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ENGINEERING DESIGN

PROCESS

Design a part

RESULT

TRANSFERRED INFORMATION

Sketches of ideas

Create drawings

Manufacture

2

To describe an object completely we need to define both the shape and the size.

of the object

3

DEFINITION

Dimensioning is the process of specifying part s information by using of figures, symbols and notes.

This information are such as:

5. Manufacturing process 6. Size and geometric tolerances

4

ELEMENTS OF DIMENSIONING

Designed part

S

INFORMATION CONVEYED: Dimension

But how?

ELEMENTS OF DIMENSIONING

EXTENSION LINE

ARROW HEADS DIMENSION LINE

DIMENSION

LEADER LINE

7

EXTENSION LINES

indicate the location on the objects features that are dimensioned.

EXTENSION LINES

Leave a visible gap ( 1 mm) from a view and start

drawing an extension line.

Extend the lines beyond the (last) dimension line 1-2 mm.

COMMON MISTAKE

Visible gap

EXTENSION LINES

Do not break the lines as they cross object lines.

COMMON MISTAKE

Continuous

10

Arrowheads

w

3w

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

11

DIMENSION LINES

indicate the direction and extent of a dimension, and

10 27

43

12

13

LEADER LINES

indicate details of the feature with a

local note.

10 27

10 Drill, 2 Holes

R16

43

13

13

DIMENSION LINES

Dimension lines should not be spaced too close

to each other and to the view.

Leave a space at least 2 times of a letter height.

16

35

34

11

14

DIMENSION FIGURES

The height of figures is suggested to be 2.5~3 mm.

Place the numbers at about 1 mm above dimension line and between extension lines.

COMMON MISTAKE

11

34

11 34

15

DIMENSION FIGURES

When there is not enough space for figure or

arrows, put it outside either of the extension lines.

16.25 16.25 1

1 1

or

16

The JIS and ISO standards adopt the unit of

specifying a unit symbol mm. Angular dimension in degree with a symbol o

place behind the figures (and if necessary minutes and seconds may be used together).

JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDS

17

1. Aligned method The dimension figures are placed so that they are readable from the

2. Unidirectional method The dimension figures are placed so that they can be read from the bottom of the drawing. Do not use both system on the same drawing or on the same series of drawing (JIS Z8317)

18

EXAMPLE : Dimension

30

30

30

19

30

EXAMPLE : Dimension

30

30 30

30

30

30

30

30

20

EXAMPLE : Dimension

45o

45o

21

45o

EXAMPLE : Dimension

45o 45o

45o

45o

45o

45o

45o

45o

22

Clarity Essentiality

Functionality

23

Dimensioning is accomplished by adding size and location information necessary to manufacture the object.

Clear

Complete Facilitate the - manufacturing method - measurement method

24

EXAMPLE

Designed part

2. Diameter and depth of the hole. 3. Location of the holes.

ANGLE

To dimension an angle use circular dimension line having the centre at the vertex of the angle.

COMMON MISTAKE

26

ARC

Arcs are dimensioned by giving the radius, in the

The letter R is always lettered before the figures to emphasize that this dimension is radius of an arc.

or

27

The dimension figure and the arrowhead should be inside the arc,

ARC

R 6.5

R 58.5

28

ARC

Leader line must be radial and inclined with an angle between 30 ~ 60 degs to the horizontal.

COMMON MISTAKE

R62.5 R62.5

R62.5

R62.5

R62.5

R62.5

29

ARC

Use the foreshortened radial dimension line, when arc s center locates outside the sheet or interfere with other views.

Method 1 2

Drawing sheet

30

Give the radius of a typical fillet only by using a local note. If all fillets and rounds are uniform in size, dimension may be omitted,

but it is necessary to add the note All fillets and round are Rxx.

R6.5

R12

NOTE: All fillets and round are R6.5 unless otherwise specified. 31

Drawing sheet

CURVE

The curve constructed from two or more arcs, requires the dimensions of radii

COMMON MISTAKE

Tangent point

32

CYLINDER

Location dimension must be located from its center lines and should be given in circular view.

Measurement method

33

CYLINDER

Diameter should be given in a longitudinal view with the symbol placed before the figures.

100

70

34

HOLES

Size dimensions are diameter and depth. Location dimension must be located from its center lines and should be given in circular view.

Measurement method

35

HOLES : SMALL

Use leader line and local note to specify diameter

SIZE

xx

or

xx Thru.

or

xx Drill.

xx Drill, Thru.

or

36

HOLES : SMALL

and holes depth in the circular view.

SIZE

2) Blind hole

xx, yy Deep

or

xx Drill, yy Deep

Holes depth

37

HOLES : LARGE

Use extension and dimension lines

Use diametral dimension line

SIZE

Use leader line and note

xx

38

COMMON MISTAKE

HOLES

xx

Rxx

xx

xx

xx xx

39

CHAMFER

Use leader line and note to indicate linear distance and angle of the chamfer.

S q

CS S S

40

ROUNDED-END SHAPES

Dimensioned according to the manufacturing method used.

12

R12

21

41

ROUNDED-END SHAPES

Dimensioned according to the manufacturing method used.

R12

21

12

5

42

ROUNDED-END SHAPES

Dimensioned according to the manufacturing method used.

R12

16

21

12

43

ROUNDED-END SHAPES

Dimensioned according to the manufacturing method used.

R12

12

27

44

ROUNDED-END SHAPES

Dimensioned according to the standard sizes of another part to be assembled

or manufacturing method used.

25

45

ROUNDED-END SHAPES

Dimensioned according to the standard sizes of another part to be assembled

20

46

CHAIN

PARRALEL

47

Redraw and Correct the dimensions shown in the diagram on the left hand side using proper standard and dimensioning rules.

48

Redraw and Correct the dimensions shown in the diagram on the left hand side using proper standard and dimensioning rules.

49

RULES OF DIMENSIONING : A summary Between any two extension lines, there must be one and only one dimension line bearing one dimension.

As far as possible, all the dimensions should be placed outside the views. Inside dimensions are preferred only if they are clearer and more easily readable. All the dimensions on a drawing must be shown using either Aligned System or Unidirectional System. In no case should, the two systems be mixed on the same drawing.

The same unit of length should be used for all the dimensions on a drawing. The unit should not be written after each dimension, but a note mentioning the unit should be placed below the drawing.

Dimension lines should not cross each other. Dimension lines should also not cross any other lines of the object.

50

Each dimension should be given only once. No dimension should be redundant. Do not use an outline or a centre line as a dimension line. A centre line may be extended to serve as an extension line. Avoid dimensioning hidden lines. Smaller dimensions should always be placed nearer the view. The next smaller dimension should be placed next and so on.

51

Aligned System

In the aligned system, dimensions are placed perpendicular to the dimension line so that they may be read from the bottom or right-hand side of the drawing sheet. Dimensions are placed at the middle and on top of the dimension lines.

Unidirectional System In the unidirectional system, dimensions are placed in such a way that they can be read from the bottom edge of the drawing sheet. As shown in Fig. 3.5, all horizontal dimensions are placed at the middle and on top of the dimension lines while vertical and inclined dimensions are inserted by breaking the dimension lines at the middle.

52

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