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P

Finding least weight structure by variation of crosssectional area of members and joint locations.

Mathematical Concept

Specs

Type of Structure

Topology of structure

Configuration of

structure

Profiles of members

Member sizes

What about analysis?

Product

Mathematical Concept

The design of a structure is a repetitive process involving a

structural definition (synthesis) phase and an analysis phase

to meet a set of requirements.

Structural optimization is a strategy to obtain the optimum

structure. A structure is optimum if it has say, the least

weight (or other objective), and at the same time meets the

design requirement. The design requirement could be in the

form of strength, stiffness, or other requirement.

In addition to size of member, configuration optimization

involves the variation of structural joints to obtain the

optimum structure

Mathematical Concept

Optimization set-up

Example - Three Bar

Structures

L1

L2

2

2

Objective function: W.

Design constraints:

o absolute(stress of member 1) - strength 0

o absolute(stress of member 2) - strength 0

o absolute(stress of member 3) - strength 0

o hmin < H < hmax

o l1min < L1 < l1max

o l2min < L2 < l2max

o a1min < A1 < a1max

o a2min < A2 < a2max

o a3min < A3 < a3max

hmin, l1min, l2min = min length for H, L1, and L2

hmax, l1max, l2max = max length for H, L1, and L2

a1min, a2min, a3min = min area for A1, A2, and A3

a1max, a2max, a3max = max area for A1, A2, and A3

3

P

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 1

500mm

2

Member profile:

angle-profile

500mm

4

t

h

11

5

8

1

7

10

5

10000 N

E=71000 N/mm2

rho=2.8 kg/dm3

500

mm

Optimization through

variation of h and t

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 1

500mm

2

11

5

8

1

6 design variables:

var-1 and 2: t and h elements-1,2,3,4

var-3 and 4: t and h elements-5,6,7

var-5 and 6: t and h elements-8,9,10,11

500mm

7

10

5

10000 N

E=71000 N/mm2

rho=2.8 kg/dm3

500

mm

design constraints/requirement:

|stress| 100 Mpa

5 mm at node-5

1.6 t 3.0 mm

25 h 40 mm

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 1

Table-1 History of the design variable and structural weight

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Iter.

x1

x2

x3

x4

x5

x6

weight

(mm)

(kg)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0

2.000 30.000 2.000 30.000 2.000 30.000 2.0553

1

2.565 36.225 2.194 31.642 2.322 31.682 2.6890

2

2.614 35.083 2.188 31.602 2.317 31.675 2.6689

3

2.615 35.200 2.155 31.387 2.270 31.260 2.6242

4

2.607 35.115 2.098 31.005 2.192 30.597 2.5394

5

2.596 34.983 2.015 30.364 2.079 29.660 2.4187

6

2.573 34.774 1.923 29.471 1.963 28.641 2.2851

7

2.538 34.551 1.842 28.497 1.867 27.730 2.1649

8

2.492 34.479 1.777 27.616 1.793 27.011 2.0681

9

2.451 34.452 1.728 26.921 1.739 26.463 1.9955

10

2.421 34.448 1.694 26.412 1.702 26.081 1.9451

11

2.424 34.412 1.698 26.469 1.710 26.158 1.9521

12

2.426 34.385 1.697 26.454 1.708 26.135 1.9500

13

2.427 34.372 1.697 26.455 1.708 26.140 1.9505

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 1

Table-2 The largest stress (absolute) of each element group and the

displacement of node 5.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Stress (N/mm2)

displ (mm)

Iter. group-1

group-2

group-3

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------0

133.36

39.06

66.68

-5.03

1

86.52

33.51

54.96

-3.61

2

87.83

33.66

55.09

-3.64

3

87.45

34.41

56.94

-3.68

4

87.94

35.77

60.17

-3.79

5

88.64

38.02

65.36

-3.95

6

89.97

41.03

71.64

-4.17

7

91.76

44.27

77.79

-4.39

8

93.63

47.31

83.14

-4.59

9

95.21

49.86

87.50

-4.75

10

96.39

51.82

90.74

-4.87

11

96.36

51.59

90.08

-4.85

12

96.38

51.65

90.27

-4.86

13

96.37

51.64

90.23

-4.86

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mathematical Concept

3

2

1

0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

W e ig h t ( K g )

Case Study 1

Iteration

Weight History

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 2

member cross-sectional area, min 50 mm2

Area-init = 100 mm2

H = 300 to 700 mm, H-initial = 500 mm

Weight, Kg

Weight (Kg)

9

Iteration

11

13

2

2

Optimum

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

5

10,000 N

Weight History

500

Max. displ. = 5.0 mm

500

15

17

Weight = 0.239 Kg

Stress-1 = 26.6 MPa

Stress-2 = 98.9 MPa

Stress-3 = 26.6 MPa

Displ-4 = 0.42 mm

A = 303.1 mm B = 500 mm

A1 = 50.5 mm2

A2 = 87.0 mm2

A3 = 50.5 mm2

Mathematical Concept

Case Study 3

Y = 300 to 700 mm

X1=A1,A2

X2=A3,A4

X3=A5,A9 X4=A6,A8

X5=A7

X6=Y

Initial

X1=X2=X3=X4=X5= 100

Y=500

Weight=1.38

sig1=0

sig2=0

sig3= -100

sig4=-100 sig5=-100 sig6=141.4

sig7=0

sig8=141.4 sig9=-100

disp2=-3.4

5

7

500

20,000 N

Max. displ. = 5.0 mm

Weight History

3

Optimum

X1=50.5 X2=108.6

X4=118.1 X5=79.7

Weight = 1.12

sig1=0

sig2=0

sig4=-98.9 sig5=-98.6

sig7=98.7 sig8=99.0

disp2=-2.4

500

2.5

X3= 101.4

X6=303.380

sig3=-98.9

sig6=99.0

sig9=-98.6

2

1.5

Weight (Kg)

1

0.5

0

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Iteration

Mathematical Concept

Programming)

Find the design variable values {X} hence the

objective function F({X}), e.g. structural weight, is

minimum

and meet the design constraints,

gj({X}) 0

j=1,m

through the iteration procedure,

{Xq+1} = {Xq} + Sq

X2

g1

X1

g4

S1

X0

S2

X2

S3

Space

optimum point

f = C1

g2

f = C4

f = C2

f = C3

g3

f = C5

X1

Mathematical Concept

Optimization Process

For a design/system (e.g bridge), observe:

What are the design variables and their values {X}

The objective function F({X}), e.g. bridge structural

weight, is to be minimized

But MUST satisfy the design constraints,

gj({X}) 0

j=1,m

Performed through the iteration procedure,

{Xq+1} = {Xq} + Sq

or

New X = Old X + X

Mathematical Concept

F=X2+Y2+40

250

200

150

100

50

0

10

5

10

5

-5

y

-5

-10

-10

Mathematical Concept

Z=1.8-1.5*(X2+Y2)[cos(0.5Y)*sin(X)]

0.4

-0.2

-0.4

4

2

0.2

-2

y

-1

-2

-4

-4

-2

-3

-3

-2

-1

0

x

Mathematical Concept

F=(X-5)2/25+(Y-1)2/4-1

400

300

30

100

0

20

-100

30

10

20

10

50

200

0

-10

-20

y

-30

-50

-10

-20

-30

-20

-10

0

x

10

20

Mathematical Concept

No design constraints!!!

X2

decreasing

objective

function

5

4

X1

Mathematical Concept

Optimum (e.g. minimum of a function)

Optimality conditions/criteria of functions of single-variable

Necessary condition:

f(x*)= 0 or df/dx=0 or

f = 0

Sufficient condition:

f(x) 0 or d2f/dx2 0

f=2x-4,

f=2

Mathematical Concept

(e.g. minimum of a function)

f=x3-x2-4x+4

Mathematical Concept

Optimum (e.g. minimum of a function)

Optimality conditions/criteria of functions of multi-variables

Mathematical Concept

Optimum (e.g. minimum of a function)

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