Generat|on of hack|ngť

A ºhack" has always been a klnd of shorLcuL or modlflcaLlonŸa way Lo bypass or rework Lhe sLandard
operaLlon of an ob[ecL or sysLemŦ 1hls Lerm was orlglnaLed wlLh model Lraln enLhuslasLs aL Ml1 who
hacked Lhelr Lraln seLs ln order Lo modlfy how Lhey workedŦ Several of Lhese same model Lraln hackers
laLer applled Lhelr curloslLy and resourcefulness Lo Lhe Lhen new compuLer sysLems belng deployed on
Lhe campus ż1ŽŦ 8uL soon afLerţ hacklng was noL llmlLed ln lLs orlglnal moLlvaLlon as we wlll see LhaL over
generaLlons hacklng was used for dlfferenL purposes and ln dlfferenL moLlvaLlonŦ
Generat|on 2eroť
AlLhoughţ Lhls generaLlon ls someLlme mlsslng ln llLeraLures or reporLsţ some news / reporLs menLloned
LhemŦ 1hls generaLlon sLarLed wlLh Lunlng ln on pollce or mlllLary radlo slgnals Lo llsLen whaL was golng
onŦ MosL of Lhe Llme Lhese ºneoŴhackers" were slmply curlous ºlnformaLlon [unklesţ" looklng for
lnLeresLlng pleces of lnformaLlon abouL governmenL or mlllLary acLlvlLlesŦ 1he Lhrlll was ln belng prlvy Lo
lnformaLlon channels LhaL oLhers were noL and dolng so undeLecLed ż3ŽŦ
Generat|on 1ť
llrsL generaLlon of hacklng ls Lyplcally ln Lhe 1960sŦ 1hls generaLlon sLarLed wlLh some enLhuslasLlc
sLudenLs aL Ml1 who hacked Lhelr Lraln seLs ln order Lo modlfy how Lhey workedŦ ln many casesţ Lhe
shorLcuLs and modlflcaLlons produced by Lhese sLudenL hackers were even more eleganL Lhan Lhe
professlonal programs Lhey replaced or clrcumvenLedŦ ln facLţ Lhe mosL eleganLŸand endurlngŸhack
from Lhls perlod ls Lhe unlx operaLlng sysLemţ developed ln Lhe laLe 1960s by uennls 8lLchle and kelLh
1hompson of 8ell Labsż1ŽŦ
nacker Lth|cs ť
Packer eLhlcs for Lhls generaLlon lnclude ż4Ž Ŵ
1Ŧ Access Lo compuLers and anyLhlng whlch mlghL Leach you someLhlng abouL Lhe way Lhe world worksŦ
1hls access should be unllmlLed and LoLalŦ
2Ŧ All lnformaLlon should be freeŦ
3Ŧ MlsLrusL auLhorlLy Ŵ promoLe decenLrallzaLlonŦ
4Ŧ Packers should be [udged by Lhelr hacklngţ noL bogus crlLerla such as degreesţ ageţ raceţ or poslLlonŦ
3Ŧ Packers can creaLe arL and beauLy on a compuLerŦ
6Ŧ CompuLers can change your llfe for Lhe beLLerŦ
Second Generat|onť
1he second generaLlon of hacklng occurred from around Lhe mld 70's up unLll Lhe mld '90sŦ ln Lhe flrsL
sLage of Lhls generaLlonţ a parLlcular Lype of hackers evolved who focused on Lelephone sysLemsŦ 1hese
hackersţ known as ºphreakers"ţ dlscovered and explolLed operaLlonal characLerlsLlcs of Lhe newly seL up
elecLronlc Lelephone swlLchlng neLwork LhaL enabled Lhem Lo make long dlsLance calls free of chargeŦ
Cne lmporLanL characLerlsLlcs of Lhls phone phreaklng ls LhaL lL drew aLLenLlon of many people Lowards
Lhls Lype of hacklngŦ AnoLher lmporLanL aspecL of second generaLlon hacklng was lnLroduced by Lhe
lncepLlon of Lurnkey ºpersonal" compuLers by 8adlo Shackţ l8Mţ Appleţ and oLhersŦ lL helped more
peopleţ oLher Lhan Lhe hardcore hobbylsL and professlonalţ lnLeresLed ln explorlng and hacklng
compuLer sysLemŦ
ncept|on of Lxp|o|tat|onť
Some really lnLeresLlng Lhlngs happened ln Lhls generaLlonŦ A dlvlde was formed wlLhln Lhe hackers
communlLy durlng laLe 1980Ŧ Cne group of hackers no longer wanLed Lo be benlgn ln naLure wlLh Lhe
poLenLlallLy and power Lhey have Lo conLrol over lndlvldual or neLwork compuLersŦ 1hese new breed of
ºhackers" dlrecLed Lhelr knowledge and LenaclLy Loward dlsLlncLly crlmlnal pursulLsţ lncludlng Lhe
dlsLrlbuLlon of plraLed commerclal sofLwareţ gamesţ and vlruses and worms LhaL could vlrLually shuL
down sysLemsŦ 1he dark slde fragmenLed even furLher as several groups formed ºelecLronlc gangs"
drlven Lo Lap lnLo Lhe senslLlve lnformaLlon housed wlLhln large lnsLlLuLlonsţ llke governmenL and
educaLlonal research cenLersŦ
Þopu|ar|ty of nack|ng Cu|tureť
uurlng Lhe lasL ages of 2
generaLlonţ hacklng earned a greaL popularlLy among Lhe young generaLlonŦ
ulfferenL medla coverage (news paperţ 1elevlslonţ webslLes) and some commerclal movles (ºSneakers" Ŵ
1993ţ ºPackers" Ŷ 1993ţ º1he neL" Ŵ1993 and oLhers) lncreased Lhe popularlLy of compuLer hacklngŦ
uurlng Lhls Llme personal compuLer began Lo be more easlly avallableŦ All Lhese Lhlngs LogeLher helped
lncreaslng Lhe popularlLy of CompuLer hacklng durlng Lhe 2

1h|rd Generat|onť
We can deslgnaLe 3
generaLlon of hacklng from Lhe mld 90's Lo daLeŦ 1odayţ all of Lhe aLLrlbuLes of
hacklngs (egŦ Lypeţ LargeLţ damageţ eLc) have been changed for planLlng a blg mallclous aLLack excepL
some novlce aLLempLsŦ nowadaysţ hackers no longer hack for funţ show downţ or acqulslLlon of
knowledgeŦ 8aLherţ Loday Lhey are more organlzedţ ofLen assoclaLed wlLh a crlmlnal group Lo mounL
aLLack on a speclflc LargeLŦ AlLhoughţ Lechnologles are ln a more maLure sLaLe Lodayţ hackers are also
more fledged Lhan beforeŦ nowţ Lhere exlsL many recognlzed Lools and Lechnlques avallable on Lhe
lnLerneL whlch helps hackers Lo be more accuraLe and successful ln Lhelr aLLackŦ Some lnLeresLlng
changes ln Lhe Lype of aLLack along wlLh Lhe characLerlsLlcs of 3
generaLlon hacklng are as followsŦ
S||ent Attackť
Cnce aLLacks were made vlslbleţ clear and dlsrupLlve Lo Lhe vlcLlmsŦ 8uL nowţ Lhls Lrend has been shlfLed
Loward nonŴdlsrupLlve crlmlnal aLLacksţ drlven by Lhe deslre for moneLary galn raLher Lhan personal
gloryŦ Cne example of Lhls Lype of aLLack ls maklng LargeL of medlcal daLa parLlcularly Lhe daLa of cancer
or AluS paLlenLsŦ 1hese medlcal records are belng LargeLed because Lhere are so many medlcal charges
lnherenL ln Lhe LreaLmenL of Lhese lllnessesţ maklng lL easy Lo add addlLlonal charges Lo Lhe exLenslve llsL
of leglLlmaLe ones ż3ŽŦ

C||entŴS|de Attacksť
1odayƌs cyber hackers are shlfLlng Lo a meLhodlcalţ lowŴkey approachţ seeklng Lhe besL posslble reLurn
on lnvesLmenLŦ 8ecause of Lhls Lrendţ cllenLŴslde aLLacks have proven frulLful for cyber crlmlnalsŦ 1hls ls
also Lrue LhaL cllenLs are an easler LargeL Lhan servers ż3ŽŦ
W|red and W|re|ess Network attackť
1odayţ wlreless neLwork ( egŦ wlflţ wlmax) beglns Lo replace Lhe old wlred neLwork whlch makes hacklng
one sLep forwardŦ now hackers do noL need Lo access Lhe physlcal wlred neLworkŦ Soţ aLLacklng on
vulnerable wlreless medlum ls an lmporLanL characLerlsLlc of Lhe 3
generaLlon hacklngŦ
Þurpose of nack|ngť
Cnce Lhe purpose of hacklng was very obvlousŦ Whlle ln Lhe 1
generaLlonţ Lhe purpose was Lo ldenLlfy
securlLy hole ln compuLer sysLemţ ln Lhe second generaLlon Lhe moLlvaLlon was malnly havlng personal
beneflLsţ mosL of Lhe cases flnanclal beneflLŦ 8uL ln Lhe 3
generaLlonţ we see LhaL hacklng has been for
oLher purposes besldes only flnanclal beneflLsŦ ln one reporL by ÞCWorld ż6Žţ lL menLloned dlfferenL
evenLs where Lhe purpose of hacklng was pollLlcal beneflL raLher Lhan flnanclal beneflLŦ 1he reporL found
Lhe ma[orlLy of defacemenLs ƍwere of a pollLlcal naLureţ LargeLlng pollLlcal parLlesţ candldaLes and
governmenL deparLmenLsţ ofLen wlLh a very speclflc message relaLed Lo a campalgnŦ CLhers have a
culLural aspecLţ malnly lslamlc hackers defaclng WesLern Web slLesŦƍż6Ž
1able l shows a comparlson of varlous aspecL of hacklng among dlfferenL generaLlonsŦ
Next Generat|on of hack|ngť
1hls ls a lnLeresLlng quesLlon wheLher we have reached Lhe nexL generaLlon ( 4
generaLlon) of
hacklngŦ 1he answer Lo Lhls quesLlon ls really LrlckyŦ 1he answer ls ln beLween ºyes" and ºno"Ŧ ln facLţ we
are ln some polnL where we are walLlng for a blg paradlgm shlfLŦ 8uL Lo be more speclflcţ Lo Lake one
sldeţ l would raLher sayţ we have noL yeL enLered Lo Lhe new generaLlon because l Lhlnk Lhe nexL
generaLlon of hacklng may brlng more Lhan whaL we have experlenced so farŦ ln Lhe followlng
paragraphs l wlll speculaLe how hacklng can be ln Lhe nexL (4
) generaLlonŦ
1arget Dev|ceť
lf we look for dlfferenL generaLlonsţ we can see LhaL Lhe LargeLed devlces for hacklng have been changed
over generaLlonsŦ Packlng sLarLed wlLh 8adlo devlces and has gone Lhrough Lelephone SysLemţ personal
compuLerţ lnLraneL and lnLerneLŦ Cne polnL Lo noLlce LhaL hackers always Lrled Lo aLLack popular
elecLronlc medlaŦ Soţ lL ls llkely LhaL nexL generaLlon hacker may focus noLe booksţ smarL devlces (smarL
phone egŦ lphoneţ lpodţ ÞuAs and oLhers) along wlLh personal compuLers and enLerprlse serversŦ lL
seems Lo meţ Lhe mosL LargeLed devlce ln Lhls generaLlon would be our smarL phones because of Lhe
ublqulLy of Lhls smarL devlceŦ Cver yearsţ smarL phone would be more flexlble and versaLlleŦ We wlll use
Lhls devlce for soclal neLworklngţ web browslngţ emall checklngţ blll paylng and many oLher reasons
whlch would comprlse of all Lype of communlcaLlon (boLh secure and lnsecure)Ŧ 1hls would brlng a new
opporLunlLy for hacklngŦ 8lue LooLh neLworkţ Lhls Llmeţ would be Lhe hoLspoL for hackers and we would
be more vulnerable Lo hacklng because anyone uslng a smarL devlce would Lry Lo connecL and
evenLually aLLack anoLher smarL devlceŦ And lL ls Lrue LhaL we may noL always be waLchful Lo Lhe devlce
we carry all Lhe Llme wlLh usŦ LvenLuallyţ we may be more vulnerable Lo hacklngŦ llgure 1 shows how
hacklng ls acLually Laklng placeŦ
1able lť Comparlson on varlous aspecLs of CompuLer generaLlonsŦ
CeneraLlon Zero llrsL CeneraLlon Second CeneraLlon 1hlrd CeneraLlon
Lunlng ln on pollce
or mlllLary radlo
Þhone Þhreaklng Þlaylng and
aLLacks wlLh
ALLacklng and
explolLlng Lhe
weakness of
organlzaLlon and
compuLer SysLemŦ
LLhlcs Learnţ ulscover and
hack for beLLer
Packers were badly
moLlvaLed for
personal beneflLsŦ
Packers were badly
moLlvaLed for
personal and
flnanclal beneflLsŦ
MoLlvaLlon lnformaLlon abouL
governmenL or
mlllLary acLlvlLles
MosLly for
AcqulslLlon of
knowledge and
Packlng for
personal lnLeresL
sLarLed from hereŦ
Show down of
powerţ personal
Þersonal 8eneflLţ
Crganlzed crlmeţ
ÞollLlcal beneflL
1ools no avallable Lools no avallable Lools Avallable Lools and
AbundanL of Lools
and Lechnlques
lndlvlduals lndlvlduals and
connecLed small
Small Ǝ large group
over lnLerneL Ǝ
groupsţ hacker
convenLlonţ hacker
conference eLcŦ
1lmellne 1940s 1960s 1970s Ŷ mld 90s Mld 90s Lo daLe
noLed hackers name unknownŦ uennls 8lLchle ken
1hompsonţ !ohn
uraperţ kevln
kevln MlLnlkţ Mark
1argeLs SysLem 8adlo
Malnly 1elephone
MosLlyţ CovLŦ and
Malnly server slde
CovLŦ and buslness
organlzaLlonŦ 8oLh
Server slde and
cllenL slde hacklngŦ
1argeL users Þollce ţ MlllLary LllLe or 8lch class of
people who user
users wlLh access
Lo lnLerneL
AlmosL all users
uslng compuLer (
also lnLerneL)

llgure 1ť Packlng ln acLlon uslng smarL phone and 8lueLooLh neLwork
1arget Med|ať
1he LargeLed medla have gone Lhrough a loL of changes from flrsL generaLlon of hacklng Lo 3

generaLlon LodayŦ Packlng sLarLed wlLh Wlreless 8adlo slgnal and gone Lhrough Lelephone neLworkţ
wlred neLwork and Loday reached Lo wlreless (wlfl) neLworksŦ l Lhlnkţ ln Lhe nexL generaLlonţ Lhe hacklng
medla would lnclude blue LooLh neLwork along wlLh exlsLlng wlred and wlreless neLworkŦ
l Lhlnk ln Lhe nexL generaLlon all Lhe common Lype of aLLacks lncludlng Lavesdropplngţ uaLa
ModlflcaLlonţ ldenLlLy Spooflngţ uenlalŴofŴservlce aLLack ( our phone may be ldle buL Lhe caller would geL
lL busy or Lhe moblle neLwork channel would be busy)ţ ManŴlnŴLheŴMlddle aLLackţ would also be played
on our smarL phonesŦ 1hls would necessarlly explolL Lhe exlsLlng hacklng Lechnlques avallable Loday
along wlLh new Lools and LechnlquesŦ Soţ Lhe vulnerablllLy would be much more Lhan LodayŦ
Soţ conslderlng Lhe new LargeL of hacklng whlch ls Lhe smarL devlces and conslderlng lLs lmpacLţ lL seems
Lo me LhaL 4
generaLlon of hacklng wlll brlng dlfferenL experlence Lo Lhe vlcLlmŦ l Lhlnk LhaL Llme
hacklng would be more common and our vulnerablllLy would be more obvlousŦ
ż1Ž A brlef hlsLory of hacklng Ŵ by zuley clarke / [ames clawson / marla cordell
ż2Ž hLLpť//wwwŦneaLoramaŦcom/2006/08/28/aŴshorLŴhlsLoryŴofŴhacklng/
ż3Ž hLLpť//wwwŦlndomeLrlcŦcom/aŴbrlefŴhlsLoryŴofŴhacklng/
ż4Ž hLLpť//campusacLlvlsmŦorg/hLmlŴresource/hackers/secLlon4ŦhLml
ż3Ž hLLpť//dlsasLerŴresourceŦcom/arLlcles/07p_096aŦshLml
ż6Ž hLLpť//wwwŦpcworldŦcom/buslnesscenLer/arLlcle/160271/sLudy_hackers_sLlll_en[oy_vandallzlng_
ż7Ž hLLpť//LechŦslashdoLŦorg/sLory/10/02/13/026239/WasŴ1hlsŴLheŴllrsLŴuenlalŴofŴServlceŴALLack
ż8Ž hLLpť//wwwŦhufflngLonposLŦcom/2011/08/06/defconŴhackerŴconferenceŴ_n_920043ŦhLml

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