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WE 26600 A New Method To Determine In-Situ Stress Directions and In-Situ Formation Rock Properties During a Microfrac Test

Peng Lin and T,G, Flay, Halliburton Energy Services SPE Members z

Copyright 1993. SocIeIy 01 Petroleum Ertgineers, Inc. This paper was prapared for Dresenlatlon at the 681h Annual Tecfmcal Conference and Exfrl&lhon of the Society of Petroleum Englnaare held In Houston, Texas, 3-8 October 1993. TfMapaper was aelacted for presentation by an SPE Program CommlI!ea following review of Information contained in an abatract aubmitled by the author(e). Confents of the paper, as presen!ed, have no! been rawewed by the SocIely of Patroleum Enginears and ara subject to correction by the aulhor(s). The malerial, as presonled, doss not rtecesssrily reflect any position of the S~clety of Pelroleum Engmaers, ita oltlcere. or members. Papera praaanted at SPE meetings are subject to publication reviaw by Editorial Committaaa of lhe Society of Palroleum Engineara. Permissionto coPy ia restricted to an abalract of not more than 300 worde. Illustrafiona may not be Copied.The abshacl sftould contain ConsplcuouaacknowFedgmant of where and by whom tha papar la presented. Write Librarian. SPE, P.O. Box 833636, Richardson, TX 75083.3836, U.S.A. Telex, 163245 SPEUT.

ABSTRACT This paper presents a new method to determine in-situ stress directions and in-situ formation rock properties using a newly developed downhole extensometer. The extensometer is used to measure the wellbore deformation, pressure, and temperature during a microfrac stress test. This paper wilf present the method used in analyzing the data collected by this new downhole extensometer. Some of the parameters that can be determined are (1) principal stress directions, which are determined from the induced fracture orientation; (2) minimum in-situ stress magnitude, which is determined from the fracture width calculations in addition m the conventional microfrac analysis; and (3) in-situ static rock properties, which are determined from the prefracture wellbore deformation. The emphasis of this paper will lie primarily on the theoretical methodology used in the data analyses. A tleld case example is also included.

match a particular model, Formation properties such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio also play important roles in hydraulic fracture design. Several techniques, covering both static and dynamic methods, exist for determining these parameters. Static methods usually involve laboratory tests that require carefully prepared samplesand are often time-consuming.Retrievedsamplesare also ,1o longer in the in-situ state, and the size of the samples are usually very small compared to the formation being studied. On the other hand, dynamic methods, such as sonic logs, are essentially based upon rapidly applied nondestructive loads, and are usually performed under in-situ conditions, However, parameters determined statically are preferred in the design of hydraulic fracturing because they are more representative of the actual loading conditions. A downholeextensometerwas recently developedl’2’3 to measure wellboredisplacement,pressure, and temperatureduring microfrac jobs, The tool differs from a conventional caliper in that it can measure displacement, pressure, and temperature continuously during a microfrac job. Parameters that are currently being obtained about the formation from the data collected by this downhole tool are in-situ shear modulus, hydraulic fracture orientation (yielding the in-siN stress directions), fracture closure pressure (yielding the minimum insitu stress), breakdown pressure, the fracture width at the wellbore wall. The extensometer collects the data during the creation of the fracture under in-situconditions;thus, the calculatedin-situ stress directions are of greater quality than those calculated from other methods such as ASR. This tool also provides a way of obtaining the in-situ shear modulus under static loading conditions. Most fracture design models would prefer using a shear modulus that was calculated this way.

INTRODUCTION One of the problems in drilling highly deviated or horizontal wells is the instability of the wellbore. Before accomplishinga borehole failure analysi: the stressesaround the wall of the wellbore and the strength of the rock must be known. Knowledge of the in-situ state of stress (orientation and magnitude) of the formation will thus be beneficial in designing the drilling direction of horizontal and deviated wells to obtain maximum stability. This knowledge will also improve the fracture design for stimulation treatments of oil and gas wells. Some conventionalways of determiningthe fracturelin-situstress orientation involve either anelasticstrain relaxationtests(ASR)or microfrac tests for which an orientated core is retrieved. A widely accepted method of determining the closure pressure (minimum in-situ stress) is through a microfrac analysis. This type of analysis relies solely upon the pressure decline data to 891

. the method proposed in this paper does not couple the prefracture analysis with the postfractureanalysis..e.-i .. . The formation has three mutually independentprinciple stress directions (i...””. . . . :. iwinacmwulw to 2. This is due to the drill bit acting as a reamer upon the initial elastic response of Thus the the wellbore walls to the cut-out hole.. By giving an initial value.. which measure the total arm movement (providing the wellbore radius) and the” movement of the arms after making contact with the wellbore walls (providing the differential displacementsof the wellbore). the nonhydrostaticin-situ stresses may distort the shape of the wellbore.2 A NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE IN-SITU STRESS DIRECTIONSAND IN-SITU FORMATION ROCK PROPERTIES DURING A MICROFRACTEST SPE 26600 With the extensometer.the distortion will be minimized. Each arm is equipped with a potentiometer and an LVDT (linear variable differential transformer). :. formation elastic properties (E and v). The measuredboreholedeflectionsbefore breakdown can be used to determine shear modulus. Charlez et al. The wellbore deformationsafter breakdown can be used to calculate the width and orientation (at the borehole) of the induced fracture.... distorted wellbore cross section is immediately reamed into a circular wellbore with the stress field around the borehole in equilibrium with the in-situ stresses. however. with the maximum principle stress being parallel to the vertical axis of the wellbore. Young’s modulus can then be determined if Poisson’s ratio is known. The orientation of the tool from the magnetic north and inclination from the vertical is determined by multi-axes The bottomhole injection pressure and magnetometers. Basic A~s The assumptionsmade are summarizedbelow: 1. and the fracture geometry and azimuth.:: . closure pressure is determined from calculatingthe time in which the fracture closes using direct borehole displacementmemuremerrts.. . must be studied before any theoretical model using the borehole displacementmeasurementscan be applied.4”5 proposed a method to analyze wellbore deformation data. respectively. deviation from one or more of these assumptions may not result in any substantial error in the parameters calculated. 1). isotropic and homogeneous.. the extensometer measures wellbore radial deformation in 12 directions... . This gives greater stability in the calculationswhen dealing with real data (imperfect data). radius of the wellbore. the extensometerdata should allow for greater accuracy in determining the closure pressure. Wellbore Disdacernents The displacements around the circumference of the wellbore caused by a change in pressure within the wellbore. ‘. EXTENSOMETER FEATURES This tool has two sets of six extensometer arms separated vertically along the tool axis by 18 in.. Becausethe extensometer can “see” when the fracture really closes while the microfrac pressure analysis cannot... He assumed that the displacement at the wellbore is a functionof horizontal principal stresses. temperatureare measuredby a highly accurate quartz transducer. pressure in the wellbore. During drilling.* . 8 .. The forma!ion is elastic...:’:: Ehcwnhx 3. . (Fig. a hydrostatic state of stress does not exist in any plane).. : . -lhbhlg &“. The top set of caliper arms is offset by 30° from the bottom set of caliper arms... allowing for the measurement of the radial displacementof the wellbore in 12 different directions. The fracture closure pressure can also be determined by correlating the post-shut-inpressure readings with the displacement data. . Using the theory of linear elasticity and conformal mapping techniques’ the I F qpc L - ~xtensometer reanues .:~. . A latter section of this paper clearly shows this to be the case for non-circular wellbore cross sections (see assumption 3 above). E&uom9m ‘!!!!+ P’”—— &7n Lds0tr0m These assumptionsare used in developing the theoretical model. ——WI*IM 7 . he used an inverse method to obtain his solution. The cross section of the wellbore is circular. Assumingthat the wellbore undergoes elastic deformation that is instantaneous. The angle between two adjacent arms is 60°. Unlike Charlez’s method. MATHEMATICALMODEL In addition to temperature and pressure.

The direction of maximum deformation will be perpendicular to the induced fracture plane and in the direction of the minimum principal in-situ stress. RAY an elliptically shaped hole is described as Shear Modulus Determination 3 UP = -APR 2G m(l + X) COS28 . since only radial deformations are measured. assuming a linear elastic formationand a circular cross section. the wellbore wall expands uniformly in all directions. 893 . Yotmg’smodulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio (u) cannot be directly calculatedfrom the extensometer data.. 3. Thus.2m COS21 + mf R.— a+b 2 (2) (3) (4] The extensometerprovidesa unique way to measure the formation shear modulus under in-situ conditions. displacementdata before breakdown is used to calculate the shear modulus. = displacementsin the P . As the pressure within the wellbore increases.3). the radial deformation of a circular hole is independentof direction). the radius of the wellbore will change equally in all directions (discussedpreviously). 1 ‘tirough 4 by setting a =b. assuming the maximum principal stress is aligned with the wellbore axis). it can be shown that as the wellbore pressure changes. The part of the radial displacementcaused by a change in pressure (the elastic deformation) is independentof direction.15 to 0. (5) while the tangential displacements vanish. The wellbore deformationsbefore breakdownare used for determiningthe formation shear modulus.(1 + Xm2) (1) ~1 . Young’s modulus (E) can then b> calculated from the shear modulus and the estimated Poisson’s ratio (v) as E = 2G(1+v) (7) 0 = angle between oz and the a axis U.e. it is seen that R becomes the radius of the borehole.direction AP = pressure change G = shear modulus v = Poisson’s ratio For a circular wellbore cross section. a good approximation to Poisson’s ratio v can be determined (usually in the range of 0.Elliptical Shaped Borehole u~ = displacementsin 6. The equation above shows that for any change in pressure. Equation 5 can be solved for the shear modulus (G) resulting in the following equation: G=—D AP 2 AD where (6) ~=3-4v where a = major axes of the ellipse b = minor axes of the ellipse G = shear modulus D = diameter of the wellbore AP = change in pressure AD = change in diameter The linear portion of the pressure vs. However. from Eq. Superpositionof the linearelasticdeformation of the wellboreand the deformation resulting from the growth of the fracture yields the total radial deformation of the wellbore.X)m sin20 JI .2m cos2Et + mf U8 = -AP R m= a-b ~b (1 . This linear portion yields a slope of AP/AD. the radial deformation of the wellbore is the same in all directions (i. for most formations. the radial displacements resulting from a change in pressure witbin the weilbore can be obtained from Eq. The fracture will develop parallel to the wellbore axis and will cut the wellbore into two half-circles that move perpendicular to the fracture direction (i. Assumingthe wellbore cross section is circular before fracture initiation. which can be calculated via linear regression analysis from the pressure vs. For a full derivation of the equations shown in this section. displacement plot before breakdown. see Appendix A. This yields the following: AP R UP = -~ In-Situ Stress Orientation and Width Determination The fracture azimuthand width are calculated from the wellbore deformationsafter breakdown.direction b e o ye q up z al I igure 2.4 q L SPE 26600 displacement of shown: PENG LIN AND TOMMY G. It continuously measures the radial deformations of the wellbore wall during the microfrac test.e.

”. Now using B(. rl. The idealizeddata is then compared to the actual transducer data.. The direction of maximum deformation will be perpendicular to the induced fracture plane.: “’ 1. = * 1. 3 ): w lsin(~-yi) I + DR = Dispf i=l. These equationscan be further simplified by taking a Taylor Series expansion about a point. an idealizeddata set of transducer displacements is generated. this analysis uses the displacement data to determine when the fracture has closed... = initial guess for the induced fracture width B6 l. I ! ~’ I / I 1 1 I B5 T6 SPE 26600 (’~) ~ 30° B2 . the calculated fracture azimuth. Upon shutting in the well after an injection cycle.(%) (9) ‘. transducers not operating within acceptable constraints may be detected and eliminated from any further arra!ysis. !3~ . is calculated. Upon calculating the induced fracture width arid direction from a set of measured displacements. Subtractingthe equation for the i-l” transducer pair from the equation for the i* transducer pair. . using the measured displacements. !!...yo.::! (“j} 1.-. the fracture width begins decreasingbecause of the decline in pressure within the fracture.. y.. the following relationship holds (Fig. l:!l” ..& * q A A NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE IN-SITU STRESS DIRECTIONS AND IN-SITU FORMATIONROCK PROPERTIESDURING A MlCROFIL4CTEST function F(x. the direction of the least principal in-situ stress is perpendicular to the direction of the induced fracture. Fhally. 1{. T1 (2) .$.rrea . using the center-corrected displacementsand Eq..fi. With this comparison. --------. 10 is used in matrix form to solve for the three unknowns.z. F(x.r.1 !_____ * !! . ‘“ 1-.11.y2 = 30” ‘ (’1. T4 ‘.. . Unlike the conventional microfrac pressure analysis.:-while the part caused by the opening of the fracture will vary with direcfion. l’. Thus. !l. I ransuucer urmrauun lgt.yo. z) = F(xo/ yo.’ 111 I DR(.. depending on the value for& ‘ T 1. 20 (y-yo) Ixoj .6 where B w An iterative method. From the superposition principle mentioned above and the fact that the direction of maxinarm deformation is perpendicular to the induced fracture plane.y.. W. After is determining the initial guess for the three unknowns. width and wellbore expansion)of the original data.) I B1 / Thus. the combinations of transducers used for this calculation are determined through statisticaltechniques..z) is written as follows: T2 B3 (6) T3 ‘ (6) / B4 [ !. a relationship between fracture orientation.. is used to determine the initialguess for /3.zO)of a . . Za) + g dF y ~y Ixo.6 I T6 [1!1!1:1!..11. DRO now calculated using Eq. the 894 fracture width DR = change in wellbore diameter This yields six nonlinear algebraic equations (one for each of the transducer pairs) for the three unknowns..e. When calculating W. will eliminate DR from the resulting equation.’ll .) ~O~~coS(PO-Yf)(lO) + (DR-DRO) = Dispj where i=l. = initial guess for the induced fracture direction W. This data set is based upon the results (i.1 l. 8. :11. 1:.. . ?20 y (X-xo) + + glxo.t to B1 (in degrees) K. . fracture width. --. Eq..}.!-r. The transducer arms may never return fully to their original positionbecauseof the damage done to the formation and the physical constraints within the extensometer.1 Ii.111. o. and the change of wellbore radius can be modeled geometrically and solved using an iterative solution. 1.1 Illll”!:]r.. Eq. The Taylor Series Expansion about a point (~. 1! 1. This anaiysis is made simuhaneously with the calculationsof fracture width and azimuth. Thus. 8.! 1. = the initial guess for the change in wellbore diameter TI = the transducer locationw. 6. 1 becomes (W-WO)lSiI’l(~O-yj) I + (p-p...which is already determined. I (8) = fracture direction with respect to transducer B1 = Closure Pressure Analysis The fracture closure pressure can also be determined from the data collected by the extensometer.[..

This results in the term AP/G being on the order of 104. If the wellbore wall is elliptical and the major axis is sufficiently larger than the minor axis. which is as follows: Aup = -~ m (11) FIELD EXAMPLES The field case selectedhere is merely used to show how the data collected from this tool can be used to determine the shear modulus of the formation. while the minimumdisplacementoccurs along the major axis of the ellipse (i. For this case. Here. This is inherent within the drilling process itself. Given the pressure and fracture width vs. This is because the displacementsin the radial direction are independentof direction. RAY s fracmre is considered closed when the rate of change of fracture width is small. 895 L J Figure 4. For this figure. the actual wellbore deformations resulting from a change in pressure within the borehole may differ slightly from the theory above. This indicates that the borehole is growing approximately the same in all directions. and does not consideraneiasticdeformation of the wellbore walls. DISCUSSION There were some assumptions made in developing the theoretical model. 0 = 900). of 1 psi. The shear modulus analysis is performed over the injectioncyclesbefore the formation is fractured. subtracting the displacements yielded from these two directions results in the maximumpossible displacementdifference in any two directions. The term Rxm is one half of the difference betweenthe major and minor axes (i. For the case of a slot (m = 1).SPE 26600 PENG LIN AND TOMMY G. Assumea pressure change. with an 8 in. 1 and 2. the maximum difference of the eiastic displacementfor an elliptical hole (Aup)is about six orders of magnitude smaller than the differences of the major and minor axes lengths. displacement data used to determine the shear (3 . From the final equations in Appendix A. unequal in-situ stresses may distort the shape of the borehole. the fracture direction. During the drilling process. u. Assuming a difference between the length of the two axes to be about 100. A typical shear modulus G of the formation is on the order of ld psi. the maximum possible difference in the displacement (AuJ is approximately 50 ~in. AuO can be estimated using Eq. Tie factor (3-4P) is approximately equal to 2. Figure 4 shows the pressure vs. but the average overall directions may still approximate that calculated from a circular wellbore. the actual radial displacement (u. and the fracture width. Thus. Additional field applications can be found in an earlier pape~. However. R xm = l/2[a-b]).e. The fracture azimuth and width are much less sensitive to the initial wellbore shape and thus will be accurate for even highiy elliptical wellbore shapes. the displacements for an elliptical shaped cross section has also been studied to investigate the accuracy of the circular hole assumption. Subtracting Up((l= 0°) from U@(f? 90°) gives the maximum = possible difference in the displacements. In reality. For the case of an ellipticalhole (O < m < 1). This section will clearly show this to be the case for slightly elliptical wellbore cross sections. 6 = OO). However. for a change in pressufe of 1 psi. Hence. 11.e. Here we see that all of the transducer pairs gave approximately the same slope in the pressure vs. AuO between the a and b directions is equal to zero. Therefore. displacementplot. AP.) is about 1000 win. the in-situ stress directions.000 #-in. in the u direction is zero.AV) {IEJMIIIIIIII1 For the case of a circular hole (m = O). then the shear modulus calculationsin the six directions may differ significantly. closure pressure can be determined. Therefore. The derivation of these equations is shown in Appendix A. The displacementson the edge of an elliptical hole are shown in Eq. From these results we get Young’s Modulus. the assumption of a circular borehole is quite adequate for this application. a correlation between bottomhole pressure and fracture width can be found. and a pressure change of 500 psi. is about one-twentiethof the actual radial displacement in any direction. deviation from one or more of these assumptions may not result in any substantial error in the parameters calculated. it is seen that the maximumdisplacement for the elliptical hole subjected to an increase in pressure occurs along the minor axis of the ellipse (i. the displacementson the edge of an ellipticalhole are studied and compared to the displacementsof a circular cross section. However. respectively. Therefore. The theory above is based upon linear elasticity theory.e. and the minimum in-situ stress magnitude. time relation. one of the reasons the cross section of the wellbore may be slightly elliptical may be due to anelastic deformation. Thus Au. but the drill bit acts as a reamer and leaves a circular borehole behind.Determining Shear Modulus modulus from one such cycle. the borehole cross section should be very nearly circular. no common reference point for the displacements was . diameter borehole.

the result!!do not depend upon whether or not a common reference is used). and (3) fracture closure pressure. CONCLUSIONS A mathematicalmodel based on linear elasticity theory has been developedto analyzepressure and wellboredisplacement data retrieved during a microfrac test. As can be anticipated.-. the azimuth obtained through this SuJnl nucNRFA2w—mwTi susFREwEwr .i“ E5E4==l. the rate of fracture closure (DW/DT) approaches zero. These curves are referenced to a common point which is just before the pressure-up cycle.. unlike the pre-fracture curves. the pressure and IJlspheamenisOf Ttanskws PARS Vs Time Figure 5. L ‘igure 7. . the fracture already exists or is created). As the width levels off. < lgure o .Closure Pressure Analysis displacements start to decrease. This difference is due to the opening/creationof the fracture. and then levels off to a near-zero slope.Measured Transducer Displacements interval in which the analysis was performed. For the postfracture analysis (i. Some of the information that can be obtained from the analysis are (1) formation shear moduhrs. For ibis example. It is this differential between the transducers that allows for the calculation of a fracture direction and width. —. 6 shows the resulting azimuth from this interval. . The pressure related to this time is considered to be the closure pressure. (2) in-situ principal stress direction. Thus. These curves are essential in determiningfracture closure pressure. The curves are plotted in this manner for illustrative purposes only (i.2° of this direction.e.. all of the remahringcycles showed the fracture to open within 2.e.rracurre “-–. This time interval corresponds to that in which the injection has ceased and the well is either hut-in or allowed to flow back. Example output using this model was illustrated. Thus. The fracture is considered to be closing in on itself when the DW/DT curve starts to level off to a slope of zero. while Fig.h q 6 A NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE IN-SITU STRESS DIRECTIONS AND IN-SITU FORMATION ROCK PROPERTIESDURING A MICROFFL4CTEST SPE 26600 chosen.–– wimutn . and derivative of width with respect to time.. The fracture width initially decreases rapidly with time. these curves show the relative difference in the magnitudesof the transducer displacements. Figure 5 gives the transducer displacementsfor the time shown begin at the point in time when the fracture is fully open. —. Figure 7 shows how the prr&sure. The displacementcurves I I i.t. width. This is the reason for the offset from one curve to the next. The tail end of the data from this cycle is used in determiningthe closure pressure._. Figure 6 illustrates the fracture azimuthas a circular frequency plot with a 2° bandwidth. respond after the well is shut-in. one pressure cycle from this same job is chosen.

where a and b are major and minor axes of the ellipse respectively. G. Fifth SPE Middle East Oil Show held in Manama. P. pp. Elasticity theory and cr-mformalmapping are welldevelopedand documentedwithin the literature.. and Despax. H. -— a-b a+b (A-2) 7.” SPE 15773. 1987. J. Charlez. Some Basic Problems in the MathematicalTheory of Elasticity. RAY APPENDIX A 7 method matchedto within one degree. Mar. Conversely. Bahrain. 1993. E. PublishingHouse of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 1954. The calcrdatedclosure pressures and shear modulus are also normally consistent from one cycle to the next. Ph. Ray. 5. June 16.795. J. F. in the r plane. D. Thus. and Julien.890.... 1214. 4. R. After applying conformal mapping to the formulas from the theory of elasticity. 3. The circle I(1 = 1 corresponds to the ellipse with center at the origin and semi-axes a = R(I l-m).N. D. Despax. These latter points will occupy some region S within the z plane. Rocky Mountain Regional/Low PermeabilityReservoirsSymposium.P. r 2. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Martin.. Ph. R. Timoshenko. Martin. Charlez. Despax. Seleh. Jan. corresponds to some definite point of E by the equation above. From the above equations. L.. Theory of Elasticity. Stockholm. 1987. Copland. Sep. B. and Char!ez. the displacementat a point f can be expressed as follows: 897 . Lin.: “The Fracmeter: A New Numerical method to Evaluate the State of Stress and the Elastic Properties of Rocks. Seleh. 1986. The ellipticalhole withinthe z plane can be transformed to a circular hole within the t plane. K.Denver Corolado.: “A New Way to Determine the State of Stress and the Elastic Properties of Rock Massive. and regional trends. Kuhlman. an acoustic scanning tool.673. All cycles from any one test have aIways indicated very good consistency in the azimuth angle (within a few degrees of one another). Conformal Marming Let z and J’be two complex variables such that z = w(f) where u(~) is a single-vahredanalytic function in some region. V. It then can be said that the above equationdeterminesan invertiblesingle-valued conformal transformation or conformal mapping of the region S into the region E (or vise-versa).” United States Patent 4. 2... Gueuret. T.” Proceedingsof the International Symposium on Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements. the azimuthsobtainedfrom a microfrac core sample retrieved after the microfrac test. M. 8. and Barrington.: “Geomechanical Probe for a Drilling Well. let it be assumed that each point z within the region S. 7-10. the area surrounding the elliptical hole maps to the region E which is Irl >1.: “Geomechanical Probe for a Drilling Well.625. 1987. G. H. Apr. The conformal mapping of the elliptical hole is z = u(() = F?({ + ~) { (A-1) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank the management of Halliburton Services for permission to publish this paper.800.. Heemstra. P. F. P. b = R(l-m) 6. Despax.. REFERENCES 1..” SPE 25905. Q.. Detailsof these subjects can be found in references 6 and 7. This is a very close approximationto the pressurizing of a wellbore. 31. D.753. is a complex function and can be expressed as ( = p# (A-3) Plane Theorv of Elasticity The conformal mapping of the basic formulas of linear elasticity is required to solve this problem.” United States Patent 4. The above equation relates every point j’of Z to some definite point z within the z plane.SPE 26600 PENG LIN AND TOMMY G. M. 1986... N. J. R and m become a+b R=-— 2’ ~. Only a brief explanation is given here.: “Well Bore Measurement Tool. Linear Elastic Disdacement of an Ellimic Hole subiected to Uniform Internal Pressure The material in this appendix gives the derivation for the displacement field around an elliptical hole subjected to uniform internal pressure in an infiniteplate.: “Field Tests of Downhole 13xtensometer sed To Obtain Formation In-Situ Stress U Data. T. 1989. S. 313-322. Muskhelishvili. A. K. and Gueuret. 3rd edition. D. D. and Goodier. 1-3. Dec.” United States Patent 4.

p = 1.+2! (A-6) where AP = change in pressure e = angle between line oz and the a axis @lg.x) + mpze’zo . 2) (A-7) Di5t)laCementS round An Elliotic Hole A The formulas for calculating the displacementsaround an elliptically shaped hole within an infinite plate was derived above.2mcos20 + m2 The modulus of w’(~)is: ~ Idol R = -j [P 4 .X) . The derivative of w(~) is (.P2(1 + m?] 4P4 .2p2mcos20 + m2 (A-15) $({) .: 8 A NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE IN-SITU STRESS DIRECTIONS AND IN-SITU FORMATIONROCK PROPERTIESDURING A MICROFRACTEST SPE 26600 (A-4) By separating the real and imaginary part of the equation above.2m COS20+ m2 The conjugate of to’(t) is ~ = R(l .X)msMEi ~p4 .~ e*2~ P2 (A-1O) The conjugate of o’(~) is R)= The conjugate of #’(~) is *’(C)=-APRpe~e AP R m ejze P2 (A-n) (1 + m2)(p2 .2p2m cos26 + m2]2 (A-9) U.x)m sh2Et 41 .AP R P 2G p mpz(l + X)COS2L3 m2(l .— P (A-13) [mxp2e-i26 + m2(l .(1 + xm2) up = -— 2G ~1 . .2p2m cos20 + m2 898 .!+({) = R(l . = -AP R (1 .2p2mcos20 + mi (A-14) where (A-5) b U. A-5 through A-12 into Eq. the displacementscan be further simplified as follows: and x = 3 -4P (v is Poisson’s ratio). the displacemerm$ the direction of P and d (u. the components UPand U8of the displacements in terms of the curvilinear coordinates are AP Rx 2G(uP + fue) = -. A-4. and UO) an be in c determined as follows: ~ -. = -APRp (1 .a.+e -’26) P (A-8) LP R m(l + x)cos20 .p2(l + m? + dP4 .me ‘12e) (A-12) P4 ._ At”the boundary of the elliptic hole.2p2mcbs20 + m2 By substituting Eq.

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