. R. South Carolina.C.... and Lemon. and Turkstra.L. Jacobson. S.. ed. ed. 1989. Liquefaction evidence for repeated Holocene earthquakes in the coastal region of South Carolina.W.. New Madrid 1811-1812.. v. Evidence of possible tectonic upwarping along the South Carolina coastal plain from an examination of river morphology and elevation data: Geology. 1990.S. Paleoseismology: San Diego. earthquake: U. P. S. #1882 Rajendran. R.S.. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1367-A. v.M.. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313. and Talwani. 21.. #2048 Obermeier. Geologic evidence for recurrent moderate to large earthquakes near Charleston..B. ed. G. Charleston 1886 and Lisbon 1755: Geophysical Journal International.E. p. Weems. 408-411.S. #1871 Obermeier. 1985. G.. ed. and Jacobson. #2256 Obermeier.. 314-344. C. p.E. 1996. Weems.P. p. v. p. 21. 107 .. 1983. P. p. Earthquake-induced liquefaction features in the coastal South Carolina region.F. 1977. K. p... Weems. Studies related to the Charleston. Studies related to the Charleston.F. Earthquake hazards and the design of constructed facilities in the eastern United States: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.F.S. S. Seismic moment assessment of earthquakes in stable continental regions—III. Quaternary stratigraphy in the vicinity of Charleston. Weems. E. 1993..

Fault geometry and earthquakes in continental interiors: Tectonophysics. 1997.. 7. 5. v. Proceedings. Prehistoric earthquakes in the South Carolina coastal plain: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs..E.P. China.S. 305.. 17. 28. 49-61. C. K.. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-437. #2235 Talwani. Evidence of neotectonic activity in the South Carolina Coastal Plain. in Krinitzsky. in Proceedings of the U. The Netherlands. South Carolina: Geology. R. Paleoseismic evidence for recurrence of earthquakes near Charleston. P. P. #2236 Talwani.L. 1997. VSP. 1989. Proceedings of the workshop on paleoseismology. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-568. and Trenkamp. Charleston. Contemporary lithospheric motion/seismic geology: Utrecht. D. Validation of tectonic models for an intraplate seismic zone.#1886 Rhea.. South Carolina. Nuclear Regulatory Commission— Seventeenth Water Reactor Safety Meeting: U. R. 180-181. Evidence of uplift near Charleston.. Neotectonics in the southeastern United States with emphasis on the Charleston.S. area. Paleoseismological studies in South Carolina. v. P. P. and Marple. P. p. 1985. E. Schwartz. South Carolina. S. 371-379. eds. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-6529. and Yeats. and Slemmons. D. 1987. no.S.S.T.N... A-283. California: U.. p. Earthquakes recorded by the South Carolina seismic network (1974-1986): U. v. J.F. 289-313. #1982 Shedlock. Beijing. #2234 Talwani.. p. in Prentice. International Geological Congress.. v. 1994. p. 1996. v. 92 p.S. 1996. Marshall..... J. P. September 18-22.. 108 . 1989. and Cox. ed. #2013 Talwani. p. with GPS geodetic data: U.S. 1994.M. v. P. 2. #2058 Talwani. #1902 Talwani. #2241 Weems. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CP-0105. R.. 41 p. Kellogg. August 4-14. 311-315. South Carolina: Science. p. 8. Y. v. Neotectonics in earthquake evaluation: Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology.B. 30th.S... #1977 Talwani. S. 1999. p. R. 1990. eds.. 229. p.. 379-381. 59-75. in Hong... and Obermeier. The 1886 Charleston earthquake—An overview of geological studies.

The causative fault remains unidentified. Wheeler. 1991 #2005). Widespread and longstanding practice is to refer to the liquefaction features near Charleston by the name of that city. revised 12/15/98 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. prehistoric earthquake. Synopsis: The evidence for Quaternary faulting at this locale in southwestern coastal South Carolina consists of late Holocene liquefaction features produced by a large. Several meters of Quaternary beach. South Carolina. 1983 #1961. U. approximately 100 km southwest of Charleston. Sense of movement Not reported Comments: The prehistoric earthquake is known only from locations and age estimates of liquefaction. 1996 #2256). McCartan and others. earthquakes older than 3-5 ka and large enough to cause liquefaction may be underrepresented in the South Carolina chronology. The locale is inside the southwestern edge of a seismically active region that spans most of South Carolina (Bollinger and others. Amick (oral commun. and the water table is near or at the surface (Obermeier. Thus. 1996 #2256). Bluffton liquefaction features (Class A) Structure Number 2658 Structure Name Bluffton liquefaction features (Class A) Comments: Obermeier and others (1987 #2050. 1989 #2218) and Weems and Obermeier (1989 #2241) reported prehistoric liquefaction features near Bluffton..S. However. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and D. 109 . and fluvial deposits overlie approximately 1 km of Tertiary and Cretaceous Coastal Plain strata. 1998) noted that ground-water level was lower before 3 ka than at present. the causative fault has not been identified and the locations and sizes of the liquefaction features provide poor constraints on the source of the shaking. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and Talwani (1994 #1977) referred to the Bluffton area as the southern area. and Rajendran and Talwani (1993) implicitly followed this practice in referring to the features near Bluffton. This compilation follows the same practice in use for the Charleston features. Daniels and others.2658. South Carolina. marine. and still lower before 5 ka. No surface ruptures or other deformation is known from the earthquake. Geological Survey State South Carolina County Beaufort 1° x 2° sheet Savannah Physiographic province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: The liquefaction was recognized as the type that is caused by strong ground motion (Obermeier. 1983 #1962. Geologic setting The land is flat and near sea level. which in turn overlie Triassic and Jurassic basalt and rift basins and Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks (Ackermann. Date of compilation 08/05/98. 1990 #1969). and the strong motions are presumed to have been caused by slip on a preexisting fault.

5 or larger. the prehistoric craters lack geomorphic expression and are recognized only in the walls of excavations (Obermeier. First. 1996 #2256). Thus. Obermeier. Rajendran and Talwani (1993 #1882). Consequently. because older deposits have low liquefaction susceptibility and younger ones have too high a water table to permit searches of excavation walls (Obermeier. and still lower before 5 ka. Thus. He 110 . and that some might have exceeded the magnitude of the 1886 shock at Charleston. 1996 #2234) summarized results for the Bluffton area in the form of an evolving chronology of liquefying earthquakes. coeval earthquakes at each source. and dating prehistoric liquefaction features throughout coastal South Carolina.000 years old. source sand compactness. However. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and Obermeier (1996 #2256) considered the relative sizes of the prehistoric liquefaction features as compared to those from 1886 and elsewhere in the world. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and D. 1998) noted that ground-water level was lower before 3 ka than at present. 1996 #2256). written commun. Amick (oral commun.. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787).F. additional complications arise because a prehistoric liquefying earthquake is assigned to one source or another according to the number and sizes of liquefaction features of appropriate age that have been found at each source. earthquakes older than 3-5 ka and large enough to cause liquefaction may be underrepresented in the South Carolina earthquake chronology. Talwani (1996 #2234) applied dendrochronological corrections to all previous age estimates from coastal South Carolina. and other factors. Obermeier and others (1987 #2050.Dip Not reported Comments: The causative fault remains unidentified and uncharacterized. Paleoseismological studies The Bluffton source is approximately 100 km southwest of the Charleston source. recognizing. Third. Weems and Obermeier (1989 #2241). including those from the Bluffton area. the geographic distribution of features of a particular age. They argued that the prehistoric earthquakes of coastal South Carolina. were larger than moment magnitude M 5 and probably M 5. 1996 #2234. water table depth. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) reported evidence of a liquefying earthquake at or near the Charleston source 580 ± 104 years ago.. The following and other factors complicate interpretation. or by smaller. approximately synchronous liquefaction at the Charleston and Bluffton sources could be caused by a single large earthquake at one of the sources. Age of faulted deposits Most areas searched for liquefaction features are those underlain by deposits 80. 1989 #2218). Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression The craters of prehistoric sandblows are filled with sediment. for example. including the Bluffton area. 1998). More complete results returned the most likely location to the Charleston area and revised the estimated age to 546 ± 17 years ago (Talwani.000-250. and S. Rajendran and Talwani (1993 #1882) reported new results and revised the estimated location to the Bluffton area and the estimated time to 500 ± 180 years ago. and Amick and others (1990 #1788) described criteria for searching for. Second. and Talwani (1994 #1977. continuing fieldwork leads to the recognition of additional paleoliquefaction features and to revised age estimates for the liquefying earthquakes.

South Carolina. Seismic-refraction study in the area of the Charleston. 111 . 1998) holds open the possibility that the 1. Long. v. so no slip rate can be calculated.96 ka in the Bluffton area might be distant effects of an earthquake at the Charleston source (P.. Average strike (azimuth) Not applicable Comments: The causative fault or faults are unknown. G. #2005 Bollinger.. and Gelinas. In the latter case. M. p. The area adjoins of merges with the area of liquefaction that is attributed to Charleston earthquakes. G. 117-130. A. In neither case can one calculate an estimate of the Bluffton recurrence interval. Maurath. 1990. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U.. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: No causal fault. or dated fault offset is known.. P. R. 1996 #2234). South Carolina. G. Studies related to the Charleston.. #1787 Amick.. Talwani.96 ka liquefaction might have been a distant effect of a large earthquake near Charleston..T. 1998). #1788 Amick..S. 1993 #1882.. v. Sibol. Seismicity of the southeastern United States. 655-658. 1994 #1977). but only one of these at 1.S.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313-F. 1983. R. The only recognized expression of the prehistoric faulting is liquefaction features scattered over an area. M. and Gelinas. South Carolina earthquake: Seismological Research Letters. surface rupture. 1991. 61. Alternatively. References #1961 Ackermann.96 ka may have occurred in the Bluffton source area (2. 1993 #1882..96 ka (Rajendran and Talwani.. p. 1994 #1977.A.8 ka. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: The most recent prehistoric earthquake large enough to cause detected liquefaction may have occurred at 1. K. 251. Shedlock. oral communs. The area adjoins of merges with the area of liquefaction that is attributed to Charleston earthquakes.D.20 ka earthquake of Talwani.35 ka earthquake of Rajendran and Talwani.96 ka occurred in either the Charleston or the Bluffton source areas.. ed. Characteristics of seismically induced liquefaction sites and features located in the vicinity of the 1886 Charleston. 1698 to 1986. P. 1-20.. and Chapman. nor evidence of a discrete source there. D. Length (km) Not applicable Comments: The causative fault or faults are unknown. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: As noted above under "Paleoseismological studies".. The only recognized expression of the prehistoric faulting is liquefaction features scattered over an area. there would be no evidence for paleoevents at or near Bluffton. 2. L. Johnston. 1991. p. The search for evidence of large prehistoric earthquakes along the Atlantic seaboard: Science. the liquefaction features that formed at 1. Talwani.. 1886 earthquake.C.C. Talwani (oral communs. a liquefying earthquake at 1. in Gohn. D. 1997. Talwani.concluded that eight liquefying earthquakes occurred in coastal South Carolina between 1886 and 5.M. H... 1997.

Neotectonics of North America: Boulder. v.F. p.D. 1994..R. The 1886 Charleston earthquake—An overview of geological studies. South Carolina.. 44.S.. P. 1983.. 1993. and Blackwell...M. 1989. v. Distribution of subsurface lower Mesozoic rocks in southeastern United States. 1994. R.. G. #1882 Rajendran. Weems.. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1367-A. 183-195. and Talwani.E. p.. September 18-22. #1969 McCartan. Paleoseismic indicators near Bluffton.. and its relationship to local seismicity and regional tectonism. and Obermeier. K1-K24.. p..L. #2218 Obermeier... Earthquake hazards and the design of constructed facilities in the eastern United States: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Engdahl. 112 . D. Zoback. P. South Carolina—An appraisal of their tectonic implications: Geology. Weems... Paleoseismological studies in South Carolina. eds. P.. in Jacob. Colorado.S. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis— An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes: Engineering Geology. Weems. K. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CP-0105. p. 39. v. ed. R. S. and Turkstra. p. South Carolina.S. and Lemon. M.. G.F. 558.. Studies related to the Charleston..J. C. 180-181.in Slemmons. 1996. p.. and Yeats.. eds. in Proceedings of the U.. p. South Carolina.. and Gohn. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313-K. Earthquake-induced liquefaction features in the coastal South Carolina region. R. I.S.P. E.E.B. #2050 Obermeier. B. 1-76. 21. Proceedings from the symposium on seismic hazards.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission— Seventeenth Water Reactor Safety Meeting: U. Geological Society of America. p. California: U. eds. in Studies related to the Charleston.E. Schwartz.F. A-283. Jr. ed.. 1989. no. R. #1977 Talwani. #1962 Daniels.S. as interpreted from regional aeromagnetic and gravity maps.. 291-308... v. earthquake of 1886—Neogene and Quaternary lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy: U.. p... 289-313. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U. 480-493. 987-990. Marshall. Geological Survey OpenFile Report 94-568. p.S. R. Quaternary stratigraphy in the vicinity of Charleston..S. #2241 Weems. in Jacob. S. Proceedings of the workshop on paleoseismology. Zietz. D. Decade Map Volume 1.B. L. 1987. v. S. C.. 1990. 2.S. D. soil-liquefaction and engineering practice in eastern North America: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research Technical Report NCEER-87-0025.P. D.E. Liquefaction evidence for repeated Holocene earthquakes in the coastal region of South Carolina. in Gohn.. #2234 Talwani.H.. in Prentice.. E. Jacobson.F.B. 28. #2256 Obermeier.H. Prehistoric earthquakes in the South Carolina coastal plain: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. P. ground motions.D. and Popenoe. K. 7. 1996. R. C.. S. and Jacobson.

which in turn overlie Triassic and Jurassic basalt and rift basins and Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks (Ackermann. Several meters of Quaternary beach. 1983 #1961. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and D. The locale is on the northeastern edge of a seismically active region that spans most of South Carolina (Bollinger and others. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and Talwani (1994 #1977) referred to the Georgetown area of prehistoric liquefaction features as the northern area. Weems and Obermeier (1989 #2241) concluded that the features near Georgetown were caused by local earthquakes instead of by a distant earthquake source near Charleston. Geological Survey State South Carolina. Brunswick (North Carolina) 1° x 2° sheet Georgetown. near which many of the northern liquefaction features exist. Wheeler. 1991 #2005).S. and the water table is near or at the surface (Obermeier. Synopsis: The evidence for Quaternary faulting at this locale in northeastern coastal South Carolina consists of late Holocene liquefaction features that are attributed to a single large. Horry (South Carolina). 1996 #2256). Georgetown liquefaction features (Class A) Structure Number 2659 Structure Name Georgetown liquefaction features (Class A) Comments: Obermeier and others (1987 #2050. Thus. Amick (oral commun. and the seat of Georgetown County. Florence Physiographic province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: The liquefaction was recognized as the type that is caused by strong ground motion (Obermeier. and fluvial deposits overlie several hundred meters of Tertiary and Cretaceous Coastal Plain strata. marine. 1996 #2256). South Carolina. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Widespread and longstanding practice is to refer to the liquefaction features near Charleston by the name of that city. and still lower before 5 ka. earthquakes older than 3-5 ka and large enough to cause liquefaction might be underrepresented in the South Carolina chronology.2659. prehistoric earthquake. 1998) noted that ground-water level was lower before 3 ka than at present. the causative fault has not been identified and the locations and sizes of the liquefaction features provide poor constraints on the source of the shaking. Geologic setting The land is flat and near sea level.. and the strong motions are presumed to have been caused by slip on a preexisting fault. The causative fault remains unidentified Date of compilation 08/05/98. U. However. Daniels and others. 1983 #1962. McCartan and others. North Carolina County Georgetown. approximately 100 km northeast of Charleston. and uses the name of Georgetown. 1990 #1969). 1989 #2218) and Weems and Obermeier (1989 #2241) reported prehistoric liquefaction features near Georgetown. 113 . This compilation follows the same practice. South Carolina. South Carolina.

recognizing. 1997.. Dip Not reported Comments: The causative fault remains unidentified and uncharacterized. Age of faulted deposits Most areas searched for liquefaction features are those underlain by deposits 80.64 ka near Georgetown. Consequently.000 years old. Known liquefaction features of that age are restricted to the Georgetown area. In the 114 . Talwani (1996 #2234) recognized one prehistoric earthquake at 1. source sand compactness. They argued that the prehistoric earthquake that may have occurred near Georgetown was larger than moment magnitude M 5 and probably larger than M 5. Talwani (oral communs. 1996 #2234) summarized results for the Georgetown area in the form of an evolving chronology of large earthquakes. because older deposits have low liquefaction susceptibility and younger ones have too high a water table to permit searches of excavation walls (Obermeier. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and D. 1996 #2256). No surface rupture or other deformation is known from the earthquake.. 1994 #1977).64 ka liquefaction could be similarly attributed to the Charleston source. P.7 ka earthquake of Amick and Gelinas. 1989 #2218).000-250. Most liquefaction features of other ages are interpreted as distant effects of earthquakes near Charleston. the geographic distribution of features of a particular age. Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression The few sandblows that formed in 1886 this far northeast of the causative earthquake at Charleston can be expressed as shallow craters. oral communs. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and Talwani (1994 #1977. water table depth. Weems and Obermeier (1989 #2241).5. earthquakes older than 3-5 ka and large enough to cause liquefaction may be underrepresented in the South Carolina earthquake chronology. 1997. Talwani. Amick and Gelinas (1991 #1787) and Obermeier (1996 #2256) considered the relative sizes of the prehistoric liquefaction features as compared to those from 1886 and elsewhere in the world.64 ka might be distant effects of an earthquake in the Charleston source area (P. and dating prehistoric liquefaction features throughout coastal South Carolina and southeastern North Carolina. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: Talwani (1996 #2234) reported liquefaction dated at 1. Alternatively.64 ka that may have occurred in the Georgetown area (the 1. However. 1998) noted that ground-water level was lower before 3 ka than at present. and still lower before 5 ka. the 1. Obermeier and others (1987 #2050.80 ka earthquake of Talwani. the craters of prehistoric sandblows are filled with sediment. and other factors. Amick (oral commun. and Amick and others (1990 #1788) described criteria for searching for. the prehistoric craters lack geomorphic expression and are recognized only in the walls of excavations (Obermeier.Sense of movement Not reported Comments: The prehistoric earthquake is known only from locations and age estimates of liquefaction. 1991 #1787. Thus.. Paleoseismological studies The Georgetown source is approximately 100 km northeast of the Charleston source. and might have caused liquefaction of poorly constrained age in southeastern North Carolina. 1998). 1996 #2256). the liquefaction features that formed at 1. 1998) holds open the possibility that the 1.

G. 117-130. p..D.S.. Quaternary stratigraphy in the vicinity of Charleston. Shedlock.S.64 ka occurred in either the Charleston or Georgetown source areas. Studies related to the Charleston. v. in Gohn.E. Neotectonics of North America: Boulder. South Carolina.. 1991. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U. P. #1787 Amick. M.. Zoback. E. eds. 1983. 1698 to 1986.. G.. Seismicity of the southeastern United States.D. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U. a liquefying earthquake at 1. Length Not applicable Comments: The causative fault or faults are unknown. The only recognized expression of prehistoric faulting is liquefaction features scattered over an area. D. Talwani. 251. Geological Society of America.. p. Characteristics of seismically induced liquefaction sites and features located in the vicinity of the 1886 Charleston. and Lemon...M. and Blackwell... ed. L. Zietz.. I. Johnston. South Carolina. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313-F..D. 1990. 655-658. 61.L. P. A.. 291-308. 1983. South Carolina. 1-20. p. E. in Gohn. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: No dated fault offset is known. Distribution of subsurface lower Mesozoic rocks in southeastern United States..C.. Sibol. and its relationship to local seismicity and 115 . R....T.latter case.A. M. Colorado. The area adjoins or merges with the area of liquefaction that is attributed to earthquakes near Chalreston. v.C.S. Jr. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313-K. 1886 earthquake. Studies related to the Charleston. Engdahl. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: As noted above under "Paleoseismological Studies". so no slip rate can be calculated. D. Average strike Not applicable Comments: The causative fault or faults are unknown. in Slemmons.. The area adjoins or merges with the area of liquefaction that is attributed to earthquakes near Chalreston. 1991. Long. G. South Carolina. there would be no evidence for paleoevents centered at or near Georgetown. Weems.. and Gelinas. R. 1990.. #1962 Daniels. as interpreted from regional aeromagnetic and gravity maps. #2005 Bollinger. H. D. p... and Popenoe. p. D.. References #1961 Ackermann. The only recognized expression of prehistoric faulting is liquefaction features scattered over an area.S.S. and Chapman. South Carolina earthquake: Seismological Research Letters. ed. K. G. #1969 McCartan. In neither case can one calculate an estimate of the Georgetown recurrence interval.M. R... Maurath. D. and Gelinas.B. M. Decade Map Volume 1. #1788 Amick. L. Seismic-refraction study in the area of the Charleston. The search for evidence of large prehistoric earthquakes along the Atlantic seaboard: Science. nor evidence for a discrete source there.R... K1-K24.

28.F. Nuclear Regulatory Commission— Seventeenth Water Reactor Safety Meeting: U.. Liquefaction evidence for repeated Holocene earthquakes in the coastal region of South Carolina. 116 . 480-493. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CP-0105. Weems. D. 44.regional tectonism.F. and Obermeier. #2241 Weems.B. and Jacobson.H. p. v. C. R. p. eds. Prehistoric earthquakes in the South Carolina coastal plain: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. P. #1977 Talwani. earthquake of 1886—Neogene and Quaternary lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy: U. in Prentice. R. 1989. K.S. S. 7. ed.F. and Turkstra. v.. #2234 Talwani. p... R. 1-76.. S. #2218 Obermeier. 558.. v.. S.P.E. Proceedings of the workshop on paleoseismology. R. in Jacob.S. 1996.S. Schwartz. Marshall.. in Studies related to the Charleston. 39..H. P. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis— An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes: Engineering Geology. A-283. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1367-A. p. The 1886 Charleston earthquake—An overview of geological studies. eds. ground motions.. no. soil-liquefaction and engineering practice in eastern North America: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research Technical Report NCEER-87-0025. September 18-22.B.E. B.. v. Weems. Jacobson. South Carolina. p. K.F.E.. 1996.. 289-313. in Jacob.. 1994.. p. Earthquake hazards and the design of constructed facilities in the eastern United States: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1987...S. 183-195. and Yeats. 1989. G. Paleoseismological studies in South Carolina... Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-568.J. and Gohn. p.. C.S. #2256 Obermeier. S. Proceedings from the symposium on seismic hazards.S. 2. California: U. in Proceedings of the U. 180-181. 1994.. #2050 Obermeier. R. Earthquake-induced liquefaction features in the coastal South Carolina region.S.

1963 #3654) at a scale of 1:62. and the ground is covered by glacial deposits (Witkind. Johns and others (1982 #259) combined the fault zone with the Weldon fault. and colluvium deposits are mapped in a long. Structure Name Brockton-Froid fault zone (Class B) Comments: The fault zone was mapped by Colton (1963 #3653.5 km wide. 1959 #3702). As Colton mapped the zone. Accordingly. Local relief between streams and uplands is generally 100 ft (30 m) or less. Thomas (1974 #3688) referred to its expression on 1:20. Geologic setting The Brockton-Froid fault zone strikes northeast in the glaciated plains of northeastern Montana. The lower block between the faults exposes mainly late Wisconsinan sandy gravel and silt that were deposited as outwash in contact with melting ice. who showed its southwesternmost 24 km. but it is unclear whether the faults penetrate deeply enough to pose a seismic hazard. 55° E. it strikes N. Colton (1963 #3653. 1956 #3656). so it is unknown whether the dip-slip components of the faulting are normal or reverse.S. 1963 #3654). narrow. No dip directions are indicated. approximately 0. across the Brockton 15’ quadrangle and beyond to the northeast. and made of two nearly parallel faults that bound a structurally lower block. one or two smaller faults are also mapped. and whether the hazard remains high now or decreased shortly after the ice sheets melted. 1963 #3654) and named by Colton and Bateman (1956 #3655. alluvium. Wheeler.500. the zone is classified as Class B. and Quaternary sheetwash alluvium and colluvium 117 . 1963 #3654) mapped the zone as straight. Bedrock dips are low. Synopsis: Quaternary outwash. straight zone with tills on both sides. U. Geological Survey State Montana County Roosevelt 1° x 2° sheet Wolf Point Province Great Plains Reliability of location Good Comments: The Brockton-Froid fault zone was mapped by Colton (1963 #3653. and named the combination the Weldon-Brockton-Froid fault zone. revised 01/31/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Date of compilation 07/27/99. The nature of the fault zone is uncertain and its origin is enigmatic. Brockton-Froid fault zone (Class B) Structure Number 707XX Comments: The Brockton-Froid fault zone forms the northeastern part of entry 147 of Johns and others (1982 #259). and extends southwest 2 km into the Poplar 15’ quadrangle.707XX. At several places.000-scale aerial photographs as the Brockton-Froid lineament. The zone has been mapped as fault-bounded. which is parallel to the BrocktonFroid fault zone and on strike several tens of kilometers to the southwest. The most detailed mapping of the fault zone is by Colton (1963 #3653.

3 of Thomas. discontinuous deposits of outwash and colluvium. toward where Big Muddy Creek crosses and interrupts the Linear channel near its middle. 1963 #3654) extends. Of the 41 km. 1963 #3653. the Brockton-Froid fault zone was mapped over 24 km by Colton (1963 #3653. showing it as a pair of parallel faults. 1963 #3654. the Linear channel contains elongated. Colton and Bateman used petroleum well data to draw structure contours on the Cretaceous Greenhorn limestone. “This channel deposit is unusual and difficult to explain” (Witkind. 1999). 1963 #3654) and an additional 21 km to the northeast. p.. In contrast. The four deposits together span 41 km. the linear deposits of outwash and colluvium cover 26 km with 15 km of gaps that lack outwash and colluvium. Witkind speculated about alternative origins. Colton and Bateman (1956 #3656) mapped the fault zone at a scale of 1:125. straight crevasse in glacier ice. D. 39). Earlier. The fault traces mapped by (Colton. The floor of the Linear channel slopes inward and downward from both ends. Colton and Bateman traced the fault zone for 42 km.. Witkind (1959 #3702. and Tertiary and Cretaceous bedrock (Colton... Fullerton. A third auger traverse shows the same thing.(Colton. data). oral commun. S. closed depressions that are anomalously large for the area traversed by the Linear channel. it is unclear how deeply the fault zone mapped by Colton (1963 #3653. These four control points could be honored with contours that show no faulting at the Greenhorn level. 1999). 1974 #3688). and late Wisconsinan tills. Fullerton. 1999). B. 1999. 1963 118 .500-scale map shows four linear. from the evidence presented by Colton and Bateman (1956 #3656). However. B. nowhere was a fault found exposed with outwash in one wall and till in the other (R. including the northeasternmost 12 km mapped by Colton (1963 #3654) and another 29 km northeast of that. northeasttrending. Outside the fault zone are mainly pre-Illinoian.000-scale aerial photographs to map a photolineament that coincides with the Brockton-Froid fault zone. only four widely-spaced wells control the Greenhorn structure near the fault zone. including an ice contact feature. Colton. oral commun. S. based on R. aligned. Finally. p. Thus. 38-39) named the aligned linear deposits the “Linear channel”. oral commun. 1959 #3702. The linear deposits are 100-400 m wide and 4-12 km long. 1963 #3653. which underlies the fault zone approximately 1 km below ground level. Thomas (1974 #3688) used 1:20. Their 1:62. D. Fullerton. Colton. The readily visible photolineament begins approximately 2 km northeast of the eastern edge of the map area of Colton (1963 #3653. Gott and others (1959 #3701) mapped a still larger extent of the fault zone as an unfaulted glacial outwash channel. 1963 #3653. Illinoian. and drainage for a long. and this difference is consistent with the normal separation indicated by Colton and Bateman. Faulting is inferred from the auger traverses. and a fourth traverse based on outcrops indicates that exposed lignites are offset 75 ft (23 m) vertically across the fault zone with the southeast side down (D. oral commun. and extends 38 km to the northeast (fig. with the southeast side down. Two traverses of auger holes across the fault zone show markedly thicker Quaternary sequences between the faults than outside them (Colton. The regional pattern of the structure contours indicates that the fault zone offsets the Greenhorn limestone as much as 300 ft (90 m). S. 1963 #3654). 1963 #3653). Thus. As described here under “Geomorphic expression”. Quaternary dune sand. 1963 #3654) at the surface are 100-300 m farther northwest than the faults mapped by Colton and Bateman (1956 #3656) on the Greenhorn. 1963 #3654.000. unpub. including 21 km of the length mapped by Colton (1963 #3653. a buried fault-controlled valley.

as mentioned at the start of this section. Indeed. The Weldon fault strikes northeast. It is 13 km long and its southeast side has slipped down in the subsurface for 100-160 ft (30-50 m) at the level of the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills sandstone (Collier and Knechtel. oral commun.. unpub. 1999. as explained under “Geomorphic expression”. Feltis (1981 #3660) extended the Weldon fault to within 38 km of the Brockton-Froid fault zone as mapped by Colton (1963 #3654). its nature is unclear and its origin is enigmatic. Feltis interpreted the Weldon fault as extending 84 km farther southwest than did Collier and Knechtel (1939 #3651). and. 1981 #3661) used well data to draw structure contours on the Mississippian Madison Group. Glaciotectonic structures can involve bedrock. based on R. so probably any scouring meltwater would have flowed along the fault zone. according to D. Normally one might attribute the absence of till to scouring by flowing meltwater. whereas. till is widely exposed adjacent to the fault zone (Colton. the fault zone trends nearly parallel to this direction. Colton. 1999). and Hansen (1966 #3666) and Thomas (1974 #3688) speculated that the Brockton-Froid fault zone is underlain by a basement fault zone. For example. The separation at the level of the Madison Group is well constrained by pairs of wells. The simplest explanation of the fault zone is that of a basement fault that was reactivated during glacial or post-glacial time. and it appears to extend another 40 km to the northeast (Colton and Bateman. Horner and Hasegawa (1978 119 . and is as great as 600-700 ft (180-210 m). This is unlikely because.#3654). 1974 #3688). Johns and others (1982 #259) used an aeromagnetic map to speculate that the Brockton-Froid and Weldon faults are two parts of the same long basement fault. S. for a total inferred length of 133 km. Feltis (1981 #3660. with its southeast side down 300-400 ft (90-120 m) (Edmisten and Foster. On each traverse. as suggested previously in this section. but. Each of the three auger traverses that crosses the fault zone has two holes inside the zone and another two bracketing it (Colton. data). S. The Weldon fault is 74 km southwest of. the local absence of till inside the fault zone remains unexplained. However. Fullerton. the zone rises and falls tens of feet to follow a straight line across present-day topography. Colton. Wisconsinan ice advanced from northeast to southwest (Flint and others. having outwash directly overlying bedrock.. 1956 #3656. In this part of northeastern Montana. 1939 #3651). the Weldon fault appears to be expressed as a concentration of northeast-trending LANDSAT lineaments (Larson. The Brockton-Froid fault zone is a real feature. However. At ground level. Another puzzling aspect of the fault zone is the absence of till in three of the auger holes in the structurally lower block. 1959 #3701. 1963 #3653). 1963 #3653. 1959 #3663. Thus. 1963 #3653. Thomas. in a meandering meltwater channel in the northwest part of the Brockton quadrangle. Colton (1963 #3653) showed several examples of logged holes without till. 1985 #3658). At greater depth. 1939 #3651). the Brockton-Froid fault zone (Collier and Knechtel. one hole inside the fault zone lacks till. 1963 #3654). although the separation decreases to the northeast. the other three holes of the traverse have till separating outwash from bedrock. 1985 #3678). the Mississippian Kibby limestone is similarly offset. B. and 36 km farther northeast. D. who has examined it in the field. Similarly. the fault zone has no obvious glacial origin. Its straightness and its path uphill and downhill across streams and interfluves argue against an origin in fluvial processes or outwash streams. Fullerton (oral communs. but typically are folds or reverse faults that trend at high angles to the direction of ice movement. any dip slip components are more likely to be normal than reverse. Therefore. and on trend with. Gott and others.

lignite-bearing Fort Union Formation (Colton. 1990 #3649). 1988 #3667. then it is unlikely to pose much seismic hazard. but in neither case is there evidence that it applies to the Brockton-Froid fault zone. Hardie and Arndt. the vertical stress would decrease and the accumulated excess horizontal stress could be released relatively quickly. tectonic faulting is not the only alternative to fluvial. 1986 #3670. The Brockton-Froid fault zone might have formed by post-glacial faulting. Biewick and others. glacial. However. nor structure contours on the base of the Fort Union Formation show detectable offset across the Brockton-Froid fault zone (Hardie and Arndt. any dip-slip component of the faulting is more likely to be normal than reverse. In addition. 1999). the basement-fault explanation is a poor fit to some of the observed properties of the fault zone. but Feltis did not draw the fault zone on his map. (2) As already mentioned. 1989 #2039). but neither analogy would apply to northeastern Montana. 1989 #1923). reverse-faulting. 120 . Feltis (1981 #3662) extended the Madison-level structure contours into the vicinity of the fault zone.#3671) speculated that four historical and early instrumental earthquakes in the region might have occurred on the Brockton-Froid fault and a southwestward extension. earthquake depths are typically 5-15 km. Northern Scandinavia and northern North America contain exceptionally large. However. In North America east of the Rocky Mountains. 1990 #3669). and SCRs worldwide typically undergo contractional deformation (Zoback and others. as summarized below. In such a case. these early earthquakes are too poorly located to test the speculation. Afterward the region would return to its normal low level of seismicity. no exposures of the fault have been observed (Colton. surface ruptures that formed in early post-glacial times. Extensional faulting occurs in SCRs in thermally uplifted areas and in gravitationalcollapse settings like the Gulf coast of the U. 1989 #3668. The Brockton-Froid fault zone is approximately parallel to the northeasterly direction of SHmax (greatest horizontal compressive stress) in this part of North America (Zoback and Zoback. horizontal tectonic stress could accumulate unrelieved. (3) As noted previously in this section. in both cases the phenomenon is real.. in a cluster of earthquakes larger and more frequent than normal for the region. and could not rule out small offsets. oral commun. The scarps along the surface ruptures can be meters high and tens of kilometers long. the following speculation demonstrates the existence of at least one alternative explanation for the fault zone. or glaciotectonic formation of the Brockton-Froid linear features. Three arguments cast some doubt on the attribution of the Brockton-Froid fault zone to tectonic faulting that extends to basement.S. isopachs of the lignites. However. 1996 #2205). in cratonic areas that are now sparsely seismic (for example. the Brockton-Froid area is part of the North American stable continental region (SCR) (Johnston. (1) Exposed bedrock near the fault zone is Paleocene. If the fault zone does not penetrate into basement and reach hypocentral depths. When the ice melted. Johnston. at greater depth. 1963 #3653. Attribution of the Brockton-Froid fault zone to reactivation of a basement fault and to post-glacial faulting are equally speculative. 1963 #3654). 1992 #2243). Nine subsurface lignites were correlated and mapped near and beneath the fault zone at depths of approximately 800 ft (240 m) or less (Hardie and Van Gosen. Unfortunately.. with a median of approximately 10 km (Wheeler and Johnston. Well control there was sparse. Johnston (1989 #3676) and Thorson (1996 #3689) demonstrated that loading of the upper crust by an ice sheet could stabilize faults that would otherwise slip in occasional earthquakes. Neither structure contours on the individual lignites. however.

and the deformation probably. antithetic normal fault that dips toward the main fault. Such structures are common in extended terranes. What is questionable is primarily the potential for seismic faulting. narrow. Dip Not reported Comments: It is unknown whether the dip slip. it is not clear whether the faults penetrate deeply enough into the crust to pose a seismic hazard. the fault zone is placed in class B. was normal or reverse Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression As mapped by Colton (1963 #3653. In reverse-faulted terranes. but not certainly. If post-glacial stress release reactivated the fault zone. Accordingly. but Colton (1963 #3653.1989 #1922). The zone extends from the Poplar NE and Sprole quadrangles on the southwest to the Capeneys Lake quadrangle on the northeast. The nearly constant width of the structurally lower block along the mapped length of the fault zone is reminiscent of a graben formed between a single. and Thomas (1974 #3688). for example along young faults of the Basin and Range province. The sense of movement on the fault zone is unknown. if borne out by testing. the Brockton-Froid fault zone strikes northeast across ten 1:24. The straightness of the zone favors strike slip. but normal or normal-oblique. Gott and others (1959 #3701). and preferably into basement. structurally low blocks of such constant width are uncommon except on the crests of anticlines. In some areas the zone is expressed as alignments of northeast-trending stream segments and 121 . with the block structurally lower than the areas on either side of the fault zone. 1963 #3654). only dip slip is inferred. and (2) paleoseismological study. the faulting would not be reverse. nor any indications of dip direction of the individual faults. would also indicate that the fault zone may pose little or no seismic hazard today. In summary. Even if they do penetrate deeply. 1963 #3654) showed no indications of strike slip along the zone. However. Any dip-slip components of the faulting are more probably normal than reverse. to allow northwest-southeast extension in response to SHmax. and only secondarily the presence of faulting. and present information cannot determine whether it was normal or reverse. This speculation.000-scale topographic quadrangles. or was only high shortly after the ice melted. such long. 1963 #3654) show no indications of strike slip along the fault zone. large normal fault and a smaller. Perhaps the most effective way to answer these questions is with (1) high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles across the fault zone to determine whether faulting penetrates deeply into bedrock. consistent with the mapping by Colton (1963 #3653). Sense of movement Not reported Comments: The geologic maps of Colton (1963 #3653. no such fold is known under the Brockton-Froid fault zone. because probably the strain stored during ice loading has since been released. if any. the Brockton-Froid fault zone contains Quaternary deformation. occurred by faulting. fault-bounded block a few hundred meters wide and at least 24 km long. to test the presence of faulted Quaternary materials and to constrain the time of faulting. including trenching and dating. it is not clear whether the hazard remains high now. The maps show the fault zone as a straight. For these reasons.

Measurement was along a ruler fit to the center of the 0.500.K. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: The vertical displacement on the faults is unknown.. ridges and elongated hills. Hardie. A. the elevation change along the zone is approximately 200 ft (60 m). L. References #3649 Biewick. 1963. The measured length includes gaps and solid.62 km (Gott and others. and dotted lines on the three maps.000. #3651 Collier. and in part of the Calais quadrangle.5km-wide feature. The coal resources of McCone County. Montana: U. Montana: U. the faulting could have been either late Pleistocene or early Holocene.S.S. Geologic map of the Brockton Quadrangle. Montana: U. scale 1:62. and Rocky Point quadrangles.. M. and Arndt.H. 122 . Johnson Lake.R. The zone descends and rises several tens of feet at several places. 1939. Geological Survey Bulletin 1869.M. Depending on the ages of the till and outwash deposits. as well as Quaternary fan alluvium and colluvium and Quaternary dune sands. Age of faulted deposits late Quaternary Paleoseismological studies None Timing of most recent paleoevent late Quaternary Comments: Colton (1963 #3653) showed the faults in the zone cutting the younger of two Wisconsinan tills and late Wisconsinan outwash deposits. which have a contour interval of five feet (2 m). the zone descends into valleys to cross streams and climbs to cross interfluves.valleys. Length 53. 136 p.H. The grain is most pronounced in the northeastern quadrangles. A length-weighted mean strike is +55˚. scale 1:250. R. 1990. Williamson.. and Knechtel.26 km trend +57˚... C. 1959 #3701)..62 km trend +55˚ and the southwestern 24. 1 pl. dashed. 80 p. both without obvious deflection. which has a contour interval of 10 ft (3 m).B.J. and in part of the Calais quadrangle. and closed depressions that are unusually large for the area. Average strike +55˚ Comments: The northeastern 40. J..S.7 km Comments: Measured as 40..88 km (Colton. H.. plus a final 1. Roosevelt and Richland Counties. plus an additional 11.19 km on the remaining (western) half of the overlapping map of Colton (1963 #3653). Evaluation of coal resources in the Eastern part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: No individual faulting events have been identified. #3653 Colton. Where the geomorphic expression of the zone is well developed. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations I362. 1963 #3654). 1 sheet. Geological Survey Bulletin 905. in parts of the Medicine Lake.

. Quaternary geology of the Smoke Creek-Medicine Lake-Grenora Area. and Sheridan Counties.. R.R. Jordan 1˚ x 2˚ quadrangle... scale 1:250. 1963. Basile. p. 1792.K. Prouty. Geological Survey Coal Investigations Map C122-C. northeastern Montana: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Geologic Map 16. and Bateman. eastern part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation.. Lindvall.S.B. 1 sheet. Daniels. R. in Tonnsen. 1959. no. Geological Survey Coal Investigations Map C122-A.. Geologic map of the Poplar Quadrangle. #3701 Gott.S.E. Daniels.. Montana: U. and Arndt. 1981. Colton. #3666 Hansen.. 1956.. G. ed. 1 sheet. #3661 Feltis. C.D. 1 sheet. Roosevelt. Smith.H.K. Montana and South Dakota. scale 1:62.. I.. F. Witkind.R. scale 1:100. J. H.000. 1 sheet. v. #3663 Flint.. in Witkind..000.. northeastern Montana: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Geologic Map 15. and Arndt. #3656 Colton. scale 1:250. J. Montana: U. 1163-1166. 2: Billings.. and Williams.. R.00. A. H. 50..P.. Reef trends of Mississippian Ratcliffe zone. J.A. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations I-225.. scale 1:100. v. #3662 Feltis. #3667 Hardie. 1 sheet.S. Geology. Roosevelt. scale 1:250. ed. 1966. p. no.. and Bateman.J. 1990. 1 sheet.. Montana. Goldthwait.A.S.H. #3655 Colton. 2260.. 1959.J.H... C.M. J. R. p. Brockton-Froid fault zone in Northeastern Montana: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 1988. 80. 1956. Weldon Field.. W. and Sheridan Counties.. northeastern Montana: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Geologic Map 17. Geologic map of the Smoke Creek-Medicine Lake-Grenora area.000.A. N. R. Richland and McCone Counties. R.. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations I-367.000. Geologic and structure contour map of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation and vicinity. F. 2 sheets.B. 67. R. 1985.500. structure. 1981.. and Arndt. Montana: U. Geological Survey Coal Investigations Map C-122-B.E. 10. Roosevelt.. I. northeast Montana and northwest North Dakota: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists..D. Montana oil and gas fields symposium 1985.000..B.H.K. Montana: U. 123 .#3654 Colton. and Foster. Montana Geological Society. 1981. Daniels. N. 1 sheet. 1 sheet.D. #3660 Feltis. p. and coal beds of the Fort Union Formation in the eastern part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation.B.S. Jr. 12. v. Jr. Wolf Point 1˚ x 2˚ quadrangle.. scale 1:125.000. Montana: U. and Kaye. H. and Sheridan Counties. scale 1:62. Stratigraphy of the Fort Union Formation in the eastern part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation..S. #3658 Edmisten. R. Stratigraphic framework of coal beds in the Fort Union Formation. Glendive 1˚ x 2˚ quadrangle.. R.B. scale 1:100. Glacial map of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains: . Montana and South Dakota: U. H. R. 1989.. Hansen. R.500. #3669 Hardie. J. Roosevelt. Geological Survey Bulletin 1073. #3668 Hardie.J.H.B.

Quaternary geology of the Smoke Creek – Medicine Lake – Grenora area.G.. 80 p.. eds. Gergersen. no. G. v.T.. R.C.C. 341. S. C. J. W..J. 1986. A. P. P. and Mooney.. 108. Jr.. The Netherlands. 1992. p. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 124 . M. Montana and South Dakota: U..D.. #1923 Zoback. 200. 291-298... and Laughlin. Straw. and Zhizhin. Stratigraphic framework of coal beds underlying the northeast part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. H. Knoll. 1989.. #3689 Thorson. D. Blümling.. Fuchs.N. B. p.S.. K. 1996.. M. v.. neotectonics and postglacial rebound.L. in Gregersen... eds. and Van Gosen. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172..R.M. Gvishiani. p. Global patterns of tectonic stress: Nature. J.W. Bergman. A. #2243 Wheeler. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on basement tectonics: Salt Lake City. J. J. 2 sheets.. 6240. Bell.. P. #259 Johns.C. Earthquake recurrence and glacial loading in western Washington: Geological Society of America Bulletin. #3676 Johnston. R. M.L. R. 299-327. and Hasegawa. 1959.W. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States. 1989.C. M. Magee. 1982. Rajendran. Brereton.J.... Z. S.. #3702 Witkind. and Schmidt. 9.J. and Basham. A. #3671 Horner.H. W. Denham. P. 523-539. #1922 Zoback. M. The effect of large ice sheets on earthquake genesis. Stephansson. H. S.E.M. R...E.C. A wave in the earth: Science..C. p. The seismicity of ‘stable continental interiors’. C.. scale 1:125.. 581-599.. 735. 4.000.. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1775.L.. S. Adams. v. Geological Survey Bulletin 1073.. and Johnston. Müller. McClernan. Lineament-block tectonics—Williston-Blood Creek Basin: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins—Neotectonics and postglacial rebound: Dordrecht.. #2039 Johnston.. 1341-1355. 1996. 15. p. no. Montana. M.W.L.. #2205 Johnston. Suarez. Geology associated with lineaments in the Weldon-Richfield Area. Klein.... R. K.. #3688 Thomas.K. Williston Basin. Earthquakes at North-Atlantic passive margins. International Basement Tectonics Association. 58. 1985..D... Montana: U. 1974. M. v. Reidel Publishing Company. 1305-1322. Udias.W. 5 plates. in Pakiser. E... Zoback.. H. 1978.. no. Neotectonic features of southern Montana east of 112°30’ west longitude: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology OpenFile Report 91.. 63. B. in Aldrich. v..A.. H. A. 274.. I. #3678 Larson. p. Dresser. A. Xu. eds.S. 491-514. Assumpcão.. A.. B.K. L. M. p. p. G. 7. and Basham. Utah. Palmquist. 1182-1191. eds. Hendrix.B. N. A. and Zoback.. T.. M.. K. v. Mercier. Jacob. Gay..#3670 Hardie. O.. The seismotectonics of southern Saskatchewan: Canadian Journal of Earth Science.. W.. 1 sheet.D. p. Ding.. Gupta. v.. 79 p.S.S. in Gregersen... Geologic implications of earthquake source parameters in central and eastern North America: Seismological Research Letters. 1989.C. Paquin. p. Suter.. 1989... 266: D. no. J.S. N. Bergantino.

Fort Bend.000. as are those in Mississippi. Wilson. Van Zandt.000. which are materials that may not be unable to endure the stresses required for the propagation of significant seismic ruptures that could cause damaging ground motions. Bee. particularly the Houston metropolitan area. and eastern and southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez. Smith. To reflect regional differences in the characteristics of the faults. Shelby. Orange. Atascosa. Crystal City. Port Arthur. Faults in areas with many well logs may be better located in the subsurface than at the surface. Live Oak. Gonzales. San Patricio. Camp. Rains. Shreveport. those in Florida and Alabama are evaluated together in a single group. Geologic setting A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico. San Jacinto. Aransas. Starr. Washington. Austin. Morris. Chambers. Waller. Matagorda. Burleson. Nacagdoches. Wheeler. Gulf-margin normal faults. Walker. Delta. Falls. Beaumont. Harrison. Bay City. Palestine. Cass. Montgomery. Texas (Class B) Structure Number 924XX Structure Name Gulf-margin normal faults. Houston. Harris. Victoria. Duval. southwestern Alabama. Waco Province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: Most of the area was evaluated with regional maps at scales smaller than 1:250. Angelina.924XX. Upshur. Sequin. Milam. La Salle. This compilation evaluates the faults in four large groups because faults number in the hundreds. Grimes. Corpus Christi. in westernmost Florida. Bowie. Calhoun. Limestone. Tyler. Marion. Date of compilation 07/28/99. Navarro. Zapata 1° x 2° sheet Alexandria. all of Louisiana and southernmost Arkansas. Kenedy. San Augustine. Frio. Freestone. Hidalgo. Lavaca. are mapped at scales as large as 1:24. Madison. Wharton. and because their ability to have significant earthquakes is doubtful. Sabine. These gulf-margin faults face southwest in westernmost Florida. Jackson. Cherokee. Lee. Rusk. Cameron. Brownsville. Texas (Class B) Comments: A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico. southwestern 125 . Wood. Hunt. Brazoria. Brooks. Dallas. Brazos. Colorado. Jasper. and those in Texas. Hardin. Robertson. southern Mississippi. Hopkins. Franklin. Galveston. Houston.S. those in Louisiana and Arkansas. because no individual fault has sufficient evidence of seismic slip to justify singling it out for attention here at a larger map scale. Polk. Jefferson. Henderson. McMullen. Beeville. Trinity. Webb. Tyler. Sherman. Refugio. Austin. Newton. Kaufman. Jim Hogg. Bastrop. Faults in some areas. Gregg. Liberty. De Witt. Texarkana. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Leon. Kleberg. Jim Wells. Geological Survey State Texas County Anderson. Laredo. Willacy. McAllen. 1991 #2032). Synopsis: The gulf-margin normal faults are categorized in Class B because they exist in sediments and poorly lithified rocks. Karnes. Panola. Goliad. U. Fayette. Nueces. Titus. Lake Charles.

led to Mesozoic growth faulting and salt tectonism. and southeast in eastern and southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez. the rifted margin was buried beneath the thick. and their offshore extensions. p. In early to middle Mesozoic time. Thicknesses exceed 12 km under coastal Texas and southern Louisiana and perhaps 16 km offshore Louisiana. their splays. and is separated from the Interior zone by the Early Cretaceous shelf edge (Ewing. At the coastline. 1991 #2032). On the arch the landward limit of the Louann salt is embayed southeastward to within 60 km of the coast (Ewing. 126 . Ewing and Lopez. rifted. Rapid deposition and the resulting enormous thickness of the post-rift sediment pile caused it to collapse and spread seaward. Regional fluctuations in the overall deposition rate led to division of the belt of gulf-margin faults into two parts with different main ages of faulting and different degrees of Quaternary faulting. the landward limit of the belt of normal faults steps gulfward approximately 40 km to exclude most of the Rio Grande embayment (Ewing. the opening of the Gulf of Mexico formed a south-facing. Ewing and Lopez. southeast-facing. Sawyer and others (1991 #3685) summarized total tectonic subsidence (TTS) analyses to infer that the Early Cretaceous shelf edge formed above a crustal boundary that was inherited from the crustal thinning accompanying Triassic-Jurassic rifting. 1991 #2020). After formation of the Early Cretaceous shelf edge. 1991 #1994. 33). Salvador. 1991 #1994. 1991 #1995). The TTS results indicate that the boundary approximately overlies crust that was thinned to half its original thickness before deposition of the post-rift sequence (Sawyer and others. 35). coastal Texas. and the overlying pile extended on listric. figures 5 and 6). Ewing and Lopez. to the Karnes fault zone (Ewing. Salvador. 1991 #1994. (1) The Interior zone of Ewing (1991 #1994) includes the entire belt except southern Louisiana. These listric normal faults. Nelson. 1991 #2032). Louann Salt and an overlying. and southern Mississippi. Triassic-Jurassic rifting and sedimentation. his Figure 1 and p.Alabama. Middle Jurassic. (2) The Coastal zone of Ewing (1991 #1994) covers southern Louisiana. normal faults that indicate gulfward gravitational collapse (Ewing. 1990 #3659. passive margin at the southern edge of North America (DuBar and others. It is at least 2 km thick everywhere in the belt of gulf-margin normal faults. Salvador. A line of large grabens approximates the landward limit of Jurassic salt. at the western end of the Charlotte-Jourdantown fault zone. 1991 #2019. coastal Texas. Approximately 100 km west of the Karnes fault zone. and Cenozoic faulting is sparse in the Interior zone (Ewing. This post-rift sequence thickens seaward (Salvador. marine sequence that continues to accumulate today. the sequence is at least 10 km thick west of the Mississippi River and at least 5 km thick farther east. 1991 #1994. 1991 #3685. normal. 1991 #2020). Subsequently. south in Louisiana and southernmost Arkansas. 1991 #2032). Accordingly. 1991 #2010. 1991 #2019. Salt flowed southward and pierced upward. 1991 #1994. Ewing and Lopez. on the arch the landward edge of the Interior zone departs southeastward from the line of large grabens just mentioned. 1991 #2032). carbonate and clastic. growth faults that flatten downward into detachments in the salt and in overpressured shales (Ewing. 1991 #2032). The San Marcos arch plunges southeastward. The boundary separates less thinned continental crust on the north from more thinned continental crust on the south. 1990 #3659. The embayment contains some thin salt but lacks the large. and their offshore extensions. from the Llano uplift of central Texas toward the coast. and their antithetic and transfer faults make up the belt of gulfmargin normal faults that concern us here. including deposition of the Louann Salt.

high stresses that are necessary to 127 . The orientations of Shmin are radial to the Gulf of Mexico. 1991 #2019). the normal-faulting focal mechanism of the 1997. only partly dewatered. Therefore. the postrift sequence may be unable to support the widespread. 1985 #2215). 1993 #1986). one horizontal deviatoric component of the stress field is extensional throughout the post-rift sequence in both the Interior and Coastal zones of the normal-fault belt. and eastern Texas (1891. 1998 #1806. the natural seismicity rate in the normal-fault belt might be even less than the recent historical record would indicate. and poorly lithified. 1999 #3440). The post-rift sequence as a whole is at least 9-11 km thick throughout the Coastal zone (Salvador. Consistent with the stress field in the post-rift sequence. Gomberg and Wolf. In particular. Second. as determined mostly from well data that demonstrate fault slips and well bore breakouts (Zoback and Zoback. 1991 #2010. Epicenter maps show only sparse. The only damaging earthquakes reported through 1989 in this huge tract of land are four MMI VI earthquakes in westernmost Florida (1780). In addition to causing seaward gravitational collapse of the thick post-rift sequence. 1991 #2032) indicates that probably the sequence is sliding and extending seaward on detachments in weak salt and overpressured shales.9 and Mfa 4. the presence of the seaward-facing normal faults throughout the post-rift sequence from westernmost Florida to southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez. 1991 #2006). particularly in its Cenozoic part.0 and 4. global analogs suggest that some of the sparse seismicity in the normal-fault belt may be artificially induced (Yerkes and Castle. Furthermore. southern Louisiana (1930). 1932) (Stover and Coffman. which together cover approximately the same area as the belt of gulf-margin faults. low-magnitude seismicity within the belt of normal faults (Engdahl. and their load led to abundant Cenozoic and continuing growth faulting and salt tectonism (for example DuBar and others. 1991 #2006). First. older extensional stresses imposed by the Mesozoic sediment load have had time to relax (Nunn. 1993 #1986).7 in southeastern Texas and M 4. M 4. This level of seismicity is even less than that of sparsely seismic North and South Dakota. 1976 #3700). There are two reasons why one might expect this to be true.4 and 3. Additionally. Salvador. the crustal load from rapid Quaternary sedimentation may also aid Quaternary normal faulting and reactivate Tertiary faults of the Coastal zone by imposing extensional bending stresses on the postrift sequence. 1986 #1876. Stover and Coffman.9 in southwestern Alabama may have been induced by extraction of oil and gas or injection of fluids for secondary recovery (Pennington and others. The post-rift sequence lacks the elastic strength to transmit tectonic stresses as efficiently as upper crustal metamorphic and igneous rocks. 1998 #1806). Chang and others. and had seven earthquakes of MMI VI since 1909 (Stover and Coffman.Late Cretaceous and especially Cenozoic clastic sediments prograded southward. Perhaps seismicity is low because the post-rift sequence and its belt of gulf-margin normal faults are mechanically decoupled from the underlying crust. 584-585. Gomberg and others.9 earthquake in southwestern Alabama recorded south-southwest extension (Chang and others. 1998 #1828. the post-rift sequence itself is young. the stress field in the crust beneath the thick post-rift sequence is unknown (Zoback and Zoback. The salt and overpressured shales may be too ductile to transmit tectonic stresses upward from the underlying crust into the post-rift sequence. p. 1993 #1986). in contrast to the east-northeast trends of SHmax that characterize most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Earthquakes of mbLg 3. 1991 #2020). 1988 #1959.

Dip direction SE. 1980 #3648. Paleoseismological studies None. approximately 100 km inland from the coast in eastern Texas and more than 200 km inland in southwestern Texas. NW Geomorphic expression Scarps and drainage. because much of the fault system might be unable to generate as many significant earthquakes as can the faults in continental crust that lies north of the gulf-margin fault system. O’Neil and Van Siclen. the belt of gulf-margin normal faults from Florida through Texas is assigned to class B. seaward of the early Cretaceous shelf edge. whether they are thick fault gouge or poorly lithified sediments. 1973 #3665. 1990 #3659. Widespread Quaternary and historical normal faulting has long been recognized at the surface from Louisiana to Mexico (Groat. Ruhl and Norman. In contrast. seismogenic rupture. Verbeek. In the Interior Zone. Age of faulted deposits Cretaceous to Holocene (Winker. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico (Ewing and Lopez. and become able to support local stress concentrations that could cause small earthquakes. 1992 #3703). and tonal lineaments (DuBar and others. tend to suppress the propagation of seismic ruptures (Marone and Scholz. the Coastal zone contains more abundant evidence of Quaternary slip. in the Interior zone. 1988 #1856). topographic. southeast and northwest dips are locally paired in grabens (Ewing and Lopez. northwest of the shelf edge. Locally. 1997 #3697). 1979 #3692. White and Morton. No detailed paleoseismological studies involving trenching are reported. 1979 #3691. individual beds may dewater and lithify before surrounding sediments. However. Sense of movement Normal Comments: There might be a few strike-slip faults that form transtensional links between normal faults. 1992 #3684. near-surface materials. Ewing. 1991 #2032). late Cenozoic. 1991 #2010). gravitational col- 128 . The sequence may be similarly unable to support the propagation of high stresses or seismogenic ruptures that might enter it from the underlying crust. The faulting is generally attributed to regional. Ewing (1991 #1994) and Ewing and Lopez (1991 #2032) divided the faults into an Interior Zone and a Coastal Zone. 1991 #2032). Berryhill and Trippet. This suggestion is consistent with the observation that low velocity. 1984 #3681. 1990 #3698.drive a large. Barnes. In summary. See also “Timing of most recent paleoevent” below. Dip 0°-90° Comments: Dips vary. particularly near the coast (see “Timing of most recent paleoevent” below). but faults are generally steeper in their upper parts and they flatten downward. which are separated by a boundary that begins in southeastern Louisiana and runs westward across Louisiana and Texas. Dips are dominantly southeast in the Coastal zone. Quaternary slip is rarely reported (but see figure 3 in DuBar and others (1991 #2010) ).

R. conterminous U. and occasional small earthquakes resemble the effects of withdrawal of subsurface fluids in other urban areas worldwide (Yerkes and Castle. 1979. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-1254-D.G. Holzer and Verbeek. #1806 Chang. 1992 #3680). as explained under “Geologic setting”.L. 1997 southern Alabama earthquake [abs. H. Ammon. water-saturated materials of the Coastal zone. 69. #3648 Berryhill.. T. p. locally greatly accelerated by subsidence that arises from pumping of oil. from approximately +00˚ to +90˚ References #3703 Barnes. a slip rate of 0. scale 1:250. T. The subsidence. and Herrmann. 1998. 1 sheet. 1976 #3700. in Morrison. 1978 #3693. Average strike +50˚ Comments: Faults vary widely in strike. Therefore. The University of Texas at Austin. 432.000. U. Jr. Otvos.R. Lundelius. unlithified to partly lithified. 1983 #3674). Map showing post-Wisconsin sedimentation patterns and faulting in the Port Isabel 1 x 2 Quadrangle. 583-610. R. Historical subsidence and surface normal faulting are particularly pronounced in and around Houston (Pratt and Johnson.. The Geology of North America. A. Verbeek and Clanton.: Boulder. p. 1979 #3650. C. no. It is unlikely that any single fault in the gulf-margin belt of normal faults has such a large Quaternary offset. Geological Society of America. However. At Houston. Verbeek and others.M. R. 1991. E. 1980 #3672).. probably the long-term rate is less than 0.2 mm/yr..J. 129 . #2010 DuBar. p. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: The tectonic slip rate is unknown. Mastroianni and Norman.B. Holzer. Texas: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists..E.000. 1992. 4 sheets. gas. 1979 #3694. C.D. 1980.000 years of the Quaternary. of widely varying lengths.S.. Texas: U. Clanton. K-2. #3650 Clanton. 1980 #3675. ed.]: Seismological Research Letters. J.S. E. Faulting parameters of the October 24. Geologic map of Texas: Bureau of Economic Geology. Quaternary nonglacial geology..lapse of the thick. 175-176.600. Length Not applicable Comments: Many faults are mapped... 1979 #3695. Faults offsetting land surfaces in southeastern Houston metropolitan area. 63. Holzer and others. supervisor. scale 1:500.L.. Sheets.. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Estimates of recurrence interval are premature because it is not yet clear whether these faults can generate significant tectonic earthquakes. v. 1982 #3673. v. 1979 #3686. Colorado..E. 3. and water. faulting. and Trippet. Quaternary geology of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain. slowing of pumping to allow recovery of ground water levels was followed by slowing of subsidence and faulting (Holzer and Gabrysch..S. 1926 #3682. v.2 mm/yr would produce 320 m of slip during the 1. V.B.. and Winker.. Ewing.

v. R. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder.. E. no.. compiler. 645. 15. #3674 Holzer. O. T. and Wolf. C. A study of active fault movement. A. Principal structural features. 5. in Salvador. 175. p. 1. 7. D. J. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder.. 1990.. L. p. 1999. Gulf of Mexico basin. #1994 Ewing.. 204-209. Geological Society of America. in Salvador. subsidence bowl arrested by partial water-level recoveries: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs..L. 15. p.. Holocene faulting and subsidence in the Texas coastal zone: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.000. ed. J. v. #3675 Holzer. Frankel. 4 sheets. Modern surface faulting in the Goose Creek Oil Field (Baytown. and Gabrysch. 7. D.. 12. R. 621624.. and Lopez.. 1973.E. 18.. Cranswick.. T. 1992. Texas and vicinity: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. #3680 Mastroianni..000. ed. scale 1:750. 449. 24.. E. 73-89. 14. 1988.K. p. S. ed. Gabrysch. Hopper. and Eckhoff. Land subsidence and ground failure induced by fluid withdrawal in urban areas: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. no. and Verbeek.500.. Salt tectonics and listric-normal faulting. R. #1995 Nelson. Overturf. 7. E.000. Geological Society of America. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder. v.. Geological Society of America Continent-Scale Map 004. Raymond.. Houston. 6. A.. A. and Verbeek. Texas)—A reexamination: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs..R.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery: Geology. p.L. p. The Geology of North America. Texas. T. Colorado. 1998. Colorado. R. 449.. scale 1:5. v. Tectonic map of Texas: Bureau of Economic Geology.L. #3659 Ewing. no. A. 1982. #3673 Holzer. plate 2. J. J. C. Historical surface faulting in part of the Houston-Galveston.G. 1991. no. scale 1:2..E. Colorado.R. L. #2032 Ewing.. #3672 Holzer. 27. D..]: Seismological Research Letters. Texas: Earthquake Information Bulletin. 7. p. Rhea. in Salvador.. 367-370. A noteworthy earthquake in an unlikely place [abs. #1828 Gomberg. p. T. Raymond.. v.. T. M. R.H. 130 . Seismicity map of North America: Boulder. and Scholz. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake—The 1997 Mw 4. #3440 Gomberg.. 1983..#1959 Engdahl.E.R. Structural framework.K. v. C.. 31-52.. Faulting arrested by control of ground-water withdrawal in Houston. M.. A.. The Geology of North America. T.000. v. v. v. #3665 Groat. T. p. 12.. The University of Texas at Austin. The Geology of North America. J. v.. E. Wolf. no. #1856 Marone. 1988.E..... Geological Society of America.. p. p. C. 1991.H. The depth of seismic faulting and the upper transition from stable to unstable slip regimes: Geophysical Research Letters.. 1980. 69. no. T. Carver. J. Meremonte.J. 4 sheets. Bice. 1980. 517. v. Barnes. 1991.F. Colorado.. v. and Norman.

44... 418 p. Texas: Tectonophysics.000...R. geometry. E. no. and Johnson. 1 pl.S.H. The Geology of North America. J. #3693 Verbeek. and Clanton. and Clanton. K. v...#2215 Nunn.. 1991. 73-87.. 34.E. v. Oil fields and their relation to subsidence and active surface faulting in the Houston area: Houston. Texas: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. J. compiler.. 1992.S.. D. in Salvador. A. 1984. A. and movement history of active surface faults in Fort Bend County.. 1991..L. p. #3692 Verbeek.S.. 1568-1989 (revised): U. Map showing surface faults in the southeastern Houston metropolitan area. no. 131 . The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder. v.... #3681 O’Neil. v.W.W. Houston Geological Society. Texas: U. Texas: U. E. in Salvador.R. #3686 Sheets. #3695 Verbeek. S.E.. Davis. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder. p. 1986. E. Texas: U. J. v. A. no. v. plate 6. The Gulf of Mexico Basin: Boulder. #1986 Stover. 1985. The Geology of North America. p. Jr. W. Ratzlaff. T. Activation of Gulf Coast faults by depressuring of aquifers and an engineering approach to siting structures along their traces: Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists. 373-375. C. Cross sections of the Gulf of Mexico basin. 20 p. 13.. scale 1:24.. A. southwestern Houston metropolitan area.. J. W. ed.M.R. Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section.S. The crust under the Gulf of Mexico basin. J. 24.. Gulf of Mexico basin. U. Colorado. 1. 1978.. Clodine Fault.000. A. 545..D.E.M... v. Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-947. p. U. Local subsidence of the Goose Creek Oil Field: Journal of Geology. 1993.R.. and Coffman. Seismicity of the United States.S. in Salvador.. J. ed. #1876 Pennington. #3684 Ruhl. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan areas. p. Geological Society of America. and Norman. 1979. E. 429-432. R.000. State of stress in the northern Gulf Coast: Geology. The evolution of seismic barriers and asperities caused by the depressuring of fault planes in oil and gas fields of south Texas: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.. 1.. and Van Siclen. 63.. and Ewing. p.500.R.. 1979. v. #2020 Salvador. #2019 Salvador.000.. 1926. #3685 Sawyer. C. Surface faults in the gulf coastal plain between Victoria and Beaumont. The Geology of North America... M. 21. M. D. U. 1979. Quaternary fault activity in Texas Gulf Coast: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. 939-948. v. v.W. 7. 1 pl. 1991..S.A. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527. Buffler.. and Pilger. R. compiler. scale 1:24. 3.. 1 sheet. scale 1:2. Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-797. 25 p. Colorado. plate 3.W. 20 p. Colorado.D..S. Geological Society of America. 1979.S. J. 1979. 52. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1136. DuPree.. 577-590. #3691 Verbeek. Identification. and Clanton. D. p. Geological Society of America. Texas.. Carlson. #3682 Pratt. 76. #3694 Verbeek. no.H.C.T. ed. 53-72. S. p. E. scale 1:24.

eds. 339-366. The Geology of North America. conterminous U. Colorado. ed.O. 1 pl. R. v. and Zoback.000.. E. 151-167..S. 1997. no. in Slemmons. p.. p.A.B. 132 . M. in Morrison. and Blackwell.B.D. D. northwestern Gulf Coast. #3700 Yerkes. 1976. D. 1305-1320. and Morton.D..L.D... v.. R. Colorado.: Boulder. 1991. M.#3697 White.R. Quaternary geology. #3698 Winker. Seismicity and faulting attributable to fluid extraction: Engineering Geology. southeastern Texas coast: Journal of Coastal Research. #2006 Zoback. Quaternary nonglacial geology.D. R..... C. 10. Zoback. Engdahl. M. W. v. scale 1:2... Wetland losses related to fault movement and hydrocarbon production.F.000.. Tectonic stress field of North America and relative plate motions.A. 1990. 13. K-2. 4. Geological Society of America. Decade Map Volume 1. and Castle. R. Neotectonics of North America: Boulder. p.. Geological Society of America.

As discussed below. U. All of these materials are generally undeformed and nearly flat lying. Ford 1° x 2° sheet Dodge City Province Great Plains Reliability of location Poor Comments: Subsurface location of the fault is based on scattered drill-hole data that indicates the presence of an anomalously large change in the elevation of stratigraphic units between adjacent drill holes (Izett and Honey. 1940 #2813). Date of compilation 09/22/98 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. 1995 #2812) and anomalous geomorphic features above the subsurface structure. estimated to be about 165 m thick based on geophysical logs shown in Figure 3 of Izett and Honey. Synopsis: This feature is classified as a Class B feature because of the uncertainty concerning the cause of the subsurface deformation. The fault is defined largely on the basis of drill-hole data (Izett and Honey. deep-seated tectonic movements (Frye and Hibbard. Crone. 1941 #2810). 1942 #2809). the Ogallala Formation is overlain by claystone. although older Paleozoic rocks are present in the subsurface. there was a progressive transition to non-marine sedimentation. and gravels of the Pliocene Rexroad Formation and Stump Arroyo Member. This large change suggests the presence of a fault because stratigraphic units throughout the region are nearly flat-lying.6 m per km (Smith. Geological Survey State Kansas County Meade.8-3. and the Pliocene/Pleistocene Crooked Creek Formation (Izett and Honey. it is uncertain if the stratigraphic offset related to the Crooked Creek fault is solely the result of dissolution of soluble subsurface strata or is related to genuine. and in Permian time. silty sandstone and gravels that comprise the Ogallala Formation are the most widespread Tertiary rocks in southwestern Kansas. Deformation associated with the feature has resulted in a structural depression in the subsurface and an elongate topographic trough (Smith. Geologic setting The oldest exposed rocks in the Meade County area are Lower Permian sedimentary rocks. extensive evaporation of isolated inland seas resulted in the deposition of salt and gypsum (Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation. 1995 #2812). Non-deposition and erosion during much of the Mesozoic created an unconformity between Paleozoic rocks and the overlying Tertiary sediments (Frye. In the area of the Crooked Creek fault in Meade County. 1940 #2813). No exposures of the fault are known. Crooked Creek Fault (Class B) Structure Number 1021XX Structure Name Crooked Creek fault (Class B) Comments: Also called the Crooked Creek-Fowler fault by Gutentag and others (1981 #2811). sand. siltstone. 1995 #2812). At times during this transition. (1995 #2812).S. 133 .1021XX. having regional dips of only 1. Shallow seas covered the region periodically during Paleozoic time. The Miocene-age.

then Holocene deposits are “faulted” because sinkholes have formed during historical time (Frye. Stratigraphic relations based on subsurface data suggest a significant vertical offset (the amount of offset is not explicitly stated). the stream valley turns abruptly to the southwest. The stratigraphic offsets between adjacent drill holes in the area are certainly suggestive of faulting. 1942 #2809). 133-136) summarized the strengths and weaknesses of the interpretations of faulting and dissolution to explain the Crooked Creek fault. The upper 30-40 km of Crooked Creek flows in a generally east to southeasterly direction. 1942 #2809). Smith. an area of unusual artesian flow of groundwater. some of the structural depression in the subsurface could be described as a structural trough. Smith (1940 #2813. Based on the current topography. Age of faulted deposits The age of the youngest faulted deposits is uncertain. Dip Not reported Comments: For reasons similar to those described above. Izett and Honey.37 m/km in a southeasterly direction (Gutentag and others. the dip of the fault is unknown. 1896 #2814. anomalous change in the course of Crooked Creek in Meade County. The geological history related to the Crooked Creek fault is poorly known. 1940 #2813) whereas others propose that they are the result of dissolution of evaporite minerals in the Permian rocks (Gutentag and others. renewal of downward movement along the southern part of the trough in early Pleistocene time. The spatial coincidence of these unusual geomorphic features and the groundwater condition suggest a common explanation. but as Smith (1940 #2813) correctly observes.Sense of movement Not reported Comments: The sense of movement on the inferred fault is not well known because the Crooked Creek fault is only known from subsurface data. the southern part of the fault would have a down-tothe-west vertical offset. The prevailing topographic slope in southwestern Kansas is about 2. but at the eastern border of Meade County about 10 km north of the town of Fowler. Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression An abrupt. The exact cause of the unusual geomorphology in the area still remains uncertain. and the depression may not be caused wholly by faulting. but Smith (1940 #2813) suggests that the late stages of movement history included “. leading to the deposition of the Odee 134 . Haworth (1896 #2814) first suggested that these features could be related to faulting. and unusual surficial depressions (sinkholes) first drew attention to the area of the Crooked Creek fault. Gutentag and others (1981 #2811) and Izett and Honey (1995 #2812) report that the stratigraphic offsets are only the result of dissolution of subsurface evaporites. and maintains this flow direction for about 45 km before it turns abruptly and again flows to the southeast. Some authors propose that these offsets are related to tectonic faulting (Haworth. but no information exists to determine if the offset is the product of normal or reverse slip. 1995 #2812). If the stratigraphic offsets are solely caused by dissolution. 1981 #2811. The anomalous southwesterly-flowing reach of the stream coincides with the area of artesian aquifers and the area of sinkholes. p. whereas other authors contend that dissolution of subsurface evaporites and subsequent collapse of overlying strata have played a major role in the area’s geomorphology (Frye. The exact origin of the stratigraphic offset remains uncertain. . 1981 #2811). .

southwestern Kansas: State Geological Survey of Kansas Bulletin 38.C. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Because the uncertainty related to the origin of Crooked Creek fault. is poorly located and defined. v. it is categorized as a Class B feature. Thus.formation. 1896. The historical formation of sinkholes shows that subsurface dissolution continues to play an important role in the region’s geomorphology. 1981. p. #2810 Frye.. No detailed studies of the faulting history of this feature have been completed to date.W. Timing of most recent paleoevent Not reported Comments: Because the uncertainty related to the origin of Crooked Creek fault. 397) state that “The latest movement along the Crooked Creek fault occurred in the Recent epoch. S. Kansas: Bulletin of the University of Kansas.” Paleoseismological studies None. 390-424 p. 1942. and Slagle.D.E. J. it is not possible to assign a slip rate. is poorly located and defined. 3 oversized pls. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: Because the uncertainty related to the origin of Crooked Creek fault. it is not possible to determine a length for the fault..” Frye and Hibbard (1941 #2810 p. Because of this uncertainty concerning the tectonic aspects of the feature.. References #2809 Frye. therefore. State Geological Survey of Kansas 45.. 368-373. Length not determined Comments: The Crooked Creek fault is only known from subsurface data. and continued movement in later Quaternary time.. 1941. #2811 Gutentag. and Hibbard.C. displacing the Pleistocene formations and again giving surface expression to the basin. J. #2814 Haworth. 2. Geohydrology of southwestern Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey Irrigation Series 7. therefore. it is not possible to assign a recurrence interval. Thus. it is not possible to determine an average strike for the fault. Kansas and adjoining territory (preliminary): American Journal of Science. Geology and ground-water resources of Meade County. 152 p. Average strike not determined Comments: The Crooked Creek fault is only known from subsurface data. C. 73 p. which has fractured bedrock and enhanced groundwater circulation.. Local deformation of strata in Meade County. it does not have any clear surface expression. 135 ...H. . D. it does not have any clear surface expression. it is not possible to assign a time of the most recent paleoevent. E. or is all of the stratigraphic offset solely the result of dissolution. Lobmeyer. Pliocene and Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleontology of the Meade basin. E. A key unresolved question is whether the localized occurrence of dissolution features is a secondary effect of deep-seated tectonic faulting. outlining the details of the present topography .

G. 1940.#2812 Izett.A. 136 . Meade County.U. #2813 Smith.. Kansas: U. 212 p. Geologic map of the Irish Flats NE quadrangle. Geological studies in southwestern Kansas: Bulletin of the University of Kansas.. and Honey. 1995. H. State Geological Survey of Kansas 34.S. J. scale 1:24.T.000.. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I2498.G.

Columbia. and those in Texas. Saint Charles. Iberville. Washington. Louisiana Geological Survey State Louisiana. Texarkana (Arkansas) Province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: Most of the cited maps are regional compilations at 1:2. Pointe Coupee. Allen. U. Union. Grant. Jefferson. Bradley. Paul V. Assumption. and because their ability to have significant earthquakes is doubtful. and eastern and southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez.500. those in Louisiana and Arkansas. Bienville. Ascension. Rapides. Most of these materials may be unable to support the stresses required for the propagation of significant seismic ruptures that could cause damaging ground motions. Jackson. Lincoln. Saint James. Caddo. Wheeler. in westernmost Florida. Red River. Gulf-margin normal faults. West Carroll. southern Mississippi. Louisiana and Arkansas (Class B) Comments: A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico. 1991 #2032).1022XX. Avoyelles. Hempstead. Catahoula. Webster. Tangipahoa. Caldwell. Saint Bernard. Heinrich. Franklin. Plaquemines. Morehouse. southwestern 137 . Greenwood. Port Arthur. Vermilion. Jackson. Lafourche. Ashley. These gulf-margin faults face southwest in westernmost Florida. Vernon. Beauregard. Bossier. Cameron. Winn (Louisiana). Union (Arkansas) 1° x 2° sheet Alexandria. Saint Tammany. Iberia. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Ouachita.S. Natchitoches. Shreveport. Concordia. Sabine. Saint Martin. southwestern Alabama. Calhoun. Saint John the Baptist. To reflect regional differences in the characteristics of the faults. all of Louisiana and southernmost Arkansas. East Baton Rouge. This compilation evaluates the faults in four large groups because faults number in the hundreds. Natchez. Saint Helena. East Carroll. West Feliciana. Baton Rouge. Chicot. Lafayette. Breton Sound. Terrebonne.000. Claiborne. Miller. Evangeline. Jefferson Davis. Livingston. Geological Survey. Saint Mary. West Baton Rouge. Lafayette. East Feliciana. Geologic setting A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico. Louisiana and Arkansas (Class B) Structure Number 1022XX Structure Name Gulf-margin normal faults. because no individual fault has sufficient evidence of seismic slip to justify singling it out for attention here at a larger map scale. Arkansas County Acadia. Faults in areas with many well logs may be better located in the subsurface than at the surface. Saint Landry. Lake Charles. Calcasieu. Mobile. Ouachita. De Soto. Madison. as are those in Mississippi. New Orleans. those in Florida and Alabama are evaluated together in a single group. La Salle. Tensas. El Dorado. Date of compilation 08/11/98. Nevada. Richland. Orleans. Synopsis: The gulf-margin normal faults are assigned to class B because they exist in sediments and poorly lithified rocks. Tyler (Louisiana).

1991 #2010. 1991 #1995). coastal Texas. It is at least 2 km thick everywhere in the belt of gulf-margin normal faults. Nelson. and eastern Texas (1891. 1993 #1986). Ewing and Lopez. 1991 #1994. Late Cretaceous and especially Cenozoic clastic sediments prograded southward and led to abundant Cenozoic and continuing growth faulting and salt tectonism (for example DuBar and others. the opening of the Gulf of Mexico formed a south-facing. Calculations show that the crustal load from rapid Quaternary sedimentation may aid Quaternary normal faulting and reactivate Tertiary faults of the Coastal zone. by imposing extensional bending stresses on the post-rift sequence. 1991 #2019. 1991 #2020). Louann Salt and an overlying. 1991 #2019. At the coastline. Triassic-Jurassic rifting and sedimentation. 1993 #1986). the rifted margin was buried beneath the thick. The only damaging earthquakes reported through 1989 in this huge tract of land are four MMI VI earthquakes in westernmost Florida (1780). 1991 #2020). 1991 #2019). 1991 #2032). 1991 #1994. Rapid deposition and the resulting enormous thickness of the post-rift sediment pile caused it to collapse and spread seaward. carbonate and clastic. 584-585. coastal Texas. low-magnitude seismicity within the fault belt (Engdahl. This post-rift sequence thickens seaward (Salvador. south in Louisiana and southernmost Arkansas.Alabama. This level of seismicity is even less than that of sparsely seismic North and South Dakota. 1991 #2020). and southeast in eastern and southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez. growth faults that flatten downward into detachments in the salt and in overpressured shales (Ewing. Stover and Coffman. and their offshore extensions. which together cover approximately the same area as the belt of gulf-margin faults. Furthermore. (1) The Interior zone of Ewing (1991 #1994) includes the entire belt except southern Louisiana. 1991 #1994. Regional fluctuations in the overall deposition rate led to division of the belt of gulf-margin faults into two parts with different main ages of faulting and different degrees of Quaternary faulting. passive margin at the southern edge of North America (DuBar and others. 1993 #1986). older extensional stresses imposed by the Mesozoic sediment load have had time to relax (Nunn. Salvador. Epicenter maps show only sparse. their splays. marine sequence that continues to accumulate today. rifted. some of the sparse seismicity in the normal-fault belt may be artificially 138 . and their antithetic and transfer faults make up the belt of gulfmargin normal faults that concern us here. southern Louisiana (1930). Salt flowed southward and pierced upward. and is separated from the Interior zone by the Early Cretaceous shelf edge (Ewing. and the overlying pile extended on listric. Thicknesses exceed 12 km under coastal Texas and southern Louisiana and perhaps 16 km offshore Louisiana. The post-rift sequence as a whole is at least 9-11 km thick throughout the Coastal zone (Salvador. p. the sequence is at least 10 km thick west of the Mississippi River and at least 5 km thick farther east. including deposition of the Louann Salt. (2) The Coastal zone of Ewing (1991 #1994) covers southern Louisiana. Ewing and Lopez. normal. Subsequently. These listric normal faults. and southern Mississippi. In early to middle Mesozoic time. Salvador. 1932) (Stover and Coffman. and Cenozoic faulting is sparse in the Interior zone (Ewing. A line of large grabens approximates the landward limit of Jurassic salt. led to Mesozoic growth faulting and salt tectonism. 1985 #2215). Middle Jurassic. and had seven earthquakes of MMI VI since 1909 (Stover and Coffman. 1991 #2032). 1991 #2010. 1988 #1959. and their offshore extensions. Salvador. Salvador. 1991 #2032).

139 . 1998 #1828. 1991 #2032) demonstrates that the sequence is sliding and extending seaward on detachments in weak salt and overpressured shales. 1986 #1876. The salt and overpressured shales may be too ductile to transmit tectonic stresses upward from the underlying crust into the post-rift sequence. Additionally. Therefore. as determined mostly from well data that demonstrate fault slips and well bore breakouts (Zoback and Zoback. 1991 #2006). the post-rift sequence itself is young. the presence of the normal faults throughout the post-rift sequence from westernmost Florida to southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez. with south and north dips paired in grabens in northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas. 1988 #1856). 1998 #1806. and become able to support local stress concentrations that could cause small earthquakes.4 and 3. high stresses that are necessary to drive a large. the normal-faulting focal mechanism of the 1997.induced. First. in contrast to the east-northeast trends of SHmax that characterize most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains. because much of the fault system might be unable to generate as many significant earthquakes as the continental crust that borders it on the north. The orientations of Shmin are radial to the Gulf of Mexico. but faults are generally steeper in their upper parts and they flatten downward. 1991 #2006). 1998 #1806). the stress field is extensional throughout the post-rift sequence in both the Interior and Coastal zones of the normal-fault belt. This suggestion is consistent with the observation that low velocity. Second. and poorly lithified. M 4. near-surface materials. the post-rift sequence may be unable to support the widespread. 1999 #3440). There are two reasons to suspect that the post-rift sequence and its belt of gulf-margin normal faults may be mechanically decoupled from the underlying crust. the belt of gulf-margin normal faults from Florida through Texas is assigned to class B. Locally. individual beds may dewater and lithify before surrounding sediments. In particular.9 in southeastern Texas and M 4. Chang and others. The post-rift sequence lacks the elastic strength to transmit tectonic stresses as efficiently as upper crustal metamorphic and igneous rocks. only partly dewatered. Earthquakes of mbLg 3. The sequence may be similarly unable to support the propagation of high stresses or seismogenic ruptures that might enter it from the underlying crust. whether they are thick fault gouge or poorly lithified sediments. Consistent with the stress field in the post-rift sequence. In summary. Dips are dominantly south in southern Louisiana. Gomberg and others. tend to suppress the propagation of seismic ruptures (Marone and Scholz. Sense of movement Normal Comments: There might be a few strike-slip faults that form transtensional links between normal faults.9 earthquake in southwestern Alabama recorded south-southwest extension (Chang and others. seismogenic rupture. Dip 0°-90° Comments: Dips vary. the natural seismicity rate in the normal-fault belt might be even less than the recent historical record would indicate. particularly in its Cenozoic part.9 in southwestern Alabama may have been induced by extraction of oil and gas or injection of fluids for secondary recovery (Pennington and others. the stress field in the crust beneath the thick post-rift sequence is unknown (Zoback and Zoback. Gomberg and Wolf.

Dip direction S. Quaternary slip is not reported (but see figure 3 in DuBar and others. which includes central and northern Louisiana and southernmost Arkansas. However. McCulloh. Quaternary and historical faulting have been demonstrated in southern Louisiana. McCulloh. along the Tepetate and Baton Rouge fault systems and related faults (Durham and Peeples. 1991 #2210. 1991 #2010). probably the long-term rate is less than 0. Bernard Parishes in the east. 1982 #2200. See also "Timing of most recent paleoevent" below. 1991 #2253. Heinrich. 1991 #2021. Heinrich. of widely varying lengths. topographic maps. Haley and others. as explained under "Geologic setting". soil surveys. Heinrich. 1991 #2032).2 mm/yr would produce 320 m of slip during the 1. 1993 #1932). McCulloh. Heinrich. between approximately latitudes 30° and 30°30’ N.000 years of the Quaternary. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Estimates of recurrence interval are premature because it is not yet clear whether these faults can generate significant tectonic earthquakes.2 mm/yr.6 Ma) Comments: A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico (Ewing and Lopez. N Geomorphic expression Scarps and drainage. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: The slip rate is unknown. 1991 #2253. Therefore. and tonal lineaments (DuBar and others. 1991 #2210. In the Interior Zone. it is unclear whether such slip was seismic or is likely to occur seismically. McCulloh. However. Ewing (1991 #1994) and Ewing and Lopez (1991 #2032) divided the faults into an Interior Zone and a Coastal Zone. Together these active faults cross the State from Beauregard and Calcasieu Parishes in the west to St. Age of faulted deposits Eocene to Holocene (Saucier and Snead.600. 1982 #2200. 140 . 1956 #3829. Length Not applicable Comments: Many faults are mapped. 1996 #2211. 1996 #2211. It is unlikely that any single fault in the gulf-margin belt of normal faults has such a large Quaternary offset. McCulloh and Autin. Hanor. McCulloh and Autin. and aerial photographs documented Quaternary scarps on active and reactivated normal faults in the Coastal zone of Ewing (1991 #1994). topographic. In contrast. 1991 #2010). Tammany and St. as explained in "Geologic setting" above. Geologic mapping and analyses of well logs. 1988 #2201. 1988 #2201. Timing of most recent paleoevent Quaternary (<1. 1997 #2202). which are separated by a boundary that begins in southeastern Louisiana and runs westward across Louisiana and Texas approximately 100 km inland from the coast. a slip rate of 0. particularly in southern Louisiana (see "Timing of most recent paleoevent" below). Paleoseismological studies None. 1997 #2202). No detailed paleoseismological studies involving trenching are reported. the Coastal Zone contains more abundant evidence for more widespread Quaternary slip (Hanor.

Raymond. S. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake—The 1997 Mw 4.. Cranswick.. in Morrison.G.O. J. ed. Geological Society of America.S.. J. Texas.. 1988. #3440 Gomberg.. from approximately -30˚ to +50˚. A. 582.D..S.R. Colorado. J. III. #2010 DuBar. M. C. v. R.B. 1998. D.. 1991. Geologic map of Arkansas: Arkansas Geological Commission and U. Geological Survey..E. p. Jr. J. E. 1991. The Geology of North America. E. Raymond. ed.]: Seismological Research Letters. #2201 Heinrich.R... K-2. O.V. conterminous U. #3829 Durham. p. Bush. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder.000. Otvos. p. 583-610. and Winker. J. Carver. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder. and Wolf. Geological Society of America. D. 6.. Meremonte. 1997 southern Alabama earthquake [abs.. 1982. Annual meeting. 38.E.. C. 175.E. The Geology of North America.. and Herrmann. A noteworthy earthquake in an unlikely place [abs. Gulf of Mexico basin. A.F. Geological Society of America Continent-Scale Map 004. A.L. ed.. M. Lundelius. References #1806 Chang. 4 sheets.. 1 sheet. Seismicity map of North America: Boulder..Average strike -80˚ Comments: Faults vary widely in strike. P. Principal structural features.E. v. R. Quaternary geology of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain.. E. #2200 Hanor.K. C.. D. p. Ewing. L.. #2032 Ewing. Rhea. 237-245... E. 27. v. E. p.. Colorado. 65-66.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery: Geology.. S. The Geology of North America. p. D. Pleistocene fault zone in southeastern Louisiana. in Salvador. Faulting parameters of the October 24. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies: Gulf Coast Section of the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. Hopper. Tepetate fault zone. 141 . and Eckhoff.. T. T. 69.. Glick.. A. M. 1988. J. and Peeples.B. R. C. B. scale 1:500. W. T. Structural framework. Ammon. #1932 Haley. 32.. scale 1:2. v. v.. v. 1993. Colorado... October 31-November 2. Overturf. L.: Boulder. and Zachry.500. Geological Society of America.000.. #1828 Gomberg.000.R. San Antonio. Tectonic origin of Montgomery terrace scarp of southwestern Louisiana [abs]: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies.. 367-370. 69.]: Seismological Research Letters.. 1999.. R.. 31-52. 1998.M. south central Louisiana: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies. 1956. and Lopez.F. Stone. Jr. compiler. T. in Salvador.. #1959 Engdahl.. Quaternary nonglacial geology. Bice. J..000. plate 2. T..M..L.J... Frankel. Woodward. E. Reactivation of fault movement.. Clardy. v. 1956.G. ed. p. Colorado. 1991. 175-176. Barnes. in Rogers. B.B.. v... #1994 Ewing.V. v. p. scale 1:5.. Wolf.

no. W. #2253 McCulloh. v.A. 1568-1989 (revised): U.. Zoback. Topographic criteria bearing on the interpreted placement of the traces of faults of the Baton Rouge system in relation to their fault-line scarps: Louisiana Geological Survey Open-File Series No. Carlson. R.. and Zoback... The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder.D. 1991. p. and Autin.. 1991. #1876 Pennington. Geological Society of America. 5 plates.. 13.. 1991. 96-01.. #2019 Salvador. scale 1:2. S.000. J. Tectonic stress field of North America and relative plate motions. The Geology of North America.000. in Salvador.#2202 Heinrich.S. M.D. 1991. 1997. M.R... Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section. A.L. Revised mapping of surface faults. #2215 Nunn. 73-89. Geological Society of America.. Louisiana: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies. conterminous U.. 25 p. scale 1:24. C.. #1995 Nelson.P.W. R. C. #2210 McCulloh. plate 3. A... E.H. 473-474.. 418 p. R... 41.T.. #1856 Marone. J. Surface faults in East Baton Rouge Parish: Louisiana Geological Survey Open File Series No. v. #2020 Salvador. Cross sections of the Gulf of Mexico basin. Decade Map Volume 1. 429-432.. and Ewing..D. and Coffman.. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder.B. p. East Baton Rouge Parish. #1986 Stover. R. in Salvador. 939-948. Quaternary geology of the Lower Mississippi Valley. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder.. 23. 142 .H. ed. #2006 Zoback.J. The depth of seismic faulting and the upper transition from stable to unstable slip regimes: Geophysical Research Letters. v. ed. Geological Society of America.P. and Blackwell. Quaternary nonglacial geology. D. 13 p. p. 1991. v. compiler. Colorado. plate 6.D. v. The Geology of North America.E.. S. A. 1985.D. Pleistocene fault-line scarps and neotectonics in southwest Louisiana: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. v. Colorado. Colorado. eds.000. Neotectonics of North America: Boulder.I.500. 1993. J.000. plate 6. A. and Snead. 339-366. J. 76. J. State of stress in the northern Gulf Coast: Geology. in Slemmons.V.. in Salvador. The evolution of seismic barriers and asperities caused by the depressuring of fault planes in oil and gas fields of south Texas: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.B. Davis. Colorado. W. Salt tectonics and listric-normal faulting. 1991.L. p. T. C. ed. 1996. 1991. p. R. J. 29... 621624. compiler. v.. scale 1:1. The Geology of North America. #2211 McCulloh. p.. Colorado. 96-01. The Geology of North America. Seismicity of the United States. Geological Society of America.. DuPree. D. J.. 15.M. Engdahl. K-2. Geological Society of America. 3.. v. in Morrison... Gulf of Mexico basin.S. v.: Boulder. #2021 Saucier. A. M. 1986. 1988. and Scholz. R..P.. P. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527. ed. p.

Salvador. 1991 #2020). In early to middle Mesozoic time. Gulf-margin normal faults. 1991 #2032). the sequence is at least 10 km thick west of the Mississippi River and at least 5 km thick farther east. in westernmost Florida. and those in Texas. southern Mississippi. Geologic setting A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico. carbonate and clastic. south in Louisiana and southernmost Arkansas. Escambia. Santa Rosa (Florida) 1° x 2° sheet Andalusia. Washington (Alabama). Middle Jurassic Louann Salt and an overlying. Escambia. Mobile.2654XX. marine and paralic sequence that continues to accumulate today. At the coastline. U. the rifted margin was buried beneath the thick. and eastern and southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez. Choctaw.500. because no individual fault has sufficient evidence of seismic slip to justify singling it out for attention at a larger map scale. rifted. 1991 #2019. Faults in areas with many well logs may be better located in the subsurface than at the surface.S. those in Florida and Alabama are evaluated together in a single group. Thicknesses exceed 12 km in coastal Texas and southern Louisiana and perhaps 16 km in offshore Louisiana. 1991 #2010. Salvador. the opening of the Gulf of Mexico formed a south-facing.000. and southeast in eastern and southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez. southwestern Alabama. 143 . To reflect regional differences in the characteristics of the faults. Geological Survey State Alabama. those in Louisiana and Arkansas. This compilation evaluates the faults in four large groups because faults number in the hundreds. Alabama and Florida (Class B) Comments: A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico. passive margin at the southern edge of North America (DuBar and others. and southern Mississippi. Alabama and Florida (Class B) Structure Number 2654XX Structure Name Gulf-margin normal faults. 1991 #2020). Florida County Baldwin. southwestern Alabama. 1991 #2032). revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Monroe. and because their ability to have significant earthquakes is doubtful. as are those in Mississippi. Subsequently. It is at least 2 km thick everywhere in the belt of gulf-margin normal faults. Clarke. all of Louisiana and southernmost Arkansas. Mobile. This post-rift sequence thickens seaward (Salvador. Hattiesburg. Synopsis: The gulf-margin normal faults are in class B because they exist in sediments and poorly lithified rocks. Most of these materials may be unable to support the stresses required for the propagation of significant seismic ruptures that could cause damaging ground motions. These gulf-margin faults face southwest in westernmost Florida. Pensacola Province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: Most of the cited maps are regional compilations at 1:2. Date of compilation 08/11/98. Wheeler.

1988 #1959. 1998 #1806). 1991 #2032) demonstrates that the sequence is sliding and extending seaward on detachments in weak salt and overpressured shales. 1993 #1986). 1991 #2032). The orientations of Shmin are radial to the Gulf of Mexico. The post-rift sequence lacks the elastic strength to transmit tectonic stresses as efficiently as upper crustal metamorphic and igneous rocks. and their antithetic and transfer faults make up the belt of gulf-margin normal faults that concern us here. low-magnitude seismicity within the fault belt (Engdahl. 1991 #2006). the normal-faulting focal mechanism of the 1997. Gomberg and others. and the overlying pile extended on listric. Gomberg and Wolf. 1991). high 144 . 1991. 1932) (Stover and Coffman. 1991 #2019). particularly in its Cenozoic part. 1993 #1986). and poorly lithified. Second. 1991 #2006). First. The belt of normal faults remains active as a whole. The salt and overpressured shales may be too ductile to transmit tectonic stresses upward from the underlying crust into the post-rift sequence. 1998 #1828. their splays. Chang and others. Earthquakes of mbLg 3.9 earthquake in southwestern Alabama recorded southsouthwest extension (Chang and others. in contrast to the east-northeast trends of SHmax that characterize most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains. 1999 #3440).4 and 3. These listric normal faults.9 in southeastern Texas and moment magnitude M 4. Additionally. Epicenter maps show only sparse. only partly dewatered. This level of seismicity is even less than that of sparsely seismic North and South Dakota. the stress field in the post-rift sequence and in the normal-fault belt is extensional. 594.Rapid Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposition by large rivers and the resulting enormous thickness of the post-rift sediment pile caused it to collapse and spread seaward. M 4. Stover and Coffman. the natural seismicity rate in the normal-fault belt might be even less than the recent historical record would indicate. and eastern Texas (1891. 1991 #2010 p. growth faults that flatten downward into detachments in the salt and in overpressured shales (Ewing. Furthermore. Salvador. Consistent with the stress field in the post-rift sequence. southern Louisiana (1930). Salt flowed southward and pierced upward. normal. the presence of the normal faults throughout the post-rift sequence from westernmost Florida to southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez. because the prograding fluvial deposition that loads the sediment pile and drives its seaward collapse continues (for example DuBar and others. the stress field in the crust beneath the thick post-rift sequence is unknown (Zoback and Zoback. as determined mostly from well data that demonstrate fault slips and wellbore breakouts (Zoback and Zoback. some of the sparse seismicity in the normal-fault belt may be artificially induced. the post-rift sequence may be unable to support the widespread. In particular. Therefore. and had seven earthquakes of MMI VI since 1909 (Stover and Coffman. 1998 #1806. which is marked in many places by large grabens of the normal-fault belt (Ewing and Lopez. Nelson. The only damaging earthquakes reported through 1989 in this huge tract of land are four MMI VI earthquakes in westernmost Florida (1780). 1993 #1986). 1986 #1876. There are two reasons to suspect that the post-rift sequence and its belt of gulf-margin normal faults may be mechanically decoupled from the underlying crust. 584-585. and particularly in its seaward parts. the post-rift sequence itself is young. The faults decrease in size and abundance inland to the landward limit of Jurassic salt. which together cover approximately the same area as the belt of gulf-margin faults.9 in southwestern Alabama may have been induced by extraction of oil and gas or injection of fluids for secondary recovery (Pennington and others.

In summary. as explained under "Geologic setting". In the Interior Zone. Dip 0°-90° Comments: Dips vary. Dip direction SW. topographic. and become able to support local stress concentrations that could cause small earthquakes. As explained in "Geologic setting". In contrast. Sense of movement Normal Comments: There might be a few strike-slip faults that form transtensional links between normal faults. probably many or most faults in the Interior Zone have potential for Quaternary to present-day slip.stresses that are necessary to drive a large. with southwest and northeast dips paired in grabens. This suggestion is consistent with the observation that low velocity. 1991 #2010). NE Geomorphic expression Scarps and drainage. 1991 #2032). 1988 #1856). 145 .6 Ma) Comments: A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico (Ewing and Lopez. nearsurface materials. but this slip may be even less likely to occur seismically than slip in the Interior Zone. However. it is unclear whether such slip was or is likely to occur seismically. which includes southwestern Alabama and westernmost Florida. 1988 #1946. Quaternary slip is little documented (but see figure 3 in DuBar and others. whether they are thick fault gouge or poorly lithified sediments. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Estimates of recurrence interval are premature because it is not yet clear whether these faults can generate significant tectonic earthquakes. but faults are generally steeper in their upper parts and shallow downward. 1991 #2010) Paleoseismological studies None Timing of most recent paleoevent Quaternary (<1. because much of the fault system might be unable to generate as many significant earthquakes as the continental crust that borders it on the north. DuBar and others. tend to suppress the propagation of seismic ruptures (Marone and Scholz. the belt of gulf-margin normal faults from Florida through Texas is assigned to class B. seismogenic rupture. and tonal lineaments (DuBar and others. The sequence may be similarly unable to support the propagation of high stresses or seismogenic ruptures that might enter it from the underlying crust. Locally. which are separated by a boundary that begins in southeastern Louisiana and runs westward across Louisiana and Texas approximately 100 km inland from the coast. Dip direction is dominantly southwest. the Coastal Zone contains more abundant evidence for more widespread Quaternary slip. Ewing (1991 #1994) and Ewing and Lopez (1991 #2032) divided the faults into an Interior Zone and a Coastal Zone. 1991 #2010) Age of faulted deposits Eocene to Holocene (Szabo and Copeland. individual beds may dewater and lithify before surrounding sediments.

p. ed. 1991.M. v. conterminous U. and Ewing.J. #2010 DuBar.. a slip rate of 0. T.. A noteworthy earthquake in an unlikely place [abs. Principal structural features. and Wolf. Raymond.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery: Geology. p.. The depth of seismic faulting and the upper transition from stable to unstable slip regimes: Geophysical Research Letters... Cranswick. v.. and Eckhoff.000. #1856 Marone. Colorado. Jr. Otvos. Meremonte.E. 1998.000. v.H. E. D. Lundelius.600.... p.. 1991. ed. 1986.E. The Geology of North America. 146 .D..M. DuPree... and Scholz. Gulf of Mexico basin. Therefore. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder. 27..F. Ammon. E. M. #1876 Pennington.. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake—The 1997 Mw 4. and Herrmann.. v. Barnes. Overturf. J. #1959 Engdahl.... J. 69..]: Seismological Research Letters. Geological Society of America. Quaternary geology of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain. 15. J.2 mm/yr would produce 320 m of slip during the 1. 1999. #1828 Gomberg. T. in Salvador. Carlson. D. v.. A. L. 621624. Rhea. and Winker.. compiler. T. Quaternary nonglacial geology.E. Davis. C.R..D. T.Slip-rate category unknown Comments: The slip rate is unknown.D. #3440 Gomberg.500. J. Colorado. Carver. R. probably the long-term rate is less than 0.000 years of the Quaternary. J. 1988. scale 1:5.G..B. ed.]: Seismological Research Letters.E. Ewing. Geological Society of America Continent-Scale Map 004. 69. 175. The Geology of North America. W. v. 4 sheets. D.. p... A.S. The evolution of seismic barriers and asperities caused by the depressuring of fault planes in oil and gas fields of south Texas: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Colorado. R. Raymond.. Structural framework. 1991. in Salvador.. T. C. Wolf.. 583-610. 939-948. v. J. p. #2032 Ewing. Frankel... plate 2.B. Faulting parameters of the October 24. S. Geological Society of America.. Colorado.. E. K-2. Hopper.R. 1997 southern Alabama earthquake [abs. 31-52. 76. Geological Society of America. p. v. Average strike -50˚ Comments: Faults vary widely in strike....000.2 mm/yr. R. However. #1994 Ewing.. 1998. and Lopez. A. C. of widely varying lengths.. Length Not applicable Comments: Many faults are mapped. p. A. R. from approximately -10˚ to -80˚ References #1806 Chang. scale 1:2. C. It is unlikely that any single fault in the gulf-margin belt of normal faults has such a large Quaternary offset. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder. T. E. The Geology of North America.: Boulder. S.L.. S. in Morrison. M.. 175-176. L. Bice. 1988. Seismicity map of North America: Boulder.. 367-370. O.

#2019 Salvador, A., compiler, 1991, Cross sections of the Gulf of Mexico basin, in Salvador, A., ed., The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. J, plate 6. #2020 Salvador, A., compiler, 1991, Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section, Gulf of Mexico basin, in Salvador, A., ed., The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. J, plate 3, scale 1:2,500,000. #1986 Stover, C.W., and Coffman, J.L., 1993, Seismicity of the United States, 1568-1989 (revised): U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527, 418 p. #1946 Szabo, M.W., and Copeland, C.W., Jr., 1988, Geologic map of Alabama, southwest sheet: Geological Survey of Alabama Special Map 220, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. #2006 Zoback, M.D., and Zoback, M.L., 1991, Tectonic stress field of North America and relative plate motions, in Slemmons, D.B., Engdahl, E.R., Zoback, M.D., and Blackwell, D.D., eds., Neotectonics of North America: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, Decade Map Volume 1, p. 339-366.

147

2655XX, Gulf-margin normal faults, Mississippi (Class B) Structure Number 2655XX Structure Name Gulf-margin normal faults, Mississippi (Class B) Comments: A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico, in westernmost Florida, southwestern Alabama, southern Mississippi, all of Louisiana and southernmost Arkansas, and eastern and southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez, 1991 #2032). This compilation evaluates the faults in four large groups because faults number in the hundreds, and because their ability to have significant earthquakes is doubtful. To reflect regional differences in the characteristics of the faults, those in Florida and Alabama are evaluated together in a single group, as are those in Mississippi, those in Louisiana and Arkansas, and those in Texas. Synopsis The gulf-margin normal faults are assigned to class B because they exist in sediments and poorly lithified rocks. Most of these materials may be unable to support the stresses required for the propagation of significant seismic ruptures that could cause damaging ground motions. Date of compilation 08/11/98; revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Wheeler, U.S. Geological Survey State Mississippi County Adams; Amite; Attala; Claiborne; Clarke; Copiah; Covington; Forrest; Franklin; George; Greene; Hancock; Harrison; Hinds; Holmes; Humphreys; Issaquena; Jackson; Jasper; Jefferson; Jefferson Davis; Jones; Lamar; Lawrence; Leake; Lincoln; Madison; Marion; Newton; Pearl River; Perry; Pike; Rankin; Scott; Sharkey; Simpson; Smith; Stone; Walthall; Warren; Washington; Wayne; Wilkinson; Yazoo 1° x 2° sheet Greenwood; Hattiesburg; Jackson; Meridian; Mobile; Natchez Province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: Most of the cited maps are regional compilations at 1:2,500,000, because no individual fault has sufficient evidence of seismic slip to justify singling it out for attention at a larger map scale. Faults in areas with many well logs may be better located in the subsurface than at the surface. Geologic setting A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico. These gulf-margin faults face southwest in westernmost Florida, southwestern Alabama, and southern Mississippi; south in Louisiana and southernmost Arkansas; and southeast in eastern and southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez, 1991 #2032). In early to middle Mesozoic time, the opening of the Gulf of Mexico formed a south-facing, rifted, passive margin at the southern edge of North America (DuBar and others, 1991 #2010; Salvador, 1991 #2019; Salvador, 1991 #2020). Subsequently, the rifted margin was buried beneath the thick, Middle Jurassic Louann Salt and an overlying, carbonate and clastic, marine and paralic sequence that continues to accumulate today. This post-rift sequence thickens seaward (Salvador, 1991 #2020). It is at least 2 km thick everywhere in the belt of gulf-margin normal

148

faults. At the coastline, the sequence is at least 10 km thick west of the Mississippi River and at least 5 km thick farther east. Thicknesses exceed 12 km in coastal Texas and southern Louisiana and perhaps 16 km in offshore Louisiana. Rapid Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposition by large rivers and the resulting enormous thickness of the post-rift sediment pile caused it to collapse and spread seaward. Salt flowed southward and pierced upward, and the overlying pile extended on listric, normal, growth faults that flatten downward into detachments in the salt and in overpressured shales (Ewing, 1991; Nelson, 1991). These listric normal faults, their splays, and their antithetic and transfer faults make up the belt of gulf-margin normal faults that concern us here. The faults decrease in size and abundance inland to the landward limit of Jurassic salt, which is marked in many places by large grabens of the normal-fault belt (Ewing and Lopez, 1991 #2032). Over the entire northern Gulf margin the belt of normal faults remains active as a whole, and particularly in its seaward parts, because the prograding fluvial deposition that loads the sediment pile and drives its seaward collapse continues (for example DuBar and others, 1991 #2010, p. 584-585, 594; Salvador, 1991 #2019). However, locally in central Mississippi and adjacent Alabama, the Pickens-Gilbertown fault zone at the landward limit of Jurassic salt is longer and more important structurally than the belt of younger, more numerous faults in southern Mississippi (Ewing, 1991 #1994). Epicenter maps show only sparse, low-magnitude seismicity within the fault belt (Engdahl, 1988 #1959; Stover and Coffman, 1993 #1986). The only damaging earthquakes reported through 1989 in this huge tract of land are four MMI VI earthquakes in westernmost Florida (1780), southern Louisiana (1930), and eastern Texas (1891, 1932) (Stover and Coffman, 1993 #1986). This level of seismicity is even less than that of sparsely seismic North and South Dakota, which together cover approximately the same area as the belt of gulf-margin faults, and had seven earthquakes of MMI VI since 1909 (Stover and Coffman, 1993 #1986). Furthermore, some of the sparse seismicity in the normal-fault belt may be artificially induced. Earthquakes of mbLg 3.4 and 3.9 in southeastern Texas and moment magnitude M 4.9 in southwestern Alabama may have been induced by extraction of oil and gas or injection of fluids for secondary recovery (Pennington and others, 1986 #1876; Chang and others, 1998 #1806; Gomberg and others, 1998 #1828; Gomberg and Wolf, 1999 #3440). Therefore, the natural seismicity rate in the normal-fault belt might be even less than the recent historical record would indicate. There are two reasons to suspect that the post-rift sequence and its belt of gulf-margin normal faults may be mechanically decoupled from the underlying crust. First, the stress field in the post-rift sequence and in the normal-fault belt is extensional, as determined mostly from well data that demonstrate fault slips and wellbore breakouts (Zoback and Zoback, 1991 #2006). The orientations of Shmin are radial to the Gulf of Mexico, in contrast to the east-northeast trends of SHmax that characterize most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains; the stress field in the crust beneath the thick post-rift sequence is unknown (Zoback and Zoback, 1991 #2006). Consistent with the stress field in the post-rift sequence, the normal-faulting focal mechanism of the 1997, M 4.9 earthquake in southwestern Alabama recorded southsouthwest extension (Chang and others, 1998 #1806). Second, the presence of the normal faults throughout the post-rift sequence from westernmost Florida to southern Texas (Ewing and Lopez, 1991 #2032) demonstrates that the sequence is sliding and extending seaward on 149

detachments in weak salt and overpressured shales. The salt and overpressured shales may be too ductile to transmit tectonic stresses upward from the underlying crust into the post-rift sequence. Additionally, the post-rift sequence itself is young, only partly dewatered, and poorly lithified, particularly in its Cenozoic part. The post-rift sequence lacks the elastic strength to transmit tectonic stresses as efficiently as upper crustal metamorphic and igneous rocks. In particular, the post-rift sequence may be unable to support the widespread, high stresses that are necessary to drive a large, seismogenic rupture. Locally, individual beds may dewater and lithify before surrounding sediments, and become able to support local stress concentrations that could cause small earthquakes. The sequence may be similarly unable to support the propagation of high stresses or seismogenic ruptures that might enter it from the underlying crust. This suggestion is consistent with the observation that low velocity, nearsurface materials, whether they are thick fault gouge or poorly lithified sediments, tend to suppress the propagation of seismic ruptures (Marone and Scholz, 1988 #1856). In summary, the belt of gulf-margin normal faults from Florida through Texas is assigned to class B, because much of the fault system might be unable to generate as many significant earthquakes as the continental crust that borders it on the north. Sense of movement Normal Comments: There might be a few strike-slip faults that form transtensional links between normal faults. Dip 0°-90° Comments: Dips vary, but faults are generally steeper in their upper parts and they flatten downward. Dips are dominantly southwest, with southwest and northeast dips paired in grabens. Dip direction SW, NE Geomorphic expression Scarps and drainage, topographic, and tonal lineaments (DuBar and others, 1991 #2010) Age of faulted deposits Eocene to Holocene ? (Bicker, 1969 #1925; DuBar and others, 1991 #2010; Saucier and Snead, 1991 #2021) Paleoseismological studies None Timing of most recent paleoevent Quaternary (<1.6 Ma) Comments: A belt of mostly seaward-facing normal faults borders the northern Gulf of Mexico (Ewing and Lopez, 1991 #2032). Ewing (1991 #1994) and Ewing and Lopez (1991 #2032) divided the faults into an Interior Zone and a Coastal Zone, which are separated by a boundary that begins in southeastern Louisiana and runs westward across Louisiana and Texas approximately 100 km inland from the coast. In the Interior Zone, which includes southern Mississippi, Quaternary slip is little documented (but see figure 3 in DuBar and others, 1991 #2010). However, probably many or most faults in the Interior Zone have potential for Quaternary to present-day slip. As explained in "Geologic setting", it is unclear whether such slip was or is likely to occur seismically. In contrast, the Coastal Zone contains more abundant evidence for more widespread Quaternary slip, but this slip may be even less likely to occur seismically than slip in the Interior Zone.

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Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: Estimates of recurrence interval are premature because it is not yet clear whether these faults can generate significant tectonic earthquakes, as explained under "Geologic setting". Slip-rate category unknown Comments: The slip rate is unknown. However, a slip rate of 0.2 mm/yr would produce 320 m of slip during the 1,600,000 years of the Quaternary. It is unlikely that any single fault in the gulf-margin belt of normal faults has such a large Quaternary offset. Therefore, probably the long-term rate is less than 0.2 mm/yr. Length Not applicable Comments: Many faults are mapped, of widely varying lengths. Average strike -60˚ Comments: Faults vary widely in strike, from approximately -30˚ to -90˚. References #1925 Bicker, A.R., Jr., compiler, 1969, Geologic map of Mississippi: Mississippi Geological Survey, 1 sheet, scale 1:500,000. #1806 Chang, T.M., Ammon, C.J., and Herrmann, R.B., 1998, Faulting parameters of the October 24, 1997 southern Alabama earthquake [abs.]: Seismological Research Letters, v. 69, p. 175-176. #2010 DuBar, J.R., Ewing, T.E., Lundelius, E.L., Jr., Otvos, E.G., and Winker, C.D., 1991, Quaternary geology of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, in Morrison, R.B., ed., Quaternary nonglacial geology; conterminous U.S.: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. K-2, p. 583-610. #1959 Engdahl, E.R., compiler, 1988, Seismicity map of North America: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Continent-Scale Map 004, 4 sheets, scale 1:5,000,000. #1994 Ewing, T.E., 1991, Structural framework, in Salvador, A., ed., The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. J, p. 31-52. #2032 Ewing, T.E., and Lopez, R.F., 1991, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico basin, in Salvador, A., ed., The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. J, plate 2, scale 1:2,500,000. #3440 Gomberg, J., and Wolf, L., 1999, Possible cause for an improbable earthquake—The 1997 Mw 4.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery: Geology, v. 27, p. 367-370. #1828 Gomberg, J., Wolf, L., Raymond, D., Raymond, R., Barnes, A., Carver, D., Bice, T., Cranswick, E., Meremonte, M., Frankel, A., Overturf, D., Hopper, M., Rhea, S., and Eckhoff, O., 1998, A noteworthy earthquake in an unlikely place [abs.]: Seismological Research Letters, v. 69, p. 175.

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#1856 Marone, C., and Scholz, C.H., 1988, The depth of seismic faulting and the upper transition from stable to unstable slip regimes: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 15, p. 621624. #1876 Pennington, W.D., Davis, S.D., Carlson, S.M., DuPree, J., and Ewing, T.E., 1986, The evolution of seismic barriers and asperities caused by the depressuring of fault planes in oil and gas fields of south Texas: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 76, p. 939-948. #2019 Salvador, A., compiler, 1991, Cross sections of the Gulf of Mexico basin, in Salvador, A., ed., The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. J, plate 6. #2020 Salvador, A., compiler, 1991, Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section, Gulf of Mexico basin, in Salvador, A., ed., The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. J, plate 3, scale 1:2,500,000. #2021 Saucier, R.T., and Snead, J.I., 1991, Quaternary geology of the Lower Mississippi Valley, in Morrison, R.B., ed., Quaternary nonglacial geology; conterminous U.S.: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. K-2, plate 6, scale 1:1,000,000. #1986 Stover, C.W., and Coffman, J.L., 1993, Seismicity of the United States, 1568-1989 (revised): U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527, 418 p. #2006 Zoback, M.D., and Zoback, M.L., 1991, Tectonic stress field of North America and relative plate motions, in Slemmons, D.B., Engdahl, E.R., Zoback, M.D., and Blackwell, D.D., eds., Neotectonics of North America: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, Decade Map Volume 1, p. 339-366.

152

S. In Early Paleozoic time. and the Woodward fault is the eastern member of this network in western West Virginia. In contrast. The evidence is equivocal. Kentucky River fault system (Class B) Structure Number 2650XX Structure Name Kentucky River fault system (Class B) Synopsis: Kentucky River fault system is one of a series of major regional fault systems that extends east-northeasterly across Kentucky. Crone. and cumulative displacement of Precambrian rocks in Van Arsdale's study area is approximately 463 m (cited by Van Arsdale). the north-south-trending Cincinnati arch developed in central Kentucky. Throughout their history. The part of the KRFS studied by Van Arsdale (1986 #684) lies on the eastern flank of the arch. and thus the feature is assigned to Class B in this compilation. which is interpreted to be part of an east-trending aulacogen of late Precambrian to early Paleozoic in age. all of which indicate compressional deformation in Quaternary deposits. Geological Survey State Kentucky County Clark. The Kentucky River fault system crosses central and eastern Kentucky. The net throw on the faults is down-to-the-south. Sense of movement Reverse Comments: Van Arsdale (1986 #684) documents folding and faulting in trenches at several sites. NE Geomorphic expression none 153 . normal. U. faults in the system have had senses of slip that included sinistral. and reverse slip. Dip 25°-80° Comments: Dips reported in the trenches range between 25°-80° Dip direction SW. Although this study found evidence of Quaternary deformation in trenches across various strands of the fault system.2650XX. The western members of these fault systems are the Shawneetown and Rough Creek (discussed separately as Class C faults) fault systems in southern Illinois and western Kentucky. Information on Quaternary faulting in the fault system is based on work of Van Arsdale (1986 #684). Date of compilation 03/17/94 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. these faults are mapped as normal faults on the state geologic map McDowell and others (1981 #693). dextral. Madison 1° x 2° sheet Winchester Physiographic province Interior Low Plateaus Reliability of location Good Geologic setting The Kentucky River fault system (KRFS) forms part of the northern boundary of the Rome trough. the amount of deformation is generally small and could be related to collapse from solution of the underlying bedrock.

two N. On the basis of these studies.6 Ma) Comments: The age of faulted Quaternary deposits is poorly known. so it is not valid to infer any length value for a possible Quaternary rupture. Timing of most recent paleoevent Quaternary (<1. Quaternary deposits. these deposits may have as much as 1.Age of faulted deposits Quaternary terrace deposits of the Kentucky River.7 m across a reverse fault that dips 70° to the northeast. and in another trench.000) based on the weathering profile formed in the deposits.000 yr old. Length (km) Not applicable Comments: The Kentucky River fault system is known and defined from faulted Paleozoic strata and is not expressed in Quaternary deposits. These detailed study sites were identified following reconnaissance work that consisted of electrical-resistivity surveys and drilling a series of auger holes across the projected traces of faults at 25 sites. may have as much as 1.000-900. However the characteristics of the deformation are not inconsistent with minor subsidence related to the development of solution-collapse features in carbonate rocks.7 m at the second site. On the basis of one radiocarbon date. The studies cited above that suggest possible Quaternary deformation were conducted as several localized sites. it is not clear if faulting at one site would necessarily be connected to another site. Faulted Quaternary deposits in one trench have a maximum stratigraphic separation of 0. 154 . Van Arsdale (1986 #684) describes evidence of folding that post-dates deposition of Kentucky River terrace deposits. At the third site. Comments: The greatest vertical displacement of Quaternary deposits reported by Van Arsdale (1986 #684) is 0. He cites three possible explanations for the folding including solution collapse. no deformation was documented in Quaternary deposits. 40° W. he indicates that the faulted deposits are estimated to be pre-Illinoian (730. he concludes that the deformation occurred within the past 350 years. At one site. The existing evidence of a tectonic origin for these features is equivocal.2 mm/yr. Age of deposits is uncertain but is believed to be Pliocene-Pleistocene.-trending faults formed a small graben. At a third site. probably <0.1 m of stratigraphic separation. conservatively estimated to be 500. At Van Arsdale's second site (1986 #684). Paleoseismological studies Van Arsdale (1986 #684) describes detailed studies at four sites along the fault system.1 m of stratigraphic separation. and therefore they are classified as Class B features. At the second site. Recurrence interval Not reported Slip-rate category unknown. the lowest slip-rate category is suggested for the KRFS. he did not find evidence of faulting or deformation in Quaternary deposits. On the basis of this information. Van Arsdale excavated five trenches across these faults and found faulted Quaternary deposits in two of the trenches. At the fourth site. Van Arsdale (1986 #684) argues that solution collapse is not likely to be responsible for the features found in the trenches.

but because evidence of possible Quaternary deformation is limited and is only known from a few specific locations. References #693 McDowell. Geological Survey in cooperation with The Eleventh Kentucky Geological Survey...S. Jr.. and Moore.Average strike (azimuth) +71° Comments: This azimuth value is the general strike of the fault zone as expressed in Paleozoic rocks. R. v. Geologic map of Kentucky: U.B. 4 sheets. G.. 1981.L. p. it is not possible to determine an azimuth for features that might possibly be related to Quaternary deformation..J. S.000. 1986. 1382-1392. Quaternary displacement on faults within the Kentucky River fault system of east-central Kentucky: Geological Society of America Bulletin. #684 Van Arsdale. Grabowski. scale 1:250. 155 . R. 97.C.

but the available evidence is not compelling. West Carroll. it does not have any prominent surficial expression. Madison. 1991 #1994). Shreveport Physiographic province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: The feature's location is poorly known because it is largely defined on the basis of drill-hole data. Chicot (Arkansas). Furthermore. The Monroe uplift developed as a 156 . 1958 #2816). U. East Carroll. The uplift is associated with Late Cretaceous igneous activity. Franklin. Geologic setting The Monroe uplift is a small feature centered in extreme northeastern Louisiana and is defined on the basis of subsurface data. The evidence of possible Quaternary uplift is based on an analysis of the fluvial geomorphology of rivers and streams that cross the Monroe uplift. Sharkey.S. Monroe Uplift (Class B) Structure Number 1025XX Structure Name Monroe uplift (Class B) Comments: The Monroe uplift is a subsurface structure that is defined largely on the basis of unconformities and stratigraphic pinch-outs of Jurassic through Upper Cretaceous rocks (Ewing. it is not clear if the deformation is truly tectonic in origin or if it could be related to non-tectonic processes such as salt tectonics or differential subsidence. if Quaternary deformation is occurring. Issaquena. Washington. which suggests the possibility of Quaternary deformation. Richland. 1991 #1994) located along the northern flank of the Gulf of Mexico basin. Date of compilation 04/16/98 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. Yazoo (Mississippi) 1° x 2° sheet Greenwood. The uplift has been also referred to as the Ouachita uplift and the Sharkey platform. then it is approximately 80 miles (129 km) in diameter. It is bounded by the North Louisiana salt basin and the Mississippi salt basin on the southwest and southeast. this is the generally accepted limit of the uplift according to Johnson (1958 #2816). 1958 #2816). Furthermore. Arkansas. Ashley. Synopsis: This feature is classified as a Class B feature because the results of a study described by Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817). Warren. the limits of the uplift vary depending on the stratigraphic truncation that is used to define its boundary. Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) also briefly describe corroborative evidence of uplift from repeat geodetic surveys. It is a second-order structural feature (Ewing. respectively (Ewing. Crone.1025XX. Ouachita (Louisiana). If the uplift is defined on the truncation of the Annona chalk (Cretaceous age). The uplift is a complex structural dome that blends into the regional structure to the north and northwest (Johnson. Mississippi County: Morehouse. it has also been included as part of the Sabine uplift by some authors (Johnson. 1991 #1994). Jackson. Geological Survey State Louisiana.

The geomorphic evidence reported by Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817) infers vertical uplift of the feature. This study analyzed the channel morphology and longitudinal profiles of several major drainages that cross the uplift. See comments in "Timing of most recent paleoevent" section. Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817) suggest that modern uplift may be responsible for these changes in the river's fluvial geomorphology and that the uplift is currently occurring because these geomorphic changes are affecting the modern river channels. As further support for their contention of modern uplift. Sense of movement Not reported Comments: No movement on specific faults is reported. they report that repeat geodetic surveys across the Monroe and the nearby Wiggins uplift indicate uplift rates of about 5 mm/yr. Uplift ended in latest Cretaceous time. Without additional confirmation. sinuosity of the streams has been reduced and an anastamosing drainage pattern has developed. Changes in the sinuosity. and channel erosion and deposition of the rivers across the uplift are also interpreted as evidence of fluvial responses to uplift. they do not provide any detailed description or cite any references concerning the geodetic data. and the feature was buried by Paleocene and younger sediments. Longitudinal profiles of Pleistocene and Holocene terraces along these drainages show pronounced convexities that are indicative of deformation (Schumm. Paleoseismological studies Information indicative of possible neotectonic uplift of the Monroe uplift is from a study described by Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817). but the evidence used to infer Quaternary movement is derived from analysis of the area's fluvial geomorphology. See the "Slip Rate" section of this discussion for further details. depth. The evidence of Quaternary uplift reported by Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817) includes longitudinal valley profiles and changes in channel morphology of five rivers across the uplift. They also report that repeat geodetic surveys suggest an uplift rate of about 5 mm/yr on the Monroe uplift. The uplift is located in the floodplains of the Ouachita. No additional studies have been conducted to confirm the conclusions of the geodetic or geomorphic investigations. Other than simply noting these rates. gradient. 1958 #2816). 1986 #2817). the Monroe uplift is considered to be a Class B feature because it is located in a 157 . and Yazoo Rivers (Johnson. there is no evidence of movement on specific faults. They report that recent uplift has reduced the slope of stream valleys across the Monroe uplift. and as a result. Mississippi. Age of faulted deposits Holocene. Schumm (1986 #2817) notes that the Mississippi River has a highly irregular thalweg profile through the uplift and that the gradient of the thalweg slope is reduced and even reversed in part of the uplift.discrete structural feature in Late Cretaceous time when uplift resulted in as much as 3 km of strata being eroded from the top of the feature. Dip Not reported Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression The Monroe uplift does not have any conspicuous geomorphic expression.

Until some of these fundamental questions about the nature of the deformation are answered.8 m of deformation. 158 . but Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817) note that the modern river channels are responding to the deformation. Slip-rate category <0. Furthermore. Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) cite that geodetic data that suggest an uplift rate of about 5 mm/yr. then the calculated uplift rate is an order of magnitude lower than the 1. the oldest. and Schumm (1986 #2817) estimates uplift rates of 0. determining its length is inappropriate.4 mm/yr based on the amount of deformation that has affected terraces of various ages. Thus. which indicates a low late Pleistocene uplift rate.2 mm/yr Comments: The inferred "slip rate" of this feature is not a "slip rate" in the conventional sense. This terrace has an estimated age of about 33 ka. it is really a an inferred uplift rate of the entire feature. The slip-rate category cited favors a low geologic rate. Length (km) Not applicable Comment: The Monroe uplift is a structural feature defined on the basis of subsurface data. the most recent deformation is Holocene in age. If the amount of deformation and age of the terrace given by Schumm (1986 #2817) are correct. then the geomorphic and geologic expression of the uplift would be far more pronounced than it is at present.0 mm/yr rate given by Schumm (1986 #2817). If this rate were sustained for a geologically significant period of time. and is not a linear feature therefore. so it is impossible to quantify the deformation in terms of recurrence intervals. in contrast to the high geodetic rate (see following discussion).region of minimal historical seismicity and because the inferred deformation rates are anomalous for the geologic setting of the Gulf Coastal plain. but it is not clear if this uplift occurs seismically or aseismically. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: Deposits associated with the uplift are not faulted.01-1. it is not clear if the uplift reflects long-term tectonic processes that produce tectonic strain that could be released by damaging earthquakes. The 5 mm/yr geodetic uplift rate is exceedingly high and is incompatible with the geologic and broad tectonic setting of the Gulf Coast province. which is indicative of contemporary deformation.01-1. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: The geomorphic evidence of Quaternary uplift implies that the deformation is a steady. The geologic rates of 0. aseismic deformation seems more likely. It has an areal extent. highest terrace described by Schumm (1986 #2817). A profile of Macon Ridge. has been affected by about 3. It is not clear that the deformation is episodic or coseismic. the Monroe uplift is classified as a Class B feature. Thus. on-going process. Based of the sparse historical earthquakes in the region. this geodetic rate is suspect in terms of it accurately reflecting a long-term uplift rate.4 mm/yr reported by Schumm (1986 #2817) are more consistent with the regional geologic setting.

D. 159 . A. Alluvial-river response to neotectonic deformation in Louisiana and Mississippi: Science. ed. 31-52.. O. 1991. v. T. 24-32. S. Colorado. p.. References #2815 Burnett. p.. #2816 Johnson.E.. C. #2817 Schumm. #1994 Ewing. 1983.. S. 1986. p. Jr. Alluvial river response to active tectonics.Average strike (azimuth) Not applicable Comment: It is inappropriate to determine a average strike for this feature for the same reasons cited in the comments on the length determination. The Geology of North America. 1958.A.. J.H. p. A. v. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder. Geological Society of America. 222.W. 80-94. and Schumm.. in Salvador. 49-50..A. Structural framework. The Monroe uplift: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies. National Academy Press.. v. 8. in Active tectonics: Washington.

000 topographic base in Figure 25 of Dennison and Stewart (1998 #2029). electrical. 1993 #1851. 160 . 1997 #1852. and reported analyses and descriptions of the structures. between Pembroke and Pearisburg. which flows northwestward across the Valley and Ridge province. 1998 #2045) excavated new benches and trenches across the Pembroke faults and the anticline. The terrace deposits are arched into a broad anticline. approximately 1 km west of Pembroke. Pembroke faults (Class B) Structure Number 2652XX Structure Name Pembroke faults (Class B) Comments: Five faults in terrace deposits of probable Quaternary age were reported but not named by Bollinger and others (1992 #1800) and Law and others (1992 #1850). 60° E. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Virginia. Wheeler. The faults are in terrace deposits of the New River. Robinson and others. and has limb dips up to 30° (Law and others. 1994 #2044.2652XX. 1994 #1887. folded and thrust faulted. Hundreds of small extensional faults cut the terrace strata with individual dip separations that typically are less than 30 cm (Law and others. that trends N. five extensional faults have dip separations measured in meters. Law and others. 64° E. gravity. reverse faults on both limbs of the anticline dip inward under its crest with slips of several decimeters (Law and others. as described in "Sense of movement" below. 1997 #1852. Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. Geological Survey State Virginia County Giles 1° x 2° sheet Bluefield Physiographic province Valley and Ridge Reliability of location Good Comments: The faulted locality is shown on a 1:24. In contrast to the small extensional and reverse faults. Law and others (1992 #1850. 1998 #2045).-trending. into a hay field (Law and others. Peavy and Sayer. U. 1998 #2045. 1990 #1974. Ordovician carbonate rocks of the southern Appalachian Valley and Ridge province (McDowell and Schultz. and magnetometer surveys allowed the fault system that is exposed in an embankment to be traced southwestward at least 100 m from its exposure. The terrace deposits are underlain by N. 1994 #2044. Mills (1994 #1864) referred to the faults collectively as "the Pembroke fault". In addition. it has not yet been determined whether the faults are tectonic or the result of solution collapse. approximately 100 m wide. The New River crosses the Giles County seismic zone at Pearisburg and Pembroke. 1994 #2044). The faulted locality is along the north side of the New River Valley. However. 1998 #2045). Date of compilation 05/26/98. 1993 #1851. tabular zone of hypocenters. Synopsis: Probable Quaternary faults overlie a steeply dipping. Results of seismic refraction.S. 1993 #1952).

He noted that the location and sense of the change in terrace elevation was what would be expected from seismic slip in the seismic zone. 1997 #1805). 1992 #1850. thereby indicating normal slip that slightly exceeds dextral and sinistral strike slip (Law and others. 1997 #1852. 1997 #1852. Callis and Williams. 1994 #1864) and Mills and Bartholomew (1986 #1865) examined elevations of stream terraces for several tens of kilometers along the New River. 1994 #2044.5 ±0. More regionally. Mills (1986 #1863. Granger and others (1997 #2199) suggested faster downcutting downstream (northwest) of the seismic zone. within and upstream and downstream of the Giles County seismic zone and the Pearisburg-Pembroke area. On a more regional scale. Paleoseismological studies No paleoseismological studies have been reported of the anticline and faults in the terrace deposits near Pembroke. 1998 #2045). 161 . 1998 #2045). Granger and others (1997 #2199) used a novel application of 26Al/10Be dating to estimate rates of New River downcutting on both sides of the Giles County seismic zone. 1996 #1917. and have slickenlines that plunge 37°-70° west to southwest. 1992 #1850. Sense of movement normal dextral and normal sinistral Comments: The five largest extensional faults have dip separations of 1. The five faults bound two grabens and one half graben in or near the hinge of the anticline. or surface rupture along the New River in two trenches in the Giles County seismic zone and 18 trenches near the zone. as described in "Sense of movement" above. However. Nonetheless. later Mills and Bartholomew (1986 #1865) and Mills (1994 #1864) found evidence of a prehistoric course change in the New River. Law and others (1992 #1850. but alternatively that they might have formed above solution collapses or slumps..0 to at least 8. Dip 54°-72° Comments: The five extensional faults bound two grabens and a half graben. in 1981 Mills (1985 #1981) found no evidence of seismic shaking. dip 46°-70° NW and SE. 1993 #1851. subsurface graben. having been discovered in an embankment produced by excavations for landfill material (Bollinger and others. 46°-80° E. Seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar results indicate that the anticline and extensional faults might both be caused by stratal drape over an underlying reverse fault (Williams and Callis. 1993 #1851.4 Ma: 26Al/10Be burial ages of D. 1998 #2045). consistent with the observation of Mills (1986 #1863). Law and others (1997 #1852) interpreted all the data together in terms of the exposed graben system being nested in the center of a larger. Mills (1986 #1863) noted that terraces downstream (northwest) of the seismic zone were higher above modern river level than those upstream (southeast) of the zone.0±0. Age of faulted deposits Early Quaternary to latest Pliocene (1. Dip direction NW and SE Geomorphic expression The faults near Pembroke have no geomorphic expression. 1992 #1800.4 to 2. 1997 #1852. which could also explain the change in terrace elevation without recourse to earthquakes. strike N. 1994 #2044. Law and others. faulting.5 m (Law and others.1998 #1878). Granger. 1998 #2045). 1998 #2045) suggested that the faults might be tectonic. reported by Law and others.

4 Ma age of the faulted terrace deposits..2 mm/yr all the faulting would have to date from the last twentieth or less of the history of the faulted terrace deposits. and Wheeler..L. #1968 Bollinger. p. 1992..2 mm/yr.. The deposits could be as old as latest Pliocene (see "Age of faulted deposits" above). the other calculated slips are 1.. v. and Wheeler. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1355. Virginia. 85 p.A.. The anticline trends +64˚.A.4 m has accumulated during the duration of the faulting. Wirgart. 1983. The Giles County.0 to 8. These values yield a possible average slip rate much less than 0. The Giles County. 1993 #1851.1-11. 1. 219. If the folding and faulting were contemporaneous (Law and others. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: The largest slip calculated for any of the faults is 11. 12.S. seismogenic zone: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. and Whitmarsh. More fundamentally.S. Pope. no such slip rates are meaningful until it can be demonstrated whether the exposed faults are of tectonic or surficial origin. This is possible but unlikely.H. Virginia. Giles County. M.4 m of normal dextral slip. and Wheeler. Geologically recent near-surface faulting in the Valley and Ridge province—New exposures of extensional faults in alluvial deposits.. 1063-1065. 1997 #1852). R. Five larger extensional faults have dip separations of 1. R. no..1 m (Law and others. 162 .L. 7. References #1800 Bollinger. which is constrained only by the 1. R. seismic zone: Science. #1803 Bollinger.. and no information indicates the relative ages of the individual faults. #1802 Bollinger. G. Length Not applicable Comments: The faults strike into the side of an excavation. The rate could be greater if the faults are considerably younger than the terrace deposits. R. v. SW Virginia: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. until it can be determined whether the faults are tectonic or surficial. their small slips indicate that they may be only a few meters to a few hundreds of meters long. The Giles County. Law. R.D.12. no. but in order for the rate to equal 0. G.A. p. so their lengths are unknown.A.L. then all the faults might be of similar ages. so probably the deformation is Quaternary in age. 1980. Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: The ages of the faults are constrained only by the age of the terrace deposits. However. G..5 m or more. More fundamentally. v. and they strike +46˚ to +80˚.C. 24. any question about earthquake recurrence is premature. Average strike +64˚ Comments: The numerous small faults strike approximately parallel to the trend of an anticline whose limbs and crest they cut.. A152. The 11. 389. 1988. R. seismic zone— Seismological results and geologic interpretations: U. p. 1998 #2045). Virginia.Timing of most recent paleoevent Not reported Comments: Folding and faulting followed deposition of the terrace deposits near Pembroke. G.

J...T.S. 74. Eriksson.. measured from differential decay of cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be in cave-deposited alluvium: Geology.. 282.H.. p. Charleston. K. 78. R. S. G. in Proceedings of the U. using seismic reflection and ground penetrating radar [abs. Appendix C—Summary tables. 609-610.D. A.S.]: Eos. J..D.. Quaternary downcutting rate of the New River. Geologically recent near-surface folding and faulting in Giles County.S.A. southwest Virginia—New exposures of extensional and apparent reverse faults in alluvial sediments between Pembroke and Pearisburg.W.S. Geologic field guide to extensional structures along the Allegheny Front in Virginia and West Virginia near the Giles County seismic zone: Southeastern Section. K. 107-110. J. Virginia. West Virginia. #1850 Law. in Dennison.. and Bollinger. 68. Geological Society of America. p. Pope. #1852 Law. R.]: Eos. #1851 Law. eds. and Whitmarsh. Callis.S...D. Geologically recent near-surface folding and faulting in the Valley and Ridge province— New exposures of extensional faults in alluvial sediments.A.M.. Robinson. Guidebook. #2044 Law. SCR seismicity data base. Bollinger. R.. Giles County.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. March 28-29. J...... 1998. #2199 Granger.C.D. Wirgart. Geophysical images and geologic models for Quaternary faults near Pembroke. 1997. Charleston. K. v. SW Virgina [abs. and Pope. 1998...H. no.. M. SW Virginia [abs. 25. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CP-0133. Phinney. California. Geologic field guide to extensional structures along the Allegheny Front in Virginia and West Virginia near the Giles County seismic zone: Southeastern Section. Sayer. J.F. Virginia–Tectonic faulting or karst subsidence in origin? [abs. 415-432. R.#1805 Callis.. Geological Society of America.A.M. and Finkel.C. Pope. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: U. ed. Robinson. Sayer. G.. 95-101. p. R. 1994. p. R. v. p....A. Callis. R... Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Robinson... D. J. E. 1992. Palo Alto. Virginia—Tectonic faulting or karst subsidence in origin?.. Virginia. Kirchner. Eriksson. M. Cyrnak. 1997. J. R.. 815.T. S316. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Robinson... 102 p. December 1994.. p. Geologically recent near-surface folding and faulting in the Valley and Ridge province–New exposures of extensional faults in alluvial sediments.. v... Geologically-recent faulting and folding of alluvial sediments near Pearisburg.G. Sayer.]: Seismological Research Letters.. 63. Williams. 3. Williams.. C-1—C-46. p. 1994. and Stewart. p. and Pope. eds. E. 163 .]: Seismological Research Letters. in Schneider. #2029 Dennison.G. R. 2—Appendices A to E: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V2.A.C. Giles County.S. M.C.. #2045 Law. E.S. 1993. E. #2042 Johnston. R. West Virginia.G. and Bollinger.C.. J. Pope. J. Carpenter.E.D. and Williams. and Stewart. Giles County.. no. R. K. March 28-29.. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. D.. M. M. Giles County. 1997. Wirgart. 1998..S. Guidebook.. 17 (supplement). Cyrnak. S..T. Wirgart. R. 1998. v.H. E. Geologically-recent faulting and folding of alluvial sediments near Pearisburg.. S.J. R. v. G.

1..#1974 McDowell.D. #1863 Mills. and Law.S. Descriptions of backhoe trenches dug on New River terraces between Radford and Pearisburg. a part of the Appalachian Basin of Virginia and West Virginia. 1 sheet. Evolution of the course of the New River in southwest Virginia—Some interpretations based on distribution of high-level gravels in Giles. 1990. no. and Schultz. Montgomery. p. 1985. v. p. R.C.. 255..S. H. Structural and stratigraphic framework of the Giles County area. 75-86. v.T. v. 1994.000. E1-E24. no. H. E. 1. F497-F498. A. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 59-60. S. Possible differential uplift of New River terraces in southwestern Virginia: Neotectonics.J. #1917 Williams. J. 26. Geological Survey Bulletin 1839. no.. 66. 1986. no. v. Geologic map of Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. #1865 Mills. Geological Survey Open-File Report 85-474. Collocated seismic reflection and radar profiles over Quaternary normal faults in southwestern Virginia [abs. 63 p.T. R.. and Sayer. 3. Virginia. v. E.. 1996. June.]: Eos. p.000. v.G. and Bartholomew. no. #1981 Mills. 1994.S. p. 4. scale 1:125. p. #1864 Mills. Virginia: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.J... S.. in Evolution of sedimentary basins—Appalachian Basin: U. 30. p. 1998. 4. 26. 77. 46 (supplement). 18. Distribution of high-level gravels along the course of the New River in southwestern Virginia—Implications for neotectonics: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. H. Pulaski..H. #1952 Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. H. R. 1981: U. S. p. and Callis. 1 pl.. 164 .. 1993. Phinney. #1878 Peavy.. Analysis of a possible neotectonic feature in SW Virginia using potential field attributes (PFA): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs..P. scale 1:500.H. 56. 1986. and Floyd Counties: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. #1887 Robinson.H. Sayer. M.. A geophysical survey of faulted alluvial ‘terrace' deposits near Pembroke..H.

They informally name the faults the "Saline River fault zone" (Cox and Van Arsdale. these features (collectively named the Saline River fault zone by Cox and Van Arsdale) are classified as Class B features. the relationship of these features to deeper structures and to the diffuse regional seismicity are not well determined and therefore.S. if a Saline River fault zone exists. Mississippi & Arkansas Physiographic province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: The individual features investigated by Cox and Van Arsdale are relatively well located on the basis of their descriptions of their field study sites. Arkansas. 1997 #2805). Thomas. Cox and Van Arsdale describe several small-displacement faults having various strikes that are exposed in several road cuts along a 2. 1989 #2808.2-km-long section of U. Geomorphic evidence has been used to suggest that the Monroe uplift is the site of late Quaternary deformation (see feature 1025. this area was located on the rifted margin of North America that flanked the Iapetus Ocean (Thomas. Later in Paleozoic time. In late Precambrian and Early Paleozoic time. Synopsis Cox and Van Arsdale describe a northwesterly trending alignment of earthquake epicenters that follow the Saline River in central and southeastern Arkansas and is colinear with the northeastern margin of the Monroe uplift. The faults and minor deformation exposed in these road cuts and in nearby trenches that they excavated are small-scale features. Furthermore. Geologic setting The faults described in the studies cited here are located in the southern part of the Mississippi embayment in the transition zone of structural styles between the broad downwarp of the embayment to the north and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Arkansas and related them to a zone of diffuse seismicity along the Saline River lineament. U. However. Highway 425. This classification is further justified because no compelling evidence indicates that the faults visible at the surface are related to a significant seismogenic source that might generate damaging earthquakes. Geological Survey State Arkansas County Drew 1° x 2° sheet Greenwood. Saline River fault zone (Class B) Structure Number 1026XX Comments: Structure Name Saline River fault zone (Class B) Comments: Cox and Van Arsdale (1997 #2805) and Cox and others (1998 #2806) have conducted field studies of small-displacement faults near Monticello. Cox and Van Arsdale indicate that they name the feature in the reports cited here. it is not mapped in any published source. Crone. Monroe uplift in this compilation).1026XX. In their search for surficial expression of these active structures. The epicenter alignment is cited as evidence that active structures exist in the area of the Saline River lineament. compressional tectonics in the Ouachita orogen resulted in the transport of 165 . south of Monticello. Date of compilation 09/30/98 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. 1991 #678).S.

Cox and Van Arsdale (1997 #2805) identified small-displacement faults having all three styles of apparent or inferred senses of movement. reverse. Starting in Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic time. Geomorphic expression No significant geomorphic expression of faults. where they found evidence of deformation. in most cases less than 0. Arkansas. In the absence of the road cuts. Faults have orientations that range from 069° for a southerly dipping reverse fault. the northern Gulf of Mexico has been the depocenter for a thick section of primarily terrigenous clastic sediments derived from the North American craton (Salvador. to 305° for a northerly dipping normal fault. Dip direction N.5 m. the dip directions are variable. the Mississippi embayment) and gentle uplifts (for example. and inferred dextral or sinistral Comments: In the road cuts and the adjacent trenches.S. During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. only 12 known earthquakes (maximum magnitude of about 4. located 300-400 km to the northeast. to 70° for a reverse fault. The results of this study have been abstracted into the publication by Cox and others (1998 #2806). the northern Gulf of Mexico and southern margin of the North American craton has been characterized by modest to minor deformation. Dip 34°-70° Comments: Attitude and orientation of faults in the various road cuts and trenches are variable. and from that time to the present.2-km-long. They examined road cuts along the highway and. Highway 425. 1997 #2805). Paleoseismological studies The most detailed information concerning these features is reported by Cox and Van Arsdale (1997 #2805). 1991 #2807). the features were only exposed in road cuts along U. whereas two normal faults recognized in a shallow seismic-reflection profile dip to the south. north-south-transect following the route of U. All features have small displacements. these features would not have been identified on the basis of any surficial expression.S. The New Madrid seismic zone. S Comments: Similar to the style of displacement and dip amounts. break-up of the supercontinent Pangea resulted in the initial opening of the Gulf of Mexico. the Monroe uplift). Cox and Van Arsdale (1997 #2805) examined faults and deformation at six different sites along a 2. south of the town of Monticello. they excavated trenches short distances from the highway 166 . Highway 425 and in nearby trenches. Sense of movement Normal. The opening continued through the late Jurassic. in the vicinity of the study area. one normal fault in a road cut dips to the north.3) have occurred historically (Cox and Van Arsdale. Reverse faults dip both to the north and to the south. who have made the only detailed examination of these features.large thrust sheets over the margin of the craton. Dips range from a low value of 34°S on a fault interpreted to be dominantly a lateral slip fault. Pliocene (Lafayette Gravel) through latest Pleistocene deposits that are thought to be Peoria Loess and Loveland Loess. is the most seismically active region in the central and eastern United States. However. Age of faulted deposits Range in age from Eocene (Jackson Formation). which is expressed mainly in the form of broad downwarps (for example.

and therefore could be only part of a discontinuous. Recurrence interval Not reported. en echelon. Comments: Recurrence intervals are not reported because of lack of age control and information about specific faulting events.5 m or more. they indicate that the features they studied are oblique to the Saline River fault zone. 167 . they caution that the Saline River fault zone may be only one of an unknown number of concealed faults that might pose a seismic hazard to the region. They mapped the trench exposures in detail and dated a surficial silt deposit using thermoluminescence. and senses of motion to represent a main fault and secondary faults associated with a northwest-southeast-trending primary fault that they infer is related to the 135°-trending Saline River seismicity alignment. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: Based on stratigraphic evidence. dips 34° S and has a 20. they collected data along a 210-m-long shallow shear-wave seismic-reflection profile that traversed the feature that they interpret as the principal fault and a secondary fault. The single trace that they identify as the principal fault strikes 159°. and note that even though the cumulative vertical offset from these events is less than 1 m. They propose two deformation events that postdate deposition of the late Wisconsin Peoria Loess. The total offset of reflectors appears to decrease in stratigraphically younger units. Cox and Van Arsdale (1997 #2805) collectively interpret these various orientations. In general. only stratigraphic relations and contacts that suggest possible warping and minor deformation. strike-slip array. In other road cuts or trenches. Lastly. they found no faulting. Cox and Van Arsdale (1997 #2805) propose two deformation events younger than deposition of the Peoria Loess. The two faults defined by the seismic-reflection data project upward to the traces of the faults exposed in nearby trenches.to 40-cm-wide breccia zone in the Jackson Formation. Without strong corroboration or confirmation of these proposed paleoseismic histories by additional studies. the scale and extent of deformation seems to be minor to modest and localized. these events must be considered with caution because of the major implications that they have on seismic hazard assessments. They also interpret moderate to steep dips in the adjacent Jackson Formation and Lafayette gravel as drag folding that is evidence of left transpression. In addition. The reflection-profile line revealed two south-dipping normal faults that offset the base of the Jackson Formation a total of about 20 m. they found faults that had throws on the order of 0. In some road cuts and trenches. They speculate that the Eocene-age normal faults have been reactivated as transpressional faults in the contemporary ENE-WSW compressional stress field.along the projected strike of features exposed in the roadcuts. Furthermore. but the evidence of these events is not compelling and the cumulative vertical offset is small (<1 m). attitudes. which suggests to them that these faults were active as downto-the-basin normal faults during Eocene subsidence of the Gulf of Mexico margin. They do interpret a group of three faults at one of the medial sites in their transect as being the principal fault zone of the Saline River fault zone. the amount of lateral slip is unknown.

17. 1997.. R.T. 1991. the uncertain amounts of slip. The Appalachian-Ouachita orogen in the United States: Geological Society of America.. and Harris. G. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.Slip-rate category Unknown Comments: Impossible to determine or estimate realistic slip rates given the limited stratigraphic control. eds... R. and Van Arsdale. #678 Thomas. #2807 Salvador. W. The Appalachian-Ouachita orogen beneath the Gulf Coastal Plain between the outcrops in the Appalachian and Ouachita Mountains. Quaternary faulting in the southern Mississippi embayment: Eos. Geological Survey.B. probably much less than 0.. the slip rates must certainly be very small. ed. Investigation of surface faulting in the southern Mississippi embayment: Technical report to U. v.A.A.. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Geological Society of America. v.W. 168 . 79... W. 415-431.. v... #2806 Cox.T.B. and the difficulty in identifying specific datums whose offset can be measured with some degree of confidence.. The Geology of North America. 537553. F-2. #2808 Thomas. in Salvador. no. in Hatcher. R. 1989.D. R. J. Thomas. A. Origin and development of the Gulf of Mexico basin..B.A.S. The Geology of North America. 1991.. p.1 mm/yr. J. A. Length (km): Not applicable Average strike (azimuth) Not applicable References #2805 Cox. The Appalachian-Ouachita rifted margin of southeastern North America: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 30 p. W. S341. p. 1998. the generally small amount of cumulative deformation. R. Van Arsdale. v. under Contract 1434-HQ-97-GR-03014. p. Based on the lack of geomorphic expression and the small amount of post-Eocene cumulative throw. p. and Viele. 389-444. 103.

Washington (Louisiana). Lamar. 1991 #1994). 1° x 2° sheet Mobile. Walthall (Mississippi). Ewing. 1991 #1994) located along the northern flank of the Gulf of Mexico basin. Wiggins Uplift (Class B) Structure Number 2660XX Structure Name Wiggins uplift (Class B) Comments: The Wiggins uplift is also known as the Wiggins arch (Cagle and Kahn. It is a second-order structural feature (Ewing. the outline of the Wiggins uplift shown by Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817) is located north of the salt-free area and lies within the limits of the Hattiesburg and Natchez sheets. Mobile (Alabama). Forrest. Natchez Physiographic province Coastal Plain Reliability of location Poor Comments: The location of the Wiggins uplift is defined on the basis of subsurface data and is typically mapped by the absence of salt in extreme southeastern Louisiana and adjacent southwestern Mississippi (Cagle and Kahn. and they report supporting evidence of uplift from geodetic surveys. However. Date of compilation 05/11/98 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. Jackson. Crone. 1983 #2819. 169 . Pearl River.S. Synopsis: This feature is classified as a Class B feature solely because of results reported in studies by Burnett and Schumm. The uplift is mainly defined by the absence of salt and some Upper Jurassic strata over the crest of the feature (Cagle and Kahn. 1991 #1994). The counties listed above are determined from the location of the Wiggins uplift as shown by Cagle and Kahn. Hancock. Perry. Marion. It is bounded on the north by the Mississippi Salt basin and on the south by the deep basin of the Coastal zone. Ewing.2660XX. U. Louisiana County Baldwin. This salt-free area is confined to the area of the Mobile 2° sheet. Therefore. Hattiesburg. George. If Quaternary deformation is occurring on the Wiggins uplift. Alabama. Geologic setting The Wiggins uplift is a small feature centered in southern Mississippi and defined on the basis of subsurface data. Burnett and Schumm base their conclusion of Quaternary uplift on evidence derived from fluvial geomorphology. These studies offer the only evidence of possible Quaternary uplift of the feature but the data are only considered to be suggestive of Quaternary deformation and are not compelling. 1983 #2819. this feature is assigned to Class B in this compilation. 1983 #2819). Geological Survey State Mississippi. Harrison. Stone. then it is not clear if the deformation is truly tectonic or if it could be related to other non-tectonic processes such as salt tectonics or differential subsidence.

See comments in "Timing of most recent paleoevent" section. who indicate an uplift rate of about 4 mm/yr in the area of the uplift. the Wiggins uplift is categorized as a Class B feature because it is located in a region of minimal historical seismicity and because the inferred deformation rates are anomalous for the geologic setting of the Gulf Coastal plain. They report changes in stream channel sinuosity and morphology. 1976 #2818). away from the continental interior. the uplift could be the expression of a peripheral forebulge caused by sedimentation in the Mississippi River delta (Brown and Oliver. Dip direction Not reported Geomorphic expression The Wiggins uplift does not have any conspicuous geomorphic expression. No additional studies have been conducted to confirm the conclusions of the geodetic or geomorphic investigations. As further support for their contention of modern uplift. Dip Not reported Comments: See comments in preceding "Sense of movement" section. Without additional confirmation.Sense of movement Not reported Comments: No movement on specific faults is reported. 170 . A gauging station on the Tallahala River provides evidence of as much as 12 mm/yr of incision since 1940. and channel incision that has resulted in the formation of low terraces along Bogue Homo Creek. but there is no evidence of movement on specific faults. Brown and Oliver note that the geodetic data they analyzed only detects relative motion and their data from the entire Coastal Plain of the eastern United States shows a pattern of tilting downward. See discussion in the "Detailed Studies" section below. and longitudinal profiles of terraces and the valley floor along the Pearl River suggest deformation. Age of faulted deposits Holocene. However. These reports briefly discuss fluvial geomorphic evidence that suggests contemporary uplift of the Wiggins uplift. but Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817) describe fluvial geomorphic evidence used to infer Quaternary movement. Timing of most recent paleoevent latest Quaternary (<15 ka) Comments: Deposits are not faulted but Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817) note that the modern river channels are responding to the deformation. Alternatively. which is indicative of contemporary deformation. Paleoseismological studies The primary sources of information that suggest possible neotectonic uplift of the Wiggins uplift are reports by Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) and Schumm (1986 #2817). Thus the apparent uplift could actually be the result of a more stable block beneath the uplift subsiding at a slower rate relative to the surrounding areas. and channel incision resulting in the formation of terraces as evidence of continuing uplift. The evidence includes changes in stream channel patterns and sinuosity across the uplift. Thus. they cite Brown and Oliver (1976 #2818). The geomorphic evidence reported by Burnett and Schumm (1983 #2815) infers vertical uplift of the feature. the most recent deformation is Holocene in age.

D. The sparse historical seismicity in the region of the Wiggins uplift contrasts with the unusually high uplift rate. and is not a linear feature therefore. They indicate a geodetic uplift rate of 4 mm/yr. 222.. this "slip rate" is actually an inferred uplift rate of the entire feature. 1983. p. Alluvial-river response to neotectonic deformation in Louisiana and Mississippi: Science. It has an areal extent. Vertical crustal movements from leveling data and their relation to geologic structure in the eastern United States: Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics. the slip rate is defined as "unknown" until better information is available about the nature and rate of Quaternary deformation. p. Mississippi and Alabama: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies.E. 1. M. 171 .W. and Schumm. 23-29. A. determining its length is inappropriate. v.Recurrence interval Not reported Comments: The geomorphic evidence of Quaternary uplift implies that the deformation is a steady. 1976. Length (km) Not applicable Comment: The Wiggins uplift is a structural feature defined on the basis of subsurface data. 14.. J... no. Slip-rate category unknown Comments: The inferred "slip rate" of this feature is not really a slip rate in the same sense as defining a slip rate on a fault. It is not clear if the uplift reflects long-term tectonic processes that produce tectonic strain that could be released by damaging earthquakes. and if this rate were sustained for a significant period of geologic time. south Wiggins arch.A. the Wiggins uplift is classified as a Class B feature. Until some of these fundamental questions about the nature of the deformation are answered. 1983. 49-50. #2815 Burnett. 33. so it is impossible to quantify the deformation in terms of recurrence intervals. This high rate is generally incompatible with the geologic and tectonic setting of the Gulf Coast province. L. It is not clear that the deformation is episodic or coseismic. then the geomorphic and geologic expression of the uplift would be far more pronounced than it is at present. on-going process. and Oliver. Because of the uncertainties described above. but there is some question about whether this deformation is truly tectonic deformation (see discussion of "Paleoseismological Studies").. Thus. References #2818 Brown. J. Average strike (azimuth) Not applicable Comment: It is inappropriate to determine a average strike for this feature for the same reasons cited in the comments on the length determination.. p. Smackover-Norphlet stratigraphy. this geodetic rate is suspect in terms of it accurately reflecting a long-term tectonic uplift rate. S. #2819 Cagle.W. v. 13-35. and Kahn. The only reported information concerning deformation rates is from Brown and Oliver (1976 #2818).A. v.

#1994 Ewing. J.. 80-94. p. D. Alluvial river response to active tectonics.. T. Geological Society of America. The Gulf of Mexico basin: Boulder. in Active tectonics: Washington. National Academy Press. A. 1991. C.A.. Structural framework.. ed. 172 . Colorado. S. #2817 Schumm. p. v.E. in Salvador. The Geology of North America.. 1986. 31-52.

Eight of the 15 damaging historical earthquakes in Ohio. although convincing surficial evidence of large.000. 12 maps. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front. 173 . respectively (Stover and Coffman. 1993 #1986). this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion. Johnston. Nonetheless. including the two largest. The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large. 1988 #1891). the national hazard maps show that. in some areas the surficial record of large.Anna seismic zone (Class C) Structure Name Anna seismic zone (Class C) Comments: Schwartz and Christensen (1988 #1891) noted that this seismically active area in central western Ohio is frequently called the Anna seismogenic zone. the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard.usgs. and northwest. http://geohazards. Focal mechanisms indicate strikeslip faulting and east-northeast-trending SHmax. Hansen (1993 #1829) referred to the area as the western Ohio seismic zone. 1991 #1849). The zone spans approximately 80 km. or presently unrecognized. Reason for assignment to class C: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the Anna seismic zone. for many parts of the CEUS.gov/eq/). The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps.S.cr.1. Stover and Coffman. The two largest shocks occurred on March 2 and 9. Most epicenters cluster along the northwest-striking AnnaChampaign fault (Schwartz and Christensen. prehistoric earthquakes. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity.000. the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. for consistency with other active areas in the central and eastern United States. with most of the seismicity concentrated within an area 30-35 km across (Schwartz and Christensen. prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. occurred in the zone (Hansen. 1989 #1922. 1976 #1904. parallel to the regional orientation (Zoback and Zoback. 1988 #1891).9 and 5. scale 1:7. In the CEUS. In the Central and Eastern U. 1988 #1891). Schwartz and Christensen. which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131. Faults are mapped in basement beneath the Paleozoic platform strata and overlying Quaternary glacial deposits (Schwartz and Christensen. 1988 #1891). Where present. In the CEUS. the most common types of surficial evidence of large. but are not known to extend above lower Paleozoic rocks (Thompson and others. However. The Anna seismic zone is assigned to class C because of a lack of paleoseismological evidence for faulting younger than Paleozoic. these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard. Obermeier (1995 #1983) searched stream banks and sand and gravel pits for evidence of Quaternary liquefaction. 1993 #1986. 1937. The spacing of exposures of liquefiable materials allowed him to conclude that probably the seismogenic zone has not undergone an earthquake larger than M 7 in the past several thousand years. equivocal. although smaller ones could not be excluded. 1993 #1829. 1994 #2042). and M 4. but found none. prehistoric earthquakes is absent. LaForge and Ruff. Their intensities and moment magnitudes were VII and VIII. We refer to it as the Anna seismic zone. north-northeast. The faults strike north.

v. 1995.D. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.C. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-210.C. 1993. #1904 Thompson.L. U. M.L. Ohio region [abs.. 1993. Geological Survey State Ohio County Shelby. Palo Alto..H. and Coffman.. and Ruff. p.F. in Jacobson. 1568-1989 (revised): U..J. National earthquake hazards reduction program annual project summaries—XXXVI. L... Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172.. A. p. Auglaize 1° x 2° sheet Muncie Physiographic province Central Lowland References #1829 Hansen. 17.. SCR seismicity data base. M. Ohio earthquake and recent seismicity in the Anna.S. v. v.R. #1922 Zoback. and Willis. 57-62. S.. p. 174 . 418 p.S. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. no.. revised 01/31/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Appendix C—Summary tables. R. Earthquakes and seismic risk in Ohio: Ohio Geology. #1986 Stover.S.C. 59. summer issue. J.H. v. 1139. Seismicity and crustal structure in the Anna..W.S.D. Peck. The 12 July 1986 St. ed. C-1—C-46. 1988. M.. in Pakiser. D. W. Paleoseismic liquefaction studies—Central U. Seismicity of the United States.Y. 196. Ohio seismogenic zone: Seismological Research Letters. 6. and Christensen.. 1 and 3-6. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States.. 1976. eds. #2042 Johnston. no.Date of compilation 06/19/98.. Wheeler. #1849 LaForge. J.. L.. 1989. 2: U.. C. 72. Marys..S. p. California. December 1994. S. and Mooney. S.]: Eos. J. p. Faulting and seismicity in the Anna Ohio region: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.E.. 8.N. p. p. 523-539. #1891 Schwartz. and Pacific northwestern U.. 2—Appendices A to E: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V2. 606-609. 1994. and Zoback. #1983 Obermeier. ed. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527.. in Schneider. A. M.L. 1991. D. Patterson..

another in a trench.000. 25°-30° E. the most recent episode of slip involved a dip slip component of at least 1 m. 1978 #1877). Mapping and structural analysis indicated that the Belair fault zone is probably a tear fault or lateral ramp in the hanging wall of the Augusta fault zone (Bramlett and others. Reverse offset of Coastal Plain deposits post-dates the Late Eocene. / 50° SE. 175 . and may also predate a time several thousand years younger than 26. Thus. 1. The trace of the Augusta fault zone is offset 23 km sinistrally where it crosses the trace of the Belair fault zone. the 23 km of sinistral horizontal separation of the trace of the Augusta fault zone reflects mainly or entirely the late Paleozoic normal faulting on the Augusta fault zone. 1978 #1877. Prowell and others (fig. The Late Cretaceous or younger. It is this most recent episode that might be Quaternary in age (Prowell and others. 1978 #1877) show the location of the entire fault zone on a planimetric base at a scale of 1:500. the fault zone as a whole also strikes N. The Belair fault zone offsets a Late Cretaceous unconformity at least 30 m in a reverse sense. and see previous reports cited there). 1982 #2197). However. which underwent southeastward directed. 1983 #1951). Geological Survey. 1975 #2251). and a Late Eocene clay at least 10 m in a reverse sense (Prowell and O'Connor. brittle. 1978 #1877). but predates at least 2 ka. normal slip during late Paleozoic orogenic collapse (Maher. 1975 #2251.3 ka. Prowell. Geological Survey (1977 #2252) show the locations of two trenches across the fault zone on topographic bases at scales of 1:12. as a northeast-trending zone of at least eight left. reverse slip documented by Prowell and O'Connor (1978 #1877) records local compressional reactivation of the favorably oriented lateral ramp in the late Paleozoic. The Belair fault zone strikes north-northeast across the east-northeast to northeast striking Augusta fault zone.Belair fault zone (Class C) Structure Name Belair fault zone (Class C) Comments: Young faulting in the Belair fault zone is summarized in entries 69-72 of Prowell (1983 #1951). However. 1977 #2252). 25° E. listric. The localities of entries 70-72 are farther north along the fault zone. normal fault zone. The 50° dip applies to an exposure in a clay pit.S. The fault zone places Paleozoic phyllite over Late Cretaceous sands of the Coastal Plain province (Prowell and O'Connor.000. Prowell and O'Connor. Both fault zones are of Paleozoic ancestry and dip southeast (Bramlett and others. The locality of entry 69 is the one summarized here. The Belair fault zone of northeastern Georgia has been mapped for at least 24 km. 1978 #1877. and Prowell and O'Connor (1978 #1877) speculated from the map-view shape of the Coastal Plain – Piedmont contact that this horizontal separation might be younger than Cretaceous. Prowell and others (1975 #2251) and U. threedimensional structure in two-dimensional map view.and right-stepping reverse faults that are oriented N. and a regional dip (Prowell and others. a strike-slip component is unknown but cannot be ruled out (Prowell and others.S. 1987 #2209). mapping by Bramlett and others (1982 #2197) showed no significant offset of compositional layers across the northeastward projection of the Belair fault zone. A previously speculated strike-slip offset of 23 km is an artifact of viewing a large. No geomorphic expression of the fault zone has been reported. U. 1982 #2197). (Prowell and O'Connor. 1975 #2251.

Quaternary slip on the Belair fault is allowed by these results but not demonstrated.000. The Geology of North America. scale 1:2. Wheeler.. D. Geological Society of America. #2209 Maher. 795-816. Secor.S. Geological Survey (1977 #2252) speculated that the carbon from the gray lenses in the first trench might have been introduced by roots or ground water percolation.. B.450 ±1. v. 1988 #1993).000 and 400 ± 300 yr. and Grow. in Sheridan. The youngest documented slip is reverse offset of a Late Eocene clay (Prowell and O'Connor. 176 .C.P. I-2. on composite samples from several lenses of gray. Age estimates and stratigraphic relations in this second trench indicate that the most recent faulting predates a unit that is at least 2 k. Two trenches were opened across the fault zone to constrain the age of latest faulting. #1993 Prowell. 1987. U. (Prowell.E. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Prowell and others (1975 #2251) excavated the first trench and obtained age estimates of 2.A. eds..Reason for assignment to class C The most recent faulting is not demonstrably of Quaternary age.. Date of compilation 12/15/98. 287.S. These relations indicated that at least 1 m of reverse slip has occurred since deposition of the clay lenses (Prowell and others. sandy clay that contains small. Geological Survey (1977 #2252) excavated the second trench 100 m southwest of the first to test the results of Prowell and others (1975 #2251). U. U. Regardless. The Atlantic continental margin.C. The Belair fault—A Cenozoic reactivation structure in the eastern Piedmont: Geological Society of America Bulletin. One clay lens is dragged into the fault zone and others are cut by the fault zone or are in stratigraphic intervals that are cut by it. p. v. 1982.y.W.. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1269. v.S.y. Geological Survey State Georgia County Richmond 1° x 2° sheet Richmond Physiographic province Coastal Plain References #2197 Bramlett. have not been distinguished.D. J. Jr.. H. 93. Jr..C.T. South Carolina and Georgia: American Journal of Science. disseminated particles of fibrous woody material..: Boulder. Kinematic history of mylonitic rocks from the Augusta fault zone. 1109-1117. D.S. #1951 Prowell. Cretaceous and Cenozic tectonism on the Atlantic coastal margin. 1983.3 k. p.. p. K. D. whether seismic or aseismic. R.. 2 sheets.S. 1978 #1877). Individual slip events. Slip rate averages approximately three orders of magnitude slower than 0. The lack of reported geomorphic expression along the Belair fault zone favors a slow Quaternary slip rate. 1975 #2251).500. and Prowell.. old and perhaps only several thousand years younger than 26. 1988. 557-564. U. Colorado.2 mm/yr over the last 80 m. D. Index of faults of Cretaceous and Cenozoic age in the Eastern United States: U.y.

. B. 20 p..#1877 Prowell.J. M.S.C. 2 pls. 1977. O'Connor. D. Geological Survey.J.. Geological Survey Open-File Report 75-680. #2252 U. 20 p. Preliminary evidence for Holocene movement along the Belair fault zone near Augusta.. 177 . D.C. 6. and O'Connor. 1978. #2251 Prowell. 681-684..S. p. Belair fault zone—Evidence of Tertiary fault displacement in eastern Georgia: Geology. Preliminary report on Belair exploratory trench #10-76 near Augusta.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-411.. Georgia: U. and Rubin. B. v. Georgia: U. 1975.

However. Seeber and others (1998 #2228) modeled a nearly identical orientation of N. which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131. The earthquake is the largest known to have occurred in the Lancaster seismic zone. according to Seeber and others. 43° W. the national hazard maps show that. In the CEUS. a depth range of 0-2.gov/eq/). 45° W. this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large. A mbLg 4. The best 41 aftershock hypocenters occurred around the rim of an approximately tabular zone with a diameter of 2 km. prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity. 1993 #1840). / 54° SW (Seeber and others. equivocal. 1998 #2228). scale 1:7. although convincing surficial evidence of large. prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front. http://geohazards. 1998 #2228). 1994 #1847. the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard.5 km rupture-zone diameter expected of a typical earthquake of Mw 4.0 foreshock preceded by one hour the mbLg 4. respectively.5 km.6 main shock (Mw 4. but with approximately equal 178 . The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. or presently unrecognized.0 and Mw 4.6. prehistoric earthquakes is absent. the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. 1994 #1847) and aftershocks extended up to zero depth (Seeber and others. 1998 #2228) renamed the shock after the Cacoosing Valley in which it occurred. The earthquake is assessed here because its moderate magnitude and unusually shallow depth indicated the possibility of surface rupture. 1998 #1789. 1994 in southeastern Pennsylvania. / 49° SW.S. for many parts of the CEUS. Mw 3.000.cr. / 54° SW. Where present. this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. In the Central and Eastern U. 12 maps. A depth phase shows the main shock to have occurred at 2 km depth (Kim and others. none has been found. 1998 #2228). 1994 #1792. it was referred to informally as the Reading earthquake because that was the closest urban area. most published accounts named the earthquake after the nearby town of Wyomissing Hills.000.8 and Mw 4. 45° W. This diameter compares well to the 1. with mainly reverse faulting and a small component of sinistral strike slip. Reason for assignment to class C This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the vicinity of the Cacoosing Valley earthquake. Subsequently. Intensity was MMI VI-VII. The seismic zone is described separately in this compilation. Ammon and others (1998 #1789) modeled the preferred nodal plane of the main-shock focal mechanism as N. prehistoric earthquakes. Ammon and others.Cacoosing Valley earthquake (Class C) Structure Name Cacoosing Valley earthquake (Class C) Comments: Shortly after the earthquake occurred on January 16. Nonetheless. I adopt the Cacoosing Valley name here because the epicenter location of Seeber and others (1998 #2228) and an atlas show it to be the most accurate.3. The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps. in some areas the surficial record of large.usgs. In the CEUS. the most common types of surficial evidence of large. these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard. according to Armbruster and others. and an orientation of N. respectively. Seeber and others (1998 #1893. Kim and others.6 in a stable continental region (Johnston.

Herrmann.. Kim.521. and Benz. L. H.. A quarry as the straw and stable continental crust as the camel's back–The Mblg4. The foreshock and main shock were the largest earthquakes in a sequence that began in May 1993 and continues to the present (Armbruster and others.. and Scharnberger. v. Faulting parameters of the January 16. 1998. J. W.0 & 4. Horton.-Y.. no. 261. Kim. Johnson.. W. U. Seeber and others.C. Date of compilation 08/06/98. v.. 24.. The Jan.reverse and sinistral components.G. Therefore. and Kim..6. W. 237. 69. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Gao. L. J. and Scharnberger. #1847 Kim. no.. S. PA. #1840 Johnston. p. Seeber and others. earthquakes of Jan. were triggered by the combination of unloading caused by quarrying and increased pore pressure caused by the subsequent flooding. Analysis of digital records from Wyomissing Hills. 1994.-Y. Wheeler. 75.505-24.. C..B. 1994. J. Armbruster. 1994 Cacoosing earthquake in southeastern PA [abs. Armbruster. D. R. no. and Lerner-Lam. 1998 #1893).G.Y.K. #1893 Seeber. 1994 #1792. N. 1998 #2228) concluded that the Cacoosing Valley earthquake. C. v. 75.. L. p. the earthquake did not rupture the ground surface and thus produced no paleoseismological record. 17 (supplement).]: Eos. 261-269. p. C. Seeber and others (1998 #1893. S339-340. Seeber. L. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Pennsylvania earthquakes: Seismological Research Letters. #2228 Seeber. v. Average stable continental earthquake source parameters based on constant stress drop scaling [abs. 103. p. 16. S. no. W.. 237.G. 179 ..J. Pennsylvania—A shallow rupture triggered by quarry unloading: Journal of Geophysical Research.. 1989 #1922). 79. R.-Y. Seeber and others. Langston. N.. and consequently is assigned to class C.. The 1994 Cacoosing Valley earthquakes near Reading. v. 1993. B10. C.. A.. revised 01/31/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. 16 (supplement). 16 (supplement).S..6) in southeastern Pennsylvania—A 2 km-long northwest-striking fault illuminated by aftershocks [abs. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 1994 Wyomissing Hills. p. Barstow. #1792 Armbruster. Both P axes agree with the regional east-northeast trend of greatest horizontal compressive stress (Zoback and Zoback. 64. 1998 #2228). A. 1998 #1893. Horton. Geological Survey State Pennsylvania County Berks 1° x 2° sheet Harrisburg Physiographic province Valley and Ridge References #1789 Ammon. 1994 #1792... 1994 Wyomissing Hills earthquakes (Mblg=4. The main shock occurred under a quarry that had been abandoned in December 1992 and allowed to flood rapidly (Armbruster and others. 1994 [abs. p. 1998... Such. and the sequence of which it is a part.]: Seismological Research Letters. Barstow.A.]: Eos.. 1998.]: Eos. v.

M.. 180 . 523-539.. 1989. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172. and Zoback.D.D. W. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States.. L.. in Pakiser.. M.#1922 Zoback.C. eds.L. and Mooney. p.

Successively older deposits and successively older and higher terraces appear successively farther to the northeast in both river valleys. The crest of the arch approximately underlies the Cape Fear River (Soller. Isopach maps of early Paleocene. 71) noted that. Elevations of shorelines and river terraces indicated uplift of the crest of the arch relative to its southwestern limb during the Pliocene and Pleistocene (Winker and Howard. and Miocene strata indicated relative subsidence northeast of the arch (Harris. in southwestern North Carolina. 1979 #3932). although the subcrop map of Owens (1989 #3935. 1981 #3927. shoreline elevations indicated alternating relative uplifts of the crest and northeast limb during the Pleistocene (Zullo and Harris. Finally. 1988 #3937). 1988 #3937) indicated that the crest has shifted tens of kilometers northeastward and southwestward since at least the middle of Late Cretaceous time (Soller. 1977 #3939. Brown. 1988 #3937). Oligocene. both rivers flow along the southwestern sides of their valleys. in subsequent decades the southeast-plunging arch was recognized and named for Cape Fear. Blackwelder. farther southwest in North Carolina along the upper part of the Cape Fear River. 181 . 1996 #3931). However. 1988 #3937. mapping by Markewich (1985 #3933). and in the Pee Dee River valley. shown in more detail as figure 4 of Soller. 1976 #3929. "Kerr represents. Soller. on the geological map accompanying his report for 1875. Owens. Isopachs of early Pleistocene strata indicated relative subsidence on both flanks of the arch (Harris. Harris and others (1979 #3932) and Zullo and others (1979 #3940) collected earlier suggestions for the existence of three faults longer than 100 km on the arch and its northeastern limb. p. in nearby South Carolina. In addition. They noted that in North Carolina "The Miocene strata … are generally exposed on the south side of the large rivers and on the north slopes of the divides or swells between the rivers. 1989 #3935). 1987 #3938). deepens toward the northern border of the State. Isopach and structure contour maps of middle Cretaceous units indicated that the basins northeast and southwest of the arch subsided then. Soller (1988 #3937). perhaps centered offshore (Brown and Oliver. Dall and Harris (1892 #3930. leaving the arch comparatively high (Harris and others. the beds being much thicker on the Tar and Roanoke than on the rivers farther south" (p. and the presence of Miocene rocks northeast and southwest of the arch but not on it led Owens (1970 #3934) to infer that it was a "physical barrier" (p. and Owens (1989 #3935) showed that in the upper and lower parts of the Cape Fear River valley. 68). 1985 #3933. 24) then. 1996 #3931). However. 1978 #3928). Nowhere in their chapters on North and South Carolina did Dall and Harris (1892 #3930) deduce the presence of an arch or other tectonically uplifted area separating the northeasterly.Cape Fear arch (Class C) Structure Name Cape Fear arch (Class C) Comments: Dall and Harris (1892 #3930) were perhaps the first to summarize the observations from which the existence of the Cape Fear arch could be deduced by later workers. 1979 #3940). demonstrating migration of both rivers to the southwest in response to southwestward tilting of the land surface (Markewich. Farther northeast on the other side of the arch. Nearly a century later. Soller. three decades of leveling data suggested historical uplift of the arch. the Miocene formation as extending along the right flank of this river valley at least 20 miles above Elizabethtown". This formation thickens. eroding bluffs there. Reason for assignment to class C: Lack of evidence for Quaternary faulting.and southwesterly-tilted river valleys.

Tectonic effects on Cretaceous. New Hanover. 1996.W. U. #3933 Markewich. in Baum.. North Carolina: Carolina Geological Society Fieldtrip Guidebook. Harris.. L. and Baum.R. p.. H. in Cleary. Georgetown Physiographic province Coastal Plain References #3927 Blackwelder. 205-231..W. Environmental coastal geology—Cape Lookout to Cape Fear.. Harris (1996 #3931) omitted two of the earlier faults and referred to the third as a hinge. G. 1979. Paleogene.T. W. M. South Carolina County Bladen. Dillon. Wheeler. and Zullo.. Post-Triassic tectonic movements in the central and southern Appalachians as recorded by sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Pender... 417-427. North Carolina. W. 1976. v. North Carolina. Horry. p. J. #3934 Owens.N. Columbus.R.. 13-35. V.C.W. Allen & Unwin. #3932 Harris. and early Neogene sedimentation. p. 1985. and Prowell and Obermeier (1991 #3936) noted that much evidence favors regional warping but none requires faulting. 1-10.A... J. Geomorphic evidence for Pliocene-Pleistocene uplift in the area of the Cape Fear Arch.S.D. Sampson (North Carolina).. 14. 182 . Jr.D. v. Correlation papers—Neocene: U.. in Morisawa.. 1970. Vertical crustal movements from leveling data and their relation to geologic structure in the Eastern United States: Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics. Studies of Appalachian geology—Central and southern: New York.P. #3931 Harris. Tectonic geomorphology: Boston. and Hack. F. W. p. An overview of the marine Tertiary and Quaternary deposits between Cape Fear and Cape Lookout..E. John Wiley and Sons.. #3930 Dall.. 349 p. #3929 Brown. Robeson. Geological Survey State North Carolina. p. Beaufort. eds.. eds. no. 87-114. G. 44. p. #3928 Brown. Structural and stratigraphic framework for the coastal plain of North Carolina: Carolina Geological Society and Atlantic Coastal Plain Geological Association. Late Cenozoic marine deposition in the United States Atlantic coastal plain related to tectonism and global climate: Paleogeography. and Weaver. p.. 1981. Recent vertical crustal movement along the east coast of the United States: Tectonophysics. 34. 1. Pettijohn. 49-50) suggested an alternative explanation of the evidence for one of the faults.. J.Soller (1988 #3937.H. v. p. W. B. Duplin. in Fisher. and Oliver. Paleoecology...J.B. Date of compilation 02/18/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. G... J. Paleoclimatology. Reed. Marion (South Carolina) 1° x 2° sheet Florence. 17-29. 1978. V. 279-297. Brunswick. L.B.B. K. ed.S..A. Zullo. W. 1892.. Geological Survey Bulletin 84. eds.J. North Carolina.

. 183 .. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-1948-A.W.S. and Zullo.R.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1466-A. scale 1:250. 1987. eds. and Zullo.#3935 Owens.F. 1988. 123-127.. southeastern North Carolina: U.. J.W. Structural and stratigraphic framework for the coastal plain of North Carolina: Carolina Geological Society and Atlantic Coastal Plain Geological Assoication. 60 p. Jr. p. V. C.D. North Carolina. #3940 Zullo.. Raleigh. 309-318. 1 plate. October 19-21. scale 1:250.R. Tennessee. Correlation of tectonically deformed shorelines on the southern Atlantic coastal plain: Geology. #3937 Soller. D. and Howard.A. 5.. Evidence of Cenozoic tectonism.. 19. B. p. The geology of the Carolinas: Knoxville. D. University of Tennessee Press. Harris.. in Horton. 1979. #3939 Winker. V.. J.A. #3938 Soller.. Geology and tectonic history of the lower Cape Fear River Valley. Florence 1° x 2° quadrangle and northern half of the Georgetown 1° x 2° quadrangle. J. B. 31-40. in Baum. p. 1991. and Obermeier. Geologic map of the Cape Fear region. 2 sheets.C. v... p. Late Cenozoic tectonism of the Cape Fear Arch..A. 1979.D. no. G. eds. Guidebook. 130. Plio-Pleistocene crustal warping in the outer coastal plain of North Carolina. North Carolina and South Carolina: U.W.000. D...000. v. V. and Harris. central Atlantic coastal plain: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.. 1989. 1977.R. S. #3936 Prowell. 2...P.

Catlin Lake-Goodnow Pond lineament (Class C) Structure Name Catlin Lake-Goodnow Pond lineament (Class C) Comments: This topographic lineament trends north-northwest in the central Adirondack Mountains. It passes approximately 2 km east of the epicenters of an earthquake sequence, which might have occurred on a fault zone that Dawers and Seeber (1991 #1809) hypothesized to underlie the lineament. Dawers and Seeber (1991 #1809) named the hypothesized fault zone the Catlin Lake fault zone. The name of the topographic lineament is used here instead because the existence of the fault zone has not been demonstrated. Reason for assignment to class C: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the Catlin Lake-Goodnow Pond lineament. The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps, which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131, 12 maps, scale 1:7,000,000; http://geohazards.cr.usgs.gov/eq/). In the Central and Eastern U.S. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front, the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard. In the CEUS, the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity, this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large, prehistoric earthquakes. Where present, this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. In the CEUS, the most common types of surficial evidence of large, prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. However, in some areas the surficial record of large, prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion, equivocal, or presently unrecognized. Nonetheless, the national hazard maps show that, for many parts of the CEUS, although convincing surficial evidence of large, prehistoric earthquakes is absent, these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard. The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. Seismological evidence summarized later indicates that a fault zone beneath the topographic lineament might be undergoing seismic reactivation in the present-day compressional stress field. However, clear evidence is lacking as to whether a single, connected fault zone exists, and no paleoseismological evidence for prehistoric Quaternary seismic reactivation of such a fault zone has been reported. The Catlin Lake-Goodnow Pond lineament was considered in this compilation for two reasons. (1) On October 7, 1983, the Goodnow earthquake occurred, with a centroid approximately 7.5 km beneath a point 2 km west of the lineament (Seeber and Armbruster, 1986 #2054; Nábelek and Suárez, 1989 #1868). Epicentral intensity was MMI VI (Stover and Coffman, 1993 #1986), and magnitude was mb(Lg) 5.2, equivalent to moment magnitude M 4.9 (Seeber and Armbruster, 1986 #2054; Johnston, 1996 #1841). A discoid distribution of aftershock hypocenters confirmed an analytical estimate of the rupture-zone diameter as 1.5 km, as well as the choice of preferred nodal plane as one striking north and dipping 60° W (Seeber and Armbruster, 1986 #2054; Nábelek and Suárez, 1989 #1868). The preferred nodal plane and the discoid distribution of hypocenters project upward to ground level at or just east of the Catlin Lake-Goodnow Pond lineament (Dawers and Seeber, 1991 #1809). (2) Joints and straight topographic features presumed to be controlled by fractures are most abundant

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and most parallel to the lineament inside a zone 12 km long, 2 km wide, and centered on the lineament. In addition, small faults parallel to the lineament are known from the area, although not within the lineament or the 12x2 km zone that encloses it. From this indirect evidence, Dawers and Seeber (1991 #1809) suggested that the lineament is underlain by a continuous fault or fault zone, and that the Goodnow earthquake and its aftershocks occurred on it. Dawers and Seeber (1991 #1809) noted that any offset on such a fault or fault zone must be small, because geologic contacts trend across the lineament at high angles and no offset is visible on a geologic map that Seeber (1987 #2053) estimated has a resolution of 50 m. Accordingly, the Catlin Lake-Goodnow Pond lineament and the Catlin Lake fault zone are assigned to class C. Neither the existence of a continuous fault zone nor paleoseismological evidence of Quaternary motion on it has been demonstrated. Date of compilation 04/27/98; revised 01/31/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Wheeler, U.S. Geological Survey State New York County Essex; Hamilton 1° x 2° sheet Utica; Ogdensburg Physiographic province Adirondack References #1809 Dawers, N.H., and Seeber, L., 1991, Intraplate faults revealed in crystalline bedrock in the 1983 Goodnow and 1985 Ardsley epicentral areas, New York: Tectonophysics, v. 186, p. 115-131. #1841 Johnston, A.C., 1996, Seismic moment assessment of earthquakes in stable continental regions—I. Instrumental seismicity: Geophysical Journal International, v. 124, p. 381414. #1868 Nábelek, J., and Suárez, G., 1989, The 1983 Goodnow earthquake in the central Adirondacks, New York—Rupture of a simple, circular crack: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 79, p. 1762-1777. #2053 Seeber, L., 1987, Problems in intraplate seismogenesis and earthquake hazard, in Jacob, K.H., ed., Proceedings from the symposium on seismic hazards, ground motions, soilliquefaction and engineering practice in eastern North America: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research Technical Report NCEER-87-0025, p. 143-162. #2054 Seeber, L., and Armbruster, J.G., 1986, A study of earthquake hazards in New York State and adjacent areas—Final report covering the period 1982-1985: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-4750, 99 p. #1986 Stover, C.W., and Coffman, J.L., 1993, Seismicity of the United States, 1568-1989 (revised): U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527, 418 p.

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Champlain lowlands normal faults (Class C) Structure Name Champlain lowlands normal faults (Class C) Comments: The Champlain lowlands lie along the New York–Vermont border, between the Adirondack Mountains on the west and the Green Mountains and Taconic Mountains on the east. The lowlands extend southward to join a northward extension of the Hudson-Mohawk lowlands. Lakes Champlain and George occupy most of the Champlain lowlands. The Adirondack Mountains expose a broad dome of Proterozoic high-grade metamorphic rocks (Fisher and others, 1970 #1930; Isachsen and Fisher, 1970 #1933). In contrast, the Green and Taconic Mountains are built of west-verging thrust sheets of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks. The intervening lowlands are underlain by flat-lying to gently-dipping Cambrian and Ordovician platform strata. The platform strata in the lowlands have long been known to be cut by variously-striking systems of generally east-facing, steep to vertical, normal faults, which have the overall effect of stepping the platform rocks downward and eastward, off the updomed Proterozoic basement of the Adirondack Mountains, to disappear under the thrust sheets of the Green and Taconic Mountains (for example Quinn, 1933 #1879). In addition, some of the normal faults are mapped as cutting the eastern parts of the exposed Proterozoic rocks in the Adirondack dome, and perhaps some of the westernmost thrust sheets of the Green and Taconic Mountains (Fisher and others, 1970 #1930; Isachsen and Fisher, 1970 #1933; Isachsen and McKendree, 1977 #1934; Isachsen, 1985 #2038). Reason for assignment to class C: I found no paleoseismological evidence for Quaternary motion on the normal faults of the lowlands. However, the normal faults were considered in this compilation of geologic evidence for Quaternary faulting for four reasons. Burke (1977 #1804) suggested that the normal faults of the lowlands originated during early Paleozoic rifting, and speculated from geomorphological arguments that the faults might have undergone Neogene extensional reactivation. A worldwide survey of damaging earthquakes in stable continental regions found that large earthquakes occur preferentially in passive margins and continental rifts, with the preference being strongest for areas that underwent the youngest extension (Johnston, 1989 #2039; Johnston, 1994 #2040). Thus, Neogene extensional reactivation of the lowland normal faults could indicate elevated earthquake potential. However, eastern North America is presently under compression (Zoback and Zoback, 1989 #1922). In addition, examination of the patterns and ages of sea-floor magnetic anomalies indicates little change over the last 50 million years in the plate motions that are thought to generate the present-day compressive stresses in eastern North America. Therefore, the present-day compression in and surrounding the lowlands is likely to have persisted through the Neogene. Thus, Neogene extensional reactivation of the lowland faults is unlikely. Marine seismic-reflection profiles of the glacial and Holocene deposits in southern Lake George showed several places where growth faults have apparent offsets as large as 24 m (Wold and others, 1977 #1918). However, additional profiles and further processing found no evidence of tectonic faulting (Hutchinson and others, 1981 #1832). The preferred explanation for the apparent offsets is that they represent localized collapse above melting blocks of glacial ice that had been buried by the glacial and Holocene deposits (Hutchinson and others, 1981 #1832; Isachsen, 1985 #2038). A marine seismic-reflection survey in Lake Champlain allowed pre-Quaternary faults that had been mapped on land to be traced into bedrock beneath

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the lake (Turner, 1977 #2060). However, post-glacial sediments continue across the faults beneath the lake without offset, thereby indicating the absence of post-glacial faulting larger than the one foot (0.3 m) resolution limit of the survey. A more recent reflection survey in Lake Champlain found possible folded, non-parallel, and disrupted depositional surfaces that are likely younger than 13 ka (Hunt, 1989 #2037). Origins by differential compaction, submarine slumping, or ancient faults reactivated during post-glacial rebound are similarly possible, so Hunt (1989 #2037) considered this evidence for possible faulting to be inconclusive. Numerous mapped and inferred, normal, lowland faults are shown as bounding or crossing Quaternary glacial and alluvial deposits (Fisher and others, 1970 #1930; Isachsen and Fisher, 1970 #1933). Although these relations are shown at the small map scale of 1:250,000, they indicate a possibility of young reactivation of some lowland faults. In particular, Geraghty and Isachsen (1981 #2033; summarized by Isachsen and others, 1983 #2203) suggested Neogene reactivation of the north-striking McGregor-Saratoga-Ballston Lake fault system at the southern end of the lowlands, for the following four reasons. First, seismic refraction profiles and topographic maps at several localities along the fault system showed that the fault is exactly at the foot of a bedrock escarpment at each locality. Erosional retreat of the escarpment from the fault has been negligible, from which Geraghty and Isachsen (1981 #2033) suggested Neogene reactivation of the fault. Second, at three places along the fault zone, possible sag ponds exist at the bases of escarpments adjacent to the fault zone. Geraghty and Isachsen (1981 #2033) suggested that the ponds might indicate geologically young tilting of the hanging walls, and therefore geologically young slip on the fault. However, some of the lowland fault blocks are tilted into their bounding normal faults, as though the faults are listric in the subsurface (Quinn, 1933 #1879; Isachsen and Fisher, 1970 #1933). Such tilting, combined with differential solution or erosion of the uppermost exposed strata in the hanging walls, might produce topographic depressions atop the hanging-wall blocks adjacent to the faults. Third, a temporary seismograph network located two microearthquakes near the fault system with an epicentral resolution of approximately 1 km but unknown depths (Geraghty and Isachsen, 1981 #2033; Mitronovas, 1981 #1866). One of the epicenters is exactly on the trace of the fault. However, this is not conclusive evidence for seismic reactivation of the fault, because if the fault dips away from the vertical, the hypocenter would be in the footwall, not on the fault. In addition, the magnitude was 1.6, which indicates a rupture zone smaller than 50 m in diameter (Johnston, 1993 #1840). The only hypocentral depth reported near the fault system was 5 km (Geraghty and Isachsen, 1981 #2033). If the microearthquake had a similar depth, a rupture zone 50 m in diameter at a depth of 5 km could occur on a fault too small and deep to be detected. These considerations might explain why the second precisely located epicenter fell 17 km from the nearest mapped high-angle fault (figure 3 of Geraghty and Isachsen, 1981 #2033)). Fourth, six of 14 highly carbonated springs in the area issue from the McGregor-Saratoga-Ballston Lake fault system, and such springs are characteristic of seismically active areas worldwide (Geraghty and Isachsen, 1981 #2033). Thus, the negligible erosional retreat of escarpments and the highly carbonated springs might be evidence for Neogene reactivation of the McGregor-Saratoga-Ballston Lake fault system, and perhaps for other, similar lowland faults. However, Neogene reactivation would precede the Quaternary. Geraghty and Isachsen (1981 #2033) state that they found "no direct evidence for Holocene movement on the faults" (p. 37).

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Isachsen and others (1983) used topographic, geomorphic, geodetic, and other evidence to suggest that the domal Adirondack Mountains underwent Neogene, and probably Pliocene, uplift that might continue today. Vertical uplift of the Adirondack Mountains might reactivate faults along its eastern border in the Champlain lowlands, even in the absence of the regional extension speculated by Burke (1977). The best studied candidate for such reactivation is the McGregor-Saratoga-Ballston Lake fault system (Geraghty and Isachsen, 1981; Isachsen and others, 1983). However, as argued in the preceding paragraph, the evidence for young motion in this fault system is intriguing but, ultimately, favors Neogene faulting more than Quaternary. Accordingly, in the absence of paleoseismological study of trench exposures, such as those recommended by Geraghty and Isachsen (1981) and Isachsen and others (1983), the lowland faults are assigned to class C. Date of compilation 05/27/98; revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Wheeler, U.S. Geological Survey State New York; Vermont County Clinton; Essex; Warren; Washington; Saratoga; Schenectady; Albany (New York State); Grand Isle; Chittenden; Addison; Rutland (Vermont) 1° x 2° sheet Lake Champlain; Glens Falls; Albany Physiographic province St. Lawrence Valley; Valley and Ridge References #1804 Burke, K., 1977, Are Lakes George and Champlain in Neogene graben reactivating early Paleozoic rifts?: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 9, p. 247248. #1930 Fisher, D.W., Isachsen, Y.W., and Rickard, L.V., 1970, Geologic map of New York— Hudson-Mohawk sheet: New York State Museum and Science Service Map and Chart Series 15, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. #2033 Geraghty, E.P., and Isachsen, Y.W., 1981, Investigation of the McGregor-SaratogaBallston Lake fault system, east central New York: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-1866, 45 p., 1 pl. #2037 Hunt, A.S., 1989, Detailed investigations of several apparent faults beneath Lake Champlain, Vermont–New York, in Barosh, P.J., and Smith, P.V., eds., New England seismotectonic activities during fiscal year 1980: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-3252, p. 68-73. #1832 Hutchinson, D.R., Ferrebee, W.M., Knebel, H.J., and Wold, R.J., 1981, The sedimentary framework of the southern basin of Lake George, New York: Quaternary Research, v. 15, p. 44-61. #2038 Isachsen, Y.W., 1985, Structural and tectonic studies in New York State—Final report, July 1981-June 1982: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-3178, 75 p.

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#1933 Isachsen, Y.W., and Fisher, D.W., 1970, Geologic map of New York—Adirondack sheet: New York State Museum and Science Service Map and Chart Series 15, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. #2203 Isachsen, Y.W., Geraghty, E.P., and Wiener, R.W., 1983, Fracture domains associated with a neotectonic, basement-cored-dome—The Adirondack Mountains, New York, in Gabrielsen, R.H., Ramberg, I.B., Roberts, D., and Steinlein, O.A., eds., International Conference on Basement Tectonics: Salt Lake City, International Basement Tectonics Association, 4th Proceeding, Oslo, Norway, August 10-14, 1981, p. 287-305. #1934 Isachsen, Y.W., and McKendree, W.G., 1977, Preliminary brittle structures map of New York: New York State Museum Map and Chart Series 31 A-G, 7 sheets. #2039 Johnston, A.C., 1989, The seismicity of ‘stable continental interiors', in Gregersen, S., and Basham, P.W., eds., Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins—Neotectonics and postglacial rebound: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 299-327. #1840 Johnston, A.C., 1993, Average stable continental earthquake source parameters based on constant stress drop scaling [abs.]: Seismological Research Letters, v. 64, p. 261. #2040 Johnston, A.C., 1994, Seismotectonic interpretations and conclusions from the stable continental region seismicity database, in Schneider, J.F., ed., The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. 1, Assessment of large earthquake potential: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V1, Palo Alto, California, December 1994, p. 4-1—4-103. #1866 Mitronovas, W., 1981, Seismicity in the upper Hudson Valley [abs.]: Earthquake Notes, v. 52, p. 21-22. #1879 Quinn, A.W., 1933, Normal faults of the Lake Champlain region: Journal of Geology, v. 41, p. 113-143. #2060 Turner, P.J., 1977, Seismic reflection survey in Lake Champlain: Burlington, University of Vermont, unpublished M.S. thesis, 60 p., 11 pls. #1918 Wold, R.J., Isachsen, Y.W., Geraghty, E.P., and Hutchinson, D.R., 1977, Seismic-reflection profiles of Lake George, Adirondack Mountains, New York, as a guide to the neotectonic history of the region: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 9, no. 7, p. 1233. #1922 Zoback, M.L., and Zoback, M.D., 1989, Tectonic stress field of the continental United States, in Pakiser, L.C., and Mooney, W.D., eds., Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172, p. 523-539.

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Jacobi and Fountain. 1993 #1837). Where present. prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion.cr. the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard. 1993 #1859). in some areas the surficial record of large. Jacobi and Fountain. and other methods that were part of exploration for petroleum and assessment of seismic hazards (Van Tyne. and since then it has been mapped geologically and characterized in the subsurface. Wheeler.000.gov/eq/). The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps. western New York State. 12 maps. Jacobi and Fountain. scale 1:7. this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large. 1995 #1914. Jacobi and Fountain. Its surface expression is subtle (Fakundiny and others. it widens southward to 17 km in the south. by well logging.000. Hutchinson and others. 1997 #1838.S. 1993 #1837). The Clarendon-Linden fault zone was assessed for three reasons. equivocal. the most common types of surficial evidence of large. In addition. 1998 #1839. Pomeroy and others. the zone might extend across Lake Ontario to its north shore (Fakundiny and others. seismic-reflection profiling. and from a width of 6 km in the north. 1975 #1979). these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard. prehistoric earthquakes. south-southwestward at least into northern Allegany County (Fakundiny and others. 1993 #1837). prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. 1975 #1979. The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. prehistoric earthquakes is absent. the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity. The zone is best developed in the subsurface in and below Lower Silurian rocks (Van Tyne. 1996 #1916. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front. McFall. Reason for assignment to class C: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the Clarendon-Linden fault zone. Jacobi and Fountain. there is no paleoseismological evidence for prehistoric Quaternary seismic reactivation. undated #2051). near the Pennsylvania border. 1978 #2012. In the Central and Eastern U. 1978 #2012. 190 . The fault zone comprises three main strands along most of its length as Van Tyne (1975 #1979) mapped it from well data. this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. for many parts of the CEUS. http://geohazards. The fault zone is a member of a family of Late Proterozoic-Cambrian normal faults that formed during the rifting episode that initiated the Iapetus Ocean (Wheeler. Nonetheless. the national hazard maps show that. In the CEUS. where the zone contains as many as 17 faults (Jacobi and Fountain. Recent work has extended the zone southward into central Allegany County. The fault zone extends at least 94 km from near the shoreline of Lake Ontario in Orleans County.usgs. which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131. In the CEUS. Although seismological evidence indicates that the mapped fault zone is probably undergoing seismic reactivation in the present-day compressional stress field. 1978 #2012. although convincing surficial evidence of large. 1997 #1838. 1979 #1836.Clarendon-Linden fault zone (Class C) Structure Name Clarendon-Linden fault zone (Class C) Comments: The fault zone was found and named in 1920. However. or presently unrecognized.

Pomeroy and others. and orientations of the strands of the Clarendon-Linden fault zone. sedimentological. 1966 and Mw 4. p. First. and the 191 . Virginia.2 on January 1. Second. p. Thus. a damaging shock occurred near Attica. undated #2051). undated #2051). depths. 1993 #1986) and the moment magnitude was Mw 4. NA-128). there is no paleoseismological evidence that the fault zone has slipped during the Quaternary. Pomeroy and others. 1995 #1914). 1998 #1921). 1995 #2240. 20° E. rupture-zone sizes. and were sufficiently energetic to spatter mud into nearby tree tops (Jacobi and Fountain. smaller earthquakes could occur without leaving a detectable paleoliquefaction record. and their epicenters were inside the 14-km-wide fault zone (Herrmann. Mw 4. 1996 #1910) searched for. 1996 #1910. 1995 #2240. Various soft-sediment structures were observed. Fakundiny and others. Johnston (1993 #1840) estimated that earthquakes of this size in stable continental regions like western New York State might typically have rupture zones with diameters of 0. historic or prehistoric liquefaction features in the liquefiable deposits in the meizoseismal area of the 1929 Attica earthquake and south of Attica along the fault zone. However. 1977 #1823. Three observations indicate that the fault zone might be close to failure. although the epicenter has a locational uncertainty of approximately 20 km (Metzger and Johnston. undated #2051). NA-128). 1995 #2240). Two more recent earthquakes had epicentral uncertainties of approximately 5 km.Pomeroy and others. 1993 #1892). P-axes indicated dextral reverse slip. and perhaps Tennessee (Wheeler. Each of these two earthquakes had a focal mechanism with a nodal plane striking approximately N. Well logs and seismic reflection profiles allow the nearby fault strands to be traced nearly to the depths of the hypocenters (Van Tyne. new gas seeps formed near the main strand of the fault zone. 1994 #2064. and the only large faults known in the area at the shallow depths of the hypocenters are the strands of the Clarendon-Linden fault zone. Medium-sized earthquakes are spatially associated with the fault zone. Metzger and Johnston. Depths were 2-3 km (Herrmann. Seeber and Armbruster. consistent with the ambient east-northeast trend of the greatest horizontal compressional stress. 1978 #1830). the age and likely extensional origin of the Clarendon-Linden fault zone indicates a potential for seismic reactivation. or mass wasting processes (Tuttle and others.6 km. The lack of observed paleoliquefaction features may indicate that earthquakes of Mw larger than 6 have not occurred along the ClarendonLinden fault zone during the last 12. Other members of the fault family are inferred to be the sources of damaging earthquakes in Quebec. 1994 #2040). Thus. 1995 #1909. but did not find. Young and Jacobi. epicenters of small earthquakes cluster between and near the strands of the fault zone (Fletcher and Sykes. and dipping approximately 70° SE. 1967 Johnston.000 years (Tuttle and others.1 on June 13. 1977 #1823). 1994 #2064. 1994 #2042. 1929. at approximately the time of the 1988 Saguenay earthquake in Quebec.9 (Johnston. near the trace of the fault zone. fluid injection induced small. The intensity was MMI VIII (Stover and Coffman. and nodal-plane orientations of the 1966 and 1967 earthquakes are unusually good matches to the locations. depths. On August 12. However. Third. the locations. Presumably rupture zones of this size would have occurred on faults at least several times larger. 1978 #2012. 1975 #1979. 1978 #1830. parallel to the surrounding strands of the fault zone (Herrmann. 1993 #1837). shallow earthquakes on one or more of the fault strands (Fletcher and Sykes. Tuttle and others (1995 #1909. but all could be more reasonably attributed to glacial. 1978 #1830.

. Characteristics of the basement-controlled faults of the Clarendon-Linden fault system—Evidence from seismic reflection profiles for local multiple Phanerozoic reactivations during far-field orogenies: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. v.. Myers. #1837 Jacobi..A. D. in Thompson. 47. The southern extension and reactivations of the Clarendon-Linden fault system: Géographie physique et Quaternaire. J. P.C.. v. #1840 Johnston. U. p. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. J.. p.. 261. the Clarendon-Linden fault zone is assigned to class C because of a lack of paleoseismological evidence for Quaternary faulting. 1994. #1836 Hutchinson....H.. 1998. L. v. 316. v.. Canada. Geological Survey State New York County Genesee. Jr. J. 27.S. no. Solid Mechanics Division Study 13. and Halls. R. New York earthquakes: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. J. 2—Appendices A to E: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V2.. R. 121-178. ed. Monroe 1° x 2° sheet Buffalo.C. Pferd.. 1993. Wold.]: Seismological Research Letters. revised 01/31/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L.. Date of compilation 04/24/98. #1838 Jacobi. 1997. University of Waterloo Press. 641-651. ed. v. A. 64. p. Ontario. Accordingly. Wyoming. SCR seismicity data base. #2042 Johnston. western New York and Lake Ontario. Earthquakes related to hydraulic mining and natural seismic activity in western New York State: Journal of Geophysical Research. and Fountain. A. 1979. Wheeler.W. T. and Fountain. 17. and Sykes. v. R. 78. Palo Alto.W. Structural instability features in the vicinity of the Clarendon-Linden fault system. A geophysical investigation concerning the continuation of the Clarendon-Linden fault across Lake Ontario: Geology.W. p. 1. p. although seismological evidence indicates that probably the zone was active during this century. #1830 Herrmann. 82. p. R. Orleans.. 1978. Average stable continental earthquake source parameters based on constant stress drop scaling [abs.D. 192 . and Fountain. Toronto Physiographic province Central Lowland. 206-210. California. Advances in analysis of geotechnical instabilities: Waterloo. A seismological study of two Attica. v. Allegany.B.. in Schneider. 68.T.. 1977.C.J. Appalachian Plateaus References #2012 Fakundiny. no. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. Appendix C—Summary tables.1929 earthquake demonstrated that smaller earthquakes can occur on or near the fault zone. 30. and Nowak.C. J.... Discrimination of tectonic and nontectonic faults—A case study involving 11 integrated techniques [abs. p. C-1—C-46. 1993. Pomeroy. J. #1839 Jacobi.R. 7. Pomeroy. December 1994.. 3767-3780... R. J.F. #1823 Fletcher.. 1978. J. p. P.R. R.. H.B.]: Eos. p. 285-302.

1996. R.. 47. 1993. The stable continental region seismicity database. 1993. Jr. Natural and induced seismicity in the Lake ErieLake Ontario region—Reactivatioin of ancient faults with little neotectonic displacement: Géographie physique et Quaternaire. R. p.. p. M.. Dyer-Williams. A. western New York: New York State Geological Survey Open-File Report. A.P. A-395. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. 1996. ed. 1995. #2064 Metzger. A.. 4-1—4-103. v. K.. p.L. 1994.A. C. Bedrock-till deformation structure along the Clarendon-Linden fault zone near Linden. #2240 Tuttle. and Fakundiny. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. R.D. southern Ontario: Géographie physique et Quaternaire. Assessment of large earthquake potential: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V1. no. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527. #1859 McFall. 106.P.F. L. 47. and Coffman. Seismic hazard implications of a paleoliquefaction study along the Clarendon-Linden fault system in western New York State: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 28. v. p. 30. N. p.. undated... ed. in Schneider.H. J... A. December 1994. December 1994. J. Seismicity of the United States. no. 1. #1892 Seeber. Appendix F. p. v. in Schneider. J.. 2106. 1994.. 1975. J. #1914 Wheeler. scale 1:62.G. and Armbruster. Subsurface investigation of the Clarendon-Linden structure. 193 . Seismicity data sheets: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V2 and V3.L. #2051 Pomeroy. 1656 p. Limits on the earthquake potential of the Clarendon-Linden fault system in western New York State: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. v. Structural elements and neotectonics of Prince Edward County. P. 14 p.#2040 Johnston. p. 3. R.L. 27. #1986 Stover. R.... Nowak. 303-312. and Barstow. 105-108. Dyer-Williams. California.500. 418 p. 66 p. and Jacobi. #1916 Wheeler. 28... N. v.C. 1995. N. 31 pls. California. Determination of the seismic potential of the Clarendon-Linden fault system in Allegany County: Final Report to New York State Energy Research and Development Agency. Palo Alto..G.L.. v.. and Johnston. Clarendon-Linden fault system of western New York—A Vibroseis® seismic study: New York State Geological Survey Open-File Report. M. 5 pls. #1909 Tuttle..W. 363-378. 3.. 85.. 1568-1989 (revised): U.M. v.W. 23. no. 1993. R. Dyer-Williams. T.. p. Paleoliquefaction study along the Clarendon-LInden fault system. 3 and 4. Sources of seismic hazard near the eastern Great Lakes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs... K.. Palo Alto... K.. and Barstow. 110. Seismotectonic interpretations and conclusions from the stable continental region seismicity database.A. in Jacobi.. 1995..F.. p. 1. 1998. NY–Tectonic or glacial origin?: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.H.C.. #1979 Van Tyne. G.S. and Barstow.. #1910 Tuttle. eds. #1921 Young. Earthquakes and the cratonward limit of Iapetan faulting in eastern North America: Geology. and Fountain.P. M. J.

Ackermann. 194 . and dips 70° NW with a length of approximately 10 km. H. v. Hamilton and others.T.Cooke fault (Class C) Structure Name Cooke fault (Class C) Comments: Seismic-reflection profiles in the meizoseismal area of the 1886 earthquake at Charleston.. 1981. is flexed over the fault to produce 20 m of offset (Behrendt and others. 1981 #1794. p. with the hanging wall up. 1993. v.S. Geological Survey State South Carolina County Dorchester 1° x 2° sheet Savannah Physiographic province Coastal Plain References #1794 Behrendt. 21. 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. This is the youngest reported deformation attributable to the Cooke fault.S. South Carolina. more northerly striking fault. R. #1965 Hamilton. J. Reason for assignment to class C: A reflector at a depth of 150 m. R. U.. 1983 #1965). J. The deepest reflector is disrupted by the fault and shallower reflectors are flexed over the disruption. and Henry. Marple and Talwani (1993 #1857) and Talwani and Marple (1997 #2236) suggested that the Cooke fault might be part of a longer.M.. Offsets of individual reflectors increase downward from 20 m to 190 m. South Carolina.C.D. 117-122. At its northeast end. One.. named the Cooke fault by Behrendt and others (1981 #1794) and Hamilton and others (1983 #1965). 9. Hamilton. ed. Cenozoic faulting in the vicinity of the Charleston. showed several subsurface faults. the Cooke fault is assigned to class C for lack of evidence of faulting younger than Eocene. the Cooke fault enters a diffuse cluster of epicenters (Behrendt and others. #1857 Marple. Hamilton and others. 1886 earthquake: Geology. Behrendt. V. Therefore. indicating persistent reverse slip (Behrendt and others. p. H. 651-654.S. but without a cross section showing precise hypocenter locations this map-view spatial association cannot be evaluated. and Ackermann. 1981 #1794. which corresponds to an Eocene unconformity. South Carolina. 1983 #1965). Land multichannel seismic-reflection evidence for tectonic features near Charleston.C.D. I1-I18.. Wheeler. in Gohn.. and Talwani. Date of compilation 06/04/98. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U.J.. Hamilton and others.M. G... P. Evidence of possible tectonic upwarping along the South Carolina coastal plain from an examination of river morphology and elevation data: Geology. p. strikes approximately N. 65° E. 1983. Studies related to the Charleston. 1983 #1965). 1981 #1794. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313. R. South Carolina... based on additional seismic-reflection profiles and reinterpretations of some results of Hamilton and others (1983 #1965).

1997. Beijing.. China. Evidence of neotectonic activity in the South Carolina Coastal Plain.T. 30th. P. International Geological Congress. 195 . R.. Contemporary lithospheric motion/seismic geology: Utrecht.. and Marple. Y. v.#2236 Talwani. VSP. August 4-14. 1996. 49-61. ed. The Netherlands. p. in Hong. 5.

Tuttle (1996 #2239) investigated two air photo linears corresponding to the locations and orientations of ground fissures that were noted in a 1945 report of C. and attempted to distinguish the numerous features of likely glacial origin from a possible few of seismic origin. Wheeler. which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131. In the CEUS. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front. the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. but by themselves do not constitute evidence of ground shaking. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity. 1993 #1986. widely recognized way to distinguish those of seismic and nonseismic origins (Obermeier. Nonetheless. Where present. prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion. Geological Survey State New York. U. the most common types of surficial evidence of large. The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps. 12 maps. in some areas the surficial record of large. Berkey that documents ground fissures and sand vents attributed to the earthquake. Berkey. Sand diapirs and dewatering structures were observed in sediments exposed in two trenches. although convincing surficial evidence of large.S. Tuttle (1996 #2239) summarized a 1945 report by C. 1996 #2256). the epicentral area of the Cornwall-Massena earthquake is assigned to class C in this compilation.gov/eq/). In the CEUS. the national hazard maps show that. The attempt was unsuccessful. Bent.Cornwall-Massena earthquake (Class C) Structure Name Cornwall-Massena earthquake (Class C) Comments: The damaging earthquake of September 5. Reason for assignment to class C: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the vicinity of the Cornwall-Massena earthquake. Much of the study site had been disturbed by construction or other human activity. Tuttle (1996 #2239) opened four trenches near and possibly across the linears. this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. The two reported searches for paleoseismological evidence of Quaternary faulting in the epicentral area found none. because of the lack of paleoseismological evidence of prehistoric Quaternary seismic faulting.usgs.000. Date of compilation 08/20/98.cr. 1944 had a moment magnitude of M 5. Second. http://geohazards. prehistoric earthquakes is absent.8 and caused damage of Modified Mercalli intensity VIII (Stover and Coffman.000. First. this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large. prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. scale 1:7.P. such as folded and contorted beds and load structures. Ontario 196 . The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. or presently unrecognized. for many parts of the CEUS. No unequivocal earthquake-induced liquefaction or paleoliquefaction features were found. the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard. Coates (1975 #3899) examined soft-sediment features. these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard.P. 1996 #2195). but there is still no reliable. Such features have been observed to form with and without seismic shaking. equivocal.S. Accordingly. revised 1/31/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. These features are indicative of liquefaction. prehistoric earthquakes. In the Central and Eastern U. However.

1993. 1996.. New YorkCornwall. Identification of late Quaternary sediment deformation and its relation to seismicity in the St. Ontario earthquake: U. Seismicity of the United States. #3899 Coates. S. 1-76. 489-497. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR6495. v. 197 . 1996.. 1975. New York: Report to New York State Atomic and Space Development Authority.S.R.P. Lawrence lowland. 1996. 268 p. C.. 24 p. #1986 Stover. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527. J. v.County St.. 418 p. p.L. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis— An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes: Engineering Geology. Contract agreement 17333. A.. p. Case study of liquefaction induced by the 1944 Massena.. 1568-1989 (revised): U. M. and Coffman. D.L. #2256 Obermeier.S. 44.W. Source parameters of the damaging Cornwall-Massena earthquake of 1944 from regional waveforms: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.F. 86. Lawrence 1° x 2° sheet Ogdensburg Physiographic province St. #2239 Tuttle. Lawrence Valley References #2195 Bent.

1993 #675) raises questions about the validity of evidence of latest Pleistocene movement cited by Kelson and others. Permian rocks northwest and Cretaceous rocks southeast of the Criner Hills are not offset by the fault (Hart. 1993 #675). but the extremely 198 .Criner fault (Class C) Structure Name Criner fault (Class C) Reason for assignment to Class C: Interest in possible Quaternary reactivation of the Criner fault developed shortly after paleoseismic studies confirmed the existence of Holocene movement on the Meers fault. near-vertical.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The most comprehensive description of these studies is a draft version of the final project report that was submitted to the NRC in July 1993 (Swan and others. springs. southwest-facing scarps are present in limestone bedrock.0 m high along the hill front and across drainage gullies. it terminates against the Ouachita fold and thrust belt (Swan and others. San Francisco. this feature is classified as a Class C feature. The fault is marked by a prominent vegetation and topographic lineament and a linear southwest-facing hill front (Swan and others. written commun. 1993 #675) report the presence of one or more scarps on colluvium-covered hill slopes at several locations. Evidence of possible Quaternary reactivation of the fault includes topographic scarps 0. Subsequent investigations favor a landslide origin rather than a tectonic origin for the geomorphic features that are suggestive of Quaternary movement (Hanson and others. 1993 #675). written commun. Other geomorphic features suggestive of reactivation include deflected drainages. who conducted these studies under contract with the U. Because conclusive evidence of Quaternary movement on the fault has yet to be discovered and documented. The stratigraphy of Paleozoic rocks in basins adjacent to the Criner uplift indicate that the uplift occurred between late Mississippian and late Pennsylvanian time. At its northwestern end. Swan and others (written commun. Stratigraphic studies show that the sense of vertical offset on the fault changes along strike. Kelson and others (1990 #683) published an abstract that contains some information about these studies. The scarp on bedrock has a down-to-the-southwest sense of vertical offset. This change in throw direction along strike suggests a significant component of lateral slip on the fault. The only detailed investigations to examine evidence of Quaternary reactivation of the fault have been done by Geomatrix Consultants. which coincide with the Criner uplift. and stream knickpoints along the trace of the fault. the fault strikes N. The Criner fault is located at the southeastern end of the Meers-Duncan-Criner fault system (Swan and others. written commun. In the Criner Hills. written commun. at its southeastern end. The topographic scarps do not cross small Holocene alluvial fans. and separates Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks on the northeast from Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic rock on the southwest. California.3-1. the sense of vertical separation is down-to-the-southwest whereas subsurface data in the area northwest of the hills show a down-to-the-northeast separation. the fault merges with the Duncan fault in the subsurface and. but the subsequent work described in Swan and others (written commun. in the Criner Hills. 45° W. 1997 #2639). A 12-km-long section of the fault is exposed in the Criner Hills. it is not known if the scarps are formed on the colluvium or if they are formed on bedrock which is mantled with colluvium. 1974 #679). 1993 #675) in south-central Oklahoma. Along the north-central part of the exposed fault. 1993 #675).

1990. v.000.I.. but subsequent studies led to a preferred interpretation of the evidence of apparent Quaternary faulting as a Pleistocene landslide (Swan and others.L. Hanson.H. Wesling. K. Odd geologic structures of southern Oklahoma: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. but they cannot preclude a tectonic faulting origin.H...W. 199 .. no. updated 04/15/98 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. U. S317.C. southern Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey Hydrologic Atlas 3. #679 Hart. Hart.linear trace of the fault is similar to many strike-slip faults. Draft report—Investigation of the Quaternary structural and tectonic character of the Meers fault (southwestern Oklahoma): Technical report to U. The only detailed examination of the relations between the fault and Quaternary deposits have been conducted in natural exposures along Hickory Creek.. #685 Tomlinson.I. written commun.S.. K.: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.. 1997. K. Wesling. Love 1° x 2° sheet Ardmore Physiographic province Central Lowlands References #2639 Hanson. 22. and Coppersmith. 1974.. Jr.R. Preliminary studies at this site suggested middle to late Pleistocene movement on the fault (Kelson and others.S. F.H. p. and Perman. 78. Washington. #675 Swan. 1993 #675). 4 sheets. 3 pls. 36. Quaternary deformation along the Criner Fault.C. v.. #683 Kelson. R. 1820-1840.. Date of compilation 03/15/94. 1990 #683). J. J. K.S. Map HA-3. and Kelson.R.I. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.. Crone... under Contract NRC-04-87-007. July 1993. 104 p. 1993. D. scale 1:250. F.. Oklahoma—A case study for evaluating tectonic versus landslide faulting: Eos. 17. written commun..A. 1952. 1974 #679). 10. 1952 #685.L. Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Ardmore and Sherman quadrangles. Because no compelling evidence of Quaternary faulting is available. Swan. C. The stratigraphy of the Upper Paleozoic rocks in the Criner Hills show that rocks northeast of the fault are uplifted relative to those southwest of the fault (Tomlinson. K. This tentative conclusion was further substantiated by mapping of additional exposures that provide evidence supporting the landslide origin for the geomorphic features. Swan.. Kelson. p. This linear trace could be an artifact of the lateral slip that occurred in Late Paleozoic time. Hanson and others (1997 #2639) cite three lines of evidence that favor a landslide origin. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. D. p. the Criner fault is classified as a Class C feature in this compilation. Implications of late Quaternary faulting along the Meers and Criner faults to assessments of seismic hazards in the Central and Eastern U. v. Geological Survey State Oklahoma County Carter.J.. F. K.

1989 #1894). prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. The fault zone extends southeastward from the east bank of the Hudson River and crosses the Bronx River to Reservoir No. east-northeast. and of topographic lineaments. Reason for exclusion: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the Dobbs Ferry fault zone. Where present. http://geohazards. 1989 #2227). like the eight sections of the fault. including the 30 m upper limit of the largest offset of a geologic contact (Seeber and Armbruster. In the Central and Eastern U.cr. joints. faults. 12 maps. this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. differently oriented slickensides indicate more than one episode of slip on the fault. regional orientation of the greatest horizontal compressive stress.gov/eq/). these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard.Dobbs Ferry fault zone (Class C) Structure Name Dobbs Ferry fault zone (Class C) Comments: Seeber and Dawers (1989 #1894) and Dawers and Seeber (1991 #1809) applied the name to a zone of abundant fractures and joints. The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps. the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. and quartz mineralization on some fracture surfaces indicates that at least the older. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity. The late L. but they. The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. and lineaments are still more diverse in their individual strikes and trends. which indicates that the fault zone as a whole may also dip steeply. equivocal. The individual fractures. the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard. and is 8-10 km long and 400 m wide at its widest point.M. Most slip sense indicators are sinistral. However. although convincing surficial evidence of large. naming it the Dobbs Ferry fracture zone (Seeber and Dawers. in a report that remains unpublished. the national hazard maps show that. scale 1:7. Most of the fractures. prehistoric earthquakes. in some areas the surficial record of large. The fault zone strikes northwest.000. joints. However. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front. Nonetheless. of small faults no longer than approximately 1 km and mostly much shorter. Seeber and Dawers (1989 #1894) and Dawers and Seeber (1991 #1809) suggested that the dextral slip may date from Mesozoic extension. prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion. Superimposed.usgs. and sinistral slip on the fault zone as a whole would be consistent with the present-day.S. Mapping by Seeber and Dawers (1989 #1894) divided the fault zone into eight straight sections approximately 0. and faults dip steeply. dextral slip occurred at depths of several kilometers (Seeber and Dawers.000. 200 . which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131. 1989 #1894. the most common types of surficial evidence of large. for many parts of the CEUS. this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large. whereas the sinistral slip is younger and perhaps continuing. many of them bearing slickensides. 1991 #1809). In the CEUS. had previously recognized the fault zone as a zone of concentrated slickensided fractures. which individually strike from north-northwest to west-northwest. Dawers and Seeber. have a northwesterly preferred orientation. some indicators are older and dextral. In the CEUS. Epidote. Hall. or presently unrecognized. 1.5 to 2 km long. prehistoric earthquakes is absent. chlorite.

dip vertically for the main shock and steeply northeast for the aftershock. the late L.H.5 earthquakes in stable continental regions worldwide (Johnston. Geological Survey State New York County Westchester 1° x 2° sheet New York. (1) A worldwide survey of damaging earthquakes in stable continental regions found that large earthquakes occur preferentially in passive margins and continental rifts.. Date of compilation 04/27/98. Accordingly. with the preference being strongest for areas that underwent Mesozoic or Cenozoic extension (Johnston. 1989 #2039. Before the 1985 Ardsley earthquake. revised 01/31/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L.1 (Johnston. there is no paleoseismological evidence for prehistoric Quaternary seismic reactivation. in a report that remains unpublished. 186. Wheeler. and Seeber. 1994 #2040). A rupture zone of the size indicated by the hypocentral distribution of the aftershocks would be typical for rupture zones of M 4. and Dawers and Seeber (1991 #1809) reported no other paleoseismological evidence for prehistoric Quaternary seismic faulting along the Dobbs Ferry fault zone. 1989 #1894. L. 1991. and underwent sinistral slip. However.M. which is equivalent to a moment magnitude of M 4. U. New York: Tectonophysics. and its first six located aftershocks defined a vertical. 1993 #1840). the fault zone is assigned to class C. Thus. had recognized the fault zone as a zone of concentrated slickensided fractures (Seeber and Dawers. Seeber (1987 #2053). northwest-striking rupture zone with a diameter of approximately three-quarters of a kilometer (Seeber. Dawers and Seeber. (2) The Ardsley earthquake of October 19. 1996 #1841). the possibility that the Dobbs Ferry fault zone formed by dextral slip during the Mesozoic extensional initiation of the Atlantic continental margin indicates possibly elevated earthquake potential. Accordingly. Intraplate faults revealed in crystalline bedrock in the 1983 Goodnow and 1985 Ardsley epicentral areas. 201 .0-4. v. N. Seeber and Dawers (1989 #1894). Hartford Physiographic province Piedmont References #1809 Dawers. the earthquakes occurred too deep to produce any recognized surface cracking or rupture along the trace of the fault zone. p. The main shock had a magnitude of mb(Lg) 4. The Dobbs Ferry fault zone was considered in this compilation for two reasons. Hall. 1985. Johnston. The disk-shaped zone of hypocenters is centered five kilometers directly beneath the center of the Dobbs Ferry fault zone. Seeber and Dawers (1989 #1894). and Seeber (1987 #2053). and Dawers and Seeber (1991 #1809) concluded that the earthquakes probably occurred on the fault zone. 1991 #1809).S. 115-131.. Single-earthquake focal mechanisms of the main shock and the largest aftershock have well-constrained nodal planes that strike northwest. 1987 #2053).Although seismological evidence summarized later indicates that probably the Dobbs Ferry fault zone is undergoing seismic reactivation in the present-day compressional stress field.

eds.H. ed. #2227 Seeber. 1. p. 60. and Turkstra. N. A.. 1987. v. J. Problems in intraplate seismogenesis and earthquake hazard.. ed. Instrumental seismicity: Geophysical Journal International. Earthquake hazards and the design of constructed facilities in the eastern United States: Annals of the New York Academy of Science.]: Seismological Research Letters. A. #2040 Johnston. 381414. 1993. S. 124.. C. 4-1—4-103. Proceedings from the symposium on seismic hazards. 143-162. Palo Alto.. v. p. L... soilliquefaction and engineering practice in eastern North America: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research Technical Report NCEER-87-0025.. 64. in Gregersen.G. 1996. 1994. 21-39. p. in Jacob. California. and Basham. 1989. and Armbruster. K. Low-displacement seismogenic faults and nonstationary seismicity in the eastern United States.J.Y. The seismicity of 'stable continental interiors'.C.. The Netherlands. ground motions..C.. 299-327. p.. Characterization of an intraplate seismogenic fault in the Manhattan prong...#2039 Johnston...W.. J. 261. #2053 Seeber. L...C. p. in Schneider. Seismotectonic interpretations and conclusions from the stable continental region seismicity database. 1989. #1840 Johnston. A. p. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. 202 . #1894 Seeber. L. Seismic moment assessment of earthquakes in stable continetal regions—I. eds. v. 558. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins—Neotectonics and postglacial rebound: Dordrecht.H. A. and Dawers. in Jacob. v. December 1994.: Seismological Research Letters.C. p... #1841 Johnston. 1989. Kluwer Academic Publishers. P. Assessment of large earthquake potential: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V1. Average stable continental earthquake source parameters based on constant stress drop scaling [abs.F. N. K. Westchester Co. 71-78.

The fault zone varies dramatically in width. a geologic map of the Fredericksburg 30' by 60' quadrangle is in press for publication in the U. 1989 #1992) and the descriptions and geologic map of Pavlides (1994 #1973) allow the fault and the two fault-line (?) scarps to be located on the Unionville and Germanna Bridge 1:24. 1994 #1973). The Everona fault and the Mountain Run fault zone are treated together here because of their geographic closeness. 1983 #1875. Pavlides. the Mountain Run fault zone is a zone of Paleozoic mylonite that strikes northeast for at least 100-150 km in the central Appalachians of Virginia (Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. the Mountain Run 203 . 1993 #1952). Prowell. Beginning approximately 16 km farther southwest along the Mountain Run fault zone.Mountain Run fault zone (Class C) Comments: The Everona fault cuts a gravel deposit of possible Pleistocene age. data). it cuts a gravel deposit of possible Pleistocene age. 1994 #1973). Pavlides. and Pavlides (1994 #1973) referred to the Everona fault as reverse. Pavlides and others (1983 #1875). and offsets the base of a late Cenozoic stream gravel and associated colluvium (Pavlides and others.C. Two scarps align along the Mountain Run fault zone and face northwest. 33° at the top of the saprolite. the fault dips steeply and flattens upward: dip is 55° NW in saprolite. Prowell (1988 #1993) and Manspeizer and others (1989 #1992) estimated the age as Pleistocene (?). 55° E. The Everona fault cuts a gravel layer that forms the base of a stream channel deposit. Two possible fault-line scarps on the Mountain Run fault zone are of Cenozoic age. the Mountain Run fault zone strikes N. from a few hundred meters or less to as wide as 4-5 km (Pavlides. In addition. In actuality. 40° E. 1994 #1973). northwest-dipping Everona fault strikes N. and separates metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont province on the southeast from those of the Blue Ridge province on the northwest (Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. Manspeizer and others. unpub. Pavlides. 1994 #1973).S. Approximately 1 km east of the Everona fault. 1989 #1992). Prowell (1988 #1993). Geological Survey's I-map series. 1983 #1875. 1994 #1973). Here named the Everona fault. Pavlides. A photograph of the faulted gravel deposit at Everona (Manspeizer and others. Pavlides and others (1983 #1875) estimated the age of the gravel as "probable late Tertiary". 1994 #1973). the Kellys Ford scarp of Pavlides (1987 #2017) is 2 km long and is interpreted as related to the southeastern border fault of the Mesozoic Culpeper basin (Pavlides. brittle fault strikes northeast near Everona. and two possible fault-line scarps on the nearby Mountain Run fault zone are of Cenozoic age. and 15° in overlying alluvium and colluvium (D. 1983 #1875. 1983 #1875. The fault zone originated in the early Paleozoic and is inferred to have been reactivated during Mesozoic extension. Pavlides and others (1983 #1875) and Pavlides (1994 #1973) gave the dip as 20° and noted that the fault is one of two or more low-angle reverse faults that cut the basal stream gravel. Pavlides (1994 #1973) estimated the age as late Cenozoic. Manspeizer and others (1989 #1992).5 m (Pavlides and others. Near the northeastern end of the fault zone. the small. A small. Approximately 1 km to the east. The fault and scarps may be locatable on the geologic map. 1993 #1952. so that part of the fault zone now forms part of the southeastern border of the Mesozoic Culpeper basin (Pavlides and others.Everona fault – Mountain Run fault zone (Class C) Structure Name Everona fault .000-scale topographic maps. Four hundred meters southwest of Everona. The Everona fault and its offset have no geomorphic expression (Pavlides and others. Vertical offset is 1.

in contrast to a suggestion of normal faulting by Pavlides (1994 #1973). but the likelihood has not been tested by detailed paleoseismological or other investigations. Reason for assignment to class C The faulting at Everona is likely to be of Quaternary age. Elsewhere. If the Mountain Run scarp formed by young slip along a southeast-dipping strand of the fault zone. so probably the underlying fault would dip northwest and the Kellys Ford scarp would have formed by normal slip (Pavlides. siltstones. then the lower elevations on their northwest sides would be consistent with their inferred formation by normal slip on northwest-dipping faults (Pavlides. then the scarp would have been uplifted in reverse slip. as interpreted by Pavlides (1994 #1973). and sense of any strike slip components cannot be evaluated with present information. If they are resequent fault-line scarps. their northwest sides dropped down. The Germanna Bridge 1:24. If the Kellys Ford and Mountain Run scarps are fault-line scarps. However. The terraces indicate uplift of the northwest side of the Mountain Run fault zone. the scarps could have formed as southeastward-migrating streams impinged against resistant mylonites of the Mountain Run fault zone. 1989 #1922) would lead one to expect that any young strike slip components should be dextral.5 m offset may have formed during a single earthquake during or before the 204 . 1994 #1973). 1994 #1973). Sixteen km and more to the southwest. inconsistently with the interpretation of Pavlides (1994 #1973) but consistently with the northwest dip of the reverse Everona fault. 1994 #1973). normal slip is possible but unlikely in the Cenozoic environment of compressive stress in which the scarp probably formed.scarp of Pavlides (1987 #2017) extends along the fault zone for another 13 km. magnitude. However. and Quaternary alluvium fills the narrow valley of Mountain Run at the northwest foot of the scarp. The northwest side of Mountain Run valley exposes Paleozoic phyllites. Pavlides (1994 #1973) considered the Kellys Ford and Mountain Run scarps to be Cenozoic fault-line scarps formed by normal slip on northwest-dipping faults. Alternatively. the age of their faulted deposits is Cenozoic and possibly Pleistocene (Pavlides. 1994 #1973). Probably the Kellys Ford scarp would be part of the southeast border fault of the Mesozoic Culpeper extensional basin. the border fault of the Culpeper basin diverges westward from the Mountain Run fault zone. flights of terraces exist on the northwest side of Mountain Run valley. Paleozoic phyllites underlie the Mountain Run scarp and the uplands to its southeast. The fault "extends into the solum" (Pavlides and others. 1983 #1875). with Mesozoic strata and Quaternary alluvium underlying the lowlands to the northwest (Pavlides. Between the two scarps. 1994 #1973). including the vicinity of the Everona fault. If the Kellys Ford and Mountain Run scarps are fault-line scarps. the Mountain Run fault zone probably dips southeast (Pavlides. Prowell (1988 #1993) and Manspeizer and others (1989 #1992) estimated the age of the Everona fault as Pleistocene (?). the easterly to northeasterly trend of present-day compressive stress in this part of Virginia (Zoback and Zoback.000-scale topographic map shows that the scarp is 2 km long and 80120 ft (24-37 m) high. The Unionville 1:24. The Kellys Ford scarp is formed in resistant Paleozoic phyllites. so that the border fault is several kilometers west of the Mountain Run scarp (Pavlides.000-scale topographic map shows that the scarp is 13 km long and 60-120 ft (18-37 m) high. The 1. 1994 #1973). and argillites in hills that are gentler and approximately 50 ft (15 m) lower than the top of the Mountain Run scarp. However. The existence. Topographic maps show that the Kellys Ford and Mountain Run scarps face northwest. slates.

J..2 mm/yr. Bobyarchick. data). L..E. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L.Quaternary. v... #1973 Pavlides. Continental margin deposits and the Mountain Run fault zone of Virginia—Stratigraphy and tectonics. but the upper soil horizons have been eroded at the fault. The fault flattens upward from saprolite into alluvium and colluvium. p. Geological Society of America. Vertical offset on the Everona fault is 1. and Pavich.A. 319-374. Cretaceous and Cenozic tectonism on the Atlantic coastal margin.. p. The Atlantic continental margin.6 Ma.. and Grow. U. Wayne L. U. Culpeper. F-2. Froelich. DeBoer.. Stratigraphic notes. p.D..H. the last one or more of which may have been Quaternary.. P.S. #1875 Pavlides. J. 1983. Newell.R. central Virginia Piedmont: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. W. and Prowell. in Hatcher. A. no. eds. Slip rates are unknown because ages of faulted materials are poorly constrained. D. L.. Thus. T.. v. Fault dip is 55°. L.5 m (Pavlides and others. National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program summaries of technical reports. unpub. The Geology of North America. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-63. C. in Sheridan. 205 . 15.. Prowell. which indicates that reverse slip on the upward-flattening fault domed the soil and led to its partial erosion (W. Çoruh.. W. Colorado... XXIII: U. The heights of the Kellys Ford and Mountain Run scarps indicate that they might have formed in several faulting events. The Appalachian-Oachita Orogen in the United States: Boulder. R. G. Late Cenozoic faulting along the Mountain Run fault zone. Wheeler.E.... eds. Newell. Geological Survey State Virginia County Orange.. Mountain Run fault zone of Virginia.. 2.C.. W. Puffer. v. M.L. 93-94. and Rodriguez. 1983 #1875). A. Geological Society of America. M. R. eds. in Drake. Jr. eds.. J. The Geology of North America. Post-Paleozoic activity. well-developed soil profile exists on both sides of the Everona fault. Pavlides (1994 #1973) argued that the rugged topography of both scarps indicates relative youth.R. Costain. 1989.. D. L. 55. Date of compilation 12/15/98.S. 1987. p. 557-564.. and Viele.C. #2017 Pavlides.. Quaternary reactivation of the Everona fault or some part of the Mountain Run fault zone is likely. Colorado. #1993 Prowell. in Jacobson. McHone.K...: Boulder. p. 1993: U. G.J. J. A deep. Geological Survey Bulletin 2076. and David C. Thomas. J.. B1-B9.. If the offset formed at 1. 1994.S.. Newell.J.A. A.A. v. I-2.S. Olsen. 1988. Fauquier 1° x 2° sheet Washington Physiographic province Piedmont References #1992 Manspeizer.L. and Pavlides.W. then the rate of Quaternary dip slip would be much less than 0.L.

M. W. in Pakiser. M. 523-539.D.000.L. 206 .C. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172. 1989. and Mooney.. 1 sheet. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States. p. scale 1:500. #1922 Zoback..#1952 Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. Geologic map of Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. L.D.... eds. and Zoback. 1993.

U. This is fault no. Daniels and others (1972 #2067) observed reverse displacement of saprolite over sediments. Prowell (1983 #1951. fault no. #2067). but none has been reported.. If this slip occurred since approximately the beginning of the Quaternary. No detailed studies are known to have been performed. west of junction with State Rt. Geological Survey State North Carolina County Johnston 207 . Here and there. Date of compilation 12/15/98. These observations are consistent with the field sketch of Daniels and others (1972. oral commun. the slip rate would be much less than 0. figure 1) showed the location of the faulted exposure on their planimetric map of their field trip route. sheet 1) noted that the "Geometry of … unconformity on adjacent sides of fault plane suggests that significant lateral offset may have occurred on fault. but did not describe them." Because no one has named the fault. but does not mention whether the hill is likely to be tectonic or erosional.Hares Crossroads fault (Class C) Structure Name Hares Crossroads fault (Class C) Comments: A single reverse fault exposed in a road cut offsets the basal contact of Coastal Plain sediments of undetermined age.000. Daniels and others (1972 #2067) mentioned and sketched the fault as their field trip stop 7. The components of dip slip imply 11 m of dip slip. the fault trace was not visible (R. 1989 #1922) implies that a dextral component is likely.2 mm/yr. revised 02/22/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. the deeply weathered Paleozoic rocks are exposed as saprolite.3 m) tall above the hanging wall of the fault. 78°15' W. The sketch of Daniels and others (1972 #2067) shows a hill approximately 1 ft (0. 39 at Hares Crossroads. The geomorphic expression of the fault is negligible at most. and gave the orientation of the fault as N. / 63° SE.. 46) revisited the exposure of the fault at stop 7 and gave its location as "North side of State Rt.. which may suggest a landslide more than a tectonic fault (C. 7° E. 2/16/00). Prowell. The Coastal Plain strata in the exposure are of undetermined age (Daniels and others. Any component of dextral slip would increase the slip rate." The east to northeast trend of regional greatest horizontal compression (Zoback and Zoback. A reconnaissance trench in a field atop the road cut exposed a stream lag deposit with approximately 10 feet (3m) of dip separation. Reason for assignment to class C The faulting is not demonstrably of Quaternary age. Prowell (1983 #1951. field inspection of the hillside site indicated that the offset shown by Daniels and others (1972.05 mi. 2/25/00). 42 about 0. Daniels and others (1972 #2067. The exposure is in the middle Coastal Plain. Wheeler. 1983 #1951). which is underlain by Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. oral commun. 1972 #2067. I give it the name of the nearest named geographic feature.S. Prowell (1983 #1951) measured the dip slip as approximately 2. #2067) may be localized. Marple. their road log allowed Prowell (1983 #1951) to locate the exposure at lat. at a scale of approximately 1:1.8 m (9 ft) vertically and at least 2 m (6 ft) horizontally.H.T. long. 46 of Prowell (1983 #1951). However. Daniels and others (1972 #2067) mentioned two more faults in the next 20 miles (36 km) of their road log.000. 35°40' W. Gardner. More recently than 1972.

.S. Field Trip Guidebook 13: Raleigh. scale 1:2.L.E.. 2 sheets.C.D. #1922 Zoback. E. M. Gamble. 1983.. D. October 7-8. Carolina Geological Society and Atlantic Coastal Plain Geological Association. 68 p.D. #1951 Prowell. and Zoback. 1972. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172.500.. 523-539. R. W. Carolina Geological Society.C.H. 1972. M.. L. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1269.. Wheeler.1° x 2° sheet Raleigh Physiographic province Coastal Plain References #2067 Daniels. Index of faults of Cretaceous and Cenozoic age in the Eastern United States: U.S. p. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States.. C. 1989. and Mooney. Guidebook. in Pakiser. and Holzhey.. eds. W.. Annual Meetings and Field Trip. 208 .000..B.

indicating persistent reverse slip (Behrendt and others. revised 02/01/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. but it is acoustically transparent and any deformation that might be present in it would not be recognizable in seismic-reflection profiles (Behrendt and others. The deposits range from early Pleistocene to Holocene in age. 1983 #1963. Behrendt and others.. 1983 #1963. K. in which any deformation probably would not be recognizable.C. depending on whether the deformed Miocene clay dates from the early or late Miocene.D. and are underlain by unconsolidated to lithified Tertiary strata. 1990 #1969) and dated (Szabo..C. 1987 #1795). and Bayer. J9 in Behrendt and others. Quaternary deposits have been mapped (McCartan and others. Behrendt and Yuan (see p. 591 in 1987 #1795) speculated that the youngest deformation is "probably as young as Pleistocene". if similar Quaternary materials overlie the Helena Banks fault zone offshore. apparently undeformed material may be younger. "The strata represented by the shallowest observed deformed reflections are probably Miocene clay" (see p.M. 1981 #1794. The zone comprises several 10-40 km sections that step left along the zone.Helena Banks fault zone (Class C) Structure Name Helena Banks fault zone (Class C) Comments: Marine seismic-reflection profiles offshore from the meizoseismal area of the 1886 earthquake at Charleston. with the hanging walls up. Savannah Physiographic province Coastal Plain (offshore) References #1963 Behrendt.S. the youngest deformation could be as old as Miocene. 1983 #1963). Wheeler. Overlying. Accordingly. Judging from outcrop photographs of McCartan and others (1990 #1969). The Quaternary deposits are 5-25 m thick.. Henry. South Carolina. but provide no evidence. 66° E. and dips 70° NW with a length of approximately 110 km.. Geological Survey State South Carolina (offshore) County Charleston (offshore) 1° x 2° sheet James Island. they are likely to take the form of loose sand. 1987 #1795). 1983. the Helena Banks fault zone is assigned to class C for lack of evidence of faulting younger than Miocene. Behrendt and Yuan. J. V. and form at least six transgressive-regressive sequences that are dominated by unconsolidated sand. Offsets of individual reflectors increase downward. Ackerman. Behrendt and others. Date of compilation 06/05/98.J. The fault zone strikes approximately N. The deeper reflectors are disrupted by the faults and shallower reflectors are flexed over them. Marine multichannel seismic-reflection evidence for Cenozoic faulting and deep 209 .. Behrendt and Yuan. showed several faults beneath the sea bottom. Reason for assignment to class C: There is no reported evidence for slip younger than Miocene on the Helena Banks fault zone. Therefore. Hamilton. H. 1981 #1794. One. 1983 #1963) and renamed the Helena Banks fault zone by Behrendt and Yuan (1987 #1795). U. named the Helena Banks fault by Behrendt and others (1981 #1794. 1985 #1901) on the Coastal Plain opposite the fault zone. R. trends subparallel to the shoreline 13-40 km offshore from the Charleston area.

high-resolution. in Gohn. H. #1901 Szabo.M. Hamilton. p.. p. #1795 Behrendt. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U. p. R. Studies related to the Charleston.. and Lemon..M. and Henry.J. p.. earthquake area—Results from a marine. Quaternary stratigraphy in the vicinity of Charleston.. multichannel.. 591-601. Ackermann. 1981. R. 96. South Carolina..E. 1886 earthquake: Geology. E.crustal structure near Charleston. v. Cenozoic faulting in the vicinity of the Charleston. L. G. South Carolina.S. #1794 Behrendt.. Weems. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1367-A. v. 117-122. and its relationship to local seismicity and regional tectonism. 1990.. #1969 McCartan. J1-J29.D. South Carolina.. J.S. 9. The Helena Banks strike-slip(?) fault zone in the Charleston. V. in Studies related to the Charleston. A. v. seismic-reflection survey: Geological Society of America Bulletin. and Yuan.. earthquake of 1886—Neogene and Quaternary lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy: U. South Carolina.C. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313. South Carolina. 398-406.C. 210 . Uranium-series dating of fossil corals from marine sediments of southeastern United States Atlantic Coastal Plain: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Jr..S. 98. 1987. B. ed.J. 1985. South Carolina. 39. p.. J.

2 earthquake in 1867 in eastern Kansas. prehistoric earthquakes is absent. Where present. these observations led to the conclusion that the structures are currently tectonically active. Steeples and others (Steeples and others.S. 1990 #2832) suggest that infrequent magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes could occur. 1979 #2831. Hildebrand and others. if they had occurred. 211 . such large prehistoric earthquakes might have caused liquefaction and left a valuable geological record. for many parts of the CEUS. Niemi and others (1998 #2829) note an historical account of a sand blow that reportedly formed during an M 5. Niemi and others (1998 #2829) speculated that. In the CEUS.000. To support this speculation. The fault zone and the adjacent uplift are known and mapped on the basis of drill-hole data throughout the region (Berendsen. prehistoric earthquakes. and Oklahoma. Based on the length of fault segments in the Humboldt fault zone. 1997 #3962). The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. Felt historical earthquakes in eastern Nebraska and Kansas and microearthquakes recorded by a regional seismograph network have been directly associated with the Humboldt fault zone and the Nemaha uplift (Steeples and others. Because the faults are only known from subsurface data. prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion. this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large. 1990 #2832). Nonetheless. which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131. 1979 #2831). 1985 #2827. 1985 #2827. The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in this area is the national seismic hazard maps. these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard. Reason for assignment to Class C: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the Humboldt fault zone and Nemaha uplift. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front.cr. These seismological studies stimulated interest concerning the possibility that earthquakes of larger magnitudes than the historical events might occur along the fault zone or uplift. or presently unrecognized. Burchett and others.usgs. 12 maps. the national hazard maps show that. in some areas the surficial record of large. scale 1:7. rocks as young as Permian in age are deformed (Burchett and others. this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. However. Kansas.000. the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard. In the Central and Eastern U.gov/eq/). 1997 #3962). http://geohazards. 1988 #2828. prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. although convincing surficial evidence of large. the most common types of surficial evidence of large. 1985 #2827). Berendsen. details of the fault slip and fault patterns are limited (see map in Burchett and others. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity. the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard.Humboldt fault zone (Class C) Structure Name Humboldt fault zone (Class C) Comments: The Humboldt fault zone is a north-northeasterly trending complex set of faults that bound the eastern margin of the Nemaha uplift (also known as the Nemaha Ridge) in Nebraska. equivocal. Stratigraphic relations determined from the drill-hole data indicate that recurrent uplift has occurred on the Nemaha uplift (and therefore presumably recurrent movement on faults in the Humboldt fault zone) at various times during the Paleozoic (Steeples and others. In the CEUS. To evaluate this possibility.

T. Logan. R. Knapp. Cowley. v. R. Sarpy (Nebraska) 1° x 2° sheet Nebraska City. Lyon. Richardson. Wichita. K.D.. G. Sumner.M. D.. C. 2 pls... Microearthquakes in Kansas and Nebraska 1977-1987: Seismological Research Letters. #2832 Steeples. 1990. S340-S341. Kansas. Date of compilation 06/08/98 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J.W. R. Missouri. no. Oklahoma City. 4. DuBois.W. 339 p. 59. Physiographic province Central Lowland References #3962 Berendsen. Bennett. 1988. O. p.W. Nebraska. Luza.W. Therefore. Nemaha. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR-5629 RA. Tectonic evolution of the midcontinent rift system in Kansas. faulting. 14 p.... Shawnee. v. Park. R. Sedgwick.V.C. until convincing evidence of earthquake-induced strong ground motion is documented. Hutchinson. Nebraska.. Van Eck. Otoe.. Kansas.. Miller.S. v.. R. Miller. the Humboldt fault zone and Nemaha uplift are categorized as Class C structures. 1998. Kay. B. #2827 Burchett. and Wilson. Nemaha. and Ferris.. Abers. 1979. U. Chase.M. in Ojakangas. p. Jackson. F. Oklahoma. Microearthquakes in Kansas and Nebraska 1977-1989: U. 79. p.. D. and Knapp. Dickas.S. Potawatomie.W. 7.M. and Wilson.. S. R. #2829 Niemi. 159-163. Oklahoma (Oklahoma).. Steeples. Central North America: Geological Society of America Special Paper 312. Cass. P. B. J. 17. eds. Seismicity. p. Nebraska. Grant.. and Bennett.N. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. #2828 Hildebrand. 1985. Noble. and Green.J. 212 ..E.W. Marlon. and geophysical anomalies in Nemaha County.. Seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and Midcontinent Gravity anomaly (Final project summary): Oklahoma Geological Survey Special Publication 85-2. Morris. D. A. Manhattan. #2831 Steeples. Enid. Garfield..A.W. Cleveland. G. Middle Proterozoic to Cambrian rifting. eastern Kansas—Preliminary results: Eos.B.. Geological Survey State Kansas. F.. Lincoln. Pawnee. Iowa.W.. Oklahoma.D. Paleoliquefaction and seismic potential along the Nemaha ridge and Humboldt fault.R. 1997. A.To date. County Butler.. Johnson.C. Niemi and others (1998 #2829) have not found field evidence confirming this historical report nor have they found evidence of any prehistoric liquefaction features. 134-138.. no. Wabaunsee (Kansas).. Oklahoma. Kansas—Relationship to regional structures: Geology.. Kansas. 235-241. Crone.

1995 #1897). Owens and others. for 4. arranged to form an open Z. where the fault is covered by post-Miocene gravels (Bascom and others. The fault strikes north-northeasterly for approximately 12 km (Owens and others. and is overlain by a late Pleistocene gravel that is not offset by the fault (Stanford and others. The southern section strikes N. The northeasterly trend of the regional greatest horizontal compression (Zoback and Zoback. 1995 #1897). for 1. 1989 #1922) indicates that any strike slip component on the north-northeast-striking fault may be dextral. The Kingston fault underwent extensional slip during the Mesozoic formation of the Newark Basin. 33° E. Accordingly.Kingston fault (Class C) Structure Name Kingston fault (Class C) Comments: Subsurface data indicate Pliocene-Pleistocene offset of the Kingston fault.9 km of the fault is covered by fluvial sand to cobble gravel of the Pleistocene Pensauken Formation. 1. 1995 #1897). and Parker and Houghton reported the dip as 85° SE. Owens and others (1995 #2220) showed the entire trace on a 1:100.000-scale topographic base. 1995 #1897). The geometry and sedimentological characteristics of the Pliocene (?) gravel favor a faulting rather than a fluvial origin for the thickening (Stanford and others. 1987 #1935. boring. The 24 m of 213 . Reason for assigned to class C The faulting is not demonstrably of Quaternary age.5 km is covered by latest Pleistocene glaciofluvial sand and gravel of the Cape May Formation (Bascom and others. The middle of the southern section passes through the town of Kingston. 1909 #2103. and the northern section strikes N. adjacent to the south.6 km. in whose interior the fault lies (Lyttle and Epstein. 1995 #2220). who summarized results from well. the central section strikes N. The southeast side of the fault moved down. and only the dip slip component is reported (Stanford and others. The slip rate is unknown. 1909 #2103. The fault name was first used by Parker and Houghton (1990 #2257). In addition. The two units are now thought to be of Pliocene (?) and late Pleistocene ages. another 1.6-5. 13° E. 1995 #1897). No detailed paleoseismological studies have been performed. 1995 #2220). The only published report on the offset is that of Stanford and others (1995 #1897). Pliocene (?) fluvial gravel thickens southeastward as much as 80 ft (24 m) across the Kingston fault. for 5. Stanford and others. no paleoseismological study has yet determined whether the thickening of the Pliocene (?) gravel occurred gradually in aseismic creep. respectively (Stanford and others. The fault has no geomorphic expression. Stanford and others (1995 #1897) concluded that the Kingston fault probably moved during the Pliocene or early or middle Pleistocene. Stanford and others (1995 #1897) first identified possible Quaternary movement on the fault. and geophysical data. Stanford and others. 1995).9 km. and is overlain without offset by late Pleistocene glaciofluvial gravel (Stanford and others. At Kingston. 1995 #1897).3 km. Harper (1984 #2258) and Parker and Houghton (1990 #2257) showed the northern part of the trace of the Kingston fault on 1:24. The fault is essentially vertical at the surface. The fault trace is in three contiguous sections. or in several episodes that were sudden enough to indicate seismic faulting. as indicated by the Pliocene (?) gravel that thickens southeastward across the fault. 2° W.000-scale topographic bases. The Pliocene (?) gravel thickens across the Kingston fault. and.

A. 3 pls. N.. New Jersey. Date of compilation 12/16/98. R. because the late Pleistocene gravel is not offset (Stanford and others.B.W. 1 pl... Jagel.A. scale 1:24.D. Stanford. The estimated slip rate would be larger if the faulting had a component of strike slip. #1922 Zoback. and Houghton. #2257 Parker. R. 1984. Sugarman. because the Pliocene(?) gravel thickens across the fault. W.F. 27.000. P. eds. 83. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-1715.S...H..B.. Geologic map of the Newark 1° x 2° quadrangle. 1995. Geologic map of New Jersey—Central sheet: U. 1. #2220 Owens. D. Trenton folio. Darton. H.. New Jersey Geological Survey State New Jersey County Somerset.. Drake.. Middlesex 1° x 2° sheet Newark Physiographic province Piedmont References #2103 Bascom. 60 p. Jr.S.F.000. 1 sheet. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-219. R.. Sohl...D.. 1990.000.2 mm/yr.. scale 1:100.offset on the nearly vertical fault probably occurred after the beginning of the Pliocene at 5..Geological Survey Geologic Atlas of the United States Folio 167. 1995 #1897). Houghton.D. 1 sheet. 523-539. and Hall. 1995. scale 1:24. S. Pennsylvania. then these values give slip rates less than or equal to 0. and Zoback. p.3 Ma.. New Jersey: New Jersey Geological Survey Open File Map 1..C.L.000. W. Parker.000. F. J.D. H. Wheeler.B. Volkert. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172. H.J.L. N. #1935 Lyttle. If the offset occurred entirely by pure dip-slip faulting. J. R. Geological Survey. no. and Mooney. and New York: U. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States.. and Orndorff. New Jersey-Pennsylvania: U. D. Clark. 24 p. 1909. scale 1:125. D. B. P.S. Geologic compilation map of the Monmouth Junction quadrangle. Miller.. v...T.. Kümmel.. M.C... L. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-0253.F. p. Bedrock geologic map of the Monmouth Junction quadrangle.... New Jersey: U. and Epstein.S..A.L. M.... 1989. and Salisbury.P.P. U. Scott D. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. 3 pls. A. R. but before the beginning of the late Pleistocene at 130 ka. scale 1:250. Possible Pliocene-Pleistocene movement on a reactivated Mesozoic fault in central New Jersey: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 214 .S. #1897 Stanford.A. #2258 Harper. 1987. in Pakiser.

although convincing surficial evidence of large. this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large. the most common types of surficial evidence of large. the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard.6.3.4 km north-south. MMI VI-VII) struck the northeastern edge of the zone on January 16. In the Central and Eastern U. prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata.1. Accordingly. M 3. An earthquake in 1984 (mbLg 4. 1998 #2228). Nonetheless. However. The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard.0 km spanned 0. http://geohazards. scale 1:7. 10° E. The 215 . 1987 #1791. Aftershocks defined a vertical tabular zone that strikes north. / 54° SW (Seeber and others. Where present. Reason for assignment to class C: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the Lancaster seismic zone. 45° W. / 60° SE (Armbruster and Seeber. the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. MMI VI Scharnberger and Howell. 12 maps. In the CEUS. these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front.Lancaster seismic zone (Class C) Structure Name Lancaster seismic zone (Class C) Comments: Historical seismicity of southeastern Pennsylvania since 1752 is most abundant in an approximately circular area with a diameter of 50-60 km. or presently unrecognized. this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. 1987 #1791). for many parts of the CEUS.cr. and named the Lancaster seismic zone by Armbruster and Seeber (1987 #1791). the zone will be placed in class C for this compilation. prehistoric earthquakes is absent.S. and the seven aftershocks with depth uncertainties (ERZ) less than 1. 1996 #1841) and its aftershocks provided seismological evidence for an active fault in the upper crust.7 km (Armbruster and Seeber. prehistoric earthquakes. 1989 #2057). Johnston. However. prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion.3 km vertically and 1. however. 1987 #1791).usgs. in some areas the surficial record of large. it must be considered here for five reasons. In the CEUS. which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131. The Cacoosing Valley sequence is described separately in this compilation.gov/eq/). with a median depth of 4. First. 1998 #2228). The few first arrivals from the main shock provide moderate constraint for a focal mechanism with a preferred nodal plane of N. M 4. The 1994 Cacoosing Valley earthquake and its aftershocks provided seismological evidence for a second active fault in the seismic zone. The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity. the national hazard maps show that. oriented N. equivocal.000. as argued later. Seismological evidence summarized next indicates that at least two geologically unidentified faults in the Lancaster seismic zone are slipping seismically. The main shock occurred 4.000. there is no reported evidence for Quaternary tectonic faulting beyond the earthquakes.7.7 km deep (Stockar. The seismic zone's largest known earthquake (mbLg 4. 1994 (Seeber and others. 1985 #1889. Armbruster and Seeber.

1987 #1791. soil-gas radon anomalies. none has suggested that the association is causal. but not yet recognized structurally. Thornton. Short. 1987 #1791). Armbruster and Seeber (1987 #1791). and on trend with. east-northeast-trending. Alexander and Thornton. The preferred nodal plane of the 1984 main shock projects upward to reach ground level 2 km west of the epicenter and 7 km south of. Armbruster and Seeber. 1989 #2059. 1981 #1937). 1994 #2040). any such narrow. the north-striking Fruitville fault (Armbruster and Seeber. much narrower than the area of historical seismicity (Dewey and Gordon.1994 mainshock was larger and shallower than that of 1984. 1988 #2068. Alexander and others (1989 #2022). Six instrumental epicenters from 1964 through 1997 form a north-trending alignment approximately 15 km wide. 1989 #2057. This observation would be consistent with the existence of a buried fault or zone of faults that is undergoing compressional reactivation in the modern. Thus. The entire seismic zone lies in the south-dipping thrust and nappe complex of the Appalachian Piedmont. and the depth of the 1984 earthquake sequence places it well above the likely depth of the basal detachment fault of the complex (Berg and others. Stockar. and tufa deposits that might indicate recently active faults along which circulating ground water dissolves comminuted carbonate rock and carries it upward into streams (Parrish and others. 1987 #1791. Parrish. no geological evidence of surface rupture or liquefaction has been found. including the Fruitville fault. near-surface fractures and fracture zones in the Lancaster seismic zone. north-trending gullies. or paleoseismologically. there is abundant evidence of a high density of north-striking. stratigraphically. A worldwide survey of damaging earthquakes in stable continental regions found that large earthquakes occur preferentially in passive margins and continental rifts. 1987 #1791). short faults that trend northeast to northwest and cut Triassic-Jurassic rocks. Compared to its surroundings. Scharnberger and Howell (1985 #1889). Johnston. 1989 #2022. 1930 #2066). discontinuous. which occurred farther northeast. crudely north-striking faults are scattered throughout the Lancaster seismic zone (Berg and others. greatest horizontal compression (Armbruster and Seeber. and perhaps formed as extensional faults during the early Mesozoic extension that initiated the Atlantic passive margin (Stose. 1989 #2057). Thus. north-striking fractures. and Stockar (1989 #2057) have noted the spatial association of the epicenters with the area of abundant. the youngest faults mapped in the zone (Jonas and Stose. 1924 #2230). with the preference being strongest for areas that underwent Mesozoic or Cenozoic extension (Johnston. the Lancaster seismic zone itself might be much narrower than 30 km. They are of early Mesozoic age or younger. 216 . 1991 #1785). as in 1984. They cut Triassic and Paleozoic rocks and all other types of faults. Stockar. 1989 #1874. A seismically active fault or fault zone has been suggested in the Lancaster seismic zone. Zoback and Zoback. but. the Lancaster seismic zone contains unusually many north-trending straight sections of streams. springs that align north-south. 1989 #2039. the likelihood of Mesozoic or younger extension on the north-striking faults indicates a possibility of elevated earthquake potential. and are. 1981 #1937). 1989 #1922). Thus. However. north-trending fault or fault zone would probably not include the 1994 Cacoosing Valley earthquake. Alexander and others. and is much longer than the 1984 rupture zone (Armbruster and Seeber. therefore. topographic and Landsat lineaments. 1984 #1928.

"the Fruitville faulted belt". On large-scale geologic maps. Stockar (1989 #2057) correctly noted that the sparse outcrops in this heavily farmed area of low relief preclude a demonstration by geologic mapping of the true length of the Fruitville fault. The southernmost short fault strikes N. 1931 #1945. for three reasons. solid lines.2 km length. 30° W. and the location of the 1984 epicenter on trend with and south of the exposed fault. The local structural grain is easterly. The finer stratigraphy should have given Meisler and Becher (1971 #2015) greater ability to detect fault offsets of geologic contacts. 1968 #1975. the northernmost strikes N.6 km long. and is 0. 1981 #1937). 20° E. In addition. downdip extension of the fault (Scharnberger and Howell. In this way a long Fruitville fault could constitute suggestive structural geologic evidence for historical faulting. the maps of Stose (1924 #2230) and Jonas and Stose (1930 #2066) show faults as straight.4 km). Armbruster and Seeber (1987 #1791). several published reports show a long Fruitville fault. Alexander and others (1989 #2022). For these reasons the Fruitville fault must be evaluated here. It is also the interpretation shown on the maps of Scharnberger and Howell (1985 #1889). This representation of the vicinity of the Fruitville fault appears on the most recent Geologic Map of Pennsylvania (Berg and others. and Stockar (1989 #2057). The longer an exposed fault is. Stose (1924 #2230) mapped the fault as 2. However. The length of the Fruitville fault is uncertain. and we are unaware of any assignment of individual earthquakes to known faults. expressed sympathy for the long-fault interpretation of Jonas and Stose (1930 #2066). in the past. The three faults coincide with topographic offsets in two ridges that are underlain by resistant sandstones and quartzites. as described in the next paragraph.One of these north-striking structures is the Fruitville fault. No mapped structures in the Lancaster seismic zone are known to be seismically active.474. being represented only by three short faults that are drawn as dotted lines to indicate that their existence is inferred. Stose (1924 #2230. and most dips of Paleozoic structures are southerly (Berg and others. fault-bounded anticline. this convention can indicate a paucity of outcrop control and insufficient distinction between observation and inference. together could support a speculation that the earthquake might have occurred on a subsurface. Third. their mapping is more detailed in scale than that of Jonas and Stose (1930 #2066). 1971 #2015). p. Jonas and Stose (1930 #2066) drew on this and additional mapping during 1922-1926 to extend the north-striking fault to a length of 16 km. First. we must conclude that the short-fault interpretation of Meisler and Becher (1971 #2015) is more likely to be correct. 1981 #1937). 1985 #1889). then the parallelism between the fault and the 1984 rupture zone. 1960 #1958). for 1. Meisler and Becher (1971 #2015) used a more finely divided stratigraphy. in which Cambrian Antietam quartzite underlies a hill at Fruitville. the more likely it is to penetrate to the 5-15 km depths at which many earthquakes nucleate east of the Rocky Mountains (Wheeler and Johnston. 1992 #2243).8 km long. and the middle one curves through 70° over its 1. A north-striking "cross fault at Fruitville" cuts the anticline and its bounding faults and offsets the quartzite hill dextrally "one-fourth mile" (0. if the Fruitville fault is long. 217 . Gray and others.0 km. On their map (1971) the Fruitville fault has largely vanished. 6) mapped an east-trending. fig. The area of the Fruitville fault was remapped by Meisler and Becher (1967 #1971. Although one of us (CKS) has. consisting of 14 map units instead of the eight of Jonas and Stose (1930 #2066). Second. This latter interpretation was incorporated into the next two state geologic maps (Stose and Ljungstedt.

000. 1981.. and Socolow. 203. The shallow earthquakes suggest that even short. shallow faults might host earthquakes. and Thornton.W.S. the Lancaster seismic zone remains a promising place in which to seek paleoseismological evidence for Quaternary faulting. Geological Survey. Charles K.I..D. 72. as indicated by intensity data (C. both historic and prehistoric. U. shallow faults of the Lancaster seismic zone do not themselves slip seismically. First.Sparse outcrops prevent showing the Fruitville fault to be short. Edmunds.D. In conclusion. unpub. and Thornton.R. C.A. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.B. S. scale 1:250.. MacLachlan.. no. but the interpretation of Meisler and Becher (1971 #2015) and Berg (1981 #1937) best fits the data. R. D.]: Eos. Gardner.. Millersville University State Pennsylvania County Lancaster 1° x 2° sheet Baltimore.. Scharnberger. T. 1987. The 23 April 1984 Martic earthquake and the Lancaster seismic zone in eastern Pennsylvania: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. D. D. 877-890. Root... 218 .. 1989.M. 1991. v.S. #1785 Alexander. A. we must note two things.P. S. 1925-1980: U.. A. C.M. Having said that. Wheeler. W..W. stratigraphic.. #1791 Armbruster. a few earthquakes in the Lancaster seismic zone occur at unusually shallow depths. We know of no other structural.E.. Geyer. W. however. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States: U. Gold. We have some reservations. A. T. even if the short. and the zone is assigned to class C in this compilation of such evidence. S. Wise and Faill.S. Scharnberger.S. Harrisburg Physiographic province Piedmont References #2022 Alexander.P. 1998 #2228). 1984.K. Therefore.. Date of compilation 01/12/99. Travertine as an indicator of geologicallyrecent earthquake activity in the eastern United States [abs. data) and as demonstrated by the 1994 Cacoosing Valley earthquake sequence (Seeber and others. J. or paleoseismological evidence for Quaternary faulting in the Lancaster seismic zone. 77. the faults and earthquakes together might reflect some other. p. #1937 Berg. p. J. the Fruitville fault is probably one or a few short faults of limited depth extent. 3 sheets. Second. 1998 #2244).L.... 343 p.P. Glover. v. Map showing recomputed hypocenters of earthquakes in the Eastern and Central United States and adjacent Canada.G. Hoskins. and Seeber. Geologic map of Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Topographic and Geologic Survey Map 1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-5418. Slingerland.. Sevon. revised 02/01/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. about the 70 degree curvature of the fault at Fruitville as shown on Meisler and Becher's map. and is unlikely to reach the depth of the 1984 earthquake or depths typical of the rest of central and eastern North America. and Gordon.S.. deeper geologic control on seismicity (for example. 17. L.. D.W. #1928 Dewey.

eds. and Van Olden. 1968. 2 pls. 1996. p..M. ed. scale 1:62. Kelin. in Geological Survey research 1967: U.A.E. C232-C235. 2 pls. California. J. A. The seismicity of ‘stable continental interiors'. PA. 1989.000. V. Lytle.N. S... A.. p.500. Bergsten.T. 6. #1958 Gray... fault zone [abs. southeastern Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Topographic and Geologic Survey. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Geological Survey. PA. Environmental Research Institute of Michigan. compilers. A. Seismotectonic interpretations and conclusions from the stable continental region seismicity database. The Netherlands.. C. W.. Cale. B. #2015 Meisler. p.K.. A. Shepps. Pennsylvania: Earthquake Notes. p.M. 149 p. H. p. and Becher.C.S. in Gregersen.E. Topographic and Geologic Atlas of Pennsylvania 168. Geologic map of Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Topographic and Geologic Survey. A.S. #2040 Johnston. 1930. A.. p.Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1699. Harding. Assessment of large earthquake potential: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V1. A. Wood. Seismic moment assessment of earthquakes in stable continental regions—I.. in Contributions to stratigraphy. and Stose. 1 sheet. #2039 Johnston... in Proceedings of the Sixth Thematic Conference on Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology. 43-46. 1960.. in Schneider. Instrumental seismicity: Geophysical Journal International. Socolow. v. 687.W. A..B. II: Ann Arbor. scale 1:24.500. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1967. Hoskins. Fourth Series. J. Fourth Series. A.F. December 1994. 106 p.. Miller.. no.F. p. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. P..H.. Coulin. #1975 Meisler. G. Jr. H. Hydrogeology of the carbonate rocks of the Lancaster 15-minute quadrangle. Mapping fractures in Lancaster County. Remote sensing of the Lancaster Co. K. scale 1:2.000.C. Pennsylvania.E. H.. T.H. Arndt.. 1988. Palo Alto. 1985. 299-327. J. T. 4-1—4-103. D. #2068 Parrish. C.W. 219 . 1967: U.. and Howell. Geyer.I.. v.. 1971. Shaffuer.. pamphlet. G. Bulletin W26. v. 39 p. #1841 Johnston.. A. using magnetics.. scale 1:250.C.. M.R. 56.. McLaughlin. #2066 Jonas.. Intensities and structural setting of the earthquakes of 19 April and 23 April... H. Geology and mineral resources of the Lancaster quadrangle. #1874 Parrish. G1-G14. Carbonate rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in the Lancaster quadrangle.E. v.. A372. Hydrogeologic significance of calcium-magnesium ratios in ground water from carbonate rocks in the Lancaster quadrangle.. and Becher.. southeastern Pennsylvania.M. Jr.. 124. Geological Survey Professional Paper 575.. R. Geological Survey Bulletin 1254-G.. 1994.C.S.. p. 21..000... J. and Becher. 1. 381-414.. 1989. D. 2 sheets. J.R. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins—Neotectonics and postglacial rebound: Dordrecht. and Etter. A. soil-gas radon and LANDSAT TM data: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 1984 Lancaster County.. #1889 Scharnberger. #1971 Meisler.S..]. and Basham.

.S. v... no. in Alexander. 523-539. 24.505-24.P.V. in Pakiser. Armbruster. and Johnston.P.. D. p. p... and Thornton. M.. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-5418. B10. Barstow. 220 .. B1-B9.L..L.W. and Mooney. p. Pennsylvania seismic zone. and Zoback. Kim. #2059 Thornton.C. S.P. New type of structure in the Appalachians: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. and Ljungstedt. W. 1989. 465-480.160. #1922 Zoback.. eds.#2228 Seeber.W.. R.. Gold. 1 sheet.S. Gardner.521. 103..G. C.P. Geologic map of Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Topographic and Geologic Survey. The 1994 Cacoosing Valley earthquakes near Reading.. M. D. eds. scale 1:380. v. W.. 63. T. #2243 Wheeler.T. A1 – A204. thesis describing fault-associated travertine deposits in Virginia. 1998. 1989.)—Reactivation of a Taconic structural feature?: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.W. D. eds. eds.L.. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States: U. #1945 Stose. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172..P. J. no. C. G. 4.P. 1992. #2057 Stockar.. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR-5418. 1989. G.W. R. L.. #2230 Stose. A.. T. Slingerland. 491-514.. Slingerland. #2244 Wise. O.S. p.S.D. and Scharnberger... 35.. S. Except from Professor C. 7. and Faill.. R. Thornton's Ph. p. A-320. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States. N. Pennsylvania—A shallow rupture triggered by quarry unloading: Journal of Geophysical Research. and Thornton..-Y.. no. Geologic implications of earthquake source parameters in central and eastern North America: Seismological Research Letters.. 1998. D.A. v. in Alexander. L. Gold.C. p.D. 30..D. R. v.L. C.. Gardner. Contemporary tectonics of the Lancaster. 1924. p.U. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States: U. C. 1931. Lancaster County seismic zone (Penna...

5 km) east along U. and Nelson (p.000-scale topographic map shows that the faulted gravel lies at an elevation of 780 ft (238 m). without intervening topographic lows. a permanent stream that flows southeastward and eastward. Route 250 from its underpass beneath Interstate 64. Neither Nelson (1962 #2213) nor Prowell (1983 #1951) mentioned any indication of a strike-slip component of the reverse slip. The underlying bedrock is granodiorites. The 1973 Waynesboro East 1:24. An exposed reverse fault placed the crystalline bedrock 5 ft (1. This is fault number 37 of Prowell (1983). p. hypersthene granodiorites. directly in front of Lebanon Church (Nelson. three miles (5 km) east of Afton. Prowell (1983 #1951) referred to them as high-level fluvial gravels of Miocene to Pliocene age. Nelson (1962 #2213. a colluvial deposit could have formed recently at any elevation above the creek. A fluvial deposit of Stockton Creek that is now 18 m above the present elevation of the creek may be older than Pleistocene. Prowell (1983 #1951) gave the orientation of the reverse fault as N. long 78° 47' W. or a colluvial deposit derived from the slopes uphill from Lebanon Church. Middle Proterozoic. Stockton Creek passes approximately 400 m southwest of the faulted gravel. Prowell (1983 #1951) gives the location as lat 38° 02' N. / 57° SE.000-scale topographic map of the Waynesboro East 7. The thickness of the faulted gravel makes it unlikely that the gravel is a fluvial deposit of the intermittent streams that flow from the nearby Blue Ridge crest. From the crest to Lebanon Church is all downhill. Only intermittent streams descend southeastward from the Blue Ridge to the vicinity of the Lebanon Church fault. and none pass between the ridge crest and the fault. and. The Waynesboro East 1:24. could be of Quaternary age. Blue Ridge basement complex. 20° E.600 ft (790 m) above sea level. More detailed location information is given above. the crest of the Blue Ridge is approximately 2. Route 250. p. 1962 #2213). The faulted gravel might be a fluvial deposit of Stockton Creek. 50-51 . 1962 #2213. Virginia. 50-51) described the faulted deposits as Pleistocene terrace gravels. The descriptions of Nelson (1962 #2213. The fault is exposed in a road cut on the northwest side of U. We name the fault after the church. and granites of the Precambrian Virginia Blue Ridge complex (Nelson.Lebanon Church fault (Class C) Structure Name Lebanon Church fault (Class C) Comments: A small reverse fault offsets Blue Ridge crystalline basement 1.500-scale geologic map of Nelson (1962 #2213) and on the 1:24. 50-51) and Prowell (1983 #1951) locate the fault with respect to Lebanon Church and U. 51 1962 #2213) showed a photograph of the faulted road cut.S. 221 . The faulted gravel is at least 10 ft (3 m) thick at the fault. The less detailed geologic map of Virginia Division of Mineral Resources (1993 #1952) shows the locality as underlain by layered pyroxene granulites of the early or preGrenville. Four km northwest of the faulted gravel.5 minute quadrangle. p. Prowell. approximately 60 ft (18 m) above Stockton Creek.5 m) above terrace gravels. thus.000-scale topographic map (photorevised 1987) shows the church approximately 4.. The fault has no geomorphic expression.7 mi (7.S. This setting provides reasons to suspect that the faulted gravel is younger than Pliocene. 1983 #1951).5 m over gravels that may be Quaternary in age. route 250. However. Both the church and the road appear on the 1:62.S.

Thus. A recurrence interval cannot be calculated without at least two dated slip events.A. but colluvium is scarce or absent. Index of faults of Cretaceous and Ceozoic age in the Eastern United States: U. Reason for assignment to class C The faulting is not demonstrably of Quaternary age. 1983. scale 1:62.000. 1962.C. Prowell. scale 1:2. Wheeler. The slip rate is unknown.2 mm/yr. 1993.S.S. 2 sheets. However. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. For these reasons. No detailed paleoseismological studies have been performed to determine the age of the faulting. #1952 Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. indicating little transport (Prowell. the faulted gravel at Lebanon Church contains many angular pebbles of diverse lithologies.2 mm/yr.500. including graywacke clasts.000. probably the faulted gravel is colluvium. the fault dips 57° and the vertical offset is 1. Date of compilation 12/16/98. unpub. the slip rate could exceed 0. although the suggestion cannot be confirmed with present evidence. unpub. and indeed the offset of 5 ft (1. 222 . the slip rate could be more than two orders of magnitude less. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1269. Therefore. If the slip occurred entirely during the Quaternary.5 m (Prowell.. However. which would imply that probably the faulted gravel is young. No individual slip events have been distinguished on the Lebanon Church fault. This observation could indicate that colluvium is ephemeral. If the offset occurred entirely during the Holocene. Geologic map of Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. and a sticky clay matrix. scale 1:500. #1951 Prowell. indicating substantial transport that destroyed the softer lithic fragments (Prowell. This suggestion is supported by the regional observation of Prowell that fluvial gravels are abundant in the geologic record.500.5 m) could have formed in a single earthquake. we suggest that the Lebanon Church fault might be of Quaternary age. data). data).Fluvial gravels in this part of the Appalachians are often composed mostly of pebbles or cobbles of quartz or quartzite. the slip rate is probably less than 0. David C. W. 1983 #1951). 1 sheet. Geological Survey State Virginia County Albemarle 1° x 2° sheet Charlottesville Physiographic province Blue Ridge References #2213 Nelson.. U. and it may be of Quaternary age. Geology and mineral resources of Albermarle County: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Bulletin 77. D.

The present-day orientation of greatest horizontal compressive stress is east-northeast (Zoback and Zoback. the fault system is made of anastomosing strands that form a network 0. and the 10 ft (3 m) topographic contours would allow fault orientation to be calculated with three-point solutions.000-scale topographic base used by MacQuown (1968 #1936). The Lexington fault system trends north-northeast across east-central Kentucky for approximately 122 km (Noger. Reason for assignment to class C The faulting is not demonstrably of Quaternary age. 1988 #1938. However. No trenches were excavated. the fault system is an east-facing normal fault. by Carew (1990 #2024). Wheeler. 1968 #1936). Quaternary faulting has only been suggested. Sections of faults that MacQuown (1968 #1936) showed as solid lines cross numerous streams.6 km wide (Black. with dextral. east-northeast-trending graben of Cambrian age (Drahovzal and Noger. a large. 1968 #1936). geologic contacts. 1989 #1922). but without latitude or longitude marks. and stream shorelines. 1967 #1926. MacQuown (1968 #1936) shows faults dipping steeply east and west in a shallow cross section but gives no values. 1995 #1929). and perhaps farther in the subsurface (Drahovzal and Noger. 1995 #1929). although some fault strands dip east and others dip west. However. Index maps (Carew. However. a foundation for them has been laid. contacts. At the western end of the Rome trough. reverse. so dips are likely to be moderate to steep. V-shaped traces where faults cross streams are subdued. 1990 #2024) at scales of approximately 1:1200 show six locations of possible Quaternary faulting. 1968 #1936). the fault system offsets the top of Precambrian basement approximately 600 m (Drahovzal and Noger. 1995 #1914). and streambed profiling indicate possible Quaternary slip at six locations along the Lexington fault system of east central Kentucky. from which the faulting locations could be digitized. the Lexington fault system offsets basement less than 300 m. Comparison of the faults. Carew (1990 #2024) mentioned several places where faults are exposed for possible dip measurement.3-3. north of the intersection with the Rome trough. or both components. In its center. 1988 #1938). The study sites of Carew (1990 #2024) are where MacQuown (1968 #1936) mapped strands of the fault system as passing under Quaternary alluvium of West Hickman and Hickman Creeks. the Lexington fault system strikes north-northeast in the area of interest here (MacQuown. together with bedrock faults. Carew (1990 #2024) 223 . no trenching has been performed to test these indications. not demonstrated. Throughout its extent. MacQuown. However.000-scale geologic map of MacQuown (1968 #1936). from which reactivation is likely to be compressional. augering. 1995 #1929. Rocks exposed on both sides of the fault system and between its strands are Ordovician limestones with some shales (MacQuown.Lexington fault system (Class C) Structure Name Lexington fault system (Class C) Comments: Electrical resistivity profiling. 1990 #1974) was previously called the West Hickman Creek fault zone (MacQuown. the linework of the index maps is taken from the 1:24. and shorelines between the index maps and the geologic map would identify the faulting locations on the 1:24. the fault system forms the western boundary of the Rome trough. However. In the study area. This part of the Lexington fault system (Noger. McDowell and Schultz. 1968 #1936). At ground level in the study area.

Finally. M. Carew (1990 #2024) used electrical resistivity surveys to locate the approximate positions of the fault strands beneath the alluvium. with spacings of 3 or 6 m above some suspected faults. 1 sheet. Kentucky: Richmond. All six sites have some evidence for offset of the contact at the faults.2 mm/yr would have produced sufficient offset that it would probably have been detected in the field if it were reverse. which would probably have been detected in the field even if it were all strike slip. No offset was reported.000. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Geological Survey State Kentucky County Jessamine 1° x 2° sheet Winchester Physiographic province Interior Low Plateaus References #1926 Black.. 1990 #2024). 57 p. although perhaps not if it were strike slip. 1 sheet. In addition. #1929 Drahovzal. 1995. thesis.000. 2 pl.S.A.S. and absent evidence that any faulting occurred suddenly instead of by aseismic creep. Date of compilation 12/16/98.C. Absent such a demonstration. scale 1:24. geologic cross sections were drawn along each resistivity survey line. Most holes were spaced 15 m apart.B. scale 1:500. The slip rate is unknown. #2024 Carew. 1967. P. J.F. a Holocene slip rate of 0. perhaps attributable to solution of the underlying limestones (Carew.B. 224 . Investigation of Holocene movement along the Lexington fault system in Jessamine County. 9 p. longitudinal stream bed profiles were measured across most of the studied fault strands. east-central Kentucky: U. no recurrence interval can be calculated. Some study sites of Carew (1990 #2024) have slight depressions in alluvium above the suspected fault traces.S. Geologic map of the Coletown quadrangle. surface topography.studied six sites at which MacQuown (1968 #1936) had mapped exposed strands of the Lexington fault system as passing beneath Quaternary stream alluvium of West Hickman Creek and Hickman Creek. Quaternary faulting has been suggested by subsurface studies but not demonstrated by trenching.. bedrock depth. Seris XI. the sections were based on auger holes that were drilled and logged to bedrock. U. and Noger. D. which may indicate Quaternary faulting. Carew (1990 #2024) used the mapped senses of dip slip on the fault strands. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-644.. and stream bed elevation to infer the presence or absence of steps in the bedrock-alluvium contact at the likely locations of the faults beneath the alluvium. However. Preliminary map of the structure of the Precambrian surface in eastern Kentucky: Kentucky Geological Survey Map and Chart Series 8. flood plain stratigraphy.. The same rate throughout the Quaternary would have produced 320 m of slip. The fault strands have little or no topographic expression. and changes in electrical resistivity. pamphlet. Wheeler. unpublished M. Eastern Kentucky University. 1990.. As described above.

C.L. 1988. and Schultz.S. Kentucky: U. Structural and stratigraphic framework of the Giles County area. 1968.. M. Geological Survey and Kentucky Geological Survey. M. 105-108.D... Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-767.. R. 225 . p. v. Earthquakes and the cratonward limit of Iapetan faulting in eastern North America: Geology. and Zoback. 1995. S. 1990.S. Jessamine and Fayette Counties.000. M. scale 1:125. R.C. in Pakiser. scale 1:500. scale 1:24. Jr. 1 sheet. W. and Mooney. #1938 Noger. p. #1914 Wheeler.. Geologic map of Kentucky: U. eds.. 23. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States.C.P.. #1974 McDowell. a part of the Appalachian Basin of Virginia and West Virginia. #1922 Zoback. 1 sheet. 1 pl...C.000.#1936 MacQuown. 523-539.L.. in Evolution of sedimentary basins—Appalachian Basin: U.D.. p. Geological Survey Bulletin 1839.. 1989. L. E1-E24. A. compiler.000. W. Geologic map of the Nicholasville quadrangle. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172.

Dennison and Stewart (1998 #2029) suggested that the normal faulting might have occurred during gravitational collapse of the orogenically-thickened Appalachian crust. Nearby to the southeast. 64° E. Dennison (1994 #1812) calculated 800 m of dip slip at the type locality at Lindside. basement fault zone that Bollinger and Wheeler (1983 #1803. The southeast-dipping St. Monroe (West Virginia). The Lindside fault zone is recognized as a zone of steeply dipping. The width of the zone varies between exposures but can be as great as approximately 2 km (Mehlhop and others. 1989 #1922). Date of compilation 05/26/98. Geological Survey State West Virginia. Bollinger and Wheeler. presumably during latest Paleozoic or more recent time. The Lindside fault zone extends for at least 50 km northeastward along the strike of overturned rocks that dip steeply southeast in the footwall of the St. 65° E. 1988 #1968). reactivation of the Proterozoic to Cambrian. the seismic zone and the Lindside fault zone are 3-5 km apart vertically and differ by approximately 20° in orientation. and its normal slip has excised hundreds of meters of the steeply dipping Devonian and Mississippian strata. 1996 #1861).S. Clair fault. Clair fault is the boundary between the Appalachian Plateaus and Valley and Ridge Provinces. 1988 #1968) suggested is undergoing seismic reactivation today. following the structural grain of the exposed parts of the thrust complex of the Appalachians. post–Appalachian. the Giles County seismic zone is defined by a steeply dipping. the local orientation of greatest horizontal compressive stress trends N. 1988 #1968). tabular zone of hypocenters that strikes N. U. Virginia County Mercer. Reason for assignment to class C: The Lindside fault zone is assigned to class C because of a lack of evidence for Quaternary slip on the fault zone.. the Lindside fault zone is poorly oriented for reactivation in the present-day compressional stress field. However. (Bollinger and Wheeler. The most complete published summary to date is by Dennison and Stewart (1998 #2029). Thus. It strikes approximately N. no evidence has yet been reported of Quaternary slip on the faults of the fault zone.Lindside fault zone (Class c) Structure Name Lindside fault zone (Class C) Comments: The fault zone was first described by Dennison (1994 #1812) and named by Dennison (1996 #2028). conjugate normal faults. 44° E. Giles (Virginia) 1° x 2° sheet Bluefield Physiographic province Appalachian Plateaus 226 .M. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Dennison and Stewart (1998 #2029) speculated that the fault zone might represent ancient. (Bollinger and Wheeler. The seismic zone is confined to structural basement beneath the Appalachian thrust complex. The fault zone post-dates Appalachian folding and thrust faulting. In addition. who attributed most of the detailed descriptions and measurements to a thesis by A. Mehlhop (1996 #2249). which is 3-5 km thick near the seismic zone and the Lindside fault zone. 1983 #1803. Wheeler. consistently with the regional east-northeast trend (Zoback and Zoback. Therefore. West Virginia.

523-539. K. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1355. 227 . 1996. v..References #1803 Bollinger.. Virginia. Virginia.M. and Wheeler. West Virginia. 7. A. 1996. 1996. 10. Guidebook. The Giles County. #1968 Bollinger.L..G.L.. eds. 4.M. in Pakiser. L. K.. Geological Society of America.M... #1812 Dennison.. 219. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172.M. no.D. 1996. 102 p.. 91 p. A.. 26. G. thesis. J. seismic zone— Seismological results and geologic interpretations: U. G. March 28-29.A. Appalachian Geological Society.S. 1989. 28.D.C. seismic zone: Science. ed. W.L.M. 1063-1065. Charleston.G.. West Virginia. A-239. 1994.A. v.. no. R.. M. unpublished M.. R. Extensional structures along the Allegheny Front in Virginia and West Virginia near the Giles County seismic zone: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1998. J. p. eds.. #2029 Dennison... #1861 Mehlhop.M. and Zoback. p. 85 p. p. 1998. October 12-13. J. J.. Extensional structures along the Allegheny Front in Virginia and West Virginia near the Giles County seismic zone: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States. 1983.S. M. Guidebook. Dennison. p. 1988. and Stewart. #1922 Zoback. Geologic field guide to Devonian hydrocarbon stratigraphy of southeastern West Virginia and adjacent Virginia: Charleston. A newly discovered fault in West Virgina and Virginia related to the location of the Narrows of New River: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 160 p. and Stewart.. #2028 Dennison. The Giles County. #2249 Mehlhop. and Wheeler. Geologic field guide to extensional structures along the Allegheny Front in Virginia and West Virginia near the Giles County seismic zone: Southeastern Section. and Mooney. v.

Five of the eight kinds of data might reflect processes that operated as recently as the Holocene. Issaquena. Grant. and intersects the other three inferred faults. 62° W.S. Natchitoches. fig. they do not. Mississippi County Beauregard. Washington. igneous intrusions are tentatively attributed to possible wrench faults. northwest-striking transform fault of Cambrian age at approximately the location and orientation suggested by Zimmerman is an old one (Thomas. is curved. imagery lineaments and changes and straight reaches in river courses. fig. no clear evidence is given for any Holocene activity. (1) The reports cited above under "Structure name" do not present convincing evidence for the existence of the faults. This potential recency is the reason for evaluating the inferred faults here. La Salle. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Meloy and Zimmerman (1997 #2212) concluded that the northeast-striking inferred faults do not link northward with the Reelfoot rift. Chicoi. Drew. Potentially the clearest evidence might be straight reaches of streams. Sharkey. Finally. and therefore do not present a significant earthquake hazard. 1995 #2248) inferred the existence of four large strike-slip faults in northern and central Louisiana. Bradley. West Carroll. Desha. 1994 #2246. Jackson. through central western Mississippi. through northern and central Louisiana and adjacent parts of Arkansas and Mississippi and are approximately 60 km apart. Calhoun. most of the examples figured by Zimmerman (1992 #2245. 1995 #2248). and central western Mississippi. the intrusions should align along the postulated faults. The notion of a large. 1992 #2245. Rapides. East Carroll. Three of the inferred faults strike approximately N. are notoriously subjective and irreproducible. However. 2 of Zimmerman. two of the indicators.Louisiana wrench faults (Class C) Structure Name Louisiana wrench faults (Class C) Comments: Zimmerman and Sassen (1993 #2247) and Zimmerman (1992 #2245. Caldwell.000 petroleum wells. Lincoln. southeastern Arkansas. Arkansas. Geological Survey State Louisiana. 24° E. Yazoo (Mississippi) 228 . The fourth inferred fault strikes approximately N. Vernon. Ashley. 1995 #2248) to illustrate various indicators of faulting along northeast or northwest trends have alternative explanations that do not involve the inferred vertical faults. to my eye. Richland. northeasternmost Louisiana. The same is the case for the locations of all eight indicators taken together. U. which hosts the New Madrid seismic zone. Also. Pointe Coupee. 1976 #2237. Zimmerman inferred the existence of the faults from alignments and spatial associations of anomalies in eight kinds of geological and hydrological data. Union. 1991 #678). 2 of Zimmerman. 1994 #2246. Winn (Louisiana). chiefly those encountered during analysis of subsurface data from more than 7. and southeastern Arkansas. (2) Although five of the eight geological and hydrological indicators that were used to infer the faults are stated to record processes that operated as recently as the Holocene (table 1 of Zimmerman. but the one cited example shows a reach of the Mississippi River that. but no tests of reliability are mentioned. If the attribution is valid. Date of compilation 08/20/98. Wheeler. Union (Arkansas). 1994 #2246. Reason for assignment to class C: The inferred faults are assigned to class C in this compilation of evidence for Quaternary faulting for two reasons.

38 p. #2237 Thomas. v. 401-412. v.. #2246 Zimmerman. 323-342. 45.. v. W. #678 Thomas. Evidence and effects of wrench faulting. v. no.K. The Appalachian-Ouachita rifted margin of southeastern North America: Geological Society of America Bulletin.A. 1994. p. 1. p. Fractured Smackover limestone in northeast Louisiana— Implications for hydrocarbon exploitation: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies. p. Natchez. R. Hydrocarbon transfer pathways from Smackover source rocks to younger reservoir traps in the Monroe gas field. 53-61.. Greenwood. 1997. 473-480.. R. p.K. Shreveport. Evolution of Ouachita-Appalachian continental margin: Journal of Geology. and Sassen. 4. p. 229 . R. #2245 Zimmerman. D. 1995.K. R. 1976. W. 1992.1° x 2° sheet Jackson. and Zimmerman. 103..K. p. Evidence of wrench faulting in north and central Louisiana: Louisiana State University Energy and Environmental Resources Basin Research Institute Bulletin. 43. Potential seismic risk associated with Louisiana wrench faulting: Louisiana Geological Survey Open-File Series No.. 1991. R. El Dorado. Alexandria. 42. #2248 Zimmerman. Lake Charles Physiographic province Coastal Plain References #2212 Meloy.K. 629-635.A. #2247 Zimmerman...U. 97-01. R. 1993. v.. 415-431. north central Gulf Coast region: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies. 84. v. northeast Louisiana: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies.

London. Quittmeyer and others. The zone has been seismically active since before the arrival of Europeans (Ebel and others. 1982 #1821. Ebel. 1989 #2014. this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large. sampled. The hole was logged. in some areas the surficial record of large. for many parts of the CEUS. 1989 #2014). (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front. London. prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion. 1993 #1986 used standardized methods to assign a VII). 1982 #1821. 230 . these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard. The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. Nonetheless. the town of Moodus takes its name from a longer Native American word that refers to the characteristic noises produced by frequent small tremors in the area (Ebel and others.gov/eq/). Meglis and others. 1991 #1860). In the CEUS. scale 1:7.usgs. 1989 #1793. http://geohazards. Ambers and Wintsch. In the Central and Eastern U. However. Barosh and others. 1989 #2014). 1990 #1991. Johnston (1994 #2042) estimated the moment magnitude as M 4. the most common types of surficial evidence of large. prehistoric earthquakes.450 m into or near the top of the source volume of some of the microearthquake swarms (Ebel.000. 1982 #2023. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity. but Moodus is used here because it is the more common usage. In the CEUS. 1982 #1821). 12 maps. Microearthquakes are common (Ebel. Where present. equivocal. 1989 #1810. 1989 #1817. The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps. London.2. 1981 #1816). prehistoric earthquakes is absent. 1989 #1880. which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131.cr. The 1980's saw four swarms of shallow microearthquakes (Ebel and others. 1989 #1817. Stover and Coffman. this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. deBoer. The Moodus seismic zone is considered in this compilation of evidence for Quaternary faulting for three reasons. prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. 1982 #1821). Indeed. The largest historical earthquake caused MMI VI-VIII in 1791 (Ebel and others. Quittmeyer and others. the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard. the national hazard maps show that. and tested in numerous ways (for example Baumgärtner and Zoback. 1988 #1853.000. The metamorphic rocks that underlie the area have been mapped in detail (see source list in Rodgers. 1978 #1848.S. Reason for assignment to class C: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the Moodus seismic zone. although convincing surficial evidence of large.Moodus seismic zone (Class c) Structure Name Moodus seismic zone (Class C) Comments: Ebel (1987 #2031) referred to the area as the central Connecticut seismic zone. or presently unrecognized. London. A borehole was drilled 1. the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. 1989 #1880). 1985 #1944) and were the subject of diverse studies to identify the seismic source (for example Koch and others.

.B. 1989. 1982. #2023 Barosh. London. p. Skehan. M. 1993 #1826). and ductile to brittle fault rocks in the 1.45-kilometer-deep research hole.. Storrs. A. the seismic zone was assigned to class C in this compilation of structural. and 1987-1988 microearthquake swarms at Moodus. 74th annual meeting. and Wintsch.L. v. J. and other geophysical study.. 1990..However. M. and de-Boer... J.. E. 1991 #2008). p. swamp. and marsh exposures found no evidence for liquefaction or paleoliquefaction (Gelinas and others. p.R. D.E. 60...D. and Zoback. the causes and causative faults of the earthquakes remain enigmatic (Ebel and Kafka. Zoback.P.S. 461-469. Engdahl. Source parameters of some earthquakes near Moodus. Interpretation of hydraulic fracturing pressuretime records using interactive analysis methods: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanical Abstracts. #1816 Ebel. and Blackwell. seismological.. eds. U.H.S.. new data on stress configuration and brittle failure: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. J..D.. K. 2. Geology of the composite Avalon terrane of southern New England: Geological Society of America Special Paper 245. p. A comparison of the 1981. 21. no. Neotectonic deformation of southern New England. J.. P. 62. 26. 1982. October 2-3. and metavolcanic Avalon terrace rocks. p.. New London 1° x 2° sheet Hartford Physiographic province New England References #1991 Ambers.Z. reconnaissance of stream. 171-186. v. J. A. 1986.. p.. 10.E. v. The seismicity of the northeastern United States. south-central Connecticut. Moodus.W. In addition. eds. S. 419-451. 1982.]: Eos. #2031 Ebel. Date of compilation 05/27/98.. D. Accordingly. and Kafka.D.. 967. C. eds. #1793 Baumgärtner. ed. 1981. revised 02/01/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. and paleoseismological evidence for Quaternary faulting.P. in Socci. and Smith. Earthquake activity in the northeastern United States. R. New England Intercollegiate Geological Conference.. J..J. Guidebook for fieldtrips in Connecticut and south central Massachusetts: State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Guidebook 5.. #1810 deBoer. 1987. and Quarrier.. Connecticut.E. p. Proceedings from the symposium on seismic hazards. Geological Survey State Connecticut County Middlesex. 178-188. D. Wheeler. in Jacob. v. 177-184. 1991. in Slemmons. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.W. soil-liquefaction and engineering practice in eastern North America: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research Technical Report NCEER-87-0025. Connecticut: Seismological Research Letters.. G.D. 231 . Connecticut [abs. Structural geology of the Moodus seismic area. #2008 Ebel. stratigraphic.E. 1989.. 45. Subsurface identification of Merrimack. 1989. #1817 Ebel. despite the intense geological. Connecticut.. J. PutnamNashoba. in Joesten. R.. no. J. ground motions.

J. B. 11. compiler. and Amick. C. C.. scale 1:12. #1986 Stover. 9.K. and Kick. 1994. 1993.000. Fahey. R.. #1826 Gelinas.000. #1880 Quittmeyer. 1568-1989 (revised): U. 25 p. 186.F. #2014 London.. Geology and geophysics of the Moodus seismic area.L.S. south-central Connecticut: State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Report of Investigations No. 2. Connecticut: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. #1944 Rodgers.. no... Kemppinen. 1993. H. Palo Alto.. C-1—C-46. 277-290. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527.. D. Geological Society of America. ed...C. p. 1978. 21. v. and Statton. #1860 Meglis. M. Bedrock geologic map of Connecticut: Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey and U. S. 1989. The 1981 microearthquake swarm near Moodus. R.F.. 288.S.. J. T. SCR seismicity data base. I. p. and Coffman.F.. v.. J. v.W. #1848 Koch. J. v. California.. Evaluation of liquefactionsusceptible materials near moderate magnitude historical earthquakes in New England [abs. Engelder. 232 . in Schneider. CT and its relation to the tectonic stress field measured by borehole testing: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 1988. Decade Map Volume 1. south-central Connecticut: American Journal of Science.E. V. no..]: Seismological Research Letters. p. The effect of stress-relief on ambient microcrack porosity in core samples from the Kent Cliffs (New York) and Moodus (Connecticut) scientific research boreholes: Tectonophysics.L.C. Bedrock geology of the Moodus seismic area. 2—Appendices A to E: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V2. Seismicity of the United States.. Connecticut: Geophysical Research Letters.A... p.. #2042 Johnston. Quarrier. 10. Naumoff. 1991. K. A. Mrotek. December 1994. 353-375.S. 1982. Characteristics and regional significance of the Cremation Hill ductile fault zone at the Bronson Hill-Merrimack boundary. 1985..L.Neotectonics of North America: Boulder.. 64. 59. 163-173. Vudler. v.. #1853 London. 397-400. and Graham. 2. Appendix C—Summary tables. #1821 Ebel.J..T. 1989. J. p. v. 1 pl. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. Colorado.M. p. 2 sheets. D. 259-260.. R. scale 1:125. The 1987 earthquake swarm at Moodus. P. p. and Celata. 418 p.. D. E. p.. 71. Geological Survey.

1989 #1922). p. The same faulting chronology might apply to the Mosholu fault. northeast-trending. in the south. 568) showed the fault on a sketch map. The largest post-metamorphic faults strike northwest. sheet 1). in the north. with various senses of subsequent reactivation (Baskerville. the conclusion of post-glacial slip on the fault depends on interpreting a bedrock high across the former course of the river as a tectonic uplift caused by fault slip. follow the topographic grain southwestward along strike valleys underlain by the Cambrian to Ordovician Inwood Marble.2 km from near West 261st St. the strike-slip component of any modern reactivation would probably be sinistral in the present-day. The Dobbs Ferry fault zone shows dextral separation as large as approximately 30 m. Its map-scale separation is approximately 35 m dextral within the Inwood Marble (Baskerville. metamorphic rock of the Manhattan Prong (Fisher and others. in northwesternmost Bronx Co. and appears to have undergone seismic reactivation in 1985 (Seeber and Dawers. greatest horizontal compressive stress (Zoback and Zoback. 1997 #1862). including the Bronx River. dip steeply to moderately. which shows topographic control with a 10-foot (3 m) contour interval. Lobeck (1939 #2046. Most of the large streams. 1982 #2007. 1970 #1931. The best test of this hypothesis would be geochronological data from minerals whose grains form kinematic indicators in the fault rock. 1989 #1894). 1992 #1924). is convincingly dated as post-glacial. Map-scale folds trend northeast and plunge gently southwest. Late Proterozoic to Ordovician. referring to it as the Van Cortlandt Park fault.and oblique slip. The bedrock is amphibolite-grade. 1997 #1862). to East 172nd St. and show dextral and sinistral strike. perhaps originating in the Mesozoic extension that formed the Atlantic passive margin. relative ages of dextral and sinistral slip might be determined.000-scale bedrock geologic map of Baskerville (1992 #1924.. The northwest-striking Dobbs Ferry fault zone is also in the Manhattan Prong. and 233 . which crosses it. Merguerian and Sanders. However. because its orientation and sense are consistent with the present-day stress field. Baskerville. and diversion of the Bronx River. whereas the sinistral slip might be the younger. 1982 #2007. Baskerville. and lesser sinistral separation. Differential erosion has produced a topographic grain parallel to the northeast structural grain (Merguerian and Sanders. The fault was located from geologic mapping and abundant subsurface data that were obtained from public agencies and corporations. 1992 #1924). Merguerian and Sanders. Dextral separation can be as large as 100-200 m but sinistral separation is typically measured in centimeters. However. The interpretation of a tectonic uplift is reasonable but evidence is not conclusive. The fault location is from the 1:24. 1996 #2047. Alternatively. Thirteen kilometers northeast along the strike of the structural grain lies an informative analog to the Mosholu fault (Merguerian and Sanders. approximately 1 km east of the Bronx River. Baskerville (1982 #2007) mapped the fault and renamed it the Mosholu Parkway fault zone. Seeber and Dawers (1989 #1894) suggested that the dextral slip is the older. The uplift would then have diverted the river. 1997 #1862). The Mosholu fault is one of the largest northwest-striking faults in the New York City area. Baskerville (1992 #1924) showed the curved fault extending 9.Mosholu fault (Class C) Structure Name Mosholu fault (Class C) Comments: The Mosholu fault is well mapped. Baskerville (1992 #1924) shortened the name to the Mosholu fault.

1897 #2065) reported that the gorge is 75 feet (23 m) deep and retains fresh potholes in its sides 25. the bends would be restraining or compressional and might have contributed to the formation of the bulge. However. At the diversion point. Geomorphic expression of the fault is not reported. The steep dip of the fault (see below) may make the first alternative more likely. Bedrock outcrops vary from scarce to absent. Merguerian and Sanders (1996 #2047. From the southeast. I found no mention of faulting in materials younger than the Proterozoic to Ordovician metamorphic rocks. The gorge is cut into resistant Proterozoic gneisses and schists (Baskerville. 1992 #1924). any such Quaternary strike slip on the Mosholu fault would reverse part of the presumably larger and older dextral slip that dominates the separation of the contact of the Inwood Marble. Merguerian and Sanders (1996 #2047. From a diversion point approximately 0. The potholes indicated to Kemp that the gorge was cut in glacial or post-glacial time. Reason for assignment to class C The faulting is not demonstrably of Quaternary age. Alternatively. 1997 #1862) (see below). the lowland continues southwestward as the Webster Avenue lowland. 1996 #2047). and 89° NE. the Bronx River now leaves the lowland and flows southward across an upland. The area around the fault is mantled by Pleistocene glacial till (Baskerville. 1992 #1924). If the fault slipped sinistrally. 1997 #1862) inferred the occurrence and age of the most recent faulting as follows. The shape of the trace of the Mosholu fault. Baskerville (1992 #1924) shows dips at three places along the fault. The diversion would have occurred at the start of the cutting. Kemp (1896 #1844. the Webster Avenue lowland is blocked in the sub- 234 . In addition. to join the Harlem River after traversing another 5-6 km. vertical. through the narrow V-shaped Snuff Mill gorge of Merguerian and Sanders (1996 #2047). includes two right-stepping bends adjacent to the "East 204th St. the Webster Avenue lowland presently contains only a small stream. all in the southeastern quarter of the trace. At the diversion point. 17. The Bronx River flows southwestward along a lowland underlain by the Inwood Marble. and 75 feet (8. from kinematic observations and petrographic and petrologic arguments like those of Ratcliffe and others (1990 #1943).7 km northeast of the fault.their absolute ages constrained. No detailed paleoseismological studies have been performed to test the possibility of Quaternary faulting. Merguerian and Sanders (1996 #2047. bulge" of Merguerian and Sanders (1996 #2047. 1997 #1862) attributed the diversion of the Bronx River to an uplift. and 23 m) above the present elevation of the river. the compressional nature of the stress field and the presence of the bulge also would be consistent with a component of reverse slip (Merguerian and Sanders. Thus. Sinistral slip is inferred for any Quaternary movement because it would be consistent with the present-day stress field. 1997 #1862) noted that the V-shaped cross section of the gorge and the lack of glacial striae on its fresh walls required the diversion and cutting to be younger than Pleistocene glaciation. All measurements were taken in schists and gneisses of the Cambrian-Ordovician Hartland Formation. and the Mosholu fault strikes northwest across the lowland. 55. as mapped by Baskerville (1992 #1924). the values are 45° NE.

However. Fluhr that the Mosholu fault. 1992 #1924) cites a written communication from T. Merguerian and Sanders (1996 #2047. Once formed. Immediately north of the diversion point. medium-grade metamorphic rocks during the short 12. 1996 #2047). the bedrock contours of Baskerville (1992 #1924) show that the subsurface structural relief of the East 204th St. original relief of 1-3 m. The attribution of the uplift to post-glacial slip on the Mosholu fault is a reasonable inference. but topographic contours and locations of bedrock outcrops indicate that the total length of the bulge is approximately 3 km. In addition. bulge. sheet 2) shows contours of the elevation of bedrock. southwestward to the diversion point (Merguerian and Sanders. multiply-folded.surface by the southeastern nose of a buried. Merguerian and Sanders (1997 #1862) cautioned that they cannot prove that the uplift occurred seismically instead of by aseismic creep. it appears unlikely that the bedrock trough formed mainly or entirely by stream or glacial erosion along the course of the fault. Perhaps more likely is that the bulge formed in a compressional bend during post-glacial sinistral slip on the Mosholu fault. bulge. The northwest-trending bulge is defined largely by a trough in bedrock along the southwest limb of the bulge. Merguerian and Sanders. However. Thus. even if post-glacial stream erosion has doubled or tripled the original relief of the uplift to reach the present 3-6 m. doubled or tripled. The crest of the bulge is approximately 0.000 years (Merguerian and Sanders.5 typically may have rupture zones approximately 3 km long and slip of 0. the topographic expression of the bulge might have been accentuated by post-glacial fluvial erosion. bedrock uplift that Merguerian and Sanders (1996 #2047) named the East 204th St. No such clay was found south of the diversion point in the Webster Avenue lowland (Merguerian and Sanders. Baskerville (1982 #2007. the rest of the relief would be large enough to indicate that it may have accumulated over several earthquakes. 1996 #2047) of post-glacial time. The map of Baskerville (1992 #1924. earthquakes of moment magnitude M 5.W. where observed in city water tunnels. The river would then have diverted southward across the upland. The bulge is more likely to be of tectonic than erosional origin. thereby damming the Bronx River and forming a lake in which the clay settled. and this map relation indicates the possibility that the trough formed by preferential erosion of fault-shattered rock or gouge. 1993 235 . if seismic. occurred in one large earthquake or many smaller ones.5 km northeast of the trace of the Mosholu fault. In stable continental regions worldwide. and need have no tectonic significance. and maintains or slightly decreases this separation as the bulge and the fault trend northwestward together. bulge is 3-6 m. For example. but is not demonstrated. 1996 #2047. 1997 #1862). Farther northwest. The contours allow the bulge to be traced northwestward for 2 km from its nose. In such a case the bulge could be an artifact of erosion.5 m (Johnston. borehole data indicate the presence of clay that overlies glacial till in the valley through which the Bronx River flowed. cutting the Snuff Mill gorge and eventually draining the lake through the gorge. However. and still flows. 1997 #1862) concluded that a post-glacial uplift formed the East 204th St. elongated. Perhaps one or more earthquakes are the most likely way to generate this much relief in exposed. the bedrock contours are lacking. could equal the present relief. is narrow and shows little weathering or alteration. Neither is there evidence with which to determine whether the uplift. The Mosholu fault strikes approximately along the middle of the trough.

1897.... Y. bulge. D. McGraw-Hill.]: Seismological Research Letters. 2 sheets. R. U. and Sanders.#1840).S. p. J. Glacial or post-glacial diversion of the Bronx River: Science.V.. movement history. 1993. 4.. #1844 Kemp. #2046 Lobeck.. in Legget. and Sanders. #1931 Fisher. L. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L.. Geologic map of New York— Lower Hudson sheet: New York State Museum and Science Service Map and Chart Series 15.. If the fault is vertical near the bulge.5 earthquakes. Orientation. Geological Survey State New York County Bronx 1° x 2° sheet New York Physiographic province New England References #2007 Baskerville. W. #2047 Merguerian. 1990. 18-24.M. 1896. Isachsen. Date of compilation 12/16/98. J. and Rickard.C.. evidence for postglacial surface faulting?. #1943 Ratcliffe..000.. C. Diversion of the Bronx River in New York City.F. and cataclastic rocks of Ramapo fault based on core drilling and trenching along the 236 .000. A. Wheeler. scale 1:250. 1970. J. Bedrock and engineering geologic maps of Bronx County and parts of New York and Queens Counties. p. v.E.W. no. p... p. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-2003.J. Geology under cities: Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology. M.S. Geomorphology—An introduction to the study of landscapes: New York.5 earthquakes. C. v. paper no. Long Island Geologists. 696. C. v.. The foundation geology of New York City. 731 p. A.. #1840 Johnston. pure dip slip could have produced the hypothetical original relief in perhaps 2-6 M 5.F. oblique slip along a rake of 30° could have produced the relief in perhaps 4-12 M 5. Burton. If the Mosholu fault dips 45° NE near the East 204th St. C. in Geology of Long Island and metropolitan New York: Stony Brook. 5. v. 3-4. 131-145. 1997. 64. p. 1996. 16. 198. 95-117. Bronx River diversion—Neotectonic implications: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 34. scale 1:24. J. The glacial or post-glacial diversion of the Bronx River from its old channel: Transactions of the New York Academy of Science.C. v. 1939.. 1982. #1862 Merguerian.A.F. and Pavich. New York: U. 1992. 261. #1924 Baskerville. #2065 Kemp. Average stable continental earthquake source parameters based on constant stress drop scaling [abs.. State University of New York at Stony Brook..W. ed. 1 sheet. N.A.E.K.

Characterization of an intraplate seismogenic fault in the Manhattan prong. p. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172.. N.. #1922 Zoback. p. 1 sheet.D. Westchester Co. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-1982.S. 523-539. N.C. M. 1989.Y. and Mooney.: Seismological Research Letters. and Dawers. M. 237 . 1989.western margin of the Newark basin near Berndardsville. W.L.D. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States.. New Jersey: U.. 71-78. eds.. L. #1894 Seeber.. and Zoback. L.. 60.. in Pakiser. v.

The westernmost of these four basins is the New York Bight basin. Eocene and Miocene strata are separated by an unconformity that has been dated elsewhere as middle Oligocene. 1985 #1833). and the structure of the basin is complex (Hutchinson and Grow. 1986 #1835). 1985 #1833). 1985 #1833.. 1985 #1833.000 (Lotto and others. 1985 #1833). As rifting gave way to drifting. The west side of the fault was dropped down as much as 109 m during and since the Late Cretaceous. Army Corps of Engineers. 1985 #1833. 1985 #1834). and east of northern New Jersey. The western edge of the New York Bight basin has not been imaged clearly in published reports to date. 1985 #1833. 1997 #2226) remapped the northern 38 km of the fault. The unconformity and overlying Miocene strata are not offset sufficiently to be detected with the profiles that were available to Hutchinson and Grow (1985 238 . 1997 #2226). Hutchinson and others.New York Bight fault (Class C) Structure Name New York Bight fault (Class C) Comments: A fault. a post-rift unconformity developed across the rifted basement and its sediment-filled rift basins. Lotto and others. The possibility of a strike-slip component cannot be evaluated with information available to Hutchinson and Grow (1985 #1833). The profiles cross the fault every 250 m along approximately 40 km of its length. oral and written communs. 1997 #2208). 1998). Lotto. In Cretaceous time the post-rifting New York Bight fault formed at or near the western edge of the New York Bight basin (Hutchinson and Grow. images the fault with high-resolution marine seismic-reflection profiles (Schwab and others. 1997 #2226) referred to it as both the New York Bight fault and the New York Bight fault zone. Work in progress by the U.S. Triassic-Jurassic rifting produced early Mesozoic rift basins to initiate the Atlantic margin. 1997 #2208).L. and L. 1997 #2225. including four basins on the Long Island Platform. 1997 #2224. The fault has no reported geomorphic expression. The fault dips nearly vertically and was traced on marine seismic-reflection profiles to within 8 km of the Long Island coast (Lotto and others.S. Hutchinson and others. Middle and late Quaternary sediments overlie the fault without offset larger than the 1-m limit of resolution. trends north-northeast in the Atlantic Ocean south of Long Island. Deposition of conformable Coastal Plain strata began to bury the post-rift unconformity during the Late Jurassic offshore and the Early Cretaceous onshore. dips are steeply to the west at some crossings and steeply to the east at others. with offsets decreasing upward to indicate growth faulting that continued at least until Eocene time (Hutchinson and Grow. Geological Survey. Any connection between the New York Bight basin and the New York Bight fault is unclear at present. However. 1997 #2224. Schwab and others. the fault trace is mapped at a scale of 1:75. Reason for assignment to class C The fault lacks documented Quaternary offset. Lotto and others. in cooperation with the U. The fault was named by Hutchinson and Grow (1985 #1833). south of Long Island and New England and east of New Jersey (Hutchinson and others. The west side of the fault is consistently down at all crossings along the north-northeast-striking fault (Hutchinson and Grow. Schwab and others. Schwab and others (1997 #2224. The fault's closest approach to the New Jersey coast is 27 km at its southern end (Hutchinson and Grow. 1997 #2208. 1986 #1835). 50 km long. Schwab and others (1997 #2224. The New York Bight fault strikes north-northeast for 50 km in the Atlantic Ocean on the Long Island Platform (Hutchinson and Grow. New York. 1997 #2226). 1997 #2208. Cretaceous to Eocene strata are offset (Hutchinson and Grow.

#1833). More recent seismic-reflection work in progress (see above) indicates that Cretaceous and Tertiary strata are overlain unconformably at the fault by middle and late Quaternary sediments (Lotto, 1997 #2208; Schwab, 1997 #2224; 1997 #2226, and L.L. Lotto, oral and written communs., 1998). The middle and late Quaternary sediments lack offsets larger than the 1-m limit of resolution. Therefore, the most recent offset is either smaller than 1 m or older than middle Quaternary. Individual faulting events have not been distinguished. In addition, discussion of recurrences would be premature unless the faulting events can be shown to have occurred seismically. Rates of dip slip can be estimated in two ways, both of which indicate that the rate is probably much less than 0.2 mm/yr. The estimates come from the marine seismic-reflection profiles of Hutchinson and Grow (1985 #1833). Accordingly, only dip slip can be estimated and the possibility of strike slip cannot be evaluated. If the New York Bight fault were to slip in the present-day stress field, the east-northeast trend of local greatest horizontal compression (Zoback and Zoback, 1989 #1922) implies that a dextral component might be likely. In such a case total slip would exceed dip slip. (1) Hutchinson and Grow (1985 #1833) tabulated amounts and ages of offsets of several reflectors. The youngest offset reflectors on four profiles are offset 5-50 m and range in age from 37-58 m.y. to 67 m.y. (2) If dip slip occurred at a rate of 0.2 mm/yr, the 1.6 Ma base of the Quaternary would be offset by 320 m. Such a large offset would have been seen and it was not (Hutchinson and Grow, 1985 #1833, fig 10; Lotto and others, 1997 #2208; Schwab and others, 1997 #2224; 1997 #2226). Date of compilation 12/16/98; revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Wheeler, U.S. Geological Survey State New York (offshore) County Nassau (offshore) 1° x 2° sheet New York Physiographic province Coastal Plain (offshore) References #1833 Hutchinson, D.R., and Grow, J.A., 1985, New York Bight fault: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 96, p. 975-989. #1834 Hutchinson, D.R., Klitgord, K.D., and Detrick, R.S., 1985, Block Island fault—A Paleozoic crustal boundary on the Long Island platform: Geology, v. 13, p. 875-879. #1835 Hutchinson, D.R., Klitgord, K.D., and Detrick, R.S., 1986, Rift basins of the Long Island platform: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 97, p. 688-702. #2208 Lotto, L., Allison, M.A., Schwab, W.C., Butman, B., Foster, D., Denny, J., and Corso, W., 1997, Seismic stratigraphy of the New York Bight, NY/NJ continental shelf: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no. 1, p. 62. #2224 Schwab, W.C., Allison, M.A., Corso, W., Lotto, L.L., Butman, B., Buchholtz ten Brink, M., Denny, J.F., Danforth, W.W., and Foster, D.S., 1997, Initial results of high-resolution sea-floor mapping offshore of the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area using sidescan sonar: Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 19, no. 4, p. 243-262.

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#2225 Schwab, W.C., Butman, B., Denny, J.F., Buchholtz ten Brink, M., Corso, W., Lotto, L., and Allison, M.A., 1997, High-resolution sea-floor mapping of the New York Bight apex—Sedimentary framework: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no. 1, p. 77. #2226 Schwab, W.C., Corso, W., Allison, M.A., Butman, B., Denny, J.F., Lotto, L.L., Danforth, W.W., Foster, D.S., O'Brien, T.F., Nichols, D.A., Irwin, B.J., and Parolski, K.F., 1997, Mapping the sea floor geology offshore of the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area using sidescan sonar—Preliminary report: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-61, 3 sheets. #1922 Zoback, M.L., and Zoback, M.D., 1989, Tectonic stress field of the continental United States, in Pakiser, L.C., and Mooney, W.D., eds., Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172, p. 523-539.

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Northeast Ohio seismic zone (Class C) Structure Name Northeast Ohio seismic zone (Class C) Comments: The Northeast Ohio seismic zone was named by Seeber and Armbruster (1993 #1892). It is defined by the epicenters of 20 earthquakes dating back to 1836 (Hansen, 1993 #1829). Seeber and Armbruster (1993 #1892) excluded three other nearby earthquakes because (1) a 1928 earthquake in Lorain County is too far west, (2) a 1987 earthquake to the east in Ashtabula County was induced, and (3) an 1857 earthquake that was originally located in Ashtabula County has a recalculated location approximately 80 km to the northwest, in the middle of Lake Erie. The 20 epicenters of the seismic zone form a diffuse cluster that is approximately 80 km long in the northeast-southwest direction and approximately 40 km wide (Hansen, 1993 #1829). The 11 largest epicenters are more tightly aligned along an approximately N. 30° E. trend and lie along and northwest of the Akron Magnetic Lineament (Seeber and Armbruster, 1993 #1892). One of the aligned earthquakes occurred on January 31, 1986, at a depth of 4-6 km, had a moment magnitude of M 4.6-4.9, produced Modified Mercalli intensities up to VI-VII, and had almost pure dextral slip on a plane oriented N. 55° E. / 73° SE (Nicholson and others, 1988 #2214). Aftershocks aligned roughly parallel to this plane and spanned an area of approximately 6 square kilometers in the steeply dipping plane (Nicholson and others, 1988 #2214). The area spanned by the aftershocks is similar to the 510 square kilometers that would be expected as the area of a typical rupture zone of this magnitude earthquake, in a stable continental region like northeastern Ohio (Johnston, 1993 #1840). Reason for assignment to class C: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the Northeast Ohio seismic zone. The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps, which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131, 12 maps, scale 1:7,000,000; http://geohazards.cr.usgs.gov/eq/). In the Central and Eastern U.S. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front, the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard. In the CEUS, the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity, this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large, prehistoric earthquakes. Where present, this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. In the CEUS, the most common types of surficial evidence of large, prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. However, in some areas the surficial record of large, prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion, equivocal, or presently unrecognized. Nonetheless, the national hazard maps show that, for many parts of the CEUS, although convincing surficial evidence of large, prehistoric earthquakes is absent, these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard. The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. Obermeier examined selected stream banks in the Northeast Ohio seismic zone for prehistoric liquefaction features that might indicate the occurrence of prehistoric earthquakes of magnitudes 6 or larger (S. Obermeier, unpub. annual report accessed July 28, 1998 on the World

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Wide Web at URL http://erp-web.er.usgs.gov/reports/VOL37/CU/obermeir.htm, ASCII (text) format). The stream banks contain exposures of deposits of various Holocene ages. No liquefaction features were found, although the scarcity of suitable exposures precludes definitive statements about prehistoric earthquakes (S. Obermeier, unpublished memorandum to Andrew Murphy, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, dated May 23, 1996). More work would be needed for a complete survey. I know of no other geologic work that has been done on the seismic zone. Accordingly, the zone lacks paleoseismological evidence for Quaternary faulting, and is assigned to class C. Date of compilation 07/29/98; revised 02/01/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Wheeler, U.S. Geological Survey State Ohio County Cuyahoga and offshore; Lake and offshore; Geauga; Summit; Portage 1° x 2° sheet Cleveland Physiographic province Appalachian Plateaus; Central Lowland References #1829 Hansen, M.C., 1993, Earthquakes and seismic risk in Ohio: Ohio Geology, summer issue, p. 1 and 3-6. #1840 Johnston, A.C., 1993, Average stable continental earthquake source parameters based on constant stress drop scaling [abs.]: Seismological Research Letters, v. 64, p. 261. #2214 Nicholson, C., Roeloffs, E., and Wesson, R.L., 1988, The northeastern Ohio earthquake of 31 January 1986—Was it induced?: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 78, p. 188-217. #1892 Seeber, L., and Armbruster, J.G., 1993, Natural and induced seismicity in the Lake ErieLake Ontario region—Reactivatioin of ancient faults with little neotectonic displacement: Géographie physique et Quaternaire, v. 47, p. 363-378.

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Norumbega fault system (Class C) Structure Name Norumbega fault system (Class C) Comments: Stewart and Wones (1974 #2055) named the Norumbega fault (see also Wones and Stewart, 1976 #1919; Wones and Thompson, 1979 #1920). It is now recognized as a multi-stranded fault system that stretches at least 400 km northeastward across southeastern Maine and southwestern New Brunswick, and perhaps far beyond in both directions (Ludman, 1998 #1855). The state geologic map shows the fault system as a belt of discrete faults 2-15 km wide (Osberg and others, 1985 #1940). However, more recent work indicates that the fault system consists of a belt of distributed strain up to several tens of kilometers wide, with higher strain concentrated in narrow zones one to a few kilometers wide (Swanson, 1992 #2231; 1994 #2233; Hubbard and others, 1995 #1831; West and Hubbard, 1997 #1912; Ludman, 1998 #1855; Ludman and Gibbons, 1999 #1989; Ludman and others, 1999 #1990). In southwestern Maine, where midcrustal rocks are exposed, early strain was mostly ductile with brittle strain superimposed as erosion cut down toward present levels; whereas, in northeastern Maine, where upper crustal rocks are exposed because of less uplift and erosion, strain was mostly brittle. Reason for assignment to class C No structural, stratigraphic, paleoseismological, or similar evidence is reported for Quaternary motion on the fault system. The Norumbega fault system was considered in this compilation of evidence for Quaternary faulting for four reasons. (1) It has a long history of repeated, Devonian and later Paleozoic, right-lateral slip (Swanson, 1992 #2231; 1993 #2232; 1994 #2233; Ludman and West, 1996 #2041; West and Hubbard, 1997 #1912; Ludman, 1998 #1855; West, 1999 #1988; Ludman and Gibbons, 1999 #1989; Ludman and others, 1999 #1990). Repeated reactivation of a fault is often used as evidence of an increased potential for additional slip, which might occur seismically. (2) Thermochronologic and seismic-reflection data indicate that parts of the fault system underwent several kilometers of Mesozoic or younger normal slip (West and others, 1993 #1913; Doll and others, 1996 #1814; West, 1999 #1988). A worldwide survey of damaging earthquakes in stable continental regions found that large earthquakes occur preferentially in passive margins and continental rifts, with the preference being strongest for areas that underwent Mesozoic or Cenozoic extension (Johnston, 1989 #2039; 1994 #2040). Thus, extensional reactivation of part of the Norumbega fault system during or since the Mesozoic initiation of the Atlantic passive continental margin indicates the likelihood of elevated earthquake potential. (3) In six outcrops along 135 km of the fault system, small faults a few meters long offset glaciated pavements vertically by 1.5-30.0 mm; one of the small faults offsets the bedrock-till contact (Thompson, 1979 #1905; 1981 #1978). However, it is not known whether these small offsets occurred seismically, or even whether the small faults are tectonic. Koons (1989 #1999) compiled locations of these and 50 other similarly faulted exposures throughout Maine. Koons observed that all the postglacial faults are in stratified rock, and that the faults parallel joints or local bedrock fabric instead of being oriented systematically with respect to the regional compressive stress. Koons attributed the small postglacial faults to frost heaving or glaciotectonic effects in strata that are decoupled from their substrates by sheeting joints.

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(4) Ebel and Spotila (1991 #1819; 1992 #1820) observed that several small earthquakes occurred along the Norumbega fault system since 1975, and that focal mechanisms of five of the earthquakes show reverse faulting on nodal planes that strike parallel to the fault system. Ebel and Spotila (1991 #1819; 1992 #1820) speculated that parts of the fault system might be slipping in the present-day compressional stress field. However, most recently Ebel and Spotila (1999 #2011) noted that no strand of the Norumbega fault system has yet produced evidence of Holocene tectonic faulting, and that the aligned epicenters and few focal mechanisms are not strong evidence for seismic reactivation. Accordingly, the Norumbega is assigned to class C in this compilation. Date of compilation 04/22/98; revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Wheeler, U.S. Geological Survey State Maine County York; Cumberland; Sagadahoc; Lincoln; Kennebec; Waldo; Penobscot; Hancock; Washington 1° x 2° sheet Portland; Bangor; Millinocket; Fredericton Physiographic province New England References #1814 Doll, W.E., Domoracki, W.J., Costain, J.K., Çoruh, C., Ludman, A., and Hopeck, J.T., 1996, Seismic reflection evidence for the evolution of a transcurrent fault system—The Norumbega fault zone, Maine: Geology, v. 24, p. 251-254. #1819 Ebel, J.E., and Spotila, J.A., 1991, Seismicity along the Norumbega fault in Maine [abs.]: Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 72, no. 44 (supplement), p. 336. #1820 Ebel, J.E., and Spotila, J.A., 1992, Seismicity along the Norumbega fault in New England—Implications for seismic hazard in the northeast United States: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 24, no. 3, p. 17-18. #2011 Ebel, J.E., and Spotilla, J.A., 1999, Modern earthquake activity and the Norumbega fault zone, in Ludman, A., and West, D.P., Jr., eds., Norumbega fault system of the northern Appalachians: Geological Society of America Special Paper 331, p. 195-202. #1831 Hubbard, M.S., West, D.P., Jr., Ludman, A., Guidotti, C.V., and Lux, D.R., 1995, The Norumbega fault zone, Maine—A mid- to shallow-level crustal section within a transcurrent shear zone: Atlantic Geology, v. 31, p. 109-116. #2039 Johnston, A.C., 1989, The seismicity of ‘stable continental interiors', in Gregersen, S., and Basham, P.W., eds., Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins—Neotectonics and postglacial rebound: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 299-327. #2040 Johnston, A.C., 1994, Seismotectonic interpretations and conclusions from the stable continental region seismicity database, in Schneider, J.F., ed., The earthquakes of stable

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A. ed. Neotectonics of Maine—Studies in seismicity. southcentral and south-coastal Maine. #1940 Osberg. 1979. p.. p. Timing of displacements along the Norumbega fault system. 1999.P..T.P.H. 1999. p. p.T. v.. in Ludman... eds. Constraints on timing and displacement of multistage shearing in the Norumbega fault system. 3. #1999 Koons.B.M. no. Postglacial bedrock faulting in Maine. Norumbega 245 . Jr. in Ludman. #1978 Thompson.. p.. v.. and West. and Boone. P.. D. Postglacial faulting along the Norumbega fault zone. no... 1994. A. 1998. Maine: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 41-57. 28. 1. 1974. 223-239. Norumbega fault system of the northern Appalachians: Geological Society of America Special Paper 331. eastern Maine: U. and Gibbons. 77.B. D. Jr. eds.. 1999. A. Late Acadian-Alleghenian transpressional deformation—Evidence from asymmetric bondinage in the Casco Bay area.. D. p. 4-1—4-103.. W..B. v.W... Geology of east-central and north-central Maine: New England Intercollegiate Geological Conference 64th guidebook. eastern Maine: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. C. Jr.. D. G. crustal warping. eds.. 75. #2231 Swanson.P. 1993. #2041 Ludman. Multistage shearing of the Deblois granite in the Kellyland fault zone. p.continental regions—v..S. D... 93-107. W.T. p. eds. A-478. scale 1:500.. 25. and West. The Casco Bay restraining bend on the Norumbega fault zone—A model for regional deformation in coastal Maine: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. and sealevel change: Maine Geological Survey Bulletin 40. Palo Alto.. 20..P.000. Lux.H. no. Norumbega fault system of the northern Appalachians: Geological Society of America Special Paper 331. and Wang.. #1989 Ludman. p. Postglacial faulting in the vicinity of the Norumbega fault zone. shallow crustal generation of mylonites: examples from the Norumbega fault zone. D. Arthur. H.. #1905 Thompson. v. v. #2055 Stewart. A. Jr. M. eastern Maine.. no. Lanzirotti. p. M.. v. #1855 Ludman.. 1992.. coastal Maine: Journal of Structural Geology. D. A. Jr. eastern Maine: Journal of Structural Geology. 179-194. 1996. and West. A. A. 56. #2232 Swanson. S... Jr. H. Evolution of transcurrent fault system in shallow crustal metasedimentary rocks—The Norumbega fault zone. December 1994. and Borns. W. 3. in Osberg. and Wones.R. and West.. 323-341. P. eds.. Assessment of large earthquake potential: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V1. #1990 Ludman. D... 26. M. 1. 1989.M.. Minimum dextral shear strain estimates in the Casco Bay area of coastal Maine from vein reorientation and elongation: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 6. in Anderson. p. #1988 West. 14.A. A. 1985. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-1039. eastern Maine. Bedrock geologic map of Maine: Maine Geological Survey.. 1981. California. in Ludman.. 149-155.P. #2233 Swanson. 19 p. Bedrock geology of northern Penobscot Bay area... 1 pl. "Cool". 11.. D.

D.P. D. Jr. and Hussey. 1993. 1478-1490. M.. 273. Jr. and Hubbard. Lux. D. D.. W. 1976.S.P. A..R..R.M. #1912 West. p.. south-central Maine. p. v. Progressive localization of deformation during exhumation of a major strike-slip shear zone—Norumbega fault zone. 1997. 105. p.R. #1920 Wones. no. D. 60. v. southwestern Maine—Evidence for Mesozoic displacement: Geological Society of America Bulletin... #1919 Wones. 246 . no. 304... 8. The Norumbega fault zone—A major regional structure in central eastern Maine: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 167-178. Contrasting thermal histories across the Flying Point fault. p. p. 185-201.. 1. Middle Paleozoic regional right-lateral strike-slip faults in central coastal Maine: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. D.fault system of the northern Appalachians: Geological Society of America Special Paper 331. 11.B. and Thompson. II. and Stewart.. #1913 West. USA: Tectonophysics. v. 1979. v. 2.

Gates (1989 #1997) estimated that the vertical fault has slipped approximately 3 km in a sinistral oblique sense since its inception. One possible fault scarp was found in Oak Bay. U. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. 1994 #2040). northeast-striking. Manspeizer. Accordingly. 1989 #1997). The fault is mostly underwater in the St. and the possible scarp might result from current reworking of sediment (Kelley and others.Oak Bay fault (Class c) Structure Name Oak Bay fault (Class C) Comments: The Oak Bay fault strikes north-northwest along the Maine-New Brunswick border. Gates. and which apparently use slightly different locations for some of the earthquakes. 1985 #1940. with the northeast side down. is crossed by a probably unfaulted diabase dike of latest Early Jurassic age. 1989 #2000). The possibility that the Oak Bay fault formed during the Mesozoic extensional development of the Atlantic passive continental margin indicates a possibility of elevated earthquake potential. seeking evidence of Quaternary faulting. 1989 #2039. trending inland from the Atlantic coast for approximately 58 km (Osberg and others.S. 1985 #1940. Thus. However. 1989 #1996). However. The Oak Bay fault is considered in this compilation of Quaternary faulting for four reasons. 1989 #1997). Geological Survey State Maine 247 . Croix River and western Passamaquoddy Bay. This strike and the vertical dip that was inferred by Gates (1989 #1997) make it unlikely that the fault would slip seismically. 1989 #2063). Where the fault is exposed at its northwestern end. show no such alignment (Ebel. Date of compilation 04/01/98. Newman (1979 #1985) found no evidence of Quaternary slip on the Oak Bay fault on land. The Oak Bay fault cuts northeast-striking strands of a regional Carboniferous fault system. (1) A worldwide survey of damaging earthquakes in stable continental regions found that large earthquakes occur preferentially in passive margins and continental rifts. Wheeler. the north-northwest-striking fault is nearly perpendicular to the regional greatest horizontal compressive stress (Ebel. and youngest fault exposed in or near the seismically active Passamaquoddy Bay area (Osberg and others. 1989 #1996. the Oak Bay fault is assigned to class C for lack of demonstrated Quaternary faulting. Gates. straightest. (3) Kelley and others (1989 #1998) collected marine seismic-reflection data along 1000 km of profiles in seven bays along the Maine coast. (2) Epicenters of six small earthquakes form a weak alignment along part of the Oak Bay fault (Lee and Diehl. 1989 #1997). it is a fault zone a kilometer wide (Gates. 1989 #1997). 1989 #1997. Reason for assignment to class C: No evidence is reported for Quaternary slip. with the preference being strongest for areas that underwent Mesozoic or Cenozoic extension (Johnston. (4) The Oak Bay fault is the longest. Gates. 1989 #1998). border fault of the Fundy Basin of Triassic-Jurassic age (Gates. and is considered to terminate underwater at its southeast end against the offshore. other epicenter maps that span longer periods of time. They found numerous scattered slumps and small gas deposits. the movement on the Oak Bay fault is of Carboniferous-Early Jurassic age. but it is ambiguously resolved on a noisy record. Johnston.

and Borns. Jr. and Borns.W. and Boone. An investigation of neotectonic activity in coastal Maine by seismic reflection methods. #2063 Manspeizer.W. S. in Schneider.T.E. scale 1:5. 1. and Viele. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. eds. J. 1989.F.. R. G.... #2040 Johnston.000. W. December 1994.. 248 . and Miller.F..A. 11-24. 1989.. #1998 Kelley. p. 4-1—4-103.. ed.B..A. 299-327.. Onshore and offshore Late Triassic-Early Jurassic basins. F.W. The geology and geophysics of the Passamaquoddy Bay area.. in Anderson. The seismicity of ‘stable continental interiors'. S. in Anderson.D. W. scale 1:500. A. Maine and New Brunswick. #1985 Newman. Belknap. eds. and sea-level change: Maine Geological Survey Bulletin 40. crustal warping. eds. W. #2000 Lee.. Geological Society of America. eds. in Hatcher. compiler.. p.T. and sea-level change: Maine Geological Survey Bulletin 40. Arthur. G. 1 pl.. R.A. 7 p. J. P. J. Geomechanical aspects of subsidence in eastern Maine..C. p. H. P. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins—Neotectonics and postglacial rebound: Dordrecht. #1940 Osberg.. Jr. D. crustal warping.. in Gregersen. Seismotectonic interpretations and conclusions from the stable continental region seismicity database. 1979. eastern United States and parts of Maritime Canada. F-2. W.. #2039 Johnston. plate 5A.A. crustal warping. and sea-level change: Maine Geological Survey Bulletin 40. 209-218. eds. v. in Anderson. Assessment of large earthquake potential: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V1.C.H. 1989. S. and Basham. 1985.M. W... O. Neotectonics of Maine—Studies in seismicity. Bedrock geologic map of Maine: Maine Geological Survey. in Anderson..W. The seismicity of Maine.M. Jr. H.. Shipp. Neotectonics of Maine—Studies in seismicity..County Washington 1° x 2° sheet Fredericton.000. and their bearing on local subsidence. 1989. 219-228. H.. H. Colorado. and sea-level change: Maine Geological Survey Bulletin 40... 1989. 1994. 157-204.. The Geology of North America.000.C. The Netherlands. eds. and Diehl.. p. eds.. and Borns. 79-20. #1997 Gates. Kluwer Academic Publishers..A.. Jr. crustal warping..W. The possibility of Pleistocene-Holocene movement along the Oak Bay fault on the Maine-New Brunswick border: Maine Geological Survey Open-File Report No.. The Appalachian-Ouachita Orogen in the United States: Boulder.. p. Neotectonics of Maine—Studies in seismicity.W.. H. Thomas.. W.. Jr.F.. A.A.. W.. Neotectonics of Maine—Studies in seismicity. Palo Alto.. 1989. Eastport Physiographic province New England References #1996 Ebel. p.. California. and Borns..

Ratcliffe (1982 #2221). Offsets are typically in the millimeter to decimeter range although rare occurrences exceed 1 m. (3) present-day tectonic stresses. without any dominant relationship to the east-northeast trend of present-day greatest horizontal compressive stress. or striated rock surfaces are offset on small. presumably during chemical weathering. In North America most of the glaciated shield is now virtually aseismic. at least in comparison to the Phanerozoic orogens and rifted terranes that rim the shield (Wesnousky and Scholz. Johnston. Nova Scotia. steeply dipping faults at numerous localities in the northeastern U. I am unaware of anyone who has made a systematic literature or field search for such localities throughout the Northeast. Strikes of the postglacial faults box the compass. and should present no or negligible seismic hazard. The argument of Oliver and others (1970 #2219) applies to faults that form along well-developed cleavage in slates.. all of them in the Hudson River Valley. and the consequent implications for seismic hazard. where the small faults in glaciated surfaces have been reported by Oliver and others (1970 #2219). and New Brunswick. (1) Oliver and others (1970 #2219) elaborated on an earlier suggestion that the faults formed as a result of volume increase caused by hydration. but cannot explain the faults that Isachsen (1985 #2038) and Koons (1989 #1999) observed in massive rocks. Isachsen (1985 #2038). The most likely causes include (1) expansion caused by hydration. 1996 #2205). and (4) frost heaving (Oliver and others. as explained in the following paragraphs. because. and another 17 in Quebec. the subsequent decay of the stresses caused by deglaciation indicates that the small offsets should no longer be forming. Reason for assignment to class C: The small fault offsets of glaciated surfaces are assigned to class C for this compilation of geological evidence of Quaternary faulting. strike-parallel belt of Paleozoic slates in the 249 . their most likely origin is in frost heaving. as well as in natural outcrops far from possible artificial triggers. if the small offsets did form then. polished. 1992 #2243). Wheeler and Johnston. 1985 #2038). and Koons (1989 #1999) reviewed 56 in Maine. Faults are found near artificial or blasted exposures. and in both layered and massive rocks. Oliver and others (1970 #2219) summarized 12 localities in the Hudson River Valley of eastern New York State and in New England. Isachsen (1985 #2038) reported on seven localities in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. form the impetus for the cited studies. 1970 #2219. (2) Dip-slip faulting produced a few large scarps in glaciated continental shields shortly after removal of the ice load (for example. I do not know of sufficient evidence with which to test the hypothesis that the small offsets might have formed shortly after the removal of the ice load. and Koons (1989 #1999).Offset glaciated surfaces (Class C) Structure Name Offset glaciated surfaces (Class C) Comments: Glacially smoothed. The possibility that the small faults record continuing postglacial tectonic deformation. However. Isachsen. (3) Oliver and others (1970 #2219) favored a tectonic origin over frost heaving because (a) the faults in their compilation are mostly in a narrow. The large scarps have not been reported from the Northeast and adjacent Canada.S. (2) stress changes or rebound accompanying or closely following deglaciation. However. 1980 #2242. and dip slip dominates. Ratcliffe (1982 #2221) analyzed three localities of Oliver and others (1970 #2219) and seven new ones. chiefly high-grade gneisses.

U. Thus. and dip southeast to east. they would be the upper edges of faults with lengths and down-dip widths measured in kilometers. An earthquake of M 3. a tectonic origin in the present-day stress field is unlikely. Geological Survey State Maine. Date of compilation 08/17/98. 155). parallel to cleavage. p.western Appalachians. calculations demonstrate that they are still unlikely to affect hazard.S. An origin by glacial unloading is presently an untestable hypothesis. In addition. who studied the Paleozoic slates initially summarized by Oliver and others (1970 #2219). Ratcliffe found downward-tapering voids bounded by slaty cleavage and joints or other small brittle faults. folds in cleavage "form subhorizontal to gently dipping ‘lift off' floors to probable ice wedge blocks in some exposures" (Ratcliffe. revised 02/01/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. 1989 #1999). parallel to local rock strike or to joints. and observed that all formed in layered rocks. In summary. 76). and sheeting" (Koons. (4) Koons (1989 #1999) examined the largest group of faults. It is highly unlikely that faults of such large and variable sizes would all chance to have their upper edges at ground level over five states. whereas the small faults have now been found in all orientations (Isachsen.0. Wheeler. subsequently Koons (1989 #1999) reported instances of irregular breakage by small faults in Maine. In addition. the small faults are unlikely to penetrate more than a few tens to hundreds of meters downward. 1989 #1922. schistosity.5. I assume that the small faults have lengths approximately equal to their downdip widths. they are unlikely to be related to seismic hazard. However. New York. Vermont 250 . which they expected would break heaved blocks irregularly. These dimensions and dip slips are typical of the offset glaciated surfaces. and (c) the small faults that they studied tend strongly to parallel the strike of cleavage instead of cross it. (b) many offsets are uniform in size over horizontal distances of many meters. 1985 #2038. 1982 #2221. which indicate that frost heaving may have extracted the missing wedges of rock. In the unlikely event that the small faults are of tectonic origin. the small faults that offset glaciated surfaces are assigned to class C because. Koons. with both measured in tens to hundreds of meters. estimates of Johnston (1993 #1840) show that a small fault with a 55m trace and 1 cm of dip slip could host an earthquake moment magnitude M 2. The most thorough analysis was that of Ratcliffe (1982 #2221). The diverse host lithologies and orientations of the small faults are evidence against an origin by hydration or present-day tectonism. Oliver and others (1970 #2219) considered the uniform offsets and parallelism to cleavage to be unlikely results of frost heaving. the evidence supports a frost-wedging origin more than any other likely origin. Zoback and Zoback. Ratcliffe's observations strongly favor frost heaving over recent tectonism as a probable cause of the small faults that he examined. He suggested an origin in "frost heaving or glaciotectonic effects in rocks broken by bedding. If they did penetrate much deeper. 1989 #1999. but it would present negligible hazard.5 would probably be felt. Accordingly. Thus. p. Ten cm of dip slip on a fault with a 232m trace could produce M 3. although they are Quaternary in age. First. Massachusetts. Second. present-day greatest horizontal compressive stresses trend east-northeast throughout the Northeast. and the faults would be likely to vary greatly in size. New Hampshire. No evidence requires an origin other than in frost heaving.

14. 63. #2205 Johnston. Structural and tectonic studies in New York State—Final report. 274. 48. Glens Falls.G. W.. Columbia. Utica. July 1981-June 1982: U.. 75 p. v. 4.L. N. no. Average stable continental earthquake source parameters based on constant stress drop scaling [abs. 1970. 735. J. #2243 Wheeler. 1. and Zoback. Glens Falls. Bath.County Aroostook. Albany. p. p. A. Edmundston. Neotectonics of Maine—Studies in seismicity. L. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172. Valley and Ridge.L. Cumberland..C. Sagadahoc. Lake Champlain. Waldo (Maine). 1989.2. 348-355.. Postglacial bedrock faulting in Maine. 1985. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/CR3178.A.C. R. Washington.S. v. no. Warren (New York). Bangor.. J. D. v.C. Penobscot.. and Dorman. A.. p. v. in Pakiser.. Putnam. 491-514. and Scholz. eds. York. v. Rensselaer. Bristol (Massachusetts). 261.M.W. p. A wave in the earth: Science. #1922 Zoback. #1999 Koons.. Franklin.D. Providence Physiographic province New England. 1992. Lewiston.H. M. 149-155.. p. and Mooney. Johnson. Somerset. and Borns..]: Seismological Research Letters. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States. Dutchess. 64..W. in Anderson.C. Tectonic versus frost-wedging origin of faulted glacially polished surfaces in the lower Hudson River Valley area: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. p. Portland. T. 579-590. Geologic implications of earthquake source parameters in central and eastern North America: Seismological Research Letters.. C. M. 1982.. 1993. Postglacial faulting and seismicity in New York and Quebec: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 523-539. 1980. 1996.. crustal warping.. Jr. #2219 Oliver. A. p. Lewiston. p. and Johnston. 7. Hamilton.. 251 .. eds. 1989. Millinocket. Piscataquis. v.. H. W. Y. Rutland (Vermont) 1° x 2° sheet Presque Isle. Essex..D. The craton—Its effect on the distribution of seismicity and stress in North America: Earth and Planetary Science Letters.. Quebec. and sea-level change: Maine Geological Survey Bulletin 40. Hartford. Adirondack References #2038 Isachsen. #2242 Wesnousky. S. 76. #1840 Johnston. Fredericton. #2221 Ratcliffe. Grafton (New Hampshire).

and gravel of the Yorktown Formation (Berquist and Bailey... 727-732. and have trace lengths of 100-150 m. Accordingly. the sediments form most hills and the rocks are mainly exposed in drainages. I informally name the faults after the heavy mineral deposit in which they occur.S.. but others were buried by muddy sand beds that contain pebbles and cobbles in the Yorktown Formation. indicate east-northeast shortening parallel to the modern greatest horizontal compressive stress.R. Berquist and Bailey (1999 #3879) found no evidence of Holocene faulting. 1999. and Bailey. in the Coastal Plain province. Beginning in 1997 the sediment was quarried for heavy minerals. 1999 #3879). representing possible reactivation of Paleozoic faults (Berquist and Bailey. Reason for assignment to class C: The faulting was probably of Pliocene age. 1999 #3879). Late Cenozoic reverse faulting in the fall zone. Jr. Wheeler. and the quarrying first exposes and then destroys the faults. Geological Survey State Virginia County Dinwiddie. The faults strike northwest and west-northwest. p. This interpretation. in the Piedmont physiographic province. 252 . The Old Hickory deposit is in the Fall Zone. 107. 1999 #3879). revised 2/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. C. Sussex 1° x 2° sheet Norfolk Physiographic province Coastal Plain References #3879 Berquist. C. dip 45 to 70 degrees to both northeast and southwest. Berquist and Bailey (1999 #3879) interpreted the muddy sand beds as debris flows shed from upfaulted blocks. The Paleozoic rocks are widely exposed to the west. Date of compilation 12/16/99.Old Hickory faults (Class C) Structure Name Old Hickory faults (Class C) Comments: The youngest sediments mined and involved in faulting at the Old Hickory Heavy Mineral Deposit are Pliocene clays. Reverse and reverse-oblique slip on five small faults transported saprolite developed from the metamorphic and igneous rocks over the sediments. Topographic relief at and near the deposit is on the order of 50 ft (15 m). the irregular boundary between the two physiographic provinces. whereas the Pliocene sediments are exposed to the east. Some of the faults extended to present-day ground level before they were removed by quarrying. The sediments are up to 12 m thick and overlie Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Appalachians. together indicate that Yorktown deposition and faulting were coeval (Berquist and Bailey. Throw is up to 6 m.M. Southeastern Virginia: Journal of Geology. v. sand. U. and the observation that some faults were buried by the muddy sand beds.

1983 #1962. Prowell (1996 #1939) mapped a fluvial unit of sand. However. a nuclear fuels processing plant. Johnston. In addition. indicating a prolonged compressional history as a growth fault (Snipes and others. for at least 24 km across the Savannah River Site. Reason for assignment to class C: The Pen Branch fault is assigned to class C in this compilation of Quaternary faulting because of its lack of evidence for post-Eocene slip. southeast-dipping fault is consistent with compressional reactivation in the east-northeast-trending. Reverse or reverse-dextral slip on this northeast-striking. but it is well characterized by dense subsurface control from wells. the fault was considered for two reasons. post—Miocene fault movement is unlikely (D. the youngest horizon that is known to be faulted is the top of the Dry Branch Formation of Late Eocene age (Snipes and others. Prowell. 253 . a Quaternary soil horizon 3-6 m thick is exposed across the projected trend of the Pen Branch fault. 1989 #2039. 1989 #1922). First. gravel. 1993 #1896). However. The Coastal Plain strata are underlain by Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and. 1993 #1896. from approximately 700 ft (210 m) in the northwest to 1400 ft (430 m) in the southeast (Fallaw and Price. 1994 #2040). southeast of the Pen Branch fault. 1995 #1900). and lacks discernable offset (Snipes and others. 1995 #1900). post-extension. A worldwide survey of damaging earthquakes in stable continental regions found that large earthquakes occur preferentially in passive margins and continental rifts. The Pen Branch fault dips 50° SE in the Coastal Plain units and shallows at least to 40° SE in basement (Stieve and Stephenson. Stieve and Stephenson. with the preference being strongest for areas that underwent Mesozoic or Paleogene extension (Johnston. Indeed. seismic-reflection profiles. Mesozoic extensional faults like those that bound the Dunbarton basin may be susceptible to modern compressional reactivation and thereby may have elevated earthquake potential. reverse offsets of Late Cretaceous and younger horizons on the Pen Branch fault decrease upward.C. Stieve and Stephenson. Structure contours on the base of the unit and field observations near the Pen Branch fault indicate that the upland unit has no abrupt irregularities at its base over the projected intersection of the fault with the land surface. but the Pen Branch fault is the best characterized. by Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that fill the extensional Dunbarton basin (Daniels and others. 1998). and other geophysical data (Snipes and others. 1995 #1822). 1993 #1896. Stieve and Stephenson. the "upland unit". similarly oriented faults underlie other parts of the Savannah River site and its surroundings (Stieve and Stephenson. Snipes and others. 1993 #1896. written communs. 1995 #1900).Pen Branch fault (Class C) Structure Name Pen Branch fault (Class C) Comments: The Pen Branch fault is nowhere exposed. 1993 #1896. Therefore. 1996 #1939). 1993 #1896). 1995 #1900). Second. 55° E. Triassic to Holocene Coastal Plain strata thicken southeastward across the 300 square mi. Only the Middle Eocene and younger units are exposed (Prowell. the dip component of the most recent documented slip on the Pen Branch fault is reverse (Snipes and others. and clay of possible Miocene age. Dennis and others. The fault strikes N. greatest horizontal compressive stress (SHmax) that characterizes the Southeast generally (Zoback and Zoback. In fact. Thus. (780 square km) site. 1997 #1811). 1993 #1896). it is the upward continuation into Cenozoic strata of the northwestern border fault of the extensional Dunbarton basin of Mesozoic age (Snipes and others. 1995 #1900). Other..

. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. J.S.. A single-earthquake focal mechanism indicates mostly sinistral strike slip and has one tightly constrained nodal plane oriented at N.W. at depths close to that of the shallow hypocenter. K1-K24.S. Repeated Phanerozoic reactivation of a southern Appalachian fault zone beneath the up-dip Coastal Plain of South Carolina: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 55˚ E. Seismotectonic interpretations and conclusions from the stable continental region seismicity database. p. U. The Netherlands. 35. Stratigraphy of the Savannah River Site and vicinity: Southeastern Geology. eds. P. In addition. Thus. not sinistral...J.C. Zietz. H. 1989. W. Geological Survey State South Carolina County Barnwell 1° x 2° sheet Augusta Physiographic province Coastal Plain References #1962 Daniels. Wheeler. D. 43° E. Wright. The seismicity of ‘stable continental interiors'.. Talwani and others (1985 #1903) suggested that the earthquake occurred by dominantly sinistral reactivation of part of the Pen Branch fault. G. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1983. as does the Pen Branch fault at N. a nodal plane that strikes N. However. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313-K.6 km. and Popenoe. 21-58.3 km) and plots 3 km northwest of the trace of the Pen Branch fault. South Carolina. Studies related to the Charleston. The epicenter is well constrained (ERH = 0. 1.6 occurred inside the Savannah River Site at a depth of 0. #1822 Fallaw. Date of compilation 08/19/98.S. J. S.D.. 29. 1994. #1811 Dennis. 1997.. V.96 km (ERZ = 1. A. Maher. ed.on June 9. A. Talwani and others. and (2) the extensive drilling.. Mauldin. / 46° SE. p. and seismic-reflection program at the site produced no indications of strike slip motion on the fault. 1985 an earthquake of duration magnitude MD 2.L. the relation of the earthquake to the Pen Branch fault is questionable. P. Assessment of large earthquake potential: Technical 254 . coring. v.. p.. p.C. as interpreted from regional aeromagnetic and gravity maps.. 65° E.F. 1985 #1903). 299-327.. v.. Distribution of subsurface lower Mesozoic rocks in southeastern United States... The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. and Price.. Zoback and others (1989 #2062) determined the orientation of SHmax in that part of the Savannah River Site to be N. A. and Basham. may be an unlikely candidate for reactivation. #2040 Johnston. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins—Neotectonics and postglacial rebound: Dordrecht.. in Gregersen. I. J.. A-223—A-224.C. and Shervais. 1995.W.. in Schneider. earthquake of 1886—Tectonics and seismicity: U. J. should undergo dextral strike slip in the measured SHmax. in Gohn. ed. the Pen Branch fault is assigned to class C in this compilation of Quaternary faulting because evidence is lacking for slip more recently than the Eocene. 43° E.E. Snipes and others (1993 #1896) noted that (1) a fault that strikes only 10° away from the orientation of SHmax .. #2039 Johnston.C. Therefore.

1985. Geophysical evidence for post late Cretaceous reactivation of basement structures in the central Savannah River area: Southeastern Geology. California. State of stress and the relation to tectonics in the central Savannah River area of South Carolina. 1995. R. 101-106.. Allendale. #1922 Zoback. South Carolina: U.. p. Geologic map of the Savannah River Site. December 1994. Palo Alto. eds. South Carolina. W.D.. 1985 and its tectonic setting: Earthquake Notes. 1993. v. scale 1:48. Moos. W. Aiken..S. 33.. p.C. Jr. earthquake of June 9. L. The Savannah River Plant. and Barnwell Counties.D. The Pen Branch fault—Documentation of late Cretaceous-Tertiary faulting in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina: Southeastern Geology. 1989.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics. 255 ... p. D. #1903 Talwani. M... D. V.. Fallaw. p. and Stephenson.D. #1896 Snipes.S. Proceedings. v.. 1989. Rawlins. M. June 19-22... D. D. in Pakiser. #1939 Prowell. P. 553-560. and Stephenson. p. D. and Zoback.C. 1989. D. p. 4-1—4-103... Tectonic stress field of the continental United States.E. 1996.000. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2300. and Cumbest. #1900 Stieve. Price.. 1 sheet. and Mooney.C.J. 7 p. A. 523-539.. #2062 Zoback. in : 30th U. 56. 1-20.report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V1. and Stephenson. 35. M. West Virginia. J.L. v. pamphlet. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172... Morgantown. 195-218.

they conclude that the movement on the faults is not related to tectonic activity. This scarp formed without any notable seismic events.Pierre. Geological Survey State South Dakota County Stanley 256 . South Dakota faults (Class C) Structure Name Pierre. mineralogical analyses of clays in the Pierre Shale. As a result of their field investigations.S. South Dakota. Nichols and Collins (1987 #2802) initially reported the evidence of possible active faulting in the area west of Pierre. that the pavement requires frequent repair. hanging valleys. They described geomorphic evidence of structural instability including marked changes in stream gradients. They reported evidence of movement on faults in the Pierre Shale that had deformed colluvium. since construction was completed in 1962. They reported that movement on the faults has locally damaged highways and an abandoned highway bridge. Date of compilation 11/24/97 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J.000 km2 area. examination of level-line data. Therefore. seismic-reflection and refraction data.5-m-high scarp. which was radiocarbon dated as less than 1. and changes in stream drainage directions. they are categorized as Class C features. Reason for assignment to Class C: The deformation associated with these faults was originally considered to possibly be tectonic. which keeps the gouge moist and minimizes its frictional strength. only four notable historical earthquakes have occurred in the region (largest event was M 4. movement on a fault in the Pierre Shale near the spillway of Oahe Dam (about 10 km north of the city of Pierre) has created a 1. but is probably the result of rebound-induced movement on the faults related to the removal of overburden and bedrock during highway construction. or possibly active tectonic faulting. The movement is facilitated by the clayey fault gouge acting as a conduit for surface water and groundwater. the deformation rates are so high. These studies also concluded that the evidence is not definitive enough to determine if tectonic uplift is contributing to the shallow deformation. gravity-driven movements on faults in the shale. They also report that one fault has a 22-m-high scarp. U. most faults have a normal sense of slip and a separation of between 1-35 m. Crone. prominent knickpoints along streams. and a geomorphic analysis of stream gradients.300 yr old. Collins and others (1988 #2801) and Nichols and others (1994 #2803) list the characteristics of 24 prominent faults in a 2. South Dakota faults (Class C) Comments: The structures discussed here are a group of faults in the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale located about 16-32 km west of the city of Pierre.2 in 1961). In places where some of these faults cross highways. They suggested that these damaging movements could be caused by swelling of freshly exposed clay gouge. but subsequent studies failed to provide conclusive evidence that the surficial movements are directly related to deep-seated tectonic deformation. South Dakota. Despite the high slip rates on the faults inferred from the frequent repairs. The non-tectonic origin for this deformation is strongly supported by the observation that.

. Ludvigson.H. D. #2802 Nichols.A. D. Collins. 211-235. 1 oversized pl. Jones-Cecil. T.. p. 34 p. Jr. 1994.. 1988..1° x 2° sheet Pierre Physiographic province Great Plains References #2801 Collins. T. T.. no.. 5.. Jr. p. Highway damage related to faults near Pierre. and Collins.C. v..C. H. D.. South Dakota: U. South Dakota: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.S. Jr.S.. R... 19. Recent faulting in the Pierre Shale near Pierre.C. 323-324. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-674.W. G. and Swolfs. eds. H. M. G. #2803 Nichols.. and Hammond..S. 257 .. 1987..S. central South Dakota. Faults and structure in the Pierre Shale.. in Shurr.S. Swolfs. Perspectives on the eastern margin of the Cretaceous western interior basin: Geological Society of America Special Paper 287.S. and Nichols.

Davenport Physiographic province Central Lowland References #2804 Bunker. Crone. an ancient channel of the Mississippi River. but one observation raises this possibility. Iowa. Geological Survey State Iowa. The fault zone offsets Paleozoic rocks. The Plum River fault zone and the structural and stratigraphic framework of eastern Iowa: Iowa Geological Survey Technical Information Series 13. in the absence of strong evidence of Quaternary faulting. the terrace surface slopes to the north.A. 69). Dubuque. Longitudinal profiles show that the terrace surface generally slopes to the south. but the stratigraphic relations in these rocks are not known in sufficient detail to eliminate the possibility of as much as 9 m of post-Pennsylvanian vertical offset. which is the direction of the inferred relict stream gradient. Date of compilation 11/14/97 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. cross the Plum River fault zone in Jackson County. This change in slope direction could be evidence of late Quaternary deformation.Plum River fault zone (Class C) Structure Name Plum River fault zone (Class C) Comments: The Plum River fault zone was originally recognized as a narrow belt of eastwest trending faults in northwestern Illinois. helps characterize the width of the fault zone and the characteristics of the deformation (Bunker and others. The evidence of Quaternary movement on the Plum River fault zone is equivocal. the fault zone juxtaposes Silurian rocks against Ordovician rocks and westward.J. but these rocks are poorly exposed and are generally buried beneath Pleistocene glacial. and eolian deposits.. at the northern end of the channel where the terraces cross the Plum River fault zone. 258 . Illinois County Clinton.S. Reason for assignment to Class C: No unequivocal evidence of Quaternary movement. or it could be related to erosional modification of the terrace and subsequent burial by loess (Bunker and others. 103). 1985 #2804. Linn (Iowa). B. p.J. 126 p. B. Late Quaternary loess-covered terraces along the Goose Creek channel. the fault zone is assigned to Class C in this compilation. it juxtaposes Devonian strata against Silurian rocks. Ogle (Illinois) 1° x 2° sheet Rockford. 1985 #2804). 1985. A seismic-reflection profile in Jones County. G. Jackson. Carroll. and Witzke. However.. 1985 #2804. The Plum River fault zone is known from offsets in Paleozoic rocks. p. In extreme eastern Iowa. but subsequent work in Iowa determined that it extends westward more than 80 km (50 miles) farther into east-central Iowa The sense of throw on the fault is down-to-the-north and vertical displacements are 52-70 m (Bunker and others. Ludvigson. Iowa. U. There have not been any systematic investigations to examine the possibility of Quaternary offset on the fault. fluvial. Jones. and it is not definitive. This is the only evidence of possible Quaternary deformation..

K.R.S. Washington.J.R.B. A. 259 . J.H. and Brocoum. D. Hanson... . K.. Wesling.. R. fortuitous alignment of several geomorphic features along the approximate location of the Potter County fault". Based on this evidence. 104 p. more detailed studies by Swan and others (written commun. The Meers fault—Tectonic activity in southwestern Oklahoma: U. #675 Swan. F. D.. U.C. 1987. Crone. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.Potter County fault (Class C) Structure Name Potter County fault (Class C) Comments: One of the major faults that bounds the southeastern margin of the Amarillo uplift in the Texas Panhandle. Slemmons. July 1993... Date of compilation 03/08/94 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the fault has not moved since deposition of the Miocene-age Potter Member of the Ogallala Formation.I. and Perman. 1993... Geological Survey State Texas County Potter 1° x 2° sheet Amarillo Physiographic province Great Plains Province. S.A. Subsequent. 25 p. Draft report—Investigation of the Quaternary structural and tectonic character of the Meers fault (southwestern Oklahoma): Technical report to U.C. Reason for assignment to Class C: Ramelli and others (1987 #668) postulated that the fault may have experienced movement during the Quaternary based on the presence of fault-related lineaments that were observed during aerial reconnaissance of the area.S. Kelson. the fault is assigned to Class C for this compilation. under Contract NRC-04-87-007. written commun. 3 pls. . 1993 #675) indicate that the lineament is likely related to the ". High Plains References #668 Ramelli.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR-4852..

1998) in referring to the entire normal fault system as the Ramapo fault system. Over much of the 56 km northeastward from the vicinity of Bernardsville to the New York State border and for several kilometers beyond. Thus. Ratcliffe. the various strands of the Ramapo fault zone and its northeastward extensions are mapped within Proterozoic and Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks for tens of kilometers northeastward from the Hudson River (Ratcliffe. 1980 #2052. as well as farther southwest.Ramapo fault system (Class C) Structure Name Ramapo fault system (Class C) Comments: In northern New Jersey and southeastern New York State. it was evaluated for this compilation of geologic evidence for Quaternary faulting for four reasons. 1992 #1972). Various faults of the system contain evidence of repeated slip in various directions since Proterozoic time. 1971 #1883. (1) It has a long history of repeated slip in various directions (Ratcliffe. brittle normal faults are likely to cut Mesozoic rocks several kilometers southeast of the contact. 1980 #2052. 1980 #2052. including Mesozoic extensional reactivation (Ratcliffe. Drake and others. northeastward from the vicinity of Bernardsville. brittle extension that must be younger than deep. the Ramapo fault is but one strand of the Ramapo fault system. 1980 #2052. However. 1985 #1976. I extend the usage of Ratcliffe (1971 #1883) and follow a suggestion by N. mostly steeply to moderately southeast-dipping. probably by reactivation of Paleozoic thrust faults (Ratcliffe and Burton. 1992 #1972). one or another mapped fault strand contains structural and petrologic indicators of nearsurface. and therefore large. However. In New Jersey. At their northwestern edge. Ratcliffe and others. 260 . Lyttle and Epstein. the contact between Mesozoic and older rocks follows a single strand of the normal fault system. Ratcliffe. Ratcliffe. post-Appalachian erosional unroofing (Ratcliffe. the Ramapo fault (Ratcliffe. Ratcliffe. 1992 #1972).. 1996 #1957). 1992 #1972). and other brittle normal faults are likely to cut older. Sedimentary and igneous Mesozoic strata of the basin-fill dip generally northwesterly into the normal faults. 1987 #1935. Ratcliffe. Ratcliffe (written commun. 1971 #1883). brittle normal faults of Mesozoic age (Fisher and others. 1986 #2222). 1971 #1883. Reason for assignment to class C: The Ramapo fault system is assigned to class C because of a lack of evidence for Quaternary slip on the fault. Repeated reactivation of a fault is often presumed to indicate an increased potential for additional slip. 1992 #1972). 1971 #1883. continuous Mesozoic faults are not identified there (Ratcliffe. ductile structures or reactivate older ductile faults in the pre-Mesozoic rocks northwest of the contact.M. which might occur seismically. at any given point along the contact between Mesozoic and older rocks. Ratcliffe. the Mesozoic rocks are in fault contact with the Proterozoic and Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Hudson Highlands. Mesozoic rocks have not been mapped. and the contact steps right or left along the fault system from one strand to another. Thus. 1970 #1931. the Ramapo fault is the largest in this part of the normal fault system. 1992 #1972). the Mesozoic Newark basin is bounded on the northwest by a wide system of northeast-striking. The nature and wide distribution of these indicators is evidence that they formed as part of the widespread Mesozoic extension that initiated the rifting associated with the Atlantic passive margin (Ratcliffe. Ratcliffe. Northeast of the Hudson River. Ratcliffe. At many localities northeast of the river. 1980 #2052.

borehole cores at five localities and two seismic-reflection profiles along the part of the Ramapo fault that Aggarwal and Sykes (1978 #1783) analyzed show that. 1980 #2052. A three-dimensional velocity model shows a 10-15 percent velocity difference across the Ramapo fault in the upper 10 km of the crust (Thurber and Caruso. 1989 #2039. 1985 #1881). First. Kafka and Miller (1996 #2206) showed that epicenter locations correlate significantly with the locations of the Newark and Hartford Mesozoic rift basins. the fault dips 5°15° more shallowly than was inferred from the results of Aggarwal and Sykes (1978 #1783) (Ratcliffe and Burton. 1986 #2222). 1985 #1927. the preferred solution is consistent with an S(Hmax) orientation of east-northeast." According to Aggarwal and Sykes (1978 #1783). Burton and Ratcliffe. The implication is that most of the earthquakes that were attributed to present-day compressional reactivation of the 261 . Aggarwall and Sykes. One of the focal mechanisms of Aggarwal and Sykes was later found to be non-unique. occurred distant from the Ramapo fault. as originally noted by Aggarwal and Sykes (1978 #1783). in four sets of later studies. 1978 #1783). most of these results have not been replicated. except at its northeasternmost end. and throughout most of the eastern United States. including the largest ones. Johnston. uniform instrumentation. Thus. The culled catalog showed that approximately half the earthquakes. Ratcliffe and others. 1990 #1943). 1985 #1908). Kafka and others (1985 #1843) culled the earthquake catalog to insure uniform station locations. 1968 #1873. in addition. they occurred within the Ramapo fault system. hypocentral depths. not east-southeast (Quittmeyer and others. The last widespread extension in the area of the Ramapo fault was Mesozoic. and a uniform detection threshold. The improved velocity model changed some epicenters and depths. Ratcliffe. Fourth. Scattered epicenters led Aggarwal and Sykes (1978 #1783. Although some of these earthquakes occurred away from the Ramapo fault. 1994 #2040). and single-earthquake focal mechanisms were interpreted as being consistent with reverse slip on a surface that dips 60°-65° southeast from the trace of the Ramapo fault (Page and others. (3) Earthquake epicenters. with the preference being strongest for areas that underwent Mesozoic or Paleogene extension (Johnston. trends east-northeast (Zoback and Zoback. 425) to incriminate the Ramapo fault system as a whole. additional data show that S(Hmax) in the vicinity of the Ramapo fault system. it might have affected some of the focal mechanisms of Aggarwal and Sykes (1978 #1783) if it had been available when they did their work. 1984 #1884). Second. but is much less striking than the one shown by Aggarwal and Sykes (1978 #1783). 1985 #1976.(2) A worldwide survey of damaging earthquakes in stable continental regions found that large earthquakes occur preferentially in passive margins and continental rifts. structural and petrographic analyses of fault rock that was cored from the Ramapo and related basin-border faults at six localities in New York and New Jersey showed that the most recent slip was extensional at each locality (Ratcliffe. p. Thus. the dominantly reverse mechanisms imply east-southeast-directed greatest horizontal compressive stress S(Hmax). Third. Ratcliffe and others. by suggesting that "seismic activity … is concentrated along several northeast-trending faults of which the Ramapo fault appears to be the most active. 1982 #1941. 1989 #1922). The epicentral alignment along the Ramapo fault remains. Reactivation of the Ramapo or other border faults in the present-day compressional stress field would be inconsistent with the results of the core analyses (Ratcliffe and Burton. However. the fault does not appear to dominate seismicity in its region – but the fault system still might do so. around the periphery of the Newark Basin. Mesozoic extensional slip on the Ramapo fault system indicates the likelihood of elevated earthquake potential.

S. Neither trench revealed evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting. Cores from sediments of glacial Lake Passaic contain slump folds. W.. L. Morris. and shapes and locations of stream meanders as indicating possible right-lateral strike slip on the Ramapo fault in New York State and northernmost New Jersey. Fourth. and nuclear power plants in southern New York and northern New Jersey: Science.. Kafka and others (1989 #2043) interpreted terrace levels. the fault system is assigned to class C for this compilation. Hartford Physiographic province Piedmont. U.M. pollen data indicate possible Holocene downdropping of the southeast side of the Ramapo fault (Nelson.P. Y. Hunterdon. 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. New England References #1783 Aggarwall. 1987 #2016). the present-day east-northeast orientation of S(Hmax) is inconsistent with possible downdropping of the southeast sides of the southeast-dipping strands of the Ramapo fault system. First. offset streams.C. #1927 Burton. kinematic indicators in cored faultrock show that the most recent slip on the Ramapo and related faults was normal. none of the cited reports provides evidence of sudden offset. convincing evidence for Quaternary faulting in the Ramapo fault system has not yet been presented. and Sykes. Third. Sea-level curves from nine tidal marshes along the Hudson River indicate at least two episodes of Holocene downdropping of areas southeast of individual strands of the Ramapo fault system (Newman and others. (4) Scattered.S. breccias. which alone can distinguish prehistoric seismic slip from aseismic creep. between the Hudson River and the New Jersey border.R. Accordingly. Essex. Earthquakes. Rockland. from farther southwest along the Ramapo fault. 425-429. Passaic. 1978. Stone and Ratcliffe (1984 #1987) and Ratcliffe and others (1990 #1943) trenched the updip projection of the Ramapo fault at two places. Geological Survey State New Jersey. Date of compilation 08/31/98. Westchester. and Ratcliffe.. N. 1980 #1869).. Scranton. 1 sheet. 1983 #1870. Newman and others. 1985. None of the arguments and evidence presented here can preclude the possibility that the Ramapo fault or fault system slips to produce occasional small earthquakes. and small normal and reverse faults. Somerset.Ramapo fault actually occurred in the Proterozoic rocks of its footwall. Wheeler. p. Warren (New Jersey). movement history. 200. and presumably Mesozoic. or rarer large ones whose geologic record has not been recognized. v. which Forsythe and Chisholm (1989 #1824) speculated might be the result of strong ground motion. New York. inconclusive reports hint at Quaternary deformation at or near the Ramapo fault. At Ladentown. and structure of cataclastic rocks of the Flemington fault—Results of core drilling near Oldwick. 262 . Ratcliffe and Costain (1985 #2018) present an example of exactly that relation. four arguments counter these hints. Putnam (New York) 1° x 2° sheet Newark. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1781. However. New York County Bergen. faults. Mercer. Second. as mentioned earlier. New Jersey: U. Attitude. However.

1983. and Barstow.A.H.. and geologic structures: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. A. #1870 Newman.. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-2540-A. and Epstein. 1970.A.C.. 75... P. Marcus. Earthquake activity in the greater New York City area—A faultfinder's guide.W. 1985. A. 2. p. scale 1:250..R. Holocene neotectonics of the lower Hudson Valley: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.T. L.. no. N. #1931 Fisher.J. The seismicity of ‘stable continental interiors'. Sperling. December 1994. 4-1—4-103. 1989. H.. J. The Netherlands. A.F. 12. Cinquemani. Geologic map of the Newark 1° x 2° quadrangle. v. L...A. p. 3. D. Winslow.. E. 177-203. M. 1. and Dalton. Holocene neotectonics and the Ramapo fault zone sea-level anomaly—A study of varying marine transgression rates in the lower Hudson estuary. 1989. New York.C. 1996. 148. and Barstow.S. eds.A. Marcus. October 13-15. 61st Annual Meeting. #1843 Kafka. W.000. 6986. California. S.L.D. v.. New York and New 263 . 1996. Volkert. The earthquakes of stable continental regions—v. v.. Geologic map of New York— Lower Hudson sheet: New York State Museum and Science Service Map and Chart Series 15. #2206 Kafka. 1987...B. 1285-1300.S. 1987. Seismotectonic interpretations and conclusions from the stable continental region seismicity database. D.A. Guidebook. 75. and Basham.. A.A. Seismicity in the area surrounding two Mesozoic rift basins in the northeastern United States: Seismological Research Letters..C. 2.S.. #1935 Lyttle. in Weiss.F. Bedrock geologic map of northern New Jersey: U. Isachsen.. v.. Field trip guidebook: New York State Geological Association. v.000. p.. R.F.. #1869 Nelson. pamphlet. and New York: U. J. 1989. Palo Alto.L. L. #1824 Forsythe.S. Parker. R. Sperling.#1957 Drake. p...L. #2043 Kafka. Jr. 15. and Pardi.A. R... Are there earthquake-induced deformation structures in the Highlands/Lowlands border region of New Jersey?: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Pennsylvania.R.. seismicity. no. Earthquake activity in the greater New York City area .. scale 1:100. Y. p.E. 1989. 15..L. L. 299-327.F. p. R. and Chisholm.F. J. ed. #2016 Newman. S. N. Monteverde. L. 1994. Herman. no. A.. L. A.. J. 1 sheet. 2 sheets. G. 1980. and Miller. R.Magnetudes.. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins—Neotectonics and postglacial rebound: Dordrecht.L. Houghton.. Cinquemani. 1 sheet. Middletown.000. and Pardi. in Schneider.W.J. W. #2040 Johnston. scale 1:250.. p. Schlesinger-Miller. Kluwer Academic Publishers. P. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-1715. 21... Assessment of large earthquake potential: Technical report to Electric Power Research Institute TR-102261-V1. R. Determination of Holocene fault movement along the Ramapo fault in southeastern New York using pollen stratigraphy: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. ed.V.. New Jersey.. p. #2039 Johnston.W. D.. in Gregersen. 67.. 6 p... and Rickard. P.

reactivated mylonites and seismic reflection geometry of the Newark basin in eastern Pennsylvania: Geology.. 1980. scale 1:24. M. and Burton. p. and cataclastic rocks of Ramapo fault based on core drilling and trenching along the western margin of the Newark basin near Berndardsville.... Geological Survey Bulletin 1941.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-1982. mineraology and geometry of border faults of the Newark basin. N. v. W.A.D. 14. and Houlday..M.. #1941 Ratcliffe.C. W. R. 82.S. 36-42. 1971.M. and Howard.. J. N.000. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-1401. Low-angle extensional faulting. 1992. #1883 Ratcliffe. Jr.M. #1884 Ratcliffe.M. Burton.S.H. R. 264 .. and their relationship to current seismicity. K. Orientation.. #2222 Ratcliffe. eds..M.. 16. P. 1. and Oliver..Y. N. in Nummedal. p. N. W... G. p.. J.. New York: U.J. and Pavich.R. movement history. October 10. #1976 Ratcliffe. The Ramapo fault system in New York and adjacent northern New Jersey—A case of tectonic heredity: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Geological Survey Circular 946. ed. 97-111. and Burton. 278-312. no. p.M. 35-42. D.T. J. 1 sheet. v. v.M.. #1972 Ratcliffe... Results of core drilling of the Ramapo fault at Sky Meadow Road. #1881 Quittmeyer.S. and assessment of evidence for reactivation to produce current seismicity: U. in Manspeizer. N. N... New Jersey-New York: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Bedrock geology and seismotectonics of the Oscawana Lake quadrangle. 58. 1968. W.S.. Brittle faults (Ramapo fault) and phyllonitic ductile shear zones in the basement rocks of the Ramapo seismic zones New York and New Jersey. Molnar. 1985. 1985. M..A. 1 pl.. New York. Possible implications of recent microearthquakes in southern New York State: Earthquake Notes. W. v.. Mrotek. A.M. New Jersey. 1980.H.K. Sea-level fluctuation and coastal evolution: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 41. 1 sheet. C.Jersey. 57. Fault reactivation models for origin of the Newark basin and studies related to Eastern U.. #1873 Page. R. and Froelich. D'Angelo.C. New Jersey: U.-N. Statton.M.S. O. Seismicity in the vicinity of the Ramapo fault. Rockland County. Rutgers University. #2052 Ratcliffe.J. v. p. N. Geology Department. N. Proceedings of the Second U... Geological Survey workshop on the early Mesozoic basins of the Eastern United States: U. 681-687. New York State Geological Association. Field studies of New Jersey geology and guide to field trips: Newark. p. Burton.C. eds. p. p. 1984. 56.. Brittle fault fabrics.C.. 1990. 52nd annual meeting.C. Pilkey.J.. 766-770.. in Robinson.. #1943 Ratcliffe. 125-142. from drill-core information: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Guidebook. 38 p.. N. seismicity. 1982. 1986. and Costain.

S.C. 1985.. T. L.C. in Geological Survey reserach. B.M.. p.. and Costain. M. v.. and Rodriguez. 265 .M. Crustal structure along the Ramapo fault zone. 1985. #1987 Stone. p. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1375. #1922 Zoback. in Pakiser. and Mooney. National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program summaries of technical reports. Geological Survey Open-File Report 85-464. C. W. 1989. XX: U. Tectonic stress field of the continental United States.K.S. Northeastern seismicity and tectonics.L. J. v. 49. N. 56.M. and Ratcliffe. #1908 Thurber.. 1984. and Caruso. 54-58.. New York State: Earthquake Notes.... eds.D. M.L.. Faults in Pleistocene sediments at trace of Ramapo fault. M. p. in Jacobson. fiscal year 1981: U. and Zoback. 145-152. p.D. N. T... 523-539. eds. Geophysical framework of the continental United States: Geological Society of America Memoir 172..#2018 Ratcliffe..H.R.

1988 #1938. The five study sites listed above are located where some of these fault strands are mapped as passing beneath Quaternary alluvium. and C-SS3 of Wheeler and others (1997 #1948). 1997 #1915. a second site several tens of meters farther south along the same drill line at the same study site. Reason for assignment to class C No Quaternary faulting is reported from the Rough Creek fault system. 1997 #1915). The Rough Creek graben trends east across western Kentucky and southern Illinois. they are of Pliocene(?) to Holocene age (Stickney. so I use the Kentucky name. which trends east-west in southeastern Illinois and western Kentucky. If any Quaternary or Neogene deposits are faulted. 1985 #2056. Stickney and others (1984 #1899). Wheeler and others. the sites are study area 1 (drill line S-A) and study area 2 (drill line S-B) of Stickney (1985 #2056). C-SS1(S). Five of the eight study sites of Stickney (1985 #2056) and Chadwick (1989 #2025) show evidence of possible Quaternary faulting. This angular relation would imply a likelihood of sinistral slip. No detailed paleoseismological studies have been performed. 1988 #1938). The fault system formed with the graben during Cambrian and possibly earlier continental rifting. if the Rough Creek fault system were reactivated in the present-day compressional stress field. The fault system forms the northern border of the Rough Creek graben. The fault strands have no clear geomorphic expression of young movement at the study sites.000 geologic and topographic maps. Electrical resistivity and 266 .Rough Creek fault system (Class C) Structure Name Rough Creek fault system (Class C) Comments: Electrical resistivity profiling and augering indicate possible Quaternary slip at five locations along the Rough Creek fault system of western Kentucky. CSS1(N). However. However. the fault system is mapped as a zone of anastomosing fault strands as wide as 7-8 km (Noger. and Chadwick (1989 #2025) studied eight locations at which strands of the Rough Creek fault system had been mapped at 1:24. S-SA2. Chadwick. 1997 #1947 and numerous references cited in these three compilations). The five locations are shown on the 1:250. At the surface. Nelson. However. 1995 #1984). and the digital locations may be downloaded by following instructions in Rhea (1997 #1980). 1995 #1984. No Quaternary faulting is reported from the Rough Creek fault system. The name Shawneetown has been used for the Illinois part of the fault system. The study sites are at locations S-SA1. Wheeler and others (1997 #1948) transferred the five site locations from large-scale site maps of Stickney (1985 #2056) and Chadwick (1989 #2025) onto 1:24. The study sites that concern us are in Kentucky. was reactivated during late Paleozoic compression and Permian or Mesozoic extension. and study site 3 (drill line 5) of Chadwick (1989 #2025).000-scale map of Wheeler and others (1997 #1948). no trenching has been performed to test these indications. and Rough Creek for the Kentucky part. Wheeler. and the Rough Creek fault system forms its northern border (Noger. and dips steeply southward to depths that exceed 9 km (Nelson. Stickney (1985 #2056). This is the Rough Creek-Shawneetown fault system of Nelson (1995 #1984). counterclockwise from the easterly trend of the fault system (Wheeler. Respectively.000-scale as passing beneath Pliocene(?)-Holocene alluvium. 1989 #2025). and study site 1 (drill line 2). nearby orientations of the greatest horizontal compressive stress trend approximately east-northeast. and then digitized the locations. perhaps with a reverse component.

1988. Geological Survey State Kentucky County Webster. Structural features in Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 100.2 mm/yr would have produced sufficient offset that it would probably have been detected in the field if it were reverse. 5 pls. Seismotectonic maps in the vicinity of the lower Wabash Valley. Eastern Kentucky University. McLean. Kentucky: Richmond. unpublished M. However. thesis. Chadwick.. no. Geological Survey and Kentucky Geological Survey. no recurrence interval can be calculated. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-681. Daviess 1° x 2° sheet Evansville Physiographic province Interior Low Plateaus References #2025 Chadwick. R.L. 95 p..S. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L... thesis.F.. 16. compiler. D. 267 . Geologic map of Kentucky: U. Eastern Kentucky University. a Holocene slip rate of 0. D.L. U. 1 sheet. 3. Indiana. 1989.C. 199..S. 15 p. 1997. 95 p. 144 p. However. although perhaps not if it were strike slip. and VanArsdale. Absent such studies. 2 pls. McLean. W. The slip rate is unknown. compiler. None was reported. Bedrock steps several meters high were found at five of the eight locations. which probably would have been detected even if it were all strike slip. Kentucky: Richmond. Stickney (1985 #2056) and Chadwick (1989 #2025) were careful to note that the presence or absence of Pliocene or Quaternary faulting can be demonstrated only by subsequent trenching studies. #1938 Noger.. 1995.F.. Investigation of recent movement within the Rough Creek fault zone in McLean and Daviess Counties.. p. Wheeler. unpublished M.J. S. M. 1985.. The same slip rate would have produced 320 m of Quaternary slip. v. S. #1899 Stickney.B. 5 pl. #2056 Stickney. J.000.S.very low frequency electromagnetic profiles determined the most likely locations of the faults beneath the alluvium. Each line contained 6-8 holes spaced 15 m apart. #1984 Nelson. and Kentucky—Digital spatial database: U. Illinois... Kentucky: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Investigation of recent movement along the Rough Creek fault system in Webster and McLean Counties. and absent evidence that any faulting occurred suddenly instead of by aseismic creep. Date of compilation 12/16/98. #1980 Rhea.. Investigation of recent movement along the Rough Creek fault system in portions of Daviess. scale 1:500. 1984. Lines of auger holes produced logs from which bedrock steps could be recognized beneath the alluvium. Stickney and others (1984 #1899) suggested that the bedrock steps may represent Pliocene(?)-Holocene reactivation of strands of the Rough Creek fault system. scale 1:150. which have not yet been performed. J.S. and Webster Counties. scale 1:150.

and Bear. G. pamphlet. 1 sheet. scale 1:250.S.. Rhea. Illinois. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2583-C. #1948 Wheeler.W.L. Sargent. 1997.L..W. Illinois. 1997. M. #1947 Wheeler. S. R. igneous rocks... M. pamphlet.. S. Indiana. Bear.L.L. G.. Diehl.F. Diehl.L. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2583-D.. scale 1:250.F. R. Map showing selected wells and geophysical survey and modeling lines in the vicinity of the lower Wabash Valley..A. Drahovzal. 1 sheet. S. v. and geophysical and neotectonic features in the vicinity of the lower Wabash Valley. 68. and Kentucky: U. 586-598. p.. 16 p..000.. Indiana.S. and Sargent. Boundary separating the seismically active Reelfoot Rift from the sparsely seismic Rough Creek graben.#1915 Wheeler.000. Rhea. 19 p. J. 268 . Kentucky and Illinois: Seismological Research Letters. S. R.. Seismotectonic map showing faults. and Kentucky: U. 1997.

He found numerous glacial features but no evidence of prehistoric shaking-induced liquefaction. with one and perhaps two earthquakes having Modified Mercalli intensities of VI (Ebel. The most authoritative and reliable assessment of the seismic hazard in the area evaluated here is the national seismic hazard maps. this surficial evidence will be integrated with the historical seismicity to improve future versions of the national hazard maps. this discussion focuses on surficial evidence of large. 269 . 1992 #1813).South Sebec seismic zone (Class c) Structure Name South Sebec seismic zone (Class C) Comments: The South Sebec seismic zone and its surrounding area in central Maine have been seismically active at a low level since at least 1817. one of which crosses the northwest-trending epicentral alignment. However. the national seismic hazard maps rely mainly on the distribution of historical seismicity to calculate the hazard. Roy (1996 #1888) explored Pleistocene and Holocene deposits in two nearby river valleys. 1988 #1818. Accordingly. Focal mechanisms of two larger earthquakes from 1986 and 1987 indicate east-west compression. Nonetheless.000. the national hazard maps show that. prehistoric earthquakes. prehistoric earthquakes is absent. a straight and narrow valley that contains elongated ponds. the distribution of historical earthquakes is a reasonable guide to seismic hazard. 70˚ E. or new faults forming parallel to the joints.000. N. in some areas the surficial record of large. One of these 21 aligned epicenters and three of the others form a second. bogs. Marvinney (1991 #1858) examined exposures of the Paleozoic metasedimentary bedrock along the Harriman Pond lineament. or paleoseismological evidence is reported for Quaternary faulting. In the Central and Eastern U. No structural. In contrast to examining the area's historical seismicity. prehistoric earthquakes are liquefaction features and faults that offset young strata. which are published by the USGS (Open-File Report 97-131. 1989 #1996. Where present. Doll and others. but 1 km northwest of. http://geohazards. 1992 #1825). The occurrence of significant historical earthquakes in the area described here demonstrates a notable level of seismic hazard. the South Sebec seismic zone is assigned to class C in this compilation. Reason for assignment to class C: This evaluation of Quaternary faulting is not a reliable guide to seismic hazard of the South Sebec seismic zone. all of which were shallower than 3 km focal.-trending alignment that is 4 km long. stratigraphic. the most common types of surficial evidence of large. and streams (the Harriman Pond lineament). In the CEUS.S. Foster and others. although convincing surficial evidence of large. Foster and others (1992 #1825) speculated that the shallow earthquakes might indicate modern sinistral reactivation of joints that were observed to strike northwest. prehistoric earthquakes is incomplete because of erosion. depths of most of the microearthquakes were shallower than 1 km (Doll and others. geomorphic. and slickensides. (CEUS) east of the Rocky Mountain Front. these areas are NOT free of seismic hazard. bed-parallel shears. During 1989 and 1990 a portable array of seismographs located 28 microearthquakes.gov/eq/). In the CEUS. for many parts of the CEUS. or presently unrecognized evidence. indicating faulting that could be as old as Paleozoic. He found quartz veins. Twenty-one of the microearthquake epicenters define a northwest-trending alignment as much as 9 km long. 1992 #1813).cr. and the focal mechanisms have nodal planes that strike approximately parallel to the northwest-trending alignment of the microearthquake epicenters (Ebel and Bouck. 12 maps. scale 1:7. This east-northeast alignment is parallel to. equivocal.usgs.

G. no. no. R. joints. Analysis of shallow microearthquakes in the South Sebec seismic zone. J.E. D. in Anderson.. Craven. and sea-level change: Maine Geological Survey Bulletin 40. 24.. Wheeler. W. and Cipar. no.C. #1825 Foster. 23. 1.. p. 270 . and Borns. 3. Faults. p. Roy.. J.. J. central Maine: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 95. Maine. and earthquakes in the Dover-Foxcroft area. Geological Survey State Maine County Piscataquis 1° x 2° sheet Millinocket Physiographic province New England References #1813 Doll. v. Maine: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. #1996 Ebel. J. S.. revised 02/02/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. The seismicity of Maine. liquefaction features. Preliminary structural investigation of a 25 km topographic lineament in central Maine: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 21. 99. v.. crustal warping.. and Bouck. 557-566.. eds. 3. 219-228. 1989-1990: Seismological Research Letters. 1992. Ebel. p.. p. 1988. 63.A.. 28. J. p.E.. Jr.E. 59.. Neotectonics of Maine—Studies in seismicity.W.E.J. #1888 Roy.E... v. H. New focal mechanisms for the New England region— Constraints on the regional stress regime: Seismological Research Letters.. and Tuttle. M.Date of compilation 04/02/98. A paleoseismic investigation of the Dover-Foxcroft area.P. Rea.J. C. 1996. v.D. D.R. J. #1858 Marvinney.E.. #1818 Ebel. Ebel. U.S. 1991.C. B.. 1992. p. v. 183-187. 1989. W.

The colluvium has been dropped down at least 5 ft (2 m) on the fault. 1993 #1952) on the west. Both faults are short. The Villa Heights fault is similar in size. 17). both drop their east sides down in the downhill direction. and style. Indeed. 1968 #3878. p. the bedrock in the footwalls of both faults is highly weathered and good outcrops of the norite and of the gneiss are rare in the vicinity (Conley and Toewe. A second unnamed fault is on the western edge of the community of Villa Heights. p. At both its ends. This nose is several times higher than the one that underlies the Stanleytown fault. slightly east of the ridge line of the nose. 25) gives the length as approximately 100 ft (30 m).5 km south of Stanleytown. normal faults in the Piedmont province of southern Virginia. Geological Survey State Virginia County Henry 1° x 2° sheet Greensboro Physiographic province Piedmont 271 . 1993 #1952) on the west. the norite weathers to a saprolite. The fault juxtaposes Quaternary colluvium on the east against biotite gneiss (Fork Mountain Formation of Cambrian age: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. and accordingly the north end of the Villa Heights fault is approximately 150 ft (48 m) lower than its south end. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. north-striking. The fault trace cuts nearly perpendicularly across the east-plunging nose of a hill. From the evidence gleaned from the text and map of Conley and Toewe (1968 #3878). The fault juxtaposes Quaternary terrace deposits on the east against Paleozoic Rich Acres Norite (Rich Acres Formation of Cambrian age: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. landslides might be expected on such hillsides. itself a northwestern suburb of Martinsville. 24) showed a photograph of the fault as it appeared in a cut bank of the small stream.S. The trace extends down the north-northeastplunging nose of a hill. and no other faults were mapped in the quadrangle. Date of compilation 12/16/99. Wheeler. One unnamed fault is approximately 8 km northwest of Martinsville and approximately 1. The trace rises and falls approximately 20 ft (6 m) as it crosses the nose of the hill. 8. Conley and Toewe (1968 #3878. and a small stream flows on its alluvium around the nose. In addition. 25) gives the length as approximately 300 yards (274 m). p. U. I informally name the second fault the Villa Heights fault. It dips vertically and its trace is mapped as approximately 600 ft (200 m) long.Stanleytown-Villa Heights faults (Class C) Structure Name Stanleytown-Villa Heights faults (Class C) Comments: Conley and Toewe (1968 #3878) mapped and described two small. strike. Thus. the trace disappears under the alluvium. p. Martinsville is the seat of Henry County. 1968 #3878. Reason for assignment to class C: Both faults appear as likely to be landslides as tectonic faults. the text (Conley and Toewe. the text (Conley and Toewe. The terrace deposits have been dropped down 15-20 ft (5-6 m) on the fault. No other faults appear on the map of Conley and Toewe (1968 #3878). The Stanleytown fault dips 62 degrees east and its trace is mapped as approximately 600 ft (200 m) long. I informally name it the Stanleytown fault. neither origin can be favored. 1968 #3878.

1 plate..000.References #3878 Conley. 44 p. Geology of the Martinsville West quadrangle. E. 1993. 1968. 272 .000.. J. scale 1:500. scale 1:24. #1952 Virginia Division of Mineral Resources.C. and Toewe. Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Report of Investigations 16. Geologic map of Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources.F. 1 sheet..

the two right-dipping features are probably faults. In this case the left-dipping fault would be antithetic and probably would terminate against one of the larger. If they are faults. U. The unconformity has a valley-like shape. but the sediments step downward to the right 4. right-dipping faults. the sides of the probable valley have similar dips as the faults. and it would have offset the base of the Pleistocene sediments by 4.7 m vertically across the left-dipping fault.3 mi. Thus. Both aspects are consistent with small dip-slip components of movement in a positive flower structure that formed in overall strike slip. The faults dip toward each other. that dips to the left. Prowell (1983 #1951) noted that aspects of Dryden's sketch indicate strike-slip faulting. 471 in Dryden. the sketch provides evidence for hilly terrane during Miocene deposition. Dryden's sketch shows an unconformity in the block between the two right-dipping faults. If the two rightdipping features are not faults.7 m vertically in a reverse or reverse-oblique sense. Reason for assignment to class C: The faults are assigned to class C because probably they are surficial structures that do not extend to hypocentral depths. with no indication of its orientation. of smaller slip. However. "At a curve on the Crain Highway 3. Dryden (1932 #1815) observed that erosional features resembling the two right-dipping features are not known elsewhere within deposits of the same age. Wheeler. and the blocks between the faults have different stratigraphies. the low dips of all three faults are more consistent with a surficial origin of the faults than with a flower structure. Prince George's County. and Pleistocene beds" (see p. then they are listric and unlikely to penetrate deeply. From left to right. Both right-dipping features are concave upward. In this case the left-dipping fault would be the only fault in the road cut. and all three features dip 30°-40°. Miocene. Dryden's description and sketch are best explained by surficial faulting.Upper Marlboro faults (Class C) Structure Name Upper Marlboro faults (Class C) Comments: These faults make up entry number 18 of Prowell (1983 #1951).3 miles south of the southern railroad crossing at Upper Marlboro.S. Accordingly. (5. the sketch shows two probable faults that dip to the right and one certain fault. Date of compilation 05/20/98. 1932 #1815). and none of the three faults is likely to penetrate deeply into bedrock. In addition. Dryden (1932 #1815) described but did not name these three small faults. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. then they might be erosional features (Dryden. 1932 #1815). The two right-dipping features might or might not be faults. which he observed in a road cut 3. Dryden (1932 #1815) included a sketch of the road cut. Accordingly. Pleistocene sediments cap the road cut unconformably. Strike slip could indicate deeply rooted faulting. and the probable valley is filled with Miocene sands. The Pleistocene sediments are thin or eroded atop the two right-dipping features. However. there is exposed a section of Eocene.3 km) from the town of Upper Marlboro. Geological Survey State Maryland 273 . the different stratigraphies in the various fault blocks could result from differential erosion in hilly terrane. The valley-shaped unconformity has not achieved its present synformal shape by folding because adjacent beds remain horizontal.

County Prince Georges 1° x 2° sheet Washington Physiographic province Coastal Plain References #1815 Dryden. 1932. 1983. v. Jr..L. p.. A.C..S. 469-472. #1951 Prowell. D. 2 sheets. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1269.000. 22. 274 . Index of faults of Cretaceous and Ceozoic age in the Eastern United States: U.500. scale 1:2. Faults and joints in the Coastal Plain of Maryland: Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences.

The primary geological evidence that stimulated recent detailed studies is the geomorphic characteristics of several north-flowing streams that cross the fault. Interest in possible Quaternary reactivation of the Washita Valley fault developed shortly after paleoseismic studies confirmed the existence of Holocene movement on the Meers fault.000 yr old. Quaternary movement on the fault remains uncertain. VanArsdale and others (1989 #676) describe detailed studies at 5 sites along and near the fault.00015. The fault is mapped at the surface in Paleozoic rocks in the Arbuckle Mountains for a distance of about 55 km from near Hennepin. old. To the southeast in Squirrel and Garrison Creek Valleys. Along the section of the fault along which Oil Creek flows.P.P. At a site that is several kilometers north of the mapped trace of the fault. 1967 #680). Oklahoma (Hart. At a site near the southeastern end of the exposed fault. Quaternary alluvium appears to be ponded against a down-to-thesouth bedrock scarp. VanArsdale and others (1989 #676) found no evidence of faulting in terrace deposits estimated to be 12.Washita Valley fault (Class C) Structure Name Washita Valley fault (Class C) Comments: The Washita Valley fault is a major fault in south-central Oklahoma that extends for about 80 km in the subsurface from its junction with the Frontal Wichita fault system (Harlton. which is about 80 km to the northwest and is part of the same regional structural network of faults that extend from the Texas Panhandle southeasterly through southern Oklahoma. At a site where the Washita River crosses the fault. 1963 #667) on the northwest to the Ouachita Mountain thrust belt on the southeast (Tanner. unfaulted Holocene alluvium in the Wildhorse Creek Valley has been dated as 1910±80 yr B. A longitudinal valley profile of Squirrel Creek suggests a possible displaced terrace across the trace of the fault. The only studies designed to examine evidence of Quaternary movement on the fault are those of Cox and VanArsdale. An alluvial deposit dated as 1570±190 yr B. the studies conducted to date have yet to find unequivocal evidence of Quaternary displacement. Reason for assignment to Class C: This feature is classified as a Class C fault because detailed studies have failed to document any evidence of Quaternary faulting. VanArsdale and others (1989 #676) examined natural exposures along creeks and excavated 7 trenches. Adjacent to Squirrel Creek. natural exposures along the river do not contain evidence of recent faulting (VanArsdale and others. Oklahoma southeast to Ravia. 1951 #670. At a site near the northwestern end of the fault. (1989 #676). and auger-hole data of the alluvial fill in Squirrel Creek suggests the presence of a 5-m-high bedrock scarp beneath the alluvium. (1988 #677) and VanArsdale and others (1989 #676). In some of the exposures 275 . old can be traced unbroken across the fault in discontinuous exposures.P. 1974 #679). VanArsdale and others (1989 #676) found no evidence of faulting in alluvial deposits that were dated as 1810±80 yr B. VanArsdale and others (1989 #676) excavated two trenches in Paleozoic rocks across a splay of the fault and exposed northeast-dipping reverse faults but no displacement in the thin overlying veneer of Quaternary colluvium.

Date of compilation 03/11/94 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. 35.L.. Post-Pennsylvanian reactivation along the Washita Valley fault. #679 Hart. C. southern Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey Hydrologic Atlas 3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR-5375.000. #680 Tanner. 48 p. R. and Cox.S. B. 2-13. Oklahoma: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. R. 276 . Johnston 1° x 2° sheet Ardmore Physiographic province Central Lowland References #677 Cox. On the basis of the information summarized above. Faults in sedimentary part of Wichita Mountains of Oklahoma: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. latest Pleistocene alluvium (inferred to be Wisconsinan in age based on regional Quaternary stratigraphic studies) is also unfaulted.. Murray. Crone. 39..and trenches. v. and 3) no fault movement has occurred along a N. Wrench fault movements along Washita Valley fault. 1989..00020. 1951. 1552-1580. VanArsdale and others (1989 #676) conclude that their study "reveals that. 1988.H. v. 51. this feature is classified as a Class C fault. 126-141.. 1974. p. B. Arbuckle Mountain area. Map HA-3. #667 Harlton.H. Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Ardmore and Sherman quadrangles.. At two sites. southern Oklahoma aulacogen: Shale Shaker. In summary. Carter. Cretaceous rocks were displaced by as much as 2 m. p.S. 1) no surface rupture has occurred along the southeastern portion of the WVF since the deposition of a Wisconsin age (18. III. p. subsidiary fault in northern Murray County within the last 12. #670 Harlton.H. scale 1:250.. D. R.000 yr) terrace. Geological Survey State Oklahoma County Garvin. Structure and chronology of the Washita Valley fault. 32° W. 2) no fault movement has occurred along the WVF from Oil Creek to Wildhorse Creek within approximately the last 2000 yr. Frontal Wichita fault system of southwestern Oklahoma: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. J. Ward.T. v. but there was no evidence of faulting in alluvial units. #676 VanArsdale.B. Jr. R. southern Oklahoma: U. 47. 4 sheets. the studies of VanArsdale and others (1989 #676) determined that Holocene alluvium (<2000 years old) exposed in trenches and natural exposures is unfaulted along the Washita Valley fault.. v. 988-999... p. U. and VanArsdale.000 yr. 1963. 1967.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission. the results to these reconnaissance studies are only reported in a 1994 Final Technical Report to the U. Crone and Machette (1994 #2678) conducted a brief field reconnaissance specifically in search of demonstrable evidence of Quaternary faulting. but rather a geomorphic escarpment. This fault was previously mapped as a potentially active Quaternary fault (fault #172) by Kirkham and Rogers (1981 #2707). In contrast. This N60°W-trending topographic escarpment is located about 5 km northwest of the town of Fowler. which is consistent with the gravelly alluvium being deposited as a thin sheet across a low-relief piedmont surface. changes in the attitude and elevation of the basal contact of the alluvium across the scarp provide evidence for a more plausible. The relatively well- 277 . The gravels and their associated soils are very similar. Southwest of the inferred fault.S. on the southwest (downthrown) side the thickness of the alluvium varies considerably over a short distance. This feature is categorized in Class D because recent studies have not shown that the feature is not a fault. from only about 1 m adjacent to the trace of the inferred fault to several (possibly 10) meters thick at a point a few hundred meters southwest of the inferred fault. On the northeast (upthrown) side of the scarp. The geometry of the base of the alluvium adjacent to (southwest of) the fault suggested that the alluvium has filled an ancient stream channel. are summarized below. The 18 m vertical offset does not occur across a topographically continuous surface. In 1994. Colorado. along the northeastern side of the Arkansas River Valley. Reason for assignment to Class D: The Fowler fault is considered to be a non-tectonic feature because of the lack of compelling evidence that the prominent escarpment coincides with distinctive faults in the underlying bedrock. Although the top of the Rocky Flats Alluvium appears to be offset about 18 m. the basal channel fill is composed of calcium carbonate-cemented pebbly sandstone that is distinct compared to the typical Rocky Flats Alluvium. linear. 12-km-long trend. leading to the conclusion that these non-concordant deposits were originally contiguous and had been offset by Quaternary faulting. the base of this channel sweeps upward in the direction of the scarp (toward the northeast). and (2) three closely spaced northward-dipping faults in Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale were recognized in an arroyo that crosses the inferred fault line.Fowler fault (Class D) Structure Name Fowler fault (Class D) Comments: The fault was first named by Kirkham and Rogers (1981 #2707) although it was earlier reported as an inferred fault by Scott (1970 #1141) and mapped as a fault by Scott and others (1978 #2735). the alluvium is typically 3-4 m thick and has a generally planar base. To date. but rather the offset is inferred on the basis of correlating gravelly deposits of early Pleistocene Rocky Flats Alluvium that are spaced several tens to hundreds of meters apart but are at markedly different altitudes. The evidence originally reported by Scott (1970 #1141) to infer the presence of a Quaternary fault was twofold: (1) mapping of Quaternary deposits suggested that early Pleistocene Rocky Flats Alluvium was vertically offset about 18 m along an abrupt. non-tectonic explanation for the apparent offset. as presented in their report. The results of their investigation of the Fowler fault.

and an alluvial surface remnant inset about 17 m below the upper Rocky Flats surface. They discovered relatively continuous bedding in the Pierre Shale across the inferred trace of the fault. Crowley 1° x 2° sheet Pueblo Physiographic province High Plains 278 . but rather an erosional escarpment associated with the early Quaternary history of the Arkansas River. Furthermore. This suggested the lower surface was a younger fluvial channel rather than a downdropped fault block of Rocky Flats Alluvium.S. On the basis of stratigraphic and structural evidence.. The only features present in the shale were several north-dipping fractures that strike 055° and dip 39° to 44°N (similar to Scott's notations).e. On the basis of their field observations. they concurred that the Fowler fault is an erosional escarpment rather than a Quaternary fault. higher deposit (Qrf1) and a slightly younger inset deposit (Qrf2).sorted character of the sandstone suggests that it was deposited in a fluvial channel. terrace riser) between two slightly different age deposits of Rocky Flats Alluvium whose elevations are different because of downcutting along the ancient Arkansas River. Based on their observations. an older. bedding in the shale could be traced almost continuously across the area where the trace of the fault would be present. The fractures consist of 1cm-wide disruptions in the nearly horizontally bedded shale. but there is no evidence of significant offset across them. the base and the top of the Rocky Flats Alluvium show the same pattern of upward sweeping basal and upper contacts adjacent to the inferred fault. Geological Survey State Colorado County Pueblo. U. Crone and Machette (1994 #2678) concluded that the inferred "Fowler fault" is not a product of Quaternary tectonism. Crone and Machette (1994 #2678) carefully searched the arroyo walls in the area where Scott reported these north-dipping faults but could not find evidence of significant fault displacement despite nearly continuous exposures along the arroyo walls. The nature of these contacts and the presence of the carbonate-cemented sand were interpreted by Crone and Machette (1994 #2678) as evidence of a major fluvial channel that defines the boundary between two stages of Rocky Flats Alluvium. Jack Benjamin and Associates and Geomatrix Consultants (1996 #2703) conducted field reconnaissance in two small drainages that cross this fault. Along a 4-km-long section in the central part of the suspected fault. Crone. Crone and Machette (1994 #2678) interpreted the escarpment not as a fault scarp. The small size of the fractures and the lack of disruption in the well-bedded shale suggest that it is unlikely that the fractures could be responsible for the inferred 18 m of Quaternary throw on the fault. Date of compilation 11/04/97 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. but rather as the boundary (i. Scott's (1970 #1141) second line of evidence favoring a fault interpretation was the presence of closely spaced northward-dipping faults in the Pierre Shale beneath the trace of the inferred fault.

279 . C11-C18 p. R....S. 1996. south-central Colorado: U. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the U. Earthquake potential in Colorado: Colorado Geological Survey Bulletin 43..P. G. Reconnaissance investigations of Quaternary faulting in the stable interior of the west-central United States: FY 1994 Final Report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1970.. #2707 Kirkham. R.R. G. and Machette. 1994.M. Army chemical disposal facility. Maryland. R. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations I-1022. 1981.N. #2735 Scott. W.. 171 p. #2703 Jack Benjamin & Associates and Geomatrix Consultants. 1978. M. Geologic map of the Pueblo 1° x 2° quadrangle. 11 p. Geological Survey Professional Paper 700-C. under Contract JBA 148-130-PU-002.A. A.R.S. Epis.References #2678 Crone.B. and Rogers. Taylor. and Wobus.. #1141 Scott. Quaternary faulting and potential earthquakes in east-central Colorado: U. Colorado: Technical report to Science Applications International Corporation.J. R... Pueblo Depot Activity.S.C.

T. Reason for assignment to class D: Since the tentative inference of Quaternary faulting by Steinen and others (1995 #1898).Grossman's Hammock rock reef (Class D) Structure Name Grossman's Hammock rock reef (Class D) Comments: South Florida contains northwest-southeast-trending ridges that have typical lengths of 1-20 km. Hickey. The suggested fault is within a few tens of kilometers of the coastline of southeasternmost Florida.5 m (Steinen and others. Geological Survey State Florida County Dade 1° x 2° sheet Miami Physiographic province Coastal Plain 280 . antithetic faulting above a thick sedimentary column that might be collapsing and spreading into the Straits of Florida. There are several possible origins of such a fault. Date of compilation 07/27/98. near-surface normal faulting like that inferred for the Grossman Hammock rock reef might be caused by solution collapse. Steinen. 1991 #2255). with water depths greater than 0. Steinen and others (1995 #1898) tentatively interpreted drill cores as indicating 1 m or more of late Pleistocene and possibly Holocene. vertical offset on a southwest-dipping normal fault that strikes along the rock reef. basement beneath the basin is more than 4. marine and freshwater units separated by discontinuity surfaces that record subaerial exposure (Enos and Perkins. 1977 #2198.. 1998). Hickey. revised 12/15/98 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. 1998). The Miami Limestone forms the upper part of a sequence of mainly carbonate. Deeper in the subsurface is the southward-deepening South Florida Basin. and I use this local term to distinguish the ridges from topographic ridges in other parts of the country that are commonly higher and wider in comparison to their lengths. with the subsidence perhaps attributable to solution of carbonate rock (DuBar. 1995 #1898). written commun.5-1. or seismic faulting. Exposed bedrock is the bryozoan facies of the Miami Limestone of late Pleistocene age (T. Thus. filled with phosphatic and siliciclastic rocks and underlying carbonate rocks.5 km deep in the vicinity of Grossman's Hammock rock reef (DuBar. 1991 #2255). Ground penetrating radar verifies the absence of displacement along a surface of stratigraphic discontinuity that indicates an interval of subaerial exposure. typical widths of 100 m or less. oral and written communs.5 km within a few kilometers offshore. Bathymetric maps show that the sea floor drops sharply eastward into the Straits of Florida. and typical topographic reliefs of 0.D. the Grossman's Hammock rock reef is assigned to class D.D. Southern Florida is a subsiding carbonate platform. additional data from more recent drilling and ground penetrating radar show no evidence of Quaternary faulting (T. Hickey. Wheeler. 1998). Steinen and others. Bore holes drilled along a transect perpendicular to Grossman's Hammock rock reef reveal no displacement indicative of Quaternary faulting. written commun.. 1995 #1898.. and which is consistently observed at a depth of 13 ft (4 m). U.S.D. R. The ridges are locally referred to as rock reefs. Accordingly.

Quaternary geology of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain—Florida panhandle. Quaternary sedimentation in South Florida: Geological Society of America Memoir 147. 6. Hypothesized fault origin for the rock reefs of south Florida: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 595-610. P... 281 .D. R..B. and Perkins. E.S.. #2198 Enos. R. 27. Colorado.R. 1995. R.References #2255 DuBar. in Morrison. ed. A-229.: Boulder. no. p. K-2. 1977. Geological Society of America.P. 198 p. J. Shinn. p. 1991.. R. and Halley..B. 19 pls. Quaternary nonglacial geology. v. v. conterminous U.. #1898 Steinen..A. The Geology of North America..

an earthquake origin of the fissure fillings in the Hain Quarry is ruled out. They concluded that the fissures in the quarry most likely formed by liquefaction and incipient lateral spreading that were induced by prehistoric earthquake shaking. 1983 #1796. Disagreement continues about whether the fillings are ice-wedge casts (Black. and therefore discounted an earthquake origin of the fissures. 1986 #1907. Stone and Ashley. Schafer and others (1987 #1890) reported that delicate. determined that physical and textural properties of the fillings resemble those of the overlying eolian sediments more than those of the underlying lacustrine materials. Geological Survey State Connecticut County Windham 1° x 2° sheet Hartford Physiographic province New England 282 . R. In contrast. 1993 #1846) observed that some fissure fillings contain ventifacts. In the case of the Hain Quarry fissures. and underlain by lacustrine silt. Stone and Ashley. tabular. Date of compilation 07/02/98. Often it is easier to disprove an earthquake origin for prehistoric features than to prove it. Thorson. Reason for assignment to class D: The Hain Quarry fissures are filled with sandy silt and other materials.. downward-tapering. 1996 #2256). overlain by eolian sandy silt.. I found no reports of evidence for sudden. and R. Thorson and others (1986 #1907) and Thorson (1988 #1906) examined several of the wedges that were exposed at the Hain Quarry. at a minimum. violent emplacement of the fillings. demonstration of an earthquake origin requires. clay. Wheeler. Numerous criteria can be used to distinguish earthquake-induced liquefaction features from the many similar features of other origins (Obermeier. and sand (Thorson and others. 1992 #2229). less direct arguments against an earthquake origin. However. that question is not germane to this compilation of geologic evidence for Quaternary faulting. and (2) the fillings were emplaced suddenly and violently. 1998) observed varved clay clasts atop some fissures. steeply dipping to vertical bedding in the fissure fillings is preserved intact to a degree that is inconsistent with sudden. a gravel pit near Willimantic in east central Connecticut. Schafer and others (1987 #1890) and Kemppinen and others (1992 #1845. Thorson (oral commun. U. filled fissures in southern New England and New Jersey have long been interpreted as ice-wedge casts. 1992 #2229. Accordingly. oral commun. 1998).Hain Quarry fissures (CLass D) Structure Name Hain Quarry fissures (Class D) Comments: Vertical. although the clasts need not have risen suddenly or violently from the lacustrine beds. demonstration that (1) the fissure fillings moved upward into the fissures.S. Kemppinen and others (1993 #1846) summarized other. revised 02/01/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L. Perhaps the fissures are more complex than. and the fissure fillings are assigned to class D because they are not evidence of tectonic faulting. or fundamentally different from features that have been recognized before. violent emplacement.

.R... in Robinson. pingo scars. v. 20. and Amick.C. northeastern United States: Quaternary Research.F. On the origin of wedge structures in southern New England: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 1-76.S. #1906 Thorson. 2: Amherst..S. and Ashley.A. no. 261. Pseudo-ice-wedge casts of Connecticut. 55. v.. W. Gelinas. J.. p. 283 .P.M.L. 44. October 9-11. eds. p. no.A. #1890 Schafer. no. v. and Stone. p. v. #1845 Kemppinen.M. Pervasive ground deformation in the Hain Quarry. 74-89. 1992. and the drainage of glacial Lake Hitchcock. R. J. 1996. Massachusetts. 2. #2229 Stone. p. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis— An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes: Engineering Geology. p. R.C.. 14.. v. 24.References #1796 Black.F..M.L. and Brady. 305-331.M. Ice-wedge casts. Obermeier. v.. H. S. 1993. G.. S. p.. J. p. v. Clayton. #1846 Kemppinen.B. H. Guidebook for field trips in the Connecticut Valley region of Massachusetts and adjacent states. R. versus postulated earthquake deformation features in central Connecticut: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.]: Seismological Research Letters. Connecticut—A status report: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. R. 463-467. and Amick.. 19. Amherst. 1988. 1992.. #2256 Obermeier. 1986. University of Massachusetts Department of Geology and Geography Contribution 66. 64. A comparison of seismically-induced liquefaction features in the southeastern U.. P.. 20. 1983. Geologic evidence for a large prehistoric earthquake in eastern Connecticut: Geology.. v. 75 and 77. New England Intercollegiate Geological Conference. 24. D. #1907 Thorson. J. 1992. Evaluation of wedge-type pseudoliquefaction features in central Connecticut [abs. 84th Annual Meeting. 1.. p.R.M.. and Seeber. Gelinas. R. 1. L.. D. 1987.F.

The Harlan County fault has no surface expression and is only exposed in a 7-m-high.260±680 C yr B. the Harlan County fault is not a tectonic fault and thus is categorized as a Class D feature. Initial field studies suggested that the faulting could be less than 1000 years old. which extends to the top of the bluff exposure. and charcoal fragments in a burn layer in the Peoria Loess yielded a radiocarbon age of 22. 1996 #1163. Reason for assignment to Class D: Lack of compelling evidence that the feature exposed in the bluff is a deeply seated tectonic fault. This exposure was discovered by William C.P. thus it seems plausible that the slip planes in the bluff could have a non-tectonic origin (Machette and others. Johnson (University of Kansas) in the late 1980's during his studies of the Quaternary stratigraphy of loesses in southern Nebraska and northern Kansas. Initially. The most obvious non-tectonic explanation is that the slip planes are related to an ancient slope failure (landslide) associated with the paleotopography related to downcutting of the Republican River. Therefore. 1998 #2856). the main channel of which lies to the north of the exposure. dark paleosols (A and B horizons) in the immediate footwall of the fault. and 25. The slip planes in the bluff have a down-to-the-south. Elsewhere near Bone Cove in both walls of the fault. The man-made reservoir was created in 1952 when the Army Corps of Engineers completed the Harlan County Dam across the Republican River. Subsequent studies have shown that the feature is not related to tectonic faulting. whose top is marked by three pronounced. which is a narrow bay on the southern shore of Harlan County Reservoir. the three paleosols merge into one. South-central Nebraska has not been seismically active during historical time. 1998 #2856). Machette and others. The paleosols at the top of the Gilman Canyon Formation have yielded radio14 14 carbon ages of 26. and are typically less than 1 cm wide. 1993 #2798). 1995 #2797). normal sense of slip. a landslide explanation seemed unlikely because the slip planes have a down- 284 . Detailed studies provide convincing evidence that the vertical offset in the loess exposed in the bluff is related to an ancient landslide (Crone and others. and that the faulting might be related to seismic activity on the eastern side of the ChadronCambridge arch (Johnson and others. but the planes are not associated with any scarp at the surface.Harlan County fault (Class D) Structure Name Harlan County fault (Class D) Comments: This feature is known from only one exposure in a wave-cut bluff along the western side of Bone Cove.555±500 C yr B. for soil (Martin.P. form a sharp boundary between sediment in the hanging wall and footwall. Detailed mapping of the bluff at Bone Cove indicated at least 6 m of stratigraphic offset on the top of the late Pleistocene Gilman Canyon Formation. Radiocarbon dating has documented the age of the deposits exposed in the bluff at the Bone Cove site. wavecut bluff on the western shore of Bone Cove. The slip planes can be clearly traced upward into the Peoria Loess to within 30 cm of the modern ground surface.4 ka. The exposure that revealed the suspected fault was created after the reservoir was filled and wave erosion undercut loesscovered hillslopes. The Gilman Canyon Formation is overlain by latest Pleistocene Peoria Loess. on the southern shore of Harlan County Lake.

U. but about 300 m south of the bluff. These data were collected and interpreted by Richard Miller (Kansas Geological Survey) and Donald Steeples (University of Kansas). these observations indicate that the "Harlan County fault" is likely a non-tectonic feature. 285 . In the upper part of the bluff. and subsequent eolian deposition probably buried the headscarp (Machette and others. the apparent 6 m of throw is a local characteristic. This small variability in the elevation of the paleosol is likely related to natural topography and is not indicative of a tectonic offset. Collectively. A-55.. Nebraska Physiographic province Great Plains References #1163 Crone. Two key pieces of evidence support this interpretation (Machette and others. Stephenson. is only 0. M. and that the slip planes in the bluff mark the headwall of an ancient slope failure that slid southward into the paleovalley.J. and Odum. However. Geological Survey State Nebraska County Harlan County 1° x 2° sheet Grand Island. The second line of evidence for a non-tectonic origin is the fact that the net offset of the soil A horizon. The lack of significant vertical offset on the top of the Gilman Canyon Formation is consistent with the interpretation of high-resolution seismic-reflection data in the area adjacent to the bluff.5 m. the A horizon is exposed along the shoreline and the elevation of the A horizon there is only about 0. 1998 #2856).K. extensive excavations at the base of the bluff show that the attitudes of the slip planes decrease rapidly with depth.. whereas. 1996. and the actual change in elevation of the A horizon is measured in tens of centimeters. Williams. A. Haller. First. the A horizon are vertically offset about 6 m. 1998 #2856). K. their dip decreases to about 35°. detailed study around the site provided evidence that an ancient tributary paleovalley probably existed south of the Bone Cove bluff..to-the-south throw whereas lowland topography of the modern Republican River Valley is north of the Bone Cove site..S. Thus. Crone. 28. the slip planes have a dip of 65°70°. Machette. at a depth of about 8 m. W.A.N. no. p.J. 7.M. R. Late Quaternary paleoearthquakes in central Nebraska?—New evidence favoring general tectonic stability: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Their interpretation of the reflection data indicates that the Miocene Ogallala Formation is not vertically offset beneath the projection of the suspected fault. This rapidly decreasing dip at shallow depths is strong evidence supporting a landslide origin.5 m lower than the elevation of the A horizon 100 m north of the bluff in the "footwall" of the suspected fault.. v.. Within the bluff exposure. J. Date of compilation 11/05/97 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. at the top of the Gilman Canyon Formation. The slip planes exposed in the bluff are probably related to an ancient landslide that slid southward into a tributary valley of Bone Cove.

L. M.. #2856 Machette. Radiocarbon ages of late Pleistocene loess stratigraphy of Nebraska and Kansas. 179188. K. #2798 Martin. Crone. U. Miller. A. and chronology of a late quaternary (Holocene) fault. 12. Field investigations of suspected late Quaternary faults in central Nebraska—Evidence of non-tectonic origins: U. p.J.D.C. and Steeples.. 27.#2797 Johnson.W. V. Harlan County. 1995. Geomorphology.A. 1998. R.N..W. A-376. v. p.S.A. D. no. R. W.S.J..: Quaternary Science Reviews.A. 6. Bradley.. Williams.M.. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-2649. stratigraphy.. and Souders. 1 pl. Stephenson.. L.. 286 . v. central Great Plains.. 1993. Nebraska: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. W. Haller. C..

4-0. Dips on Mount Toby are generally gently eastward with local westerly dips. by showing two on his topographic map and by implying the existence and location of a third. (1) Fault y-z strikes northeast parallel to the northwestern foot of Mount Toby and along the east side of the Connecticut River. 1952 #1950) faults west of the Mount Toby fault itself. The hill is bounded on the east by the eastern border fault of the basin. Zen and others (1983 #1960) showed the border fault of the Deerfield basin as striking northnorthwest along the eastern side of Mount Toby (the Mount Toby fault of Willard. siltstones. with offsets of 1.000-scale topographic maps. and (4) brown and red arkose and conglomerate and gray and black lacustrine sandstones.8 km long. at North Sunderland and Whitmore Pond. 1952 #1950) near North Sunderland and on Taylor Hill.Fractures on Mount Toby (Class D) Structure Name Fractures on Mount Toby (Class D) Comments: All place or geographic names used here appear on the Mount Toby and Greenfield 1:24. in addition to the Mount Toby fault itself. Two west-facing normal faults at the northwestern base of Mount Toby were inferred from two patches of an "autochthonous breccia" (Willard. and extend short distances into the sedimentary units above and below. but Zen and others (1983 #1960) do not show them. and both appear to show jointed Deerfield Basalt. Mount Toby is underlain by (1) pale red conglomerate and arkosic sandstone of the Lower Jurassic Mount Toby Formation. Loomis (1921 #1854) described inferred postglacial faults on Mount Toby. an erosional remnant of Triassic and Jurassic strata in the Mesozoic Deerfield basin (Zen and others. Loomis (1921 #1854) refers to more than 20 similar escarpments on the slopes of Mount Toby. (3) the well-jointed Lower Jurassic Deerfield Basalt. (2) brown and red arkosic sandstone and conglomerate and gray and black lacustrine beds of the Lower Jurassic Turner Falls Sandstone. 1952 #1950) mapped five Mesozoic faults on and near Mount Toby. Willard (1951 #1949. 1983 #1960). more recent mapping has discounted at least four of Willard's (1951 #1949. Willard (1952 #1950) interpreted the breccia as overlying near-surface crystalline basement immediately east of thick Mesozoic strata and deeply buried basement.5-18 m that he attributed to faulting. and also showed five short faults striking north to northeast along the southwestern flank of Mount Toby. However. However. Finally. and the south and west sides of the hill slope toward the interior of the basin. 1985 #2223). and shales of the Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Sugarloaf Formation (Zen and others. In stratigraphic succession downward from the summit. Thus. 1983 #1960. (2) Fault x-y strikes northwest down the lower 287 . thereby removing the main evidence for the faults. Massachusetts. The short faults are 0. In addition. Mount Toby is a hill approximately 4 km wide east-west and 5 km long north-south. Figure 3 of Loomis (1921 #1854) shows a photograph of the escarpment. cut the Deerfield Basalt. Willard (1951 #1949) suggested two northwest-facing normal faults near the summit of Mount Toby. Loomis (1921 #1854) located only three faults. Loomis (1921 #1854) published two photographs of inferred fault escarpments. Willard (1951 #1949) suggested a fifth fault that coincides approximately with the southernmost of the five short Mesozoic faults shown by Zen and others (1983 #1960). Robinson and Luttrell (1985) showed the breccias to be Jurassic landslide deposits. 1952 #1950). Robinson and Luttrell. Zen and others (1983 #1960) labeled the five short faults as of Mesozoic age.

The second and third observations require a postglacial origin of the escarpments. and the suggestion is the reason for considering the Mount Toby area here. In contrast. Loomis did not state the inferred presence of a fault at Mohawk Brook. southwest. Loomis (1921 #1854) suggested that all these faults have postglacial slip. However. Farther north within the block reported as downdropped. Such inward tilting requires the bases of the tilted blocks to have moved outward. and the blocks step down outward. outwash plain deposits of Lake Hitchcock form a large delta with shoreward lake-bottom deposits at its toe. unweathered.7 km beyond Loomis's point f. 1921 #1854. the fractures that comprise them. so that talus caves formed between the blocks at their bases and water collects on the inward-sloping tops of the blocks. These observations are consistent with an hypothesis of (1) rapid postglacial weathering and erosion of the shaley lacustrine strata beneath the much more resistant Deerfield Basalt. small deltas that formed along the shoreline of postglacial Lake Hitchcock ring the southern and western feet of Mount Toby. At and south of Loomis's point f. 1921 #1854. (3) An unnamed fault is implied at Mohawk Brook near the southwestern foot of Mount Toby (point f of Loomis. and the smoothed surfaces are offset by vertical slip on the fractures. away from the hill. These deltas and the shoreline itself are 24 m lower along the southwestern side of the hill than farther southeast or north. away from the hill. Reason for assignment to class D: Loomis (1921 #1854) offered three observations in arguing for a postglacial origin of the inferred faults that are described above under "Structure name". Second. First. The change in shoreline elevation is the strongest part of the evidence for fault x-y. but his line of argument points toward it. respectively). the lips of the escarpments are sharp. Loomis (1921 #1854) also described some of the blocks between the fractures as tilting toward the hill. so that the fractures gape at their tops. Loomis (1921 #1854) reported the elevation of the shoreline of glacial Lake Hitchcock as 104 m southeast of Mohawk Brook and north of fault x-y. The tops of the blocks are glacially smoothed. a patch of Lake Hitchcock beach deposits is at the regional elevation of 91-94 m. figure 1). The delta and bottom deposits extend northward without offset 0. Such outward tilting requires any blocks farther out than the tilted blocks also to have moved outward. The first observation was refuted by surficial geologic mapping of Jahns (1951 #2204). and the offsets of glacially smoothed surfaces across the fractures. other blocks are tilted away from the hill. west. The shoreline maintains its regional elevation of 91-94 m along the south. (2) the jointed. and crosses Falls Road south of Chard Pond.northwestern slope of Mount Toby. at which point he reported the shoreline dropped northward 24 m. Figure 2 of Loomis (1921 #1854) shows a photograph of the escarpment. Third. away from the hill. and scarcely notched by small streams that flow across them. 288 . several of the escarpments each consist of two or more blocks that are bounded by vertical fractures that parallel the escarpment. and northwest sides of Mount Toby. but as only 79 m in the intervening 5 km. and (3) the joint blocks of basalt sinking down into the void left by the eroded lacustrine beds and sliding outward and downhill. to produce the total displacement of the inferred fault. which showed that the Lake Hitchcock shoreline is not lower between Mohawk Brook and Chard Pond (point f and fault x-y of Loomis. The Comment above under "Structure name" provides more details. resistant Deerfield Basalt breaking up along its outcrop as it loses support by removal of the underlying lacustrine strata.

H. Kulander and others. such steps would indicate that the escarpment-parallel fractures nucleated and propagated after the horizontal partings opened.L. 1 sheet. 1951 #2204). 88 p. was refuted by subsequent surficial mapping (Jahns. are diagnostic of extension fractures. and dip steeply toward the valley. logging. Geological Survey State Massachusetts County Franklin 1° x 2° sheet Albany Physiographic province New England References #2204 Jahns. Massachusetts: U. 1951 #1949. 1951.S. 1952 #1950.680. (2) Figure 3 shows a southeastward view of the northeast-striking escarpment y-z. Fractured core analysis— Interpretation. Two generations of bedrock mapping found no faults younger than Mesozoic (Willard. In joints. The photograph shows several structures that.. Third. as it would if a progression of sheeting or parting. but such an hypothesis would require more and better evidence than is yet reported.The two photographs of Loomis (1921 #1854) provide additional evidence that at least some of the inferred fault escarpments are probably the faces of joints that formed in extension. The dark. U. First. Postglacial faulting might still be hidden on Mount Toby.R. not faults that formed in shear. in abutting relations that indicate that the escarpment-parallel surfaces formed second. scale 1:31.J. 1990 #2207). Accordingly. probably at shallow depths.. large. Thus. Loomis's (1921 #1854) strongest argument for postglacial faulting. and use of natural and induced fractures in core: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Methods in Exploration Series No. irregular surfaces form most of the face of the escarpment. and which rule out an origin in shear (for example. some escarpment-parallel faces show sharp discontinuities that might be twist hackle steps.. 8. B. Wheeler. vertical fractures that strike into the escarpment. 289 . B. Date of compilation 08/14/98. several of the escarpment-parallel surfaces step sharply inward or outward across nearly horizontal partings.. and mass wastage had worked sideward and downward into a hillside. and Ward. Jr. 1983 #1960). these northwest-striking escarpment-parallel surfaces appear to terminate against more planar. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle map GQ-9.S. blurred photograph appears to show horizontally layered rock whose exposed surface steps back farther in successively higher layers. as is characteristic of valley-release joints. postglacial faulting is less likely than a combination of jointing and the differential erosion that would be expected in the humid climate of postglacial Massachusetts. together. R. 1990. Surficial geology of the Mount Toby quadrangle. Finally. a down-dropped shoreline of Lake Hitchcock. Zen and others. Neither photograph shows the comparatively smooth. Willard. #2207 Kulander. S. postglacial fault. Second. (1) Figure 2 shows an eastward view of the northwest-striking escarpment x-y. Dean.. the small "faults" on Mount Toby are assigned to category D. valley-release jointing. locally striated or corrugated surface that one might expect of a young. revised 01/28/00 Compiler and affiliation Russell L.

P.L.. Weed. 75-80.... #1960 Zen. Stanley.. 1985..E.-a. and Luttrell. 1921.A. Shride. 1 sheet. scale 1:31.S.E.S.F. 1 sheet.G. M. #1950 Willard. ed. R.. 290 .000.#1854 Loomis. v.. 3 sheets.M. N.S. Massachusetts: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 1951. #2223 Robinson.S. p. 78 p. P. M.B. Geologic Survey in cooperation with The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Public Works. F. Goldsmith. A. Bedrock geology of the Mount Toby quadrangle.680. 1952.. Massachusetts: U. Bedrock geology of the Greenfield quadrangle.. N. E. scale 1:250. Massachusetts: U. #1949 Willard. Revision of some stratigraphic names in central Massachusetts: U. compilers. Ratcliffe. Postglacial faulting about Mount Toby. 32.. Robinson. Jr. and Wones. scale 1:31. R. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-8.. E. Hatch.680.R. 1983. G. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-20. Bedrock geologic map of Massachusetts: U. Geological Survey Bulletin 1605-A.S. D.W.....

is continuous for as much as 32 km. linear valleys. high-resolution seismic-reflection studies show no stratigraphic offset in the shallow subsurface that corresponds to the inferred fault at the surface (Machette and others. linear escarpment in east-central Nebraska (Machette and others. however. linear. 1995 #2800). 42° W. The Ord escarpment is one of the most prominent escarpments in the region. which suggested significant offsets in subjacent bedrock. 1995 #2800). the escarpment appears to be abrupt. Furthermore. Reason for assignment to Class D: Geomorphic evidence and historical seismicity are inconsistent with the high slip rates inferred from the stratigraphic relations reported by Dort and others (1993 #2799. Dort and others (1993 #2799) also reported that Tertiary bedrock has been locally uplifted enough to be exposed at the surface. multi-cycle reflection that correlates with the 291 . and it separates a highly dissected. 1998 #2856). the deposition of which ceased about 12 ka. In this area. the landscape is formed on the latest Pleistocene Peoria Loess. and the drainage network has a very strong northwest-trending grain. and has as much as 60 m of surface relief. flat-floored valleys that have anomalously blunt heads and noted that surface scarps coincide with gradients in geophysical data. Therefore. these inferred stratigraphic relations suggest extremely high slip rates (ca. indirect geomorphic evidence argues against the escarpment being associated with a highly active latest Pleistocene fault.S. Thus. The reflection data were collected at sites where the escarpment is prominent and near its maximum height. even at local scales. The Ord escarpment is as much as 47m high where it was profiled (Machette and others. 1998 #2856). the escarpment is not associated with a tectonic fault and is assigned to Class D in this compilation. they speculated that more than 60 m of uplift has occurred since deposition of the loess. but generally. Dort and others (1993 #2799) described broad. This escarpment and several similarly oriented linear valley margins throughout the Loup River drainage basin were suggested as possible Quaternary fault scarps by Dort and others (1993 #2799. linear escarpments. sand-filled Cedar Creek Valley to the northeast. then the inferred fault beneath the escarpment has a latest Pleistocene vertical slip rate on the order of 4-6 mm/yr. All of the profiles show a similar strong. many of the various forks and tributaries of the Loup River are confined to unusually narrow. and composed of en echelon sections. In the Loup River drainage system. 1998 #2856).trending. embayed.Ord escarpment (Class D) Structure Name Ord Escarpment (Class D) Comments: The name Ord escarpment is an informal name given to a prominent N. As part of a continuing effort to identify and document Quaternary faults in the central U. Furthermore. The eolian sand in the valley is an eastward extension of the Nebraska Sand Hills. Active faults that have comparable latest Pleistocene slip rates are typically marked by abrupt. At a regional scale (1:250.. Thus. 5 mm/yr) on largely unknown and seismically quiescent tectonic features. loess-capped plateau to the southwest from a relatively low-relief.95 km of high-resolution seismic-reflection data at three sites along the escarpment to determine if subsurface strata are offset comparable amounts to the inferred offset at the surface. the escarpment front is dissected. If the relief across the escarpment is truly the product of post-Peoria Loess faulting.000scale topographic maps). at a local scale. and less well-defined. Crone and others (1996 #1163) and Machette and others (1998 #2856) collected 1.

and Martin. L. p. E. Zeller. V. v. Date of compilation 11/13/97. Williams.J.D.... Nebraska Physiographic province Great Plains References #1163 Crone. Crone and others (1996 #1163) and Machette and others (1998 #2856) used subsurface data to correlate reflections on the profiles with the Ogallala Formation. W. #2800 Dort. R... 1993. 28.N. J. 6..top of the Miocene Ogallala Formation. 1998. Jr. 1 pl.. 1995.. A-55.D. Crone. M. 1996. Haller. Field investigations of suspected late Quaternary faults in central Nebraska—Evidence of non-tectonic origins: U.J. Williams.J.. Crone and others (1996 #1163) and Machette and others (1998 #2856) conclude that the escarpment is a fluvial feature. v. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-2649.. #2856 Machette. p... U. W. Development of early to mid-Holocene fault-block topography in central and south-central Nebraska: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. #2799 Dort. Stephenson.S... E. and Souders... A-70. no.A. Greeley 1° x 2° sheet Broken Bow.A. 27. Jr. 47. v. Geological Survey State Nebraska County Garfield.M. Bradley.J. 292 . Valley. M. A. p.. no..J. R. and Martin..A. which is present at depths generally between 50 and 85 m. The lack of faults in the subsurface beneath the escarpment is convincing evidence that the escarpment is not a tectonic feature. revised 12/22/98 Compiler and affiliation Anthony J. 7. K. and Odum..K. Stephenson. Crone. no.S. K. L. W. A. W. A prominent reflection on all of the profiles is clearly continuous and is not vertically offset by faults having tens of meters of throw. 25.L. Extensive late Quaternary faulting in the Mid-continent Great Plains: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Machette. 3.M.J. Zeller..N. L. Late Quaternary paleoearthquakes in central Nebraska?—New evidence favoring general tectonic stability: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Haller.

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