This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Submitted to fulfillment of Master Degree in Education, M.A (Edu.)
Registration No: 240397/207023090473
Submitted By: Neelam Chaudhary Submitted To: Vinayaka Missions University Tamilnadu
To survive in a competitive environment, theoretical knowledge must be supplemented with practical knowledge. Being a literature student, study report an essential part of our course and bridges the gap between theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge. Experts predict that over the next ten years the International Education Industry will need 2.2 to 2.4 million teachers. That means there will be 15, 00,000 to 25,00,000 openings for teachers in the elementary and secondary schools. The needs are also great in curricular areas such as special education, mathematics, science, bilingual education, and English as a second language.
Time management is an important factor especially for the pre service teacher. Self consciousness and self awareness about the pre planning and time schedule make a teacher perfect in the respected field. For this purpose it is very importantly, pre service teachers must attend the preparatory briefing sessions to collect paperwork and understand professional experience expectations. In addition, they must read the documentation, much of which will be provided on-line. This inspired us to take up this study on self consciousness of pre teachers in relation of their Time Management competence as an important fact for judgment. The study includes a detailed meaning of consciousness and time management. We have tried to put in best of our efforts to understand the self consciousness and time management of pre service teachers. Errors and mistakes are part of human life and some errors might have crept in the report. Any queries with respect to this report are most welcomed.
We would like to express our deepest gratitude to all those who made this report possible. Firstly, we would like to thank all the other staff members of our department for standing by our side whenever we were in need of their help. Last, but not the least, we would like to thank our parents, friends and all those who have directly or indirectly helped us to accomplish this report, and without whose assistance, guidance and motivation this report would never had been possible.
1 Immunities to Error through Misidentification -5.5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Particulars Preface Acknowledgement Index Introduction Self-Consciousness: Some Distinctions Is Self-Consciousness Possible? Epistemic Peculiarities of Self-Consciousness Semantic Peculiarities of Self-Consciousness . I. No. 1 2 3 4 6 10 15 19 19 26 30 33 37 45 49 66 4 .2 Essential Indexical and De Se Thoughts Conclusion: A General Theory of Self-Consciousness? Teachers’ Professional Self-consciousness Time Management Tips for Teachers Behavior Management Strategies Time Management for Teachers Bibliography Page No.TABLE OF CONTENT Sr. II.
We are conscious of their features: their colours. and the sound they make. and of the thoughts that occur to us and the feelings that we experience—are philosophically fascinating. or of a sudden cheerfulness. 5 . These forms of self-consciousness—consciousness of ourselves and our personal existence. their shapes.1. or that we are thinking of tomorrow’s errands. sophisticated. By contrast. in spite of self-consciousness’ being so much more familiar a phenomenon—indeed the most familiar phenomenon of all. we barely have anything worth the name “scientific theory” for self-consciousness and its various manifestations. inasmuch as they are at once quite mysterious and closest to home. and so forth. tree blooming. In addition. systematic psychology (in addition to being the brother of novelist Henry James and a gifted writer himself). We are conscious of events involving them: car accidents. beetles. Thus William James. we are conscious of a variety of things. We are often conscious of other people. Sometimes we are also conscious of ourselves. I am always at the same time more or less aware of myself. of the fact that we are nervous or uncomfortable. Our scientific theories of astrophysical objects that are incredibly distant from us in both space and time. or of the smallest particles that make up the sub-atomic layer of reality. who was very influential in the early days of experimental. Thus. and the events that take place within us. remarked once that “whatever I may be thinking of. of my personal existence” (James 1961: 42). we sometimes have the sense that we are continuously conscious of ourselves going about our business in the world. of cars. of our character traits and standing features. Sometimes we are conscious of simpler things: that we are seeing red. Introduction Throughout our waking life. and other objects around us. and impressive. in a certain situation. We may become conscious of a rising anxiety. we may become conscious. trees. are mature. our features.
as elsewhere. and more generally how we represent. (In philosophical jargon. we will discuss first the nature of the relevant epistemic peculiarities and then (more extensively) the semantic ones. it has sought some epistemic and semantic peculiarities of self-consciousness. and is anyway partly due precisely to deep philosophical puzzles about the nature of self-consciousness. Self-Consciousness: Some Distinctions The first important distinction is between self-consciousness as a property of whole individuals and self-consciousness as a property of particular mental states. My being self-conscious involves my being conscious of my self. Philosophical work on self-consciousness has thus mostly focused on the identification and articulation of these peculiarities. ourselves and our internal lives. and (ii) thoughts are not the kind of thing that can be conscious of anything. and considering the conditions for the very possibility of self-consciousness. Another distinction is between consciousness of oneself (one’s self) and consciousness of a particular event or state that occurs within oneself. We may call the property that I have creature self-consciousness and the property that my thought has state selfconsciousness.” The latter involves 6 . But my thought’s being self-conscious does not involve my thought’s being conscious of its self. that is. More specifically. After drawing certain fundamental distinctions. peculiarities as regards how we know. since (i) it does not have a self. when we say “My thought that p is self-conscious” and “I am self-conscious.” the property we ascribe is in all likelihood different.) This entry will accordingly focus on these peculiarities. Many philosophers have thought that self-consciousness exhibits certain peculiarities not to be found in consciousness of things other than ourselves. Compare “I am self-conscious of myself thinking that p” to “I am self-conscious of my thought that p.Here. “epistemology” is the theory of knowledge and “semantics” is— more or less—the theory of representation. and indeed possibly not to be found anywhere else in nature. Thus. the immaturity of our scientific understanding of self-consciousness invites philosophical reflection on the topic. 2.
But although the subject and the object of the thought happen to be the same thing. or conceptions. To mark this difference. even though there is one entity here. State selfconsciousness is consciousness of what happens within oneself. there is still a conceptual distinction to be made between myself in my capacity as object of thought and myself in my capacity as subject of thought. if I am conscious of my thought that p as my thought.and state-self-conscious. Thus. But suppose now that I am conscious of myself (or of myself and my feelings). there would presumably be two distinct modes of presentation under which a person may be conscious of herself. that a mental state may be both creature. but need not involve awareness of self or selfhood. whereas creature selfconsciousness is consciousness of oneself proper. She may be conscious of herself under the “I” description or under the “me” description. That is to say. there is a sort of “conceptual distance” 7 . whereas “me” (and its Mentalese correlate) refers to the self-as-object. its object is Budapest. Suppose I am conscious of Budapest (or of Budapest and its odors). “I” (and its Mentalese correlate) refers to the self-as-subject. which dates back to Kant. the self-as-subject concept and the self-as-object concept. By “Mentalese correlate. and takes as its object an internal state of mine.awareness of a particular thought of mine. I am the subject of the thought. In its technical use.”) In the latter case. William James (1890) introduced a technical distinction between the I and the me. Thus. (We could capture the difference. my state of self-consciousness may employ either the “I” mode of presentation or the “me” mode of presentation. Now I am both the subject and the object of the thought.) Another traditional distinction. of self. there are two separate concepts for this entity. by distinguishing “I am self-conscious that I think that p” and “I am selfconscious that methinks that p. (Note.” I mean the expression that would mean the same as “I” and “me” in something like the so-called language of thought (Fodor 1975) or Mentalese. I will refer to the stronger variety as strong self-consciousness and the weaker as weak self-consciousness. using James’ technical terminology. is between consciousness of oneself qua object and consciousness of oneself qua subject. however.) Corresponding to these two concepts. It is a form of self-consciousness in the sense that it is directed inward. then I am conscious both of my thought and of myself. But it is not a form of self-consciousness in the stronger sense of involving consciousness of self. as a thought of mine.
Indeed.” In the former. Compare “I am self-conscious of thinking that p” and “I am self-consciously thinking that p. Schizophrenics suffering from “thought insertion” and “alien voices” delusions report that they are not in control of their thoughts. By contrast. irreducible. in the former case. intransitive form. self-consciously is how the thought that p occurs. Although I am thinking of myself. through a distinction between transitive and intransitive self-consciousness (Kriegel 2003. and central aspect of our mental life. I am thinking of myself precisely as the thing that is therewith doing the thinking. Rather. By contrast. philosophers in the phenomenological tradition have long held that something like consciousness of self-as-subject is a distinct. there is no numerical distinction between the thought and the state of self-consciousness: the thought is the state of self-consciousness. But the distinction between consciousness of self-as-subject and consciousness of self-as-object might be captured using analytic tools. I am not thinking of myself as the thing that does the thinking. No extra act of self-consciousness takes place after the thought that p occurs. In transitive selfconsciousness. is doing the thinking for them. That is. it is construed as a modification of my thinking. they claim. it designates the way I am having my thought (or doing my thinking). the thought and the state of self-consciousness are treated as two numerically distinct mental states. in the latter the self-consciousness term (if you will) does not denote a state of standing in a relation to my thought (or my thinking) that p. Philosophers in the analytic tradition have been more suspicious of it (for exceptions to this rule. self-consciousness is construed as a relation between me and my thinking. Through Kant’s influence on Husserl. I have been speaking of the self-as-subject in terms of “the thing that does the thinking. they often envisage a particular individual who. In the latter. Note that although they do not 8 .” and correspondingly of consciousness of oneself as subject in terms of consciousness of oneself as the thing that does the thinking. or implants thoughts in their mind.between the thing that does the thinking and the thing being thought about. But recent work in philosophical psychopathology counsels caution here. in intransitive self-consciousness. 2004a). Rather. see for instance Van Gulick 1988 and Strawson 1997). transitive form. The adverb “self-consciously” denotes a way I am having my thought that p.
Presumably. that of self-asauthor versus self-as-owner. Another important distinction is between propositional self-consciousness and nonpropositional self-consciousness. To avoid confusion.” In any case. it necessarily denotes propositional self-consciousness.” it is left open whether it is propositional or nonpropositional self-consciousness that is denoted. But the pathological cases show that there is daylight between the two notions. When a report of selfconsciousness uses a “that” clause. the terminology leaves it opens whether there is a non-propositional or non-conceptual form of self-consciousness. in the normal go of things. Other distinctions can certainly be drawn. let us suggest a different terminology. Graham and Stephens 2000). There is no doubt that there is such a thing as propositional self-consciousness: consciousness that some self-related proposition obtains. and correspondingly. But when it does not. in them. The distinction between self-as-agent and self-as-subject is orthogonal. ownership and authorship are inseparable. in some sense. for instance. “I am self-conscious of thinking that p” is compatible with. as is the case. but does not entail. “I am self-conscious that I am thinking that p. as we just did. they do experience the thinking as happening. But a strong case can be made that there is a form of self-consciousness that is sub-propositional. with “I am selfconscious of thinking that p. To be sure. between authorship of one’s thoughts and mere ownership of them (respectively). That is. They are five: 9 .experience themselves as doing the thinking. such self-consciousness has conceptual content. however. To account for the experiential difference between doing the thinking and merely hosting the thinking. I have restricted myself to those that will play a role in the discussion to follow. and has non-conceptual content (Bermúdez 1998). to the distinction between self-as-object and selfas-subject. of consciousness of oneself as author of one’s thoughts and consciousness of oneself as owner of one’s thoughts. as it were. some philosophers have drawn a distinction between consciousness of oneself as agent and consciousness of oneself as subject (Campbell 1999.
This is doubly significant. of different degrees of scepticism. when I enter most intimately into what I call myself. these distinctions are meant as conceptual ones. Second. VI): “For my part. IV. First. philosophers have questioned the very existence of self-consciousness. and never can observe anything but the perception. (How) Is Self-Consciousness Possible? Perhaps the best known philosophical threat to the very possibility of self-consciousness hails from Hume’s remarks in the Treatise of Human Nature (I. 3. the fact that there is a distinction between two concepts does not entail that there is a difference between the putative properties picked out by these concepts. The modest claim is: 10 . I always stumble on some particular perception or other… I never can catch myself without a perception. the existence of a concept does not entail the existence of the property putatively picked out by that concept. In fact.” This passage makes two separate claims.As I warned at the opening.
Nor is such rejection a necessary condition for the impossibility of selfconsciousness. these proceedings. he offered a theory of it. In assessing Hume’s claims. Hume himself not only countenanced the self. one cannot “catch” oneself without a particular mental state. immodest claim next. it rules out the possibility of creature self-consciousness. what did Hume expect to catch? And second. This suggests an answer to our first question. what sort of catching did he have in mind? One way to deny the possibility of consciousness of oneself is to reject the existence of a self of which one might be conscious. namely. It is unclear. the bundle theory. Hume makes the latter. particularly the immodest one. What he expected to catch is a self-substance (if you please). first. Consider 11 . it does not disallow catching oneself with a perception. What Hume rejected was the existence of a substantial self. What he rejected is the reifying conception of the self according to which the self is an object among others in the world. and somehow stands above. allowing only for state self-consciousness. however: (IC) Upon “turning into” oneself. even nonillusory consciousness of oneself. we must ask. for example. But though it disallows catching oneself without a perception. IC rules out the possibility of any consciousness of one’s self. stronger. required the existence of a substantial self. This rejection is shared today by several philosophers (see. But the inexistence of a self is not a sufficient condition for the impossibility of self-consciousness: there could still be thoroughly and systematically illusory experience of selfhood that gives rise to a form of (illusory) selfconsciousness. why Hume thought that consciousness of oneself. a self that is more than just a stream of consciousness and a sum of experiences.(MC) Upon “turning into” oneself. one cannot “catch” anything but particular mental states. Dennett 1991). MC rules out the possibility of a mental state whose sole object is the self. concerning what Hume had expected to catch upon turning into him. a substrate that supports the internal goings-on unfolding therein but is distinct from. however. That is.
One can surely entertain purely intellectually the proposition “I am inexplicably cheerful. but become conscious of it as belonging to a larger bundle of mental states. 12 . we would be well justified to conceive of this person as conscious of her self. Upon turning into herself. perhaps a bundle that has a certain internal cohesion to it at and across time. In that case. thoughts that are entertained in the presence of their object or referent). as he would with a chair upon directing his outward gaze in the right direction. and might properly enough be called internal sense” (Essay Concerning Human Understanding II. by turning inward his mind’s eye. The plausibility of the introspective model is very much in contention. it is essentially non-perceptual. concerning what sort of “catching” Hume had in mind. it appears that Hume envisioned a quasi-perceptual form of catching. This inner sense conception was clearly articulated in Locke: “The other fountain [of] ideas is the perception of the operations of our own minds within us… And though it be not sense. i. He wanted to be confronted with his self. There is no question that one can believe (or otherwise think purely intellectually) that one is inexplicably cheerful. Thus. 4). according to which self-consciousness involves the employment of an inner sense: an internal mechanism whose operation is analogous in essential respects to the operation of the external senses. as having nothing to do with external objects. On this basis. say an inexplicable cheerfulness. Rosenthal (2004) proceeds to develop an account of self-consciousness in terms of purely intellectual thoughts about oneself (more specifically. Hume was working with an introspective model of self-consciousness. As for the second question. He expected selfconsciousness to involve some sort of direct encounter with the self. Rosenthal (1986) claims that for self-consciousness to be genuinely analogous with perceptual consciousness the former would have to exhibit the sort of qualitative character the latter does. In other words.how self-consciousness might play out within the framework of Hume’s own bundle theory. but since it does not. a person might become conscious of a particular mental state. yet it is very like it.” But Hume wanted more than that.
contending with Hume’s challenge still proves immensely 13 . One way to interpret Shoemaker’s claim here is that while Hume’s argument may be effective against transitive self-consciousness. But when one is conscious of one’s cheerfulness. What Hume showed is that quasi-perceptual transitive self-consciousness is impossible. Shoemaker (1996) argues that the quasi-perceptual model falters in construing self-consciousness along the lines of the act-object analysis that befits perceptual consciousness. it is quite likely that self-consciousness is indeed possible. At the same time. In this respect. self-consciousness can sometimes have a quality of immediacy about it (and its way of putting us in contact with its objects) that seems to parallel perceptual consciousness. but it is nonetheless possible to be self-consciously cheerful. But in intransitive self-consciousness there is no such duality: there is not a distinction between an act of self-consciousness and a separate object taken by it. according to Shoemaker. the state of self-consciousness and the state of (for example) cheerfulness. We might combine Rosenthal’s and Shoemaker’s perspectives and suggest the view that self-consciousness can come in two varieties: intellectual transitive self-consciousness and intransitive selfconsciousness. it is not against intransitive selfconsciousness. But reflecting on the conditions of its possibility puts non-trivial constraints on our conception of selfconsciousness. to be thought of as quasiperceptual. but this leaves untouched the possibility of intellectual transitive self-consciousness and of intransitive self-consciousness. When one is perceptually conscious of a butterfly’s meandering. supposedly thereby taken as object. On this interpretation. Shoemaker’s claim is that being self-conscious of being cheerful may well be impossible. Thus. Recall that transitive self-consciousness requires a duality of mental states. indeed unmediated. or if the catching is somehow fused into the particular mental state thereby caught. philosophers have sometimes charged that selfconsciousness is in fact too immediate. is misleading. a distinction is always called for between the act of perceptual consciousness and the meandering butterfly it takes as an object.On the other hand. In summary. a parallel distinction between the act of self-consciousness and one’s cheerfulness. Both varieties escape the clutches of Hume’s threat: one can catch oneself (with a particular mental state) if the catching is intellectual rather than quasi-perceptual.
it is passed only by bottlenose dolphins (Reiss and Marino 2001) and Asian elephants (Plotnik et al. which suggests that they recognize themselves in the mirror.” In these experiments. Mirror self-recognition experiments thus cannot take precedence over the search for an independent understanding of self-consciousness. twentieth century analytic philosophers have attempted to identify certain semantic peculiarities of selfconsciousness. and orangutans. Among primates. it wakes us from our dogmatic slumber about self-consciousness and brings up the question of the nature of self-consciousness. Most importantly. have often claimed certain epistemic privileges on behalf of self-consciousness. However.fruitful. 1977). chimpanzees. a creature’s forehead is marked with a visible stain. relative to consciousness of things other than oneself. Successes with the mark test are few and far between. and even humans do not typically pass it before the age of a year and a half (Amsterdam 1972) and chimpanzees not before three years of age nor after sixteen years of age (Povinelli et al. One would need a principled account of the latter in order to clarify that matter. Outside the group of primates. some creatures try to wipe off the stain. it is not entirely clear what the true relationship between mirror selfrecognition and self-consciousness is. Many contemporary cognitive scientists have operationalized the notion of self-consciousness in terms of experiments on mirror selfrecognition and the so-called “mark test. If anything. 14 . To that end. More recently. Early modern philosophers. while others do not (see mainly Gallup 1970. this operational treatment of self-consciousness is problematic at a number of levels. One question regarding the nature of self-consciousness that arises immediately is what is to count as having self-consciousness. 2006). We take those up in turns. from Descartes on. it is passed with any consistency only by humans. let us consider the ways in which self-consciousness has been claimed to be different. but not by gorillas or gibbons (Suarez and Gallup 1981). When placed in front of a mirror. 1993). special. and sometimes privileged.
According to the doctrine of infallibility. I am indeed thinking that p. We may. Whereas according to DIF. which suggests that the subject is in possession of (and makes correct use of) all the relevant evidence. my belief is justified. Thus. however. my belief is true. A parallel doctrine ensures that such beliefs are (epistemically) justified. call this the doctrine of incorrigibility. without too much injustice to traditional terminology. We may say that whenever I am self-conscious of thinking that p. The traditional notion of incorrigibility is the notion that the subject cannot possibly be corrected by anyone else. one’s consciousness of oneself is always veridical and accurate.4. this claim would be trivially true. the most discussed special feature claimed on behalf of self-consciousness is infallibility. Traditionally. whenever I believe something about my mental life. about a dozen epistemic peculiarities sometimes attributed to self-consciousness. according to DIC. whenever I believe something about myself and my mental life. The doctrine of infallibility ensures that my beliefs about my mental life are true. whenever I believe something about my mental life. To bypass this technicality. the belief is true: things are in fact the way I believe them to be. We may thus formulate the doctrine of incorrigibility as follows: (DIC) If I am (seemingly) self-conscious of thinking that p. then I am justifiably (seemingly) self-conscious of thinking that p. somewhat hastily. It is important to note. whereas the point of the doctrine under consideration is that it is true even if “self-conscious of” is not a success verb (or also for any non-success uses of the verb). We may formulate the doctrine of infallibility as follows: (DIF) If I am (seemingly) self-conscious of thinking that p. we will consider. let us insert parenthetically the qualifier “seemingly” into our formulation of the claim. 15 . that to the extent that “self-conscious of” is a success verb. then I am thinking that p. Epistemic Peculiarities of Self-Consciousness In what follows.
(If the tripartite analysis is incorrect. then the thesis does not follow from the conjunction of DIC and DIF. then my state of self-consciousness will necessarily qualify as knowledge. however. That is. I am aware that I think it. the conjunction of DIC and DIF would entail a doctrine about self-knowledge in general. Note. self-intimating. namely: (DIK) If I am (seemingly) self-conscious that I am thinking that p. because if I am indeed thinking that p. if I am in a state of self-consciousness whose content is “I am thinking that p”. then my selfconsciousness of thinking that p must be true or veridical. as it probably is. Let us formulate the doctrine of strong self-intimation as follows: 16 . Consider the converse of the doctrine of infallibility. Thoughts are. Its converse is a stronger thesis: whenever I think that p. Having a thought entails being self-conscious of having it. What we have just considered is the weak variety. A distinction is sometimes made between weak self-intimation and strong self-intimation (Shoemaker 1996). then I am self-conscious of thinking that p.) The three doctrines we have considered claim strong privileges on behalf of selfconsciousness. DIF ensures that when I am (seemingly) self-conscious of thinking that p. then I know that I am thinking that p.Against the background of the tripartite analysis of knowledge. then I am in fact thinking that p. The strong variety ensures not only that when I think something. We may formulate the doctrine of selfintimation as follows: (DSI) If I am thinking that p. But there are stronger ones. that the thesis is entailed by DIF and DIC only against the background of the tripartite analysis—though it may be independently true. But it can still be formulated. Thus. I am aware that I do not think it. I inevitably come to believe (or be aware) that I am. Note that DSI entails DIF. nothing can pass through the mind without the mind taking notice of it. That is. I am self-conscious of doing so. whenever I think something. but also that when I do not think something. in this sense.
then I am justifiably selfconscious of not thinking that p.(DSSI) If I am thinking that p. or. then I know that I do not think that p. and if I do not think that p. such as sensations and feelings. then I am self-conscious of thinking that p. and if I am not thinking that p. But some theses can be formulated that would restrict the epistemic privileges to a special subset of mental states. then I am justifiably self-conscious of thinking that p. as well as DSI. Thus few if any philosophers would defend them today. It also entails DIF. Strong self-intimation renders the mind in some traditional sense transparent to itself. The strong version would be: (OSC) If I think that p. 17 . understood as mental states in general. The above doctrines are formulated in terms of thoughts. or some such. then I know that I think that p. We may call the associated doctrine the Omniscience of Self-Consciousness. A thus restricted self-intimation thesis might read: if I have a sensation S. It is the thesis that if I think that p. Freud’s work on the unconscious has all but refuted the above doctrines (see especially Freud 1915). But the term “transparency” has had such wide currency in recent philosophy of mind that it would be better not to use it in the present context. This last feature is probably the strongest epistemic privilege that could be claimed on behalf of self-consciousness. then I know that I think that p. and everything that does not. then I am self-conscious of not thinking that p. a strong version can be formulated: If I think that p. if I have a phenomenally conscious state S. a parallel thesis could be formulated regarding knowledge: If I think that p. Again. or phenomenally conscious states. then I am self-conscious of having S. then I am justifiably self-conscious of thinking that p. For it is the thesis that one knows everything that happens within one’s mind. Finally. then I am self-conscious of having S. But many may consider restricted versions of them. and if I do not think that p. Consider now the converse of the doctrine of incorrigibility.
this variation claims only that I am self-conscious of having a thought—some thought. but of having specifically the thought that p. blindfolded. At the very first instant. then I am selfconscious of thinking. then an ice cube is placed on that spot. consider the following thesis: If I am (seemingly) self-conscious of being in a phenomenally conscious state S. I am (seemingly) self-conscious of having a pain sensation but do not in fact have a pain sensation. Staying with self-intimation. Suppose that. It is difficult to conceive of a situation in which one is aware of oneself as being in some conscious state when in fact one is in no conscious state (and hence is unconscious). 18 . a phenomenally conscious sensation—of the refrigerator’s hum without becoming self-conscious of it. I am nonetheless in some conscious state. Another way to restrict the above doctrines is by making their claims weaker. That is. I am selfconscious not just of having a thought. or so the argument goes (see Horgan and Kriegel 2007). Consider the following variation on self-intimation: If I am thinking that p. and some of the resulting theses may be quite plausible. while in reality I am having a coldness sensation. Whereas DSI claims that when I have the thought that p. An alleged counter-example is the fraternity initiation story. it has been suggested that there are sensations and conscious states that occur without their subject’s awareness. I am likely to be under the impression that I am having a pain sensation.Counter-examples to even such appropriately restricted theses have been offered in the literature. at that instant. Arguably. Consider now a restricted version of the infallibility doctrine: If I am (seemingly) selfconscious of having sensation S. the fraternity initiation tale does not tell against this thesis: although in the story I am not in fact in a pain state. I may have a sensation—indeed. let alone of myself hearing it. Thus. We can apply strictures of this type to any of the above doctrines. I am told that a particular spot on my neck is about to be cut with a razor (this is part of my fraternity initiation). In particular. then I am in some phenomenally conscious state. then I do have sensation S.
3. far from complete. I will call the relevant concept the Mentalese first-person pronoun. In the next section. corresponding features of self-consciousness. When I think about things other than myself. Their exploration in the literature is. 1967.1 Immunities to Error through Misidentification On the two extremes. whereas the second is one of misidentification. 1968. or just the Mentalese “I”. Suppose I think that my next-door neighbor is a nice person. 5. The first error is one of mispredication. or at least parallel. But let us move on to the semantic privileges sometimes imputed on self-consciousness. Evans (1982). Lewis 1979). Semantic Peculiarities of Self-Consciousness 5. there are two ways in which my thoughts may turn out to be false. when in fact it serves a cynical ploy to lure me into signing an unjust petition against the superintendent. the special features of linguistic self-reference (the way “I” refers) derive from. Presumably. Plausibly. Thus. (These terms will be explicated in due course. we will consider the alleged essential indexicality of self-consciousness (Perry 1979) and irreducibility of de se thoughts (Castañeda 1966. if I mistake my neighbor’s tendency to smile for kindness.) The present section considers a semantic peculiarity pointed out by Sydney Shoemaker (1968) under the name “immunity to error through misidentification relative to the first-person pronoun” and related peculiarities discussed by Anscombe (1975). it is the latter that interest us. Our discussion will focus on two main features. In the present context. 1969). if I mistake the 19 . By contrast. For convenience. analogous statements could be made about the concept we use in thought in order to think about ourselves in the first person. I may be wrong about either (i) whether he is a nice person or (ii) who my next-door neighbor is. if you will. in any case. and in a more nuanced way. and more specifically mental self-reference (the way the Mentalese “I” refers). the first-person pronoun “I” has been claimed by some to be entirely non-referential (Anscombe 1975) and by others to be the only true form of reference (Chisholm 1976 Ch. then I make a mistake of the first kind. and others.Such nuanced theses may thus survive modern critiques of the traditional doctrines of epistemic privilege.
But it does restrict in a principled manner the ways in which the relevant thoughts may turn out to be false. The above conjunctive representation of my thought is meant just as a device to bring out the fact that my thought has a composite structure.mailman for my next-door neighbor. The point is just that my thought has two separable components. (1) There could be a kind of thought K1. The above are just definitions of privileges. we can envisage three sorts of semantic peculiarity or privilege. immunity to error tout court. such that if a thought T is of that kind. Unlike the latter. an identificational component and a predicational component. then I make a mistake of the second kind. Shoemaker’s claim is that the first definition is indeed satisfied by a certain subset of thoughts about oneself. In this sense. or that my thought takes a conjunctive proposition as its object. such that if T is of that kind. thoughts of kind K3 are thus immune to error tout court. when in fact it is the mailman who is. If I 20 . We may represent this by saying that my thought has the internal structure “my next-door neighbor is the person smiling at me every morning & the person smiling at me every morning is a nice person”. (3) There could be a kind of thought K3. This is not to say that when I think that my next-door neighbor is a nice person I am thinking this as a conjunction. such that if T is of that kind. or more generally “my next-door neighbor is the φ & the φ is a nice person”. is basically infallibility. Note that the third peculiarity. It remains to be seen whether any of these definitions is actually satisfied. involving identification and predication. Correspondingly. thoughts of kind K2 are thus immune to error through mispredication. thoughts of kind K1 are thus immune to error through misidentification. the doctrine of immunity to error through misidentification does not claim blanket immunity. my thought that my next-door neighbor is a nice person displays a composite structure. then T can only be false due to mispredication. This way of conceiving of immunity to error through misidentification brings out its relation to the more traditional doctrine of infallibility. then T can be false due to neither mispredication nor misidentification. then T can only be false due to misidentification. (2) There could be a kind of thought K2. and think that it is my next-door neighbor who is a nice person.
call this the identification less reference (IR) version of the doctrine of immunity. We might say that I have a thought about myself. the relevant I-thoughts cannot be false through misidentification because the identifications they involve are always and necessarily correct. We should distinguish two versions of the doctrine of immunity. immunity to error through misidentification applies only to mental I-thoughts. being about my body. (To take an example from Wittgenstein.) More accurately. We said that according to Shoemaker.” In that case. According to the first. those I-thoughts that are directed to one’s mind and mental life. Thus. Such an I-thought. (Brook  speaks of ascription less reference. And some descriptions one may not be aware of as applying to one. Let us call self-aware thoughts about one-self I-thought. claims Shoemaker. as opposed to circumstantial. But my thoughts about my mind are so immune. In that case. which may also be a good label for the specific feature under consideration. but also about whom it is that has a nice arm. What subset? One can think about oneself under any number of descriptions. without being aware that I am my mother’s nieceless brother’s only nephew. then I can be wrong about whether that is a feeling I really have. According to the second version. I may think to myself “I have a nice arm. but the distinction is very different. the relevant I-thoughts cannot be false through misidentification because they do not involve identification in the first place. I may not only be wrong about whether my arm is nice. but not as myself. I may think that my mother’s nieceless brother’s only nephew is brown-eyed. as opposed to one’s body and corporeal life. but not a self-aware thought about myself. as we will see later on. but I cannot be wrong about whom it is that is allegedly angry. call this the infallible identification (II) version of the doctrine of immunity.think that I feel angry.) Both versions claim a certain distinction on behalf of the relevant I-thoughts. namely. some I-thoughts are immune to error through misidentification. suppose I see in the mirror a tangle of arms and I mistakenly take the nicest one to be mine. According to Shoemaker. whereas the second one claims the distinction of dispensable identification. Shoemaker holds that absolute. is not immune to error through misidentification. I think about myself. 21 . The first version claims the distinction of infallible identification. a certain subset of thoughts about oneself is immune to error through misidentification.
one would have to argue that the relevant I-thoughts are identification-free. Shoemaker’s (1968) argument for IR. It claims that the relevant I-thoughts do not have the same composite structure as other thoughts—that they are structurally different. I am. To make the case for II. one would have to argue that the relevant self-identifications are infallible. in its barest outlines. To avert infinite regress. II must explain how is it that certain acts of identification are impervious to error. More specifically. the content of my thought has the structure “I am the φ & the φ is amused”. It is just that there is something special about the identificational component in the relevant I-thoughts that makes it impervious to error. they lack any identificational component. whereas IR must explain how is it that some acts of reference can dispense with identification altogether (How do they hook onto the right referent without identifying it?). But this would entail that the same would apply to “I am the φ”: it would have to have the internal structure “I am the ψ & the ψ is the φ”.Shoemaker appears to hold the IR version (see. because the burden of argument is very different in each case. The IR version is more radical. Whenever I think that I am the φ. in order to ascertain that one is the φ. On the II version. To claim that immunity to error through misidentification is a peculiarity of selfconsciousness is to claim that it is a feature peculiar to self-consciousness. Then every thought with content “I am F” would have the internal structure “I am the φ & the φ is F”. at least some self-reference must be identification-free. ascertaining that one is F would require that one identify oneself as the φ and then establish that the φ is F. I-thoughts have the same composite structure as other thoughts. And so on ad infinitum. The distinction between these two versions is important. In some respects this is the more radical version. Shoemaker 1968: 558). identification-free way. by contrast. Suppose (for reductio) that every self-reference required self-identification. There is also a corresponding difference in explanatory burden. When I think that I am amused. for example. To make the case for IR. That is. That is. proceeds as follows. My thought that I am amused hooks onto me in some direct. one would have to first identify oneself as the ψ and then establish that the ψ is the φ. One can deny 22 .
argued that thoughts about one’s body. The thought in question involves self-consciousness. Evans (1982) himself. I come to think that I am feeling a piece of cloth. my thought seems to be immune to error through misidentification: it cannot turn out that someone’s legs are indeed crossed. Therefore. and (ii) by arguing that it is not peculiar to self-consciousness (that is.this claim in two ways: (i) by arguing that it is not a feature of self-consciousness. can be equally immune to error through misidentification.” It is clear that if it turns out to be erroneous that I am having a cloth-ish feeling. On the basis of seeing in a mirror a large number of hands. But this is false. this is not a pure case of self-consciousness. One response would be to claim that thoughts about one’s own body are a genuine form of self-consciousness. for instance. there are states of self-consciousness that are not immune to error through misidentification. but not mine. due to Gareth Evans (1982: 108). Perhaps the most widely discussed argument is the following. More often. it is not because I have misidentified myself in the mirror. it is also a feature of other forms of consciousness).” or even more perspicuously. so such immunity is not a feature of self-consciousness as such. philosophers have pursued (ii). and even certain perceptions and perception-based judgments. and false due to misidentification: I am not the one who is feeling the piece of cloth. one of which is touching a piece of cloth. Arguably. as of touching a piece of cloth. but it is also partly consciousness of something external. albeit bodily self-consciousness. however. “I am having a cloth-ish feeling. what I see in the mirror is entirely irrelevant to the truth of my thought that I am having a cloth-ish feeling. arguing that immunity to error through misidentification is not peculiar to self-consciousness. and it is the latter part of it that leads to the error. When I think that my legs are crossed. and a certain feeling I have in my hand. Consider the difference between the thought “I am feeling a piece of cloth” and the thought “I am having a feeling as of a piece of cloth. Several philosophers have pursued (i). although it is a feature of self-consciousness. But another would be to draw 23 . indeed be identification-free. Indeed.
and Pryor (1999) between de re misidentification and which-object misidentification.finer distinctions between kinds of immunity and attach a specific sort of immunity to self-consciousness. natural kind terms. Direct reference— which is commonly thought to characterize proper names. McGinn (1983) distinguishes between derivative and non-derivative immunity to error through misidentification. not just consciousness of a particular thought of one. but only because it is not thinking that p that I am doing—not because it is not I who is doing the thinking. Third. and indexicals—is reference that is sense-free. Thus. or immunity to unjustifiedness through unjustified identification—all of which would be epistemic peculiarities. A question therefore arises concerning the relation between his claim that self-reference is identification-free and Kripke’s claim that many kinds of reference are direct or rigid. The issue of whether some kind of immunity to error through misidentification is a peculiarity of self-consciousness is still very much debated. immunity to error through misidentification is not to be confused with immunity to error through unjustified identification. It concerns the special way the Mentalese “I” hooks onto its referent. it may be that I am not thinking that p. both claiming that only the relevant I-thoughts exhibit the latter. claiming that only the relevant I-thoughts exhibit the absolute variety. Second. not an epistemic. immunity to error through misidentification is at bottom a semantic. immunity to error through misidentification is a semantic peculiarity of strong self-consciousness. First. Let us end this section with a few general points. if you will: it does not employ a sense. Shoemaker’s “discovery” of immunity preceded the Kripkean revolution in philosophy of language and more generally the theory of reference. So. since it involves essentially consciousness of oneself. if I am (seemingly) self-conscious of thinking that p. or 24 . In the same vein. However. Stanley (1998) erects a considerable challenge to all these attempts. peculiarity. not weak self-consciousness. immunity to unjustifiedness through misidentification. Shoemaker (1968) distinguished between absolute and circumstantial immunity to error through misidentification.
But this would make Shoemaker’s ultimate claim that the relevant I-thoughts enjoy identification-freedom the 25 . Kripke’s directly referential terms do not employ senses. explicit or implicit. So I-thoughts are “secure from referencefailure” (Anscombe 1975: 149). What is the relation. which is why it does not qualify as a sense. What is the relation between immunity to error through misidentification and immunity to error through reference-failure? One view would be that there is no difference—the two are the same. “I” cannot fail to refer. one of which I am not explicitly aware.” This reference-fixing fact is not necessarily something I am aware of. but they hook onto oneself without the subject performing any identification. When I think that Tom is generous. If so. between sense-free reference and identification-free reference? A natural thought is that some (perhaps all) senses are identifications. When thinking that Tom is generous. That is. It is not only that the relevant I-thoughts hook onto oneself without the subject performing an explicit identification. but also reference-fixer-free. Shoemaker’s “discovery” may be just a foreshadowing of the Kripkean revolution: it is the discovery of the possibility of sense-free reference. It is not only sense-free. in hooking onto the referent. in effect. But it is nonetheless operative in the reference-fixing. Shoemaker’s claim is more radical than Kripkean direct reference: identification-free reference is not just direct. I am performing an identification of Tom. and so identification-freedom is simply one special case of sense-freedom. If so. it is entirely unmediated. there is something that fixes the reference of my Mentalese concept for Tom—for example.mode of presentation. the fact that Tom is the salient person called “Tom. A similar point can be made with respect to Elizabeth Anscombe’s claim that. but with an overly restrictive assessment of its scope (where Kripke claimed that all sorts of representational devices are sense-free. One way to interpret Shoemaker’s claim is that selfreference does not even employ a reference-fixer. but they do employ reference-fixers. then. unlike all other expressions. But there is also another view of the matter. albeit an implicit identification. such I-thoughts as “I am feeling hungry” are. Shoemaker thought that only “I” is). immune to error through reference-failure.
A crucial issue that remains unaddressed is how reference-fixer-free reference is possible. albeit of a different order. There is no way to think the same thought without employing the Mentalese “I. one’s thought probably acquires certain unusual features. but it has the peculiarity that its reference is unmediated by any reference-fixing mechanism. this challenge remains to be broached in the literature. In this sense. In this section. and argues that such beliefs cannot avoid employing Mentalese indexicals. these thoughts are irreducible to any other. non-indexical kind of thought. In a well-known story.same as Anscombe’s ultimate claim that they enjoy reference-freedom. is a semantic peculiarity. John Perry tells of his experience following a trail of sugar in a supermarket and thinking to himself “The shopper with the torn bag of sugar is making a mess. Perry’s subsequent actions can be explained by ascribing to him this I-thought in a way they cannot by ascribing to him the “I”-free thought. To my knowledge.” Such a thought thus contains an essential indexical.2 Essential Indexical and De Se Thoughts In the last section we saw that. “I am making a mess. 26 . Perry calls beliefs such as “I am making a mess” locating beliefs. to freedom from reference-fixing. though in some identification-free manner. or more accurately. when one employs the Mentalese “I” in thought. we will see that in certain thoughts one cannot avoid employing the Mentalese “I. How can a representational item “find” its referent without any mechanism ensuring a connection between them? Any general theory of self-consciousness that embraces Shoemaker’s IR version of the doctrine of immunity must explain the possibility of reference unfixed.” This. On this view. the Mentalese “I” is referential. Here identification-free reference is construed as reference-fixer-free reference.” Upon realizing that he is the person with the torn bag. too. Shoemaker states explicitly that “I” does refer. One way to make sense of this is by appeal.” This thought is new: its functional role is different from the one of the original thought. essentially contains an indexical reference. 5. again. he forms a new thought.
have special logical features. first-person reports) to all reports of self-conscious states. In order to do so. and are thus semantically unique and irreducible. not himself a native speaker). English does not.” (There are also uses of “he” that function in this way. the mental states reported in de se reports. In a “material mode of speech. Note. the English indirect reflexives were discerned in the late 1960s by Hector-Neri Castañeda (curiously perhaps. that Castañeda’s thesis is a generalization from Perry’s thesis about reports of one’s own self-conscious states (that is.” and so forth. or that such first-person reports cannot be matched by third-person reports. Castañeda introduced the term “he*” as a term that behaves as an indirect reflexive in all its uses. At least this is so for paradigmatic uses of “he himself. 27 . Correlatively. are irreducible to mental states reported in de dicto and de re reports. one might report Perry’s I-thought as follows: (1) Perry thinks “I am making a mess”. In direct speech (oratio recta).” this means that states of self-consciousness form an irreducible class of mental states. And there are probably—somewhat unusual —uses of “he himself” that do not function this way. self-reference is irreducible to either de dicto or de re reference to what is in fact oneself. to which we may refer as de se thoughts.) Castañeda called reports of this sort de se (that is. Some languages apparently contain unique words for the indirect reflexives. including reports of others’ self-conscious states (third-person reports). but these are more rare.” “she herself. one would need to employ what linguists call an indirect reflexive. in any case. But fortunately. however. of oneself) and claimed that de se reports cannot be paraphrased into any de dicto or de re reports.It should be emphasized that the point here is not that such I-thoughts cannot be reported by anyone other than the subject. According to Castañeda’s thesis. Castañeda argues for this by showing that the indirect reflexives “he himself. The same report could be made more naturally in indirect speech (oratio obliqua). Castañeda showed that (1) is equivalent to: (2) Perry thinks that he himself is making a mess.
referentially rather than attributively. of the author of “The Essential Indexical. Thus. and likewise. the conjunction of (3) and “The author of ‘The Essential Indexical’ exists” entails (5). that he is making a mess. “Perry thinks that Perry is making a mess” and “Perry exists” do not entail “Perry thinks that he himself is making a mess. The truth conditions of (3) and (2) are different. the truth conditions of (2) and (4) are different. of Perry.” that he is making a mess. and the two are not equivalent. Again. the same goes for any other description “the φ” that picks out Perry uniquely—it could always be that Perry is unaware that he himself is the φ. (6) Perry thinks. So (3) and (2) are not equivalent.” entails (2). by reading “the author of ‘The Essential Indexical’” and “Perry” in (3) and (4) as used. There is perhaps only one approach that may plausibly succeed in reducing de se reports to de dicto ones. But the de re versions are more perspicuously put as follows: (5) Perry thinks. since the latter does not entail the former: Perry may be unaware that it is he who is the author of “The Essential Indexical” (that is.” nor the conjunction of (3) and “The author of ‘The Essential Indexical’ exists. What about the de re versions of (3) and (4)? These can be obtained. Presumably. The argument proceeded as follows. Boër and Lycan (1980).” Consider the following de dicto report: (3) Perry thinks that the author of “The Essential Indexical” is making a mess.” Therefore. (2) has a different logical force from. Therefore. But neither the conjunction of (4) and “Perry exists. It is 28 . for instance. claim that (2) is equivalent to (6).Thus (2) cannot be paraphrased into any (indirect-speech) report that does not employ “he himself. and is thus not equivalent to. Consider next a de dicto report with a proper name instead of a definite description: (4) Perry thinks that Perry is making a mess. either (6) or (5). in fact. Perry may be unaware that it is he who is Perry. But Castañeda argued that it is not. in Donnellan’s (1966) terms. The conjunction of (4) and “Perry exists” entails (6). that he himself is the author of “The Essential Indexical”).
It replaces the thinker’s self-reference with the selfreference of his or her thought. We are thus left with an unexplained essential and irreducible indexical self-reference. so a deployment of the Mentalese “I” refers to whoever betokened that very deployment. Castañeda actually discussed the neo-Cartesian approach before it was expounded by Zemach. however. even if the Mentalese “I” is not synonymous with a Mentalese “the thinker of this very thought.” but surely the latter functions as the reference-fixer of the former. The emerging view is quite natural. On this approach. It may be that “I” is not synonymous with “the utterer of this very word. is that it replaces one sort of indexical self-reference with another. On this approach. the idea here is that self-consciousness is essentially indexical and irreducibly de se inasmuch as it is consciousness of self-assubject. Likewise. In other words. the thinker of that very I-thought. (2) is equivalent to: (8) Perry thinks that the thinker of that very thought is making a mess. Whether or not it reflects Hume’s or Kant’s 29 . and according to which the thought “I am making a mess” is equivalent to: (7) The thinker of this very thought is making a mess.” the latter still functions as the reference-fixer of the former. which philosophers (especially Hume and Kant) have known all along. According to Castañeda. that is.the approach Eddy Zemach (1985) refers to as neo-Cartesian. One problem with the neo-Cartesian approach. that there is no object of experience that one could perceive as the self that is doing the perceiving” (Castañeda 1966: 64). one’s self-reference is mediated by the self-reference of one’s thought. and found a different fault in it. In terms of the distinction drawn in §1. what dooms the approach is “the fact. Just as an utterance of the word “I” refers to whoever betokened that very utterance. one’s self-conscious thought refers to oneself by referring to itself.
intransitive self-consciousness does not involve “taking a step back. that is. We cannot pursue this issue here with any seriousness. that if de se thoughts are not irreducible to de dicto thoughts. your self-as-subject takes a step back with you. 6. what I am thinking of thereby becomes the object of my thought. it would probably be because the Mentalese “I” can be somehow understood in terms of reference to the subject of the very act of referring. As Ryle (1949) put it. these peculiarities must also be explained. I cannot think of myself qua the subject of thought. as it were.thinking on self-consciousness. When I think about myself and my mental life. such that the second one takes the first one as its object. That is. it rests content with a piecemeal treatment 30 . unlike being self-conscious of thinking that p. This objection may apply with more force to what we called in §1 transitive selfconsciousness than to what we called intransitive self-consciousness. With a handful of exceptions (for example. Castañeda is effectively denying here the possibility of consciousness of oneself-as-subject. This is because. trying to think of the self-as-subject is like trying to hop on one’s own shadow: every time you take a step back in order to observe your self-as-subject. But as Brook (2001) stresses. as pointed out in §1. The self-as-subject is in this way elusive. however. both epistemic and semantic. It seems clear. in the context of a general theory of self-consciousness. Instead. does not involve two separate states. Either way. Bermúdez 1998) current work on self-consciousness does not appear to address the need for a general theory thereof. self-consciously thinking that p. or accounted for.” which is required for Ryle’s regress to get going. there is almost certainly some semantic peculiarity to be reckoned with here. it does not follow that I cannot self-consciously think that the thinker of this very thought is cheerful. Even if I cannot become self-conscious of thinking that the thinker of this very thought is cheerful. the thing that does the thinking. mostly focus on whether a given alleged peculiarity in fact obtains or is merely alleged. the idea is that the subject of thought cannot be thought about as such. Conclusion: A General Theory of Self-Consciousness? Discussions of the peculiarities of self-consciousness. The question is merely how best to characterize that peculiarity.
as well as of the cognitive mechanisms underlying the formation. Sooner or later.” There may also be familiar peculiarities that have not been recognized as such. The second would be to devise an account of the metaphysical structure. which presents the challenge of understanding the logical impropriety of beliefs or thoughts of the form “p & I do not believe that p” (see Moran 2001. S. but in a way the most interesting. the obtaining of just those peculiarities. This is not to say that they must be the only explananda. challenges are yet to be faced. and Fernández 2006). the philosophical literature on self-consciousness is quite disparate in the respects mentioned above. or data against which to “test” such a theory (this is indeed how Bermúdez 1998 proceeds). Kriegel 2004b. as far as philosophical research on self-consciousness is concerned. such that the relevant account would explain. All this suggests that. The peculiarities discerned in the second half of the last century are so subtle that we should be open to the idea that there may be further peculiarities which have yet to be “discovered. The first would be to determine which of the alleged epistemic and semantic peculiarities of self-consciousness in fact obtain.of each alleged peculiarity in separation from the rest. by predicting or “retrodicting” (as C. For they are useful in providing explananda for any putative theory of self-consciousness. The alleged peculiarities of self-consciousness will then come in handy. But it invites unification under a systematic framework for a general 31 . Such empirical data as are gleaned from mirror self-recognition experiments and other studies of animal metacognition should also be accommodated by a philosophical theory of self-consciousness. Thus it may well be that Moore’s Paradox is at bottom another peculiarity of self-consciousness. At present. some recent authors have drawn a new connection between selfconsciousness and Moore’s paradox. however. Peirce puts it). Thus. this will have to be rectified by a reorientation or reorganization of research in this area. of states of self-consciousness. the hardest. My suggestion is that a general theory of self-consciousness could be configured in two steps.
32 .theory of self-consciousness. The most philosophically rewarding work on selfconsciousness is still ahead of us.
I am able to prioritize them and then mark them off when they are done.” Ask yourself if you are wasting too much time giving negative attention to students who don’t deserve the attention. Make a list of 45 positive things and make sure you focus on them each day. Teachers’ Professional Self-consciousness Professional self-consciousness of teachers refers to a series of emotional experience.” Sometimes it is so easy to get caught up in our classroom that we forget about real life. Only making self-cognition and self-evaluation clear could teachers position themselves well and keep their own cognitive activities in a positive. which correlate with their profession and form during their career. self-cognition and self-evaluation. 3. Teachers' professional self-consciousness is an internal motivation in teachers' professional development. “Find your time-wasters. Then once I can visualize the tasks. planning expectation. Not only do I get more things done this way but I 33 . I have taken the list and put a little education spin to most of the items and hope as the school year is going to begin.7. 1. “Schedule the time. self-monitoring and regulation. “Find your essentials. We need to make sure we have an outlet for our creativity outside the classroom or we will get burned out.” It has really helped me if I make a list of all the things that I have to get done that day. Are you spending too much time gossiping or encouraging negative attitudes when you get with other teachers? Do you spend too much time complaining about things you cannot change? 4. that you can use some of these suggestions in order to have a more successful year. “Take a time out. 2. Zen Habits gives this list that I thought was so awesome for my own personal life but I think it really relates to how we can be more effective in our teaching if we find more free time for ourselves too.” Find out what is really working in your class.
Practice different statements so that you can feel comfortable saying them face to face. help. 9.” If there are things you are doing that are not essential to what needs to be done. check with them and ask if you could look at what they have done and adapt it to your needs. “Consolidate. Is this the best time to do them? I used to check my email at the end of the day and found out that it really overwhelmed me. Statements that worked for me are: “I would love to help but I’m overextended right now. 10. 5. Then I could concentrate on only the important ones first and when I had time. This rule also sent junk mail to one folder and I didn’t even have to waste time sorting through them. I contact parents very often so they don’t feel a need to have a face to face meeting which is harder for me to schedule. Many times I would make too many unnecessary trips to the library and office instead of consolidating all my errands. Sometimes we want to impress others or feel like we can’t say no to our friends.” Or “ I have already 34 .also feel better about myself. or even some of their own work they have done.” Sometimes you can see things on your list and notice that someone may have already done something like this already.” Think about when you do things and why you do it. I could check and respond to the others. If I checked it at lunch time and at the end of the day.” Learn to say no. “Learn to say no. “Re-think your routine.” Use email as much as possible. “Declutter your schedule. Make a wiki for exchanging ideas. If so. “Cut out meetings. I usually didn’t have so many emails to respond to all at once. Why reinvent the wheel? Sometimes I tell other teachers about a topic or idea I want to introduce in my classroom and usually they are willing to offer suggestions. stop doing it. Maybe next time. “Cut back on email. This can be done with colleagues or parents. 6.” I learned to make folders in my email and then make a rule to send emails to different folders. 7. 8. This freed up 30 minutes of my time.
I would try to find one for each category: what I want my students to do in school today. I know I have to get this work done and then I begin to feel anxious. no matter what age they are. 12.” Many times I have been deep into work when another teacher has stopped to chat and never want to leave. Again. Even though I want to be a good colleague. I find it easier to keep them in focus and usually accomplish them if at all possible. pick the task of your “To do” list that you hate the most and get it out of the way. I have learned to listen for a few minutes (it won’t hurt to take a few minutes break and it is worth it to keep a good relationship with a colleague) but then explain that you would love to hear more. These are the most important things I want to accomplish this day. I don’t want to let you down so maybe next time.committed myself to some other projects and I wouldn’t be able to give this my best. 11. I have also learned to lock my door and put a note on the door that you are working on a serious project. “Cut out distractions. “Do your Biggest Rock first. Once you do that. I use my colleagues as a sounding board if necessary so they can support and encourage me if possible. I don’t use this often so 35 .” If at all possible.” If at all possible. I feel even more obligated to get it done. “Delegate. It is really hard to tell your administrator these things but many administrators will respect you more if you stand up for your priorities. but can you do it at another time because you have a lot of work to do. let your students help you. Teens feel trusted and worthy if the teacher asks them for help. 13. 14. By writing them down. what I want to do with my teaching today. Once I verbalize the task. please disturb only if absolutely necessary.” I have started to make myself write down three goals each day.” Or “I’ve already committed to spending my free time with my family and I keep my promises to them so I won’t be able to help you this time. and what I want to do for myself today. They love to help the teacher. They may feel a little embarrassed but it is better than feeling resentful and not getting any work done. “Keep your list to 3. the rest of tasks should be a downhill prospect and be easier to get done.
everyone respects it and lets me get my work done. 15. 18. This is a good way to get burned out quickly. Just like going to the doctor’s office.” Mornings are the best time to plan. it will happen). by the end of the day. he is usually on schedule early in the day but as things get off schedule. 16. “Disconnect. A good way to do that is to keep a blog and write your reflections in it while things are still fresh in your mind.” Spend evenings doing things for yourself and don’t let your teaching consume your life. There is more to life than teaching and after you retire from teaching (yes.” Sometimes you have to physically move yourself away from things that distract you. I have turned off the overhead lights and moved to a corner of the classroom away from the window on the door so no one can see me. “Make use of your mornings.” Do not work consistently through lunch time.” Take time after the school day is over to regroup. I think if she used her time more wisely. Try to plan and prioritize early in the day so that when things get backed up. “Lunch breaks. 17. I have taken my work to a corner of the library where no one expects me to be and I get my work done. “Your evenings. but your brain needs a break too! 36 . “The Golden Right-after-work Time. he is very backed up.when I do. 19. you will need something in your life to turn to. she would have time for lunch. I have a friend who never stops for lunch and uses this time to do class stuff. you won’t feel so anxious. Not only does your body need nutrition.
letters. memos. Try these suggestions: • Use colored file folders to file papers. That includes all the reports. Business management experts coach you to handle a piece of paper only once. catalog. mail. and we hoard paper. throw it away. and requests that consume not only our time but our desk space as well. Everest of paperwork you must deal with every day. but try to keep it in mind the next time you stuff your briefcase with papers. particularly for teachers. announcements. arranging. Time Management Tips for Teachers What's the number-one time management problem for most teachers? You guessed it— dealing with paperwork. attendance forms. or filing 81 2×11 sheets of paper? Welcome to the club! There are ways of gaining control over the Mt. Expert Opinion One efficiency expert estimated that of all the pieces of paper that go into our filing cabinets every year. • • 37 . Select a different color for each subject or for each period of the day. and store paper until the proverbial molehill becomes an actual mountain. move paper from one place (on our desks) to another and file. tests. graphs. It's not that important.8. fully 95 percent of it will never come out again—or only come out to go into the trash can! It's obvious that we're “paper packrats. Are you buried under mountains of forms? Did you finally discover a 4-week-old missing sandwich under a pile of papers? Do you spend most of your day shuffling. materials. If you haven't looked at a piece of paper in more than a year. save paper.” We hate to throw away anything. It's tough to follow.
and then erase it when the task is complete. Use it for multiple purposes: to record incoming homework. • Many efficiency experts suggest that you establish time limits on how long you'll keep various types of paperwork. etc. Here are a few suggestions: o o Memos: 1 week Minutes of meetings: 4 weeks 38 . A Rolodex file takes up less room than a pile of papers. Use a wax crayon to mark each task. the third Tuesday of the month) as “filing day.” Use it to get rid of all the files and papers you haven't used in the last 12 months. lunch money. parent permission slips. • Photocopy your class roster and laminate it. exams. donate it to your local library or community fund drive. If you haven't looked at a book in 2 years. and other frequently used information. the other “To and from Home.” Place them on your desk. Use your computer as a filing system. you probably have lots of books. Designate a special file drawer for each subject you teach. addresses. quizzes. These may be professional books. Organize it with colored files: o o o o o o • • Red: Lesson plans Green: Tests. • Designate 1 day every month (for example. PINs. old textbooks. e-mail addresses. and records.• Use a Rolodex file for phone numbers. and exams Blue: Handouts and worksheets Yellow: Transparencies and PowerPoint disks Black: Unit plans Gray: Supplemental resources and websites • Purchase two file baskets from a local office supply store.” Use it to file all the papers that have accumulated on your desk during the month. Use your word processing program to organize frequently used forms. and keep the papers you typically handle moving in and out of them daily. Label one “To and from the School Office”. • Designate 1 day every 6 months as “purging day. • Like most teachers. or resource books.
You can maintain that flow through an awareness of the following: • Ignore minor behaviors that have nothing to do with the lesson.o o o o o • Letters to parents: 3 months Attendance records: 1 year Professional articles: 2 years Lesson plans: 2 years Grade books: 3 years Date each piece of paper you receive. but rather one activity leads naturally into another activity. The challenge. the “B” pile gets your attention within the next 48 hours. nod. • Maximize Your Instructional Time As a classroom teacher. • Some teachers jump back and forth between activities. The “A” pile gets your attention right away. This is time when your students are engaged in meaningful and appropriate work. a student is twisting a strand of her hair. you want to engage your students in productive learning time. and the “C” pile can wait until sometime in the future. The more productive learning time you have. Keep Things Flowing Flow refers to the way in which learning activities move smoothly and briskly. It's not necessary to stop the lesson and point out that behavior to the student. 39 . Move over to the student. get rid of it. put a hand on her back. Sort all incoming paperwork into three piles. go back and make a comment about a previous lesson or activity. There's no stop-and-start rhythm to the class. Keep your lessons flowing in a forward direction. and then return to the new activity. They start one activity or lesson. When its “expiration date” arrives. of course. For example. and keep the lesson going. is in creating a classroom that maximizes that time. the more your students will learn.
Because students work at different paces and different levels. Be Close Students achieve when they know exactly what is expected of them. Provide opportunities for students to practice those routines: “When you come in. Verbal cues are also valuable: “It's time for science to begin. as students would say.” The trick is to know when students understand and then stop at that point. It's equally important that students know you are available at all times. The amount of learning that takes place in a classroom is often related to the distance you maintain with your students. for example) an activity will end: “We'll have a whole-class review of triangles in two minutes. transition time often leaves openings for misbehavior and disruptions. Thus. we're going to continue looking at the structure of onion cells. time is wasted.” Let students know what they can expect in any subsequent or follow-up activity: “After lunch. Incomplete assignments are often the result of incomplete directions. consider the following: • Let students know when (in 2 minutes. Here are two considerations for you: 40 . some may be able to make the transitions faster than others. Teach Transitions Transitions are those times during the day when you move from one activity to the next.” Be sure your lessons have clear beginnings and endings. I hope you're ready for the adventure.” Be Clear. Review the lesson objectives before the lesson begins and again at the conclusion of the lesson. be sure you complete your `Fabulous Five' chores before you sit down. To avoid this. “It’s been beaten into the ground.” • • • Establish clearly outlined routines for transition times.• Often teachers will continue to explain a point or concept until. Time is saved when you are readily available. As a result.
Your desk should just be a place to put papers. provide time in class for this exchange to take place. Teach the student how to exit the classroom with no disruption to the class. Make each student responsible for her or his own schedule. she or he has a buddy who is responsible for obtaining the necessary information and passing it along. and thorough directions to any assignment. Get a Handle on Pull-Outs Pull-outs are those students who must leave the classroom and may include students who have appointments with the guidance counselor. • 41 . Check with the administration or other teachers about any procedures for students needing to make up missed classroom work. If feasible. • Work closely with the teachers your students are leaving class to see. Here are some suggestions: • Laminate a personal schedule for each pull-out student and tape it to the corner of her or his desk. With so many comings and goings. Initiate a “study buddy” program in your classroom so that each time a student leaves. precise. • Closely monitor student progress by circulating throughout the room and maintaining a physical presence with the students. the directions were not clear and precise. not a sanctuary from students. This is not something you have to monitor all the time. lessons with the reading specialist or music teacher. or instruction for gifted students. much less teach a complete lesson to every student.• Always provide clear. Try to arrive at a schedule that will cause the least disruption to your classroom. If students are asking lots of questions about what they're supposed to do. it's often difficult to keep track of everyone.
and seatwork to give you time to work with small groups. interruptions. Increasing Teaching Time You may have less time to teach than you think. Like any executive responsible for the efforts of others. and the former Institute for Research on Teaching at Michigan State University. you will find that managing time — yours and the students' — is one of your biggest challenges. using learning centers. independent assignments. they have been confirmed by separate studies at the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development.Time Management Teaching takes time. and other periods of non-instructional time account for at least 27 percent of an elementary school day. establishing routines that eliminate wasted time and confusion. Lunch. Time management is the thread running through almost all aspects of teaching — organizing the day. In many classrooms. breaks. or keeping time-consuming behavior problems to a minimum. deciding how long and how often to teach various subjects. organizing the classroom. planning. down-time between lessons and activities. And in school. recess. Effective use of school time begins with efficient classroom organization and management — and vice versa. Students only have so much time in your classroom. Much of the essentials of classroom life involve time management in some way: paring down paperwork. moving from one classroom to another. as elsewhere. there's never enough of it. recording student progress. and creating classroom environments that allow students and activities to move smoothly from one activity to the next. 42 . that figure climbs beyond 40 percent. Incredible as those statistics may sound.
lunch. recess. and restroom breaks are important. Add to that the time that slips away when students stare out the window or are otherwise disengaged during instruction. extracurricular activities planning time. • Consider how and when you schedule restroom breaks for maximum efficiency. • Plan for smooth transitions between lessons and always try to have materials ready for each lesson or activity. • Assign homework to extend practice time. pull-out programs." notes first-grade teacher Susie Davis. Homework should allow students to practice skills they have already learned. "I emphasize the kinds of activities they look forward to. such as hands-on activities. "At the end of each day. Also. • Improve student attendance. Attendance has a big effect on teaching and learning time. Impress upon parents the importance of good attendance and teach an actual lesson on how it hurts to miss school." 43 .Sure. and you get the point. I try to tell kids what we will be doing the next day. You might hang a "Do Not Disturb" sign outside your door during those times. and outside interruptions. but too much teaching time can be lost to inefficiency. Ask your principal to help you control time-wasters such as unexpected visitors and frequent intercom announcements. • Schedule solid blocks of teaching time for each day. This seems to encourage attendance. Here are some ways beginners and veterans alike can substantially increase teaching time: • Find out which aspects of school time you can control. In some schools. secure your principal's help in scheduling pull-out programs around those blocks and ask parents not to schedule medical of dental appointments then. teachers discover they can change the scheduling of class periods.
they learn to play an active role in educating children. and supportive of better budgets and improved opportunities. They can also help with clerical and housekeeping duties (those the children can't do for themselves). keep bulletin boards current. draw on that person's special strengths and abilities. Volunteer programs not only give teachers much-deserved help. and class parties is invaluable. grandparents. It's a winning proposition for everyone! 44 . Aides. And their assistance with field trips. special programs.or part-time aide. They can make instructional games and resources. If you are one of the lucky ones assigned a full.• Delegating Tasks Good classroom managers know how to delegate. monitor seatwork and learning centers. they can also improve home-school relations. businesspersons. Volunteers are another valuable asset. Help your aide become increasingly responsible and involved in the classroom. and other volunteers become sympathetic to the problems facing schools. of course. Parents. Aides can work with small groups or tutor individuals. and assist you in testing. volunteers. read stories to the class. Also. Volunteers generally can do anything aides do — with your supervision and guidance. Learn to use these valuable helpers. and students can handle many classroom tasks and save you enormous amounts of time.
they are getting to know us. It is a time for setting clear and consistent limits or boundaries. If we ignore infractions. we are telling students that the only way to get our attention is through negative behavior. They want to know if we will discipline with dignity. Setting clear and consistent limits or boundaries is a process that is established over time. If we overreact to infractions. we are telling the class that a particular rule is not very meaningful. It becomes an environment where students 45 . If you can walk the fine line of setting limits while weaving the first strands of trust. This will make the students wonder if all the rules are genuine. stimulating. They want to see if we mean what we say and say what we mean. It is a time for making a connection with each child and his or her family. A classroom that is free from teasing. It is imperative to be clear with your students. However you generate your list of class rules. it is important to be aware that the list in and of itself is meaningless. then you and your students can expect to have a successful school year. They want to know if we are fair and consistent. It is also a time to set the foundation for a healthy relationship with each student. And you will be building a foundation for the future success of all of your students. They want to know what the consequences for violating our rules are. It is also important that you are honest with yourself. daily basis. and supportive is the setting in which students can reach their maximum potential. we are building an emotionally. as teachers. and socially safe learning environment. Some teachers like to generate a class rules list with their group of students.9. Students will test limits. How we as teachers respond to violations of our rules is very important. Behavior Management Strategies The beginning of each school year is a time for carefully establishing a balance with your students. academically. Displaying a list of class rules is not enough! The important part is how we. Just as we are getting to know our students. Others make class rules known without any input from the students. What behaviors will you absolutely not tolerate? When we have meaningful class rules that we fairly and consistently enforce. It is a time to let students know what types of behavior will be accepted and what types will not. deal with the rules and their infractions on an ongoing.
There are many ways to build a classroom community. Be careful how you use them. It also builds a community spirit so that when learning difficulties become apparent within the group. If they are acting like a classroom community. This encourages the class to work together as a cohesive unit. It is a place where learning is fun. the group dynamics are such that it is not socially acceptable to show interest in academics. new start in their educational development. Be sure that your words focus on the behavior not on the student. They are used to working together and are therefore more accepting of one another. It is a safe place where the focus is on learning . This support will allow them to show interest in academics and learning. Words are very powerful. It will also help to break down barriers formed by years of failing. Or when the group gets a certain number of unsolicited compliments from staff for good behavior. the class will get a reward. "You are so lazy!" and. It makes the classroom environment safe for educational risks. This is where the social aspect of the group process is so important and valuable. when all students hand in homework for a designated number of days. There is a very big difference between saying. It will give students a fresh." Teacher remarks should be about behaviors. then the responsibility for modeling respectful communication is on the teacher. the responsibility falls on the classroom teacher to reignite the natural curiosity to learn within all his or her students.feel it is safe to take educational risks without worrying that others will laugh at their efforts. they will be supportive and helpful to one another. If an important goal is for our students to treat each other with respect. In these situations. the class is more supportive to each individual. a reward will be given to the group. In many classrooms. For example. They can also work together on a common goal. Students should know you value them even when you have to address areas that need 46 .not looking over their shoulder in fear of physical or emotional harms. Students can work together as learning partners. "You haven't done your homework. There are also many students who have failed so often that they no longer buy into the educational process.
shows students why working together as a team is so important. It is about them and their past school experience. Always remember that the child who acts like they need approval the least is the one who needs it the most. However it does allow us to show them that things can be different in our classrooms. Class discussions should highlight the good behavior rather that the bad. We can break old patterns of behavior. by Leo Lioni. Students don't have to act out to get your attention. Some teachers punish students by giving lunch detention for behavioral infractions. Disciplining with dignity is essential for the emotional well being of each child. This will communicate clearly to your students that good behavior is valued. We can make curriculum choices that help create a classroom community. It also gives you a chance to get to know your students better. Bibliotherapy is a wonderful technique that allows students to explore life experiences through fictional characters. It is important to remember that some of our students will test us to see if we can maintain our respectful attitude even after they push our buttons. The Goodness Gorillas by Lisa McCourt shows the power that can be generated when a 47 . By doing so. Celebrate good behavior in your classroom. yet harp on bad behavior. Focus on the positive while redirecting the negative.improvement. It is not personal. it is also important to shape the desired behavior of the class. Grouping and teaming activities create a bond between students in all subject areas. While it is very important to set firm and consistent limits at the beginning of the school year. There are several excellent books that incorporate the theme of community. Never personalize students' remarks or behavior. we are modeling to the group how to interact in a mature and healing way during difficult times. Swimmy. Reinforce the good behaviors. Catch them being good. we are giving the students a mixed message. Why not reward good behavior instead by inviting those who are on the right track to eat lunch in the classroom with you? This communicates that the good behavior is more valuable to you. We can treat them and all students with respect even when it is tough. If we say that good behavior is our goal.
Families have valuable information about our students. Let them know that their children are important and that you recognize their efforts. By studying how fictional characters feel and deal with similar life experiences. and anxiety experienced by children as they get to know a new and significant adult in their lives. we are ensuring a successful school year for our students and for ourselves. Reach out to the families and let them know they are important. Let your first communication to them be a positive one. Making connections with families is also a priority at the beginning of the school year. If we focus on positive behaviors and build a trusting. Selecting literature that parallels the building of the classroom community offers children a chance to use fiction to explore the concept in a non-threatening way through story book characters. We are showing them that schools are a place where anything and everything is possible. vulnerability. Instead. It could encourage your students to take educational risks and to become enthusiastic about learning. Plain and Tall by Patricia MacLachlan portrays the uneasiness. 48 . They know our students better than we do and we need their input to develop the most successful learning program for our students. anything is possible.group of kids work together towards a common goal Sarah. When the school and the home are working together. It might give them hope and perseverance when times are tough in the future. respectful relationship with our students. students can examine their own personal experience and add to their repertoire of behavioral responses. Don't wait to call them about a negative experience. This knowledge might make a huge and significant difference in the lives of your students. Compliment a well done homework assignment. share a funny story. They know what has worked in the past and what needs to be addressed. We are allowing them an opportunity to grow and made academic accomplishments in a safe environment. They are our students' first teachers.
you can write notes about the student. or keep them in a file drawer. Inside the file folder. and easily file the lesson or unit when you are finished teaching it. Desk Organizers You can opt to organize papers on your desk. Organization and time management will enable you to get more done in a day. 49 . keep a file for each student. Whatever you find to be common categories for your personal style of working will be useful in organizing your work. etc. the more you will be able to accomplish in a shorter amount of time. keep notes from parent teacher conferences. Some options for organization include: Papers to be graded. Things to File. there is a lot of work to get done every day. Time Management for Teachers Whether you are a new or veteran teacher. and this will enable you to easily know what you need to copy. Use one folder for each lesson plan or unit. Organize Your Work The more organized you are. If you are saving copies of student work for your own records. while other teachers are being kicked out by the janitors at 8 pm every night and still taking home piles of work. Some teachers leave as soon as they are allowed to and never have to do any work at home. and keep copies of other important documents. Use file folders to keep yourself organized. Things to do. Papers to be copied. Learn how to organize your work and prioritize your time in order to get more done in a day.10. Use file folders for students' work. and what you need to create for the lesson.
Use file folders for grading. Put each subject in a file folder. For example, math papers to be graded can be kept together in one folder, and language arts papers can be kept in a separate folder to be graded. As you grade each paper, place the papers in either a “to be filed” folder, or a “to be passed back out” folder.
Prioritize Your Time
How you spend your time will determine how much you get done in a day. Planning time When possible, spend your planning time at your desk, planning. If you must, take a few minutes to make copies and prepare for the remainder of the day, but try to consider your time before the students arrive in the morning as your opportunity for preparation. Organize your time to include both lesson planning and grading as necessary. Lesson planning should be done on a computer when possible, saving plans in subject specific folders and with topic specific titles to enable easy access and reduced planning time for each subsequent year. Utilize parent volunteers when available for lesson preparation including cutting, organizing, and copying materials. Lunch time Whenever there is not enough time in the day to accomplish everything that must be done, consider using your lunch time to plan or grade papers. Instead of taking the break at school, take the break when you get home to your family. Time at home So, you have worked hard all day, and still brought home a pile of work to be done? Prioritize your time. Figure out what needs to be done for the very next day, and limit the work you bring home to that.
Organizing your work and prioritizing your time will help you catch up, keep up and even get ahead in your busy life as a teacher.
Effective Time Management for Teachers
- How to manage your workload
Effective time management for teachers is crucial for success and well being in and out of school. Most people would admit their use of time could be better. Zone 1. Structured time – in the classroom, scheduled meetings etc. Zone 2. Unstructured work time - all work related tasks Zone 3. Your personal life - everything but work The boundaries between 1 to 2 and 1 to 3 are clear -- bells and buzzers set those for you. The big question is, how do you manage the transition from Zone 2 to Zone 3? When and where does work stop and personal life begin? When you plan, prepare, assess students’ work, make the classroom displays, organize your paperwork or any of the other jobs do, you’re in Zone 2. Zone 2 is all about quantity and quality. It raises two questions… 1. How much do you do? 2. How well do you do it?
How much to do in Zone 2
Some Zone 2 activity is clearly defined. Once you’ve started it, sooner or later you have to finish it. You can’t give grades to most of a class -- you have to complete them all, usually to some sort of deadline. Other activities may not be deadline driven, but they still matter to you. Here are two suggestions for Zone 2 success:
1. Make some time to plan your day -- preferably the day before, but certainly no later than first thing in the morning. Take 10 minutes daily to estimate what Zone 2 time you’ll get. Doing this really helps you take control -- you decide how you use your time rather than other people.
2. Break it down into chunks of time -- work on tasks that you have to, or want to, do. This means that you move on with large projects and tick off small tasks that you could, for example, batch together in a 30 minute slot. Let’s say your classes finish at 3.30pm. You plan to leave school at 5.00pm. (If you create a good reason to do so, it helps). Your Zone 2 time may consist of this 90 minute slot, plus an hour or two during the day. So, you have approximately three hours in Zone 2 (and that time will include interruptions, ‘emergencies’ and ‘have to’s’ -- plan for two; anything else is a bonus). Aim to work on a role or goal related task for a length of time -- say, 30 minutes. Unless it’s urgent, move on to another task. If you want to take the task beyond the time slot you allocated it, take a minute to consider the effects of not doing the next task on your list. Can it wait? If so, fine, carry on. One 'solution' to better time management for teachers is to take work home in the evening. This is understandable because it takes some of the pressure off the day, and you spend less time managing interruptions (depending on your circumstances). It’s worth remembering two things though…
Evenings and weekends have their own Zone 2 times. There is usually less time available than it seems when we say “I’ll do it tonight”. How much time do you have left in an evening after you've done all you need to do?
Planning to work at home means Zone 2 times in school is less valued, so there are more reasons to procrastinate during the day. It's so easy to think 'I've got all evening -- I'll do it later'. You have limited Zone 2 time each day, and it's probably less than you think.
But developing the ability to know when ‘good enough’ is good enough is a vital part of effective time management for teachers. When I started my teaching career. Recognize what needs 100% and what doesn’t. So. teacher stress is often the result. We all get that wrong from time to time. in my first year of teaching. and stay aware of it to gradually improve the accuracy of your estimates.making the transition from student to teacher is a huge challenge. you’ll almost certainly improve your time management. Why? 53 . Start it. You simply have to improve your ability to: • • • • Decide what to do. Finish it. Practice this. Get better at the this process and you’ll save yourself hundreds. Sometimes we try too hard. He was right. Accept it. Thankfully. even thousands of hours -. Of course. I came home every day feeling completely wiped out. I was giving everything to everyone. even to the point of experiencing teacher burnout as a result.Know when to be ‘unperfect’ When we try to do too much and/or too well. by the way!).hours you can use to do more of what matters to you. In part. successful time management for teachers depends on four criteria. an older and wiser colleague gave me one of the best pieces of advice I ever received: Choose carefully what you give 100% to. that was to be expected -. Apply the 80-20 rule at work. even essential at times. In my desire to prove myself. At other times we don’t try hard enough. If you’ve made it this far through this article on Time Management for Teachers (well done. quality is important.
Time Management for Teachers will always be a challenge. What do you think are the biggest challenges facing teachers in terms of time management? 2. start by entering the title of your contribution below and get yourself noticed on the Net! What does a pre-service teacher need to do? Being Prepared 54 . Use this page to help you spend less time doing what you have to and more time doing what you want to do. Can teachers actually do their job without experiencing excessive stress? If not... Could you outline your routine or system that you use to help you manage your time? Whether you want to write a couple of lines or an in-depth article. That fact alone will put you on the path to a better understanding of the importance of time management and consequently a better application of it than the vast majority of your colleagues achieve. what 3 time management tips would you give them? 5. What do you feel are common causes of distraction for you as a teacher? 3. why not? If so. 1. how? 4. How Do YOU Manage Your Time? Do you have time to teach and still have a life outside the classroom? Take a moment to answer any or all of the following questions. If you were mentoring a Newly Qualified Teacher.Because getting to this point suggests you’re interested in filling less and using more of your time.
check here first. • • Selecting a PCD host – Aim for a maximum variety of experiences. The maintenance of a dedicated portfolio and record of participation (hard copy or electronic) as evidence of activity completed and learning achieved. much of which will be provided on-line.Very importantly. refer to the appropriate conduct for approaching potential hosts. In addition. • There are some creative ideas on the PCD website. they must read the documentation. First year undergraduate pre-service teachers will access this briefing through the unit Education Foundations (4782). Continually refer to all the relevant documentation to ensure full understanding. Think laterally so that some hosts are not overwhelmed by UC pre-service teachers. In particular. 55 • . An application for a National Criminal History Check. Graduate Diploma pre-service teachers will be briefed in ELPC G1 (6705). pre service teachers must attend the preparatory briefing sessions to collect paperwork and understand professional experience expectations. Pre-service teachers must abide by the requirements for all professional experience placements including (will be discussed in more detail at briefings): • • • Wearing a UC pre-service teacher badge. Step-by-step procedure for completing Professional Community Days You need to: • Understand the guidelines and procedures by attending briefings and reading documentation. Plan your own schedule and identify some appropriate settings within the guidelines and timelines provided. The website will let you know if places are unavailable. Utilize on-line materials as much as possible as the first point to seek information before requesting assistance from the Professional Experience Office.
• Download an introductory letter and a proposal/participation form that is taken to the potential host in order to seek an offer. A pass in the unit will automatically be registered with the Professional Experience Office.) • • • It is not correct to presume that they are able to accommodate your needs Enquire professionally and work with the possibilities. • Collect approved reflection submission from the Professional Experience Office once notified. this will provide a mechanism of checking against the records kept by the Professional Experience Office. Note that insufficient or unacceptable submissions will be returned for amendment and/or elaboration before being recorded as complete. As well as being a journal for reflection. • NB You must keep a record of your participation in the program. Faxed offers are acceptable. • Undertake the Professional Community Day/s. Be informed. Contacting a PCD host – Find out if there is a dedicated person to contact (check the Professional Experience Office PCD website. A form for this purpose is available on the website that is suitable for including in your portfolio. These are returned to the Professional Experience Office for evaluation and recording. Its worth it! 56 . • Develop a portfolio as evidence of participation in PCDs. Where the PCDs are unit-based. NB: Approval must be received before undertaking the visit. completing the required reflection activities and completion statement (completed proposal/participation form). Note If a pre-service teacher fails to follow the procedures or observe the expectations provided in this booklet. Submit the signed form with negotiated dates etc to the Professional Experience Office for approval at least 10 days prior to intended date of visit. the pre-service teacher does not have to complete any documentation. there is potential for failure.
perceptions and attitudes. Here are some questions to ponder. Do not leave them to the end of the semester. • • • Why do we observe? How can we observe effectively? What are the rules about observing? Why do we observe? Pre-service teachers will spend a lot of time learning from others (and will continue to do so even after they have graduated).. there is some thinking to do first. we gather information that we can then process into knowledge.. Observing others is fundamental to the way we learn. This will enable the efficient management of student results. Watching people and what they do is informative in itself. Among other things. • Success for you: Observing. while you are meant to enjoy the experience.• Please submit reflections as you complete them. learning! Visiting the place you have chosen can merely be a nice day out. reflecting. To make it valuable for your preparation as a teacher. However. participate and reflect. participating. Your learning will be maximised if you think carefully about how you observe. To really get the most out of observing. it is expected that you will learn a great deal too. observing will help you: 57 . there are some beginning skills of becoming a reflective practitioner that should be practiced. skills. Using our senses. For ECP1 and SEC2 PCD reflections must be submitted to the Professional Experience Office by the end of the class free week in the semester that these units are completed.
There may be something that you particularly want to focus upon e. their physical skills and their relationships Consider the types of environments that support learning Ascertain the myriad of factors that make up the professional life of educators Compare one learner with another. For example. Do not attempt to observe everything at once. Initially. you may firstly want to obtain a full understanding of the range of things offered by the museum. seek detail and establish how this fits into the big picture. Here you will be able to look at the kind of activities that people do what they learn and perhaps why they are learning it. if visiting with the Education Officer at the National Museum. • • • How can we observe effectively? Deciding what to observe is important in order to give you focus. Then. you might like to look at the big picture and get a sense of the whole environment. then focus on the types of special activities that are offered to schools and the public.g. Very specific observation may be participating in a workshop for the public on Australia’s migrant history. one teacher with another. how learners learn. selecting a smaller focus. 58 .• • • Understand what educators do and why Consider the individual differences that make each learner unique Understand how learners develop their knowledge. Think about what you are learning in other units at University.
What are the rules about observing and participating? Remember that you have two eyes. two ears and only one mouth.Another example. As a novice educator. you are the learner in the context too. You might then focus on one particular area of interest and follow that for the day. Ensure that you ask first if there is something you would like to observe. Your observing should demonstrate that ratio. Confidentiality: you should not record (in writing or otherwise) names etc that would identify people. if visiting a Preschool. Yet another example. if visiting a teacher’s professional development conference. You could then really focus on a couple of children and watch them for part of the day to see what they do and how they work with their teacher and with other children. make up a name. the program for the day. If you want to write about someone. Don’t assume. recorded or discussed. Always ask if you may join in. or compare a couple of different areas. Respect the people and the organisation: be aware that you are a visitor in someone elses workplace or learning place. 59 . you may firstly look at the whole institution. Be respectful about what they do and how they do it. the venue and the people will be your first observations. The amount to which you can participate will vary. In other words. There are many opportunities to learn about things that are able to be observed. Permission: you have already been invited into the setting. that is there and what they do. listen and watch much more than you speak. Any information you learn about others must not be shared with anyone outside the setting.
. the core. Could there be other explanations?) • How do I feel about what happened? (Does this conflict with. improve their teaching. It is a specific strategy of reflective practice. By planning. For the professional community days. you will come up with a range of alternative reasons why. Reflecting The powerful learning from embarking on professional community visits is realised when time is taken to reflect.then take the time to answer them! There are lots of possible questions. but these are the minimum. 60 . More likely. then reflecting. then doing. However there are many laws about privacy that you must respect. and know more about learning. It encourages them to look beyond planning and implementing lessons. Honest and wholehearted reflection is what makes an excellent teacher. to thinking more deeply about why they do things.Photographs and videos: taking photos can be a good way to remember your visit. better understand their learners.. Duty of care: at no time must you be left in a position of authority for others. or confirm my expectations? Why is this?) What did I learn? (What do I know now that I didnt know before? How has that changed the way I think? How will that affect what I do/say/think in future?) • Using significant incident analysis Studying specific incidents encourages teachers (and preservice teachers) to identify and articulate what is happening and why. Seek permission and check with someone in authority before attempting to take photos. teachers manage their practice. the best way to reflect is to ask yourself questions. • • What happened? (In detail in order in time and space) Why did it happen? (You may have to ask a series of questions about why? before you are comfortable that you understand.
but you are encouraged to develop the strategy for all professional experience placements and as part of your tool box as you continue to grow as a teacher. Most importantly. don’t make up your mind immediately. Share this incident with someone and talk about what happened and what you have learned before constructing your response for the report. Ask the questions that were suggested above for reflection and perhaps add a few of your own. After all. the incident could be something very obvious such as a teacher losing his/her temper with a student who has turned up late yet again for class. or react straight away. Not everyone will have the same perception of what is significant. 61 . Begin by being aware of the kind of incident you are looking for but don’t let it dominate your observations for the day. Quality learning often comes for us as teachers when we are confronted with something that challenges the beliefs and feelings that we hold. It is in the eye of the observer. Significant incident analysis is to interpret the importance of an event. The tasks and reports required of you for PCDs (on later pages) identify the type of incident that you are seeking eg communication between teacher and learner. Take the time to be open-minded. analysing specific incidents in a structured way gives them the opportunity to look at the teaching of others and eventually at their own teaching. you may find that you come back to the notes later to identify an incident for deeper thought.For pre-service teachers. It could be much more subtle such as a brief moment of a smile between teacher and student for a job well done. How important is it? Why? Significant incidents don’t happen in isolation. This way. keep asking 'why'. Very importantly. If you are making regular notes throughout the day. Taking the above example. as is suggested in the following section on reporting. You need to identify something of significance from your observations. you are likely to consider further perspectives. You are asked to specifically report on significant incidents for PCDs.
Talk to yourself during the day by answering the questions you have prepared. Write in dot points or notes.as teachers. think about what you have experienced by looking at your notes. Head the pages with the key questions that you need to answer. review your notes to make sure you have covered everything. Just get down the information and perhaps some feelings. Recording observations You must submit reflections for each visit. Take a voice recorder. Make sure that you write something on these pages at regular intervals throughout the day. Your report will be read to ensure that you have addressed all the necessary areas. Don’t wait too long to write up your submission on the visit. Hand in neat and professionally presented reflections. When the day is over. Marking criteria 62 . You can elaborate later. If there are lots of things going on. your perception will be one of many from colleagues and students that you may need to consider every day. When the day is more than half over. Reports that do not demonstrate evidence of thinking or are too brief and shallow will be returned for upgrading. asking yourself the reflection questions and add more thoughts. Take a note book. it can be difficult to record your observations. You can complete the form by referring to the specific questions given later in this booklet for each category of visit. or you are really involved. What your report should look like Use the format provided on the website. Develop a strategy so that you can reflect and summarise after the visit is over.
grammar and punctuation errors. We expect you to be the Universities ambassador and to leave your host with a positive impression of yourself and the University. writing down questions beforehand. Ensure that you are always on time. Thorough preparation When approaching organisations to seek an offer. Wear your name badge to identify your affiliation and carry your student card. You are expected to be clean. Demeanor Approach the visit positively and with enthusiasm. neat and tidy at all times. Also carry your National Criminal History Check card once it is available. • Before commencing. you should carefully consider that you present yourself to the standard exhibited by the members of the organisation hosting your visit.The report is successful if it demonstrates: • • • • The required format Neat and professional presentation Thoughtful reflection addressing the requirements of the visit Absence of spelling. polite and focused on what you should be doing. Professional Conduct while on Professional Community Days Dress and personal hygiene As you are visiting the professional community contexts as a preservice teacher. 63 . The hosts are providing you with an opportunity. Please turn off your mobile phone or leave it in the car/at home. do so with professional courtesy and respect. think through the process.
the importance of education industry in India can be understood. there are also some glooming statistics as well. Find out information about the organization before your visit e. death rate and infant mortality rate (IMR). Among all the key indicators of socio-economic development like economy's growth rate. In India. Arrange a visit to finalize the proposal/participation form or consider a faxed document if the setting is some distance away. Only 15% of the students can go to next level to reach high school. check the website. So. the role of the private institutions in the development of education industry in India cannot be denied. the literacy rate of the country is one of the most vital one as the rise and fall of others largely depend upon country's literacy rate. 40% of country's population is still illiterate. Despite such rising investment in education industry. It is also one of the biggest contributors to the economic growth of the nation. However. India's private education market was worth $40 billion in 2008. • • • • Education is the base for economic growth as well as social transformation for any country.g. birth rate. 64 . Ensure that you thank the organization when your activity is completed by sending a quick email or a brief note of thanks to the organizer.• Make an initial phone call to identify a contact person and arrange the details of a potential visit. This will assist to build stronger relationships for the University and an enhanced professional reputation for you. Besides various government initiatives. which is expected to reach $68 billion by the year 2012. literacy rate. Devise some plans for the visit and how you might record your day. The education system in India is much more improved these days and is one of the leading ones in the world. high literacy rate leads to low birth rate as well as low IMR and it also increases life expectancy rate.
time-management-success.com http://jenniferwagaman.com/IJESE_v5n1_Arsal.com/teacher-resource http://www.com 65 .iep.au/faculties/education http://jenniferwagaman.writetimepub.com/2008/07/time-management http://www.suite101.com/teachers http://successfulteaching.edu http://www.gov http://www.blogspot.utm.scholastic.canberra.edu.pdf http://www.com http://www.ed.ijese.suite101. Bibliography http://ies.11.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.