i ii xi xiv xvi xvii xviii xiv




1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Background----------------------------------------------------------------TQM Initiatives in Pakistan-----------------------------------------------

1 1

Growth of Services Sector in Pakistan----------------------------------- 4 Overview of Pakistan Telecom Sector----------------------------------- 5 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 Teledensity in Pakistan------------------------------------------Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan-------------------------5 7

Telecom Sector Share in GDP-------------------------------------- 7 Telecom Sector Revenues------------------------------------------- 7

iii 1.5 Cellular Mobile Telephone Industry-------------------------------------- 11 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.6 Cellular Mobile Telephone Penetration------------------------- 12 Cellular Mobile Telephone Franchises--------------------------- 12

Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators (CMTOs) in Pakistan---------- 12 1.6.1 Market Share of Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators------- 17

1.7. 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12

Manufacturing Facilities in Telecom Sector------------------------------ 18 Background of the Study---------------------------------------------------- 20 Purpose of the Study--------------------------------------------------------- 22 Significance of the Study---------------------------------------------------- 23 Research Questions---------------------------------------------------------- 24 Definition of Terms---------------------------------------------------------- 24 1.12.1 Total Quality Management---------------------------------------- 24 1.12.2 Visionary Leadership----------------------------------------------- 25 1.12.3 Internal and External Cooperation-------------------------------- 25 1.12.4. Learning-------------------------------------------------------------- 25 1.12.5 Process Management----------------------------------------------- 25 1.12.6. Continuous Improvement------------------------------------------ 26 1.12.7. Employee Fulfillment---------------------------------------------- 26 1.12.8. Customer Satisfaction---------------------------------------------- 26


Research Limitations------------------------------------------------------- 26


LITERATURE REVIEW----------------------------------------------------------- 28

iv 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Services ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 28 Service Quality-------------------------------------------------------------- 29 Service Quality Dimensions---------------------------------------------- 30 Quality of Service Dimensions – Mobile Phone Customers’ Perspective------------------------------------------------------------------ 32 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 Total Quality Management----------------------------------------------- 41 Evolution of TQM--------------------------------------------------------- 44 Principles of TQM -------------------------------------------------------- 46 Impact of TQM on Business Performance ---------------------------- 48 TQM Tools----------------------------------------------------------------- 49 Outcome of TQM Initiatives in Pakistan------------------------------ 50 Essentials Factors of TQM (TQM Practices)------------------------- 55 TQM Perspectives--------------------------------------------------------- 57 2.12.1 Quality Pioneers’ Perspectives---------------------------------- 57 2.13. 2.14. W. Edward Deming ---------------------------- 58 Joseph M. Juran --------------------------------- 59 Philips B. Crosby ------------------------------- 60 Armanand, V. Feigenbaum -------------------- 61 Karou Ishikawa --------------------------------- 62

Common Themes of Quality Pioneers’ Perspectives----------------- 62 Quality Award Models---------------------------------------------------- 64

v 2.14.1 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA)------ 64 2.14.2 European Quality Award (European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Model--------------------------- 66 2.14.3 Deming Prize------------------------------------------------------- 67 2.14.4. Australian Quality Criteria Framework------------------------- 68 2.14.5. Pakistan National Quality Award (PNQA)--------------------- 68 2.15. 2.16. 2.17. Analysis of Quality Award Models-------------------------------------- 70 TQM – A Cultural Intervention----------------------------------------- 71 Human Resources Management (HRM) – Enabler of Total Quality Management Practices------------------------------------------ 75 2.18. 2.19. 2.20. 2.21. Benchmarking------------------------------------------------------------- 77 Self Assessment Frameworks------------------------------------------- 80 TQM Practices in Telecommunication Industries-------------------- 81 TQM Practices in Contemporary Mobile Phone Companies in the World------------------------------------------------------------------- 82 2.21.1 Verizon Wireless (Verizon) United States-------------------- 82 2.21.2. Vodafone United Kingdom (UK)----------------------------- 84 2.21.3. Deutsche Telekom Europe------------------------------------- 86 2.21.4. SingTel Optus Pty Limited (Optus) Australia--------------- 89 2.21.5. China Mobile Communications Corporation ( China Mobile)-------------------------------------------------- 92 2.21.6. Mobile Tele Systems (MTS) Russia-------------------------- 94

vi 2.21.7. Telecom Italia Mobile Italy------------------------------------ 96 2.21.8. Slovak Telekom Slovakia-------------------------------------- 97 2.21.9. Mobile Telephone Networks (MTN) South Africa--------- 99 2.21.10. France Telecom------------------------------------------------ 100 2.21.11. Bharti Airtel India--------------------------------------------- 102 2.21.12. Sprint Nextel Corporation (SPRINT) United States------ 104 2.21.13. Telefonica S.A. (Telefonica) Spain------------------------- 105 2.21.14. Telenor Denmark---------------------------------------------- 107 2.21.15. TeliaSonera AB – Sweden and Finland-------------------- 108 2.21.16. AT&T Mobility – United States---------------------------- 110 2.21.17. Telecom Corporation New Zealand------------------------ 111 2.21.18. NTT DoCoMo Japan----------------------------------------- 112 2.22. 2.23. Barriers in Planning and Implementing TQM Practices----------- 113 Deming Management Method----------------------------------------- 116 2.23.1. Deming’s 14 Points--------------------------------------------- 117 2.23.2 Seven Deadly Diseases----------------------------------------- 118 2.23.3 Obstacles--------------------------------------------------------- 121 2.23.4 Propositions------------------------------------------------------ 122 2.23.5 Deming Cycle---------------------------------------------------- 123 2.24. 2.25. Theoretical Framework-------------------------------------------------- 125 Development of Hypotheses-------------------------------------------- 130 2.25.1. Visionary Leadership------------------------------------------- 130 2.25.2. Internal Cooperation (Employees Collaboration) ---------- 133

vii 2.25.3. External Cooperation (Suppliers Relationship)------------- 133 2.25.3. Learning---------------------------------------------------------- 136 2.25.4. Process Management------------------------------------------- 138 2.25.5. Continuous Improvement-------------------------------------- 140 2.25.6. Employee Fulfillment------------------------------------------ 143 2.25.7. Customer Satisfaction------------------------------------------ 148 2.26 Hypotheses---------------------------------------------------------------- 151


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY--------------------------------------------3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 Research Approach and Design------------------------------------Instrument Development--------------------------------------------Items Measuring Variables----------------------------------------Population and Participants-----------------------------------------Content Validity-----------------------------------------------------Construct Validity---------------------------------------------------Pilot Testing ---------------------------------------------------------Data Collection Methods-------------------------------------------Tests for Data Analysis---------------------------------------------Ethical Considerations---------------------------------------------

158 158 159 160 167 167 169 169 172 173 173


DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION----------------4.1 Data Preparation----------------------------------------------------

175 175

1.6. 5and 6--------------------------4.3.4. Assumptions of Outliers----------------------------------4. Assumption of Normality in Data----------------------- 5 and 6---------------------------------------------4.5. Assumption of Independence of Observations-------- 4.3 Testing of Hypotheses 3. Assumption of Linearity----------------------------------4.5 Testing of Hypothesis 7--------------------------------4. Assumption of Multicollinearity and Singularity-----4.1 Testing of Hypothesis 1---------------------------------4.4 4. ---------------------------------- 229 231 Testing of Hypothesis 4.7. Multiple Regression Analysis for Hypotheses 4.4.2 Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 1------175 182 184 189 191 191 191 193 193 193 215 219 219 221 223 225 227 Testing of Hypothesis 2----------------------------------- 4. Assumption of Homoscedasticity-----------------------4.6 Demographic Analysis-------------------------------------------Descriptive Analysis----------------------------------------------Confirmatory Factor Analysis-----------------------------------Internal Consistency ---------------------------------------------Underlying Assumptions for Multiple Regression Analysis4. Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 7----- 233 235 237 .1. ---------------------------------4.7 Hypotheses Testing ----------------------------------------------4.3 Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 2 ------- 4. Regression Analysis for Hypotheses 4.7.2

7.7.7. Analysis and Discussion of Results-----------------------------4.11. Multiple Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 8----------------------------- Visionary Leadership----------------------------------- 4.7. Lack of Planning for Quality-------------------------4.4. Inadequate Resources for TQM----------------------4.11. Testing of Hypotheses 9 and 10-------------------4.12.4 Learning--------------------------------------------------262 262 263 263 264 264 270 272 273 274 260 247 255 258 245 241 243 239 .11 Analysis of Total.9 4. Testing of Hypothesis 8----------------------------4.5.7. Lack of Customer Focus------------------------------- Direct and Indirect Effects-----------------Summary of Hypotheses Testing-------------------------------Barriers in Planning and Implementing TQM Practices in CMTOs -----------------------------------------------------4.1 Multiple Regression Analysis for Hypotheses 9 and 10 4.3 External Cooperation -----------------------------------4.8 Path Analytical Results of Deming Management Method Model----------------------------------------------------- Inadequate Human Resource Development and Management---------------------------------------------4.12.ix 4.2 Internal Cooperation-------------------------------------4. Lack of Leadership for Quality-----------------------4.1.

1 Conclusions of the Study---------------------------.9 Barriers in Planning and Implementing TQM Practices in CMTOs ---------------------------------280 275 277 278 279 5.-----APPENDIXES--------------------------------------------------------------------Appendix A.12.--------------5.8 Customer Satisfaction---------------------------------4.3 Future Research-----------------------------------------------------281 285 291 REFERENCES ------------------------------------------------------------. Cook’s Distance and Centered Leverage of All Variables------------------------------------------------------------------- 294 345 345 350 .12.7 Employee Fulfillment---------------------------------4.5 Process Management-----------------------------------4.6 Continuous Improvement-----------------------------4.12.2 Recommendations---------------------------------------------------5.x 4.12.12. Survey Questionnaire-----------------------------------Appendix B. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.

Table 13. Table 2. Table 7. Table 14. Table 3. Table 16. Table 5. and Intercorrelations for Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and Internal Cooperation (Dependent Variable) 220 . Table 9. Table 11. Table 12. Mean. Standard Deviation.xi LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Internal Reliability of Scales Descriptive Analysis of all Variables Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis Reliability of Scales (Internal Consistency) Assumption – Multiple Regressions Analysis of Independence of Observations Table 15. Table 4. Table 8.2008 Foreign Direct Investment in Telecom Sector Telecom Sector Share in GDP Revenue of Telecom Sector Cellular Mobile Telephone Growth Growth % of Cellular Mobile Telephone Subscribers Cellular Mobile Telephone Penetration Cellular Mobile Telephone Franchises Percentage of Market Share of Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators (CMTOs) Table 10. Teledensity in Pakistan 1998 . Table 6. Correlation Matrix 217 19 171 183 185 190 192 6 8 9 10 13 14 15 16 Assumption of Multicollinearity and Singularity – Multicollinearity 218 Diagnostics Table 17.

Standard Deviation. Regression Analysis Summary for the Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and External Cooperation (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Table 21.xii Table 18. Standard Deviation. External Cooperation and Learning (Independent Variables) and Process Management (Dependent Variable) Table 24. External Cooperation and Learning (Independent Variables) and Process Management (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) 234 232 230 228 226 224 222 . and Intercorrelations for Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and Learning (Dependent Variable) ( N=290) Table 22. and Intercorrelations for Internal Coopertion. Regression Analysis Summary for the Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and Internal Cooperation (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Table 19. Mean. Multiple Regression Analysis Summary for the Internal Cooperation. Standard Deviation. and Intercorrelations for Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and External Cooperation (Dependent Variable) Table 20. Mean. Mean. Regression Analysis Summary for the Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and Learning (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Table 23.

Table 33.xiii Table 25. Results of Path Analysis Direct and Indirect Effects for Path Diagram Summary of Hypotheses Testing (H1 to H8) Results Barriers in Planning and Implementing TQM Practices Cook’s Distance and Centered Leverage for all Variables 249 256 259 261 350 246 244 242 240 238 236 . and Intercorrelations for Process Management (Independent Variable) and Employee Fulfillment (Dependent Variable) Table 28. Table 35. Table 34. Mean. and Intercorrelations for Continuous Improvement / Employee Fulfillment (Independent Variables) and Customer Satisfaction (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Table 30. Regression Analysis Summary for the Process Management (Independent Variable) and Continuous Improvement (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Table 27. Multiple Regression Analysis Summary for the Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment (Independent Variables) and Customer Satisfaction (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Table 31. Mean. and Intercorrelations for Process Management (Independent Variable) and Continuous Improvement (Dependent Variable (N = 290) Table 26. Mean. Standard Deviation. Standard Deviation. Standard Deviation. Regression Analysis Summary for the Process Management (Independent Variable) and Employee Fulfillment (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Table 29. Table 32.

Figure 8. Figure 10 Scatter Plot for Visionary Leadership and Internal Cooperation Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Visionary Leadership versus External Cooperation. External Cooperation and Learning versus Process Management 202 204 . Scatter Plot for Visionary Leadership and External Cooperation 199 Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Visionary 201 Leadership versus Learning Figure 13. Figure 2. Deming’s 14 Points. Figure 6. Management Position Wise Response Rate Functional Area Wise Response Rate Experience Wise Response Rate Organization Wise Response Rate Normal P-Plot of Regression Residuals for Visionary Leadership versus Internal Cooperation 177 178 179 181 159 Figure 9. Figure 5. Figure 12. 196 Figure 11.xiv LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. A path diagram representation of the theory underlying Deming Management Method 129 Figure 4. Figure 14. Seven Deadly Diseases and Obstacles Theory of Quality Management Underlying the Deming Management Method 120 127 Figure 3. Figure 7. Scatter Plot for Visionary Leadership and Learning Normal P Plot of Regression Residuals for Internal Customer.

xv Figure 15. Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Process Management versus Continuous Improvement Figure 17. Scatter Plot for Process Management versus Employee Fulfillment Figure 20. Scatter Plot for Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment versus Customer Satisfaction Figure 22. Scatter Plot for Process Management versus Continuous Improvement Figure 18. Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment versus Customer Satisfaction Figure 21. Path Analytic Results of the Deming Management Method Model 248 214 213 211 210 208 207 205 . Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Process Management versus Employee Fulfillment Figure 19. External Cooperation and Learning versus Process Management Figure 16. Scatter Plot for Internal Cooperation.

Survey Questionnaire 345 Appendix B.xvi LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix A. Cook’s Distance and Centered Leverage of All Variables 350 .

xvii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS APL APO CMTOs CPP CTI CVI DV EFQM FDI FRM GDP IV JUSE MBNQA PIQC PNQA PTA QFD QMS SIM TELECOM TIP TQM VIF ZTE Alcatel Pakistan Limited Asian Productivity Organization Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators Calling Pay Party Carrier Telephone Industry of Pakistan Content Validity Index Dependent Variable European Foundation for Quality Management Foreign Direct Investment Human Resource Management Gross Domestic Product Independent Variable Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Pakistan Institute of Quality Control Pakistan National Quality Award Pakistan Telecommunication Authority Quality Functional Deployment Quality Management Systems Subscriber Identity Module Telecommunication Telephone Industry of Pakistan Total Quality Management Variance Inflation Factor Zhongxing Telecom Pakistan .

I thank Allah Almighty for His blessings and bounties and pray to grant me knowledge and enable me to make a humble contribution to the existing knowledge. I could not have accomplished this project.xviii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My truthful thanks to Allah Almighty for His benevolence and guidance in granting me strength and fortitude to complete this work. His influences and ideas are spread all around in this thesis. Rashid Ahmad Khan for his support and guidance during the last four years. My sincere thanks to my supervisor. Zahid Ali Khan. The fond memories of the stay at the University provided refreshing and intellectually stimulating environments and experience to complete this thesis. He has been a great mentor as well as advisor. I am deeply indebted to his guidance. His care and concern about my work always energized me. My special thanks to Mr. Hassan Afzal in facilitating my work. inspiration and encouragement. Dr. I pay tribute to him for his enlightenment he bestowed on me. Aameen! . His enthusiasm and reverence always have made great impact on me. I also thank the administration of National University of Modern Language for providing required support whenever I needed. who provided me enabling environments to complete my work. Khushnood and Mr. I would like to extend my appreciation to Mr. Once again. Without His support.

I love and respect you.xix DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to my wife Bushra for her endless love. and my sons Umair. support and the sacrifices she made. Samit and Enmad for their moral support and care without whose patience and encouragement this research would not have been completed. . I am forever thankful to Allah Almighty that I have these people in my life.

9) noted that: . firm’s reputation. The changing environment has generated opportunities as well as challenges for business to survive. the survival of organizations depends on pursuing a quality strategy. 1999. profitability. communication. Globalization. Zhang. intense competition and removal of trade barriers have created dynamic and uncertain environment for organizations.1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. economic and socio-cultural environment are affecting business. Asian Productivity Organization . Hoffman and Sinas (2001) affirmed TQM as a management philosophy and predicted it as a strategy for next millennium. Mehra. environmental impact.APO (1998. 1995. 2000). new technology. According to Mohanty and Lakhe (2002).1 Background The rapid changes in political. there had not been an integrated approach at national level till 2003. 1. cultural change. competitive markets. increasing level of quality. 1999. p. Terziovski & Samson. Powell. government rules and regulations. workforce diversification and information management.2 TQM Initiatives in Pakistan The success of quality initiatives needs strategic orientation at the national level. The philosophy of Total Quality Management (TQM) enables organizations to achieve superior performance and competitiveness (Anderson & Sohal. however. Dedhia (1995) identified these challenges as changing customers. In case of Pakistan.

2007. 2003. the Government of Pakistan formulated a national quality policy and planned to meet the global challenges for sustainable development of industries and the protection of consumers. 2003. 2000. Khan. 2003. Hashmi. Preliminary work on the formulation of Pakistan National Quality Award (PNQA) was initiated by the Government of Pakistan through National Productivity Organization. 2000. Moosa. Jan. however. According to APO (1998). 2005. 2004. Sajid. Warsi. during . 1999). 2005). 2000. Murad. Rashid. 2002. In 2004. 2002. Khan & Khan. 2006). Shaikh. 2005. The first stream dealt with conceptual aspects of total quality management as a new paradigm in changing global environment (Khan. Mehdi. The third stream investigated the use of quality tools in individual firms (Amjad. Qureshi. 2002. 1999. b. 2006. 2001. there has still not been any breakthrough at the national level. 2003. visionary companies in Pakistan initiated individual efforts to pursue this new philosophy for sustainability. Chaudhry & Rehman. The study of literature review indicated three streams of published articles on total quality management in Pakistan. 2007. Khan & Aziz. Khan. Some quality experts and researchers also focused on quality dimensions in educational institutions (Ali. The second stream reported the individual firm’s experience in implementing total quality management or some of its fundamentals (Abbasi. 1997. Khan. Khan. While the level of awareness about quality is increasing in the country. Manzoor. Mustafa. Ahmed.2 Although the quality of products and services is a key indicator of a country’s socioeconomic prosperity. 1999. Saeed. 2003. Hussainy. Moosa. the quality movement in Pakistan is not integrated at the national level. Asian Productivity Organization (APO) organized a national research on implementing quality management practices in the firms in Asia and Pacific. Shahid. 2003. With emergence of total quality management philosophy. 2000a. 2002). 2002.

used ethnographic (external observation) method. The response rate was 60%. 1998.continuous quality improvement. The research studies. Angor Textile Private Limited. under assignments from APO and PIQC. The study was based on eight management schools in Lahore and 100 respondents were selected for interview using stratified random sampling technique. interviews and physical observations (cited in APO.3 1995-96.sized manufacturer of circuit breakers and switches) . used questionnaires. Siddiqui (2000) noted that Deming Cycle provides solution to procedural tribulations in a case study of an agency in the public sector. a medium.sized producer of knitted garments) and one in the service sector ( the Agha Khan University Hospital. Twelve consulting engineers were employed who were qualified Quality Management Systems (QMS) Lead Auditors and Pakistan Institute of Quality Control (PIQC) qualified consultants. quality of management functions. TQM tools and the status of organized . Ahmed (2000) discussed the framework and the implementation experience of Global Corporate & Investment Banking business of Citibank. human resource development. Moosa (2000 b) identified common attributes of the quality culture in Pakistani organizations. The research instrument was based on 18 variables. a national research was undertaken in three Pakistani organizations. Khan (2000). two in manufacturing (AEG Pakistan Private Limited. done in 1999. technological status. a large full-service hospital). under assignment from Pakistan Institute of Quality Control (PIQC). Twenty manufacturing companies from diverse industries were studied. Pakistan in embedding the total quality initiative. Bhatti (2006) studied the TQM culture in education sector. p. a medium. noted the methodology of total quality management initiatives based on four major steps of study. The study. quality assurance. implement and review. plan. 35). Moosa (1998) carried out survey of five reputable quality-conscious Pakistani companies (four were in the mechanical field and one in cargo handling). The survey was based on seven aspects comprising organizational behaviour. in a case study of an engineering company.

3 Growth of Services Sector in Pakistan The importance of services sector to Pakistan’s economy has substantially increased over the last 30 years whereby the share of services in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has gone up from 38. introduced total quality management in its operations. State Bank of Pakistan (SBP 2007) noted that the share of the services sector in GDP rose to a new high of 53.6% in 2005-06 and by 8. Economic Survey of Pakistan 2006-2007 indicated the growth of service sector by 8. Little research has been conducted in this field in other services. the main focus has been in the field of education covering selected educational institutions. one consumers’ products. Pakistan State Oil (PSO. Mehnaz and Ejaz (2006 b) also studied the quality management in Pakistan Bedwear Industry. A comprehensive review of literature indicated that the research on TQM in Pakistan has been focused primarily on individual firms especially in the manufacturing sectors.5% in 2004-05. in a case study of Pakistan Knitwear Industry. which is progressing at a galloping pace. two engineering goods. by 9.4 TQM programmes or processes. .0% in 2006-07.07 (Siddiqui & Saleem 2008). however. one pharmaceutical and one automotive. did not cover the service sector and the author identified it as one of the limitations. The companies studied included one textile. 2007). found that quality management had a concentration in inspection mode. 1. a state owned company. Mehnaz and Ejaz (2006 a). however.3% during financial year 2007. especially in the Telecommunication (Telecom) Sector. Khan (2000) carried out study of six successful implementations of TQM initiatives in Pakistani companies. The author identified that generally two approaches (revolutionary and evolutionary) were used by successful Pakistani companies.3% in 2006. This research.4% in 1969-70 to almost 53. In service sector.

the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) to oversee the sector.5 During financial year 2008. . hence the country was not able to keep pace with the galloping developments in the field of telecommunication.4.1. the service sector contributed 53. The slow response to the development resulted in a digital divide and Pakistan remained far behind its neighbours and other comparable countries in terms of telecom access. The promulgation of the Telecommunication (Reorganization) Act in 1996 laid the foundation for the development of Telecom Sector. Teledensity in Pakistan Teledensity in Pakistan has improved manifolds with opening up of Telecom Sector for private investment in the country. The government established a quasi-independent regulator. Table 1 shows the growth of Teledensity in Pakistan over the last 12 years. However. This sector was declared as an industry in 2005.4 OVERVIEW OF PAKISTAN TELECOM SECTOR It has been established that a sound infrastructure in the Telecom Sector is vital for sustainable economic growth of a country. This was due to the availability of choices of mobile and Wireless Local Loop (WLL) services to the customers. Telecom Sector is the major contributor in the Services in Pakistan. The advancement in telecom services was far greater than the developments undertaken by the state. There had been a gradual decline in teledensity of fixed line. 1. The total teledensity of the country reached around 12% in year 2004-5. The announcement of Deregulation Policy in 2000 ushered a new era in the development of Telecom Sector. this sector remained a monopoly for a very long time. Since independence. 1. this jump was much bigger in 2006-07.2% in GDP (SBP 2008). The teledensity jumped from 26% in 2005-06 to 58.8% in 2007-08.

28 2.50 2.31 6.15 0.40 1.60 3.80 59.90 54.30 2.96 1.14 2.13 22.43 3.50 2.80 0.24 45.90 26.52 11.30 0.11 2.70 55.70 2.2 40.22 0.66 1.60 Source: Adapted from PTA (2007).20 1.06 2.80 3.04 2.30 8.04 58.40 2.94 3.99 2. PTA (2008) .17 0.52 1.18 2.66 4.69 2.19 0.10 0.37 3.08 1.6 Table 1 Teledensity in Pakistan 1996 – 2008 Year Fixed (%) Cellular (%) WLL (%) Total (%) 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Dec 08 1.

the revenues of telecom companies have shot up.4. During 2007-08. Table 2 shows the contribution of FDI in this sector. the services sector contribution to the real GDP of the country was reported at 73% compared to 58% in 2006-07(Economic Survey 2007-08).6 billion FDI since 2002-3 (PTA 2008). Table 3 shows the share of Telecom Sector in the GDP of the country. This development has created employment opportunities in Pakistan. Table 4 shows the revenues of telecom sector since 2003.6% in 2000-01 to 2% in 2007. lower tariffs and vast coverage of cellular mobile and WLL operators. cellular and WLL reached 59. Cellular Mobile Sector share in total telecom revenue was about 57% in 2006-07 which was just 24% four years earlier. Total Mobile Sector revenues had . this increase is over 100% if compared with revenues of 2003-04. 1.2 Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan There has been a steady flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Telecom Sector in Pakistan since 2002. The sector ranked second as major recipient of FDI in the country. The percentage share has risen from 1.4 billion FDI was made in Telecom Sector of Pakistan (SBP 2008). Over US$ one billion investment is expected in this sector during 2009. In 2007-08. Total revenues of telecom sector in 2006-07 grew by about 21% compared to the last year. is the largest contributor in the composition of GDP. However.4. 1.4 Revenues of Telecom Sector Due to substantial increase in the telecom traffic.3 Telecom Sector Share in GDP Service sector of Pakistan’s economy. It has attracted more than US $ 5.4.7 The total teledensity of fixed. There has been a gradual increase of telecom share in the GDP. 1. a sum of US $1. telecom being part of it.60 in December 2008 (PTA 2008). The sector has enormous potential for growth and remains lucrative for foreign investors.

8 32.1 35.00 Source: Adapted from PTA (2008).5 21.8 Table 2 Foreign Direct Investment in Telecom Sector Year % Share 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 July . SBP (2008) .4 54.6 27.9 31.December 2008 13.

6 1. PTA (2008).7 1.9 Table 3 Telecom Sector Share in GDP Year % Share 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2006-07 2007-08 1.6 1.0 2.7 1.9 2. SBP (2008) . PTA (2007).1 Source: Adapted from Economic Survey of Pakistan (2007-8).

5613 27.4226 19.6827 14.200 11.8459 23.1000 Source: Adapted from PTA (2008). Federal Board of Revenue (2008) .10 Table 4 Revenues of Telecom Sector Year Rupees in Billion 2003 2004 2005 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 July – December 2008 10.4562 23.

Growth of cellular subscribers has declined by all major companies (PTA 2008). PTA (2006) indicated that Pakistan has been experiencing more than 150% continuous growth rate for years 2003-04 to 2005 -06. the sector has witnessed phenomenal growth during the last 18 years. 154% in 2004-2005 and had crossed 170% in 2005-06. The report noted that there were 36. The total subscribers crossed 88 million at the end of 2007-08 (PTA 2008). decreased during the second half of 2008 due to negative impact of increase in taxes. 1. which is evident from Table 6. the net addition was more than 27 million increasing average addition to 2. In 2004. Total subscribers growth has been reported 40% in 2007-08. Pakistan Mobile industry has been witnessing increasing net addition to total subscriber base for last five years. however. Despite impressive addition of cellular subscribers by Operators during 2007-08. This decline has been attributed to the imposition of additional taxes by the government.75 million average addition per month whereas in 2007.8 million subscribers in the country showing subscribers’ growth rate of 109% in 2003-04. rising costs .11 increased by 378% during the last four years (PTA 2007). The revenues.3 million per month (PTA 2007). As a result of prudent policies of the government. the net addition was more than 21 million in one year showing 1. During 2008. This tremendous growth is attributed to many internal and external factors starting from deregulation down to implementation of Mobile Number Portability to the Calling Party Pay (CPP) Regime which made the incoming calls free.5 Cellular Mobile Telephone Industry The mobile service was introduced in Pakistan in 1990. Generally. which has declined from 82% in the year 2006-07. Cellular Mobile market could not maintain its growth pattern of the last 3-4 years. all companies together added 25 million subscribers to their net (PTA 2008). the growth of subscribers has declined considerably in 2007-08. Table 5 highlights the impressive growth over the years.

679 which were 1.1 Cellular Mobile Telephone Penetration Since 2003 the mobile penetration in the country has been increasing from 1.6 CELLULAR MOBILE TELEPHONE OPERATORS (CMTOs) IN PAKISTAN Presently six cellular mobile telephone operators are operating in Pakistan. all are subsidiary of multinationals corporations.6% (PTA 2003) to 40. 1.2 Cellular Mobile Telephone Franchises Despite aggressive cellular subscriber growth. By end 2007-8. Table 7 shows the cellular penetration since 2002. Mobilink GSM (PMCL).7 % which is 15. Maximum penetration of mobile services is in Sindh and Punjab Provinces because of higher business activity. Other reason could be that expansion is going on in unpopulated areas where CMTOs had already allotted franchises. In five years the penetration grew at an average rate of more than 100%. franchises increased normally at 3%.5.12 of the service and overall economic situation which has affected the consumption pattern of the customers. During the year 2007-08. With the exception of one operator. a subsidiary of Orascom Telecom.1% PTA (2007). 1. Presently it has 28 million .3 % higher than the last year. higher literacy rate. One reason for this slow growth could be the closure of some franchises by PTA on account of their involvement in unauthorized sale of Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs) which was causing problem of law and order in the country.5. the cellular mobile penetration had reached 54. started its operations in 1994. easy terrain for network roll out and densely populated areas. total CMTOs franchises increased to 1. 1. Table 8 shows the growth of franchises of CMTOs.619 the previous year.

23 1.265 .06 .90 89.742 1.90 5.196 . PTA (2008) .306 .90 Source: Adapted from PTA (2005).40 62.70 34.13 Table 5 Cellular Mobile Telephone Growth Year Subscribers in Million 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-0 2000-01 2001-02 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 .00 12.135 .

14 Table 6 Growth (%) of Cellular Mobile Telephone Subscribers Year % Growth 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 142 129 42 109 154 170 82 40 Source: Adapted from PTA (2008) .

7 39.15 Table 7 Cellular Mobile Telephone Penetration Year % Penetration 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1.4 55.6 2.3 23.6 Source: Adapted from PTA (2008) .3 8.4 3.

16 Table 8 Cellular Mobile Telephone Franchises Year Numbers of Franchises 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 618 984 1202 1619 1686 Source: Adapted from PTA (2008) .

17 subscribers. It has 31.7 % of the market share and covers over 10,000 destinations having 449 franchises and 7805 cell sites (PTA 2008). Ufone GSM is a subsidiary of Pakistan Telecommunication Company. On account of privatization, 26% of its shares were acquired by Emirates Telecommunication Corporation (Etisalat). The Company has a market share of 21.5%, covers 277 cities with 361 franchises and 4314 cell sites (PTA 2008). Telenor Pakistan is a subsidiary of Telenor Sweden. The company launched its operations in March 2005. It has over 19 millions subscribers. Its market share is 21.6%, covers 1146 destinations, and has 239 franchises and 5998 cell sites (PTA 2008). Warid is operated by Abu Dhabi Group. Warid started its services in Pakistan in May 2005. It has over 16 million subscribers. The company has market share of 18.8 % with coverage to 117 destinations, having 285 franchises and 4047 cell sites (PTA 2008). China Mobile Pakistan (CM Pak) entered telecom sector in January 2007, after its acquisition of Paktel from Millicom Corporation. Presently it has a market share of 6.1% covers 291 destinations, has 164 franchises and 3925 cell sites (PTA 2008). Instaphone started its operations in 1990. Its market share is 0.4%. The company covers 73 destinations, has 235 franchises and 211 cell sites (PTA 2008). 1.6.1 Market Share of Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators (CMTOs) Market share of CMTOs is considered an important tool to gauge the level of competition in any sector of the economy. Market shares of CMTOs indicate that market is moving towards perfect competition where the share of major operators are declining and new entrants are able to grab more share in the market. Table 9 shows the market share of mobile operators for 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08. Mobilink maintained its market leadership position with 60% of market share while

18 Ufone with a market share of 18% held the second position during 2005-06. During the year 2007-08, Telenor has emerged as fastest growing CMTO which has improved its market share from 17% in 2007 to above 21% slightly higher than Ufone that also has 21.5% market share. On the other hand, the leading mobile operator, Mobilink is rapidly losing its significant market power place and its share has declined to 31.7% in 2008. This is attributed to tough competition and quality of service differentiation from its competitors. CM Pak is also growing very fast and it has added over 5 million subscribers, which is an impressive number. During 2008, its share stood at 6.1% and with additional infrastructure in place, the share is likely to go up.


Global telecom equipment manufacturing scenario is dominated by few players including

Ericsson, Nokia, Siemens, Alcatel, Samsung, Lucent, Nortel and Motorola. Pakistan in early years was dependent on imported telecom equipment. In 1990, foreign telecom equipment manufacturers set up their facilities under local joint ventures in Pakistan. Pakistan has a sizeable equipment manufacturing base to meet the requirements of local telecom operators to some extent (PTA 2004). Important manufacturers are Carrier Telephone Industries (CTI), Telephone Industry of Pakistan (TIP), National Radio Telecommunication Corporation, Siemens, Alcatel Pakistan Limited (APL), Zhongxing Telecom Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd (ZTE), Nortel Networks and Ericsson Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd. The demand for telecom equipment including cellular mobile sets has increased over the years due to unprecedented growth of Telecom Sector. During Jul 06-March 07, telecom equipment worth US $ 1.05 billion were imported in the country. There are no indigenous production facilities of mobile phones. The total value of handsets imported in Pakistan during 2005-06 crossed US $ 1 billion and forecasted growth in these imports is 25% annually.

19 Table 9 Percentage of Market Share of Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators (CMTOs)





Mobilink Ufone Telenor Warid Paktel Instaphone CMPak

60% 18% 9% 7% 4% 2% -

39.9% 21% 19% 17.2% 0.4% 2.6%

31.7% 21.5% 21.6% 18.8% 0.4% 6.1%

Source: Adapted from PTA (2005); PTA (2007); PTA (2008)

20 PTA (2007) noted that imports of mobile phone alone have reached US $ 506.2 million during Jul 06- March 07. Imports for Telecom Sector in 2007-08 have declined marginally and stood at US$1.33 billion, which were 4% of the total imports. Imports of cellular mobile handsets reduced significantly by about 33% during the year 2007-08. During July-December 2008, cellular mobile sets worth US $ 88.7 millions were imported. The overall import of Telecom Sector stood at US $ 356 million as compared to US $ 885.1 million in 2007-08. This indicates saturation of the market while imports of the telecom equipment have increased by 31% in the same period on account for competitive environment among CMTOs and their pursuits for expansion of their infrastructure ( PTA 2008). The manufacturing capacity of Telecom Sector in Pakistan is not in a position to meet the growing demands of equipments for CMTOs’ network expansion and other operational requirements and services. Therefore, CMTOs are dependent on foreign suppliers for provisioning of equipment. Following are the main suppliers of CMTOs for technical and operational support: 1. Nokia Siemens Networks Pakistan (Private) Limited. 2. Alcatel- Lucant, Pakistan Limited. 3. Erricsson Pakistan (Private) Limied. 4. Huawei Technologies Company Limited, Pakistan. 5. Zxongxing Telecom Pakistan (Private) Limited. 6. Motorola Pakistan. For administrative support, CMTOs are dependent on reputed local suppliers


The quality of service of Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators (CMTOs) has been the

main concern for the end users. PTA had been carrying out periodic quality of service surveys of

21 these Operators. Till late 2008, the results of these surveys had not been made public. Quality of Service (2002) reported that connectivity and drop calls service of all major cellular service providers were found below the required standards laid down by the regulator. PTA (2003) indicated that as a result of second survey during the period covered under report, the quality of services to telecom consumers was not up to the quality of services standards as per license conditions. A public hearing followed this issue. One CMTO was fined Rupees 60 million and the rest three CMTOs were issued show cause notices as a consequence of their poor quality of service. PTA (2004) concluded that all CMTOs had shown improvement. However, the services were still not up to the satisfactory level of end users and international benchmarks. Quality of Service (2005) quoted PTA Chairman and reported that the Mobile Operators will have to improve quality of service otherwise strict action would be taken against these Operators. PTA (2007, p.27) reported: Seventy percent increase in the overall complaints of the mobile companies. The issue raised by the customers was mainly quality of service which includes issues of dropped calls, busy circuits, and weak signals. Many customers voiced serious concern regarding billing practices, complexity and obscurity in billing procedures, and over charging. During 2008, the survey was carried out to measure network accessibility, service accessibility, access delay, voice quality and short messaging. The results of quality of survey were made public for the first time. According to the survey, the quality of service of CMTOs showed improvement. However, the quality of service stills needs further improvement. All CMTOs have business excellence, meeting and exceeding customers’ satisfaction, exceeding employees’ expectations, continuous improvement, and relationship with stakeholders as core elements of their vision and values (Mobilink Vision & Values, 2007; Ufone Profile,

22 2007; Telenor Values, 2008). During the past five years, there has been significant improvement in Key Performance Indicators of all CMTOs based on revenues, average revenue per user, new subscribers, growth in infrastructure, market share, income before interest/taxes/ depreciation and amortization, and profit after tax. PTA carries out regular quality of service surveys to assess the performance of CMTOs against the benchmark standards as per the license agreements. CMTOs have been fined up to Pakistan Rupees 60 million for failure to meet the required standards of quality of service. In addition 18 franchises had been closed by PTA for violating the instructions for issuing the SIMs (Quality of Service, 2008). However, PTA does not have any leverage on the management of CMTOs. These organizations are committed to provide excellent services to customers to remain competitive in fast growing telecom market. There is, however, a gap between the commitment of CMTOs and its manifestation in tangible dimensions based on the quality of service benchmarks identified by PTA. The failure of Operators to meet quality of service standards is, therefore, a cause of concern for regulators, customers and the organizations. This study has provided an opportunity to examine this gap and furnish an objective assessment about the problem.


The objective of the study is to assess the extent to which the fundamentals of total

quality management are being practiced by CMTOs in Pakistan, identify barriers and to suggest measures for improving their competitiveness by adopting TQM best practices. The study was undertaken to address the lack of empirical findings concerning application of fundamentals of total quality management within Cellular Mobile Industry (CMTOs) in Pakistan in the context of

23 galloping development in the industry. Much of the work on TQM in Pakistan is focused on the manufacturing industries. However, selected case studies of individual firms in different services had been undertaken. The study aims at exploring the application of TQM philosophy based on Deming Management Method in CMTOs and helps identifying problems areas and possible remedies to make these organizations competitive.

Implementation of fundamentals of total quality management has been introduced and practiced in individual firms in Pakistan for quite some time. Empirical evidence of its application in Telecom Industry has not been done. The significant contribution of study includes the following: 1. The study will provide empirical evidence of application of TQM fundamentals based on Deming Management Methods in Cellular Mobile Industry (Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators) in Pakistan. 2. The study will generate information that can be useful for organizational leaders in evaluating TQM practices in their own organizations using Deming Management Method, identify weaknesses and initiate appropriate measures to enhance organizational performance. The results will provide an objective insight to CMTOs to plan necessary course of action to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. 3. The study will be useful to both theoreticians and practicing managers as it will provide insight into the factors that contribute to the competitiveness of service firms in fast growing industry. 4. More generally, however, since TQM is an attempt to bring about organizational change, an appreciation of factors influencing its implementation will be useful in helping managers implement change initiatives with regard to TQM in organizations.

How these organizations can improve their competitiveness by adopting the best TQM practices? 1. 6. What are the barriers that Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators (CMTOs) in Pakistan experience in practicing fundamentals of total quality management based on Deming Management Methods criteria in their organizations? 3. (Brocka & Brocka. The study will provide quality management researchers with evidence of empirical testing of Deming Management Method Model in different cultural context. collaboration with stakeholders and change of organizational culture. This embodies provision of supporting environment based on senior management explicit commitment. The ultimate objective is customer satisfaction.2002). 1992. 1.11 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The study seeks to answer the following questions: To what extent Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators (CMTOs) in Pakistan practice fundamentals of total quality management based on Deming Management Method criteria in their organizations? 2. It is a way to continuously improve performance at every level of operation. developing employees’ competency.24 5.12. . Mohanty & Lakhe. The study will provide the researchers in the field of quality management the information that can be useful in determining needs for further research.1 Total Quality Management TQM philosophy constitutes a new paradigm of management.12 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. in every functional area of organization through integration of people and systems.

(Anderson. Obeng & Ugboro.4 Learning The organizational capability to recognize and nurture the development of its skills. This is exemplified by companywide training. quality in designing. a shared philosophy..5 Process Management Methodical and behavioural practices that focus on planning.1994). educational development.1994. empowerment and development of workforce. and knowledge base. organizing. creates collaborative organization. statistical process control and reduction of variation. foundational knowledge. trust and eliminates fear. 2000). Warner.. abilities. understanding motivation. 1. total cost accounting and stable employment . The internal and external partnership fosters innovation and learning and enhances organizational effectiveness (Anderson et al. . promotes workforce empowerment.3 Internal and External Cooperation The tendency of the organization to promote team milieu with dynamic and flexible boundaries that develops beneficial relationship internally and externally. affect and sustain quality focused organizational change. limiting mass inspection. Rungtusanathan & Schroeder. The main emphasis is on prevention. and managerial learning (Anderson et al.12. social innovation.2 Visionary Leadership Management’s ability to articulate organizational vision. This manifests in strategic thinking. and creating enabling environment to plan.12. collaboration.25 1. process knowledge. continuous self-improvement. 1. 1. implementing and controlling of processes. and value based practices driven by customer focus. elimination of merit-rating reward systems. participative style of management.12.12. 1994. 1999). This relationship increases partnership with suppliers.

1995. 2000). There is a general tendency to inflate the opinion with regard to the questions in the instrument with a view to give good impression of the organization.12.12. 1.. 1994. This manifests in commitment of employees to organizational goals and generates a sense of belonging with the organization. Bensen & Schroeder. Saraph.6 Continuous improvement The efforts of the organization to follow gradual and novel improvement of its products. Kaye & Dyason.7 Employee Fulfillment The extent to which employees believe and experience organizational pursuits in meeting and exceeding their needs.. meeting and exceeding customers’ expectations. al. 1. these may be affected by response biases.1994. Krishnan & Kadir.1994.26 (Anderson et al. 2000. services. Sun. processes and performance. Jha & Michela. Noori. and dedicated to creating satisfied customers consistently (Agus. responsiveness and ability to change to achieve customer satisfaction (Anderson et. This is an ongoing process for organization to achieve flexibility. Obeng & Ugboro. The employees are energized and do their best to achieve superior performance for sustained excellence (Anderson et al. Ishikawa 1985).1996).12. . Since the findings are based on the use of self-reported survey data and semi structured interviews. 2000). The data is based on individual opinion. 1.1989.13 RESEARCH LIMITATIONS The present study has some limitations that offer opportunities for future research.8 Customer Satisfaction The degree to which the organization is customer driven. 1.

it needs to be tested in other industries setting.27 The customer satisfaction data has been obtained from the respondents rather than customers. . both in public and private sectors. In order to establish the generalization of the Model within the context of Pakistan. Since the data is not based on an external measure of this dimension. the responses are likely to be biased and may not provide a realistic evaluation of Customer Satisfaction. Deming Management Method is applied to one industry in this study.

1985). Mills & Margulies 1980). and to be a process rather than a thing (Gronroos. inseparability and heterogeneity. perishability. 1983. changing customers’ preferences and lean manufacturing (contracting out most activities). Chou & Chen 2002). Shostack. Hsieh. The change in demography. The evaluation of service quality is based on customers’ and service providers’ perception of quality (Zeitham. They are primarily intangible (Judd. Services are also considered to be perishable (Regan. fast development of new technologies and computerization. Juran . The service concept has two components. 1977). 1963). The contribution of these people adds value to the quality of products and the firms’ perception in the minds of consumers. Parasuraman. 1964.28 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 SERVICES There has been substantial growth in the services sector during the last two decades. Services have been differentiated from products. & Berry. Services exhibit intangibility. This change created new opportunities and challenges for the firms to remain competitive. Deming (1986) estimated that 44% of people in firms are looking after service functions.1977). This rapid growth has been attributed to changes in environment. Services are simultaneously produced and consumed (Regan. Shostack. 1963. culture and lifestyle had affected the consumption pattern and buying behaviour of people. the degree to which customer needs are satisfied and the added value that the customer receives (Dale 2003.

2001). even though he may seem to buy the product. . p.694) “service quality is an attitude that results from comparison of expected service level from perceived performance. Gammie.” Parasuraman.2 SERVICE QUALITY There has been a significant focus on service quality during the past few decades. p.Guru. Rust & Zahorik (1993. Search properties that can only be done before consumption. 1992). Researchers’ interest in service quality is based on its contribution in reducing costs. Hallowell. 1992. 1996. Newman.42) defined service quality as a “measure of how well the service level delivered matches customer expectations. the service process and the service organization can satisfy the expectations of the user. Peter (1988) explained that customer accords greater priority to the care and responsiveness of the organization than the features of product. 85) gave a suitable definition of service quality as the “extent to which the service. Delivering quality service means conforming to customer expectations on a consistent basis. 2. 1992. p. Customer and not the provider decide the quality of service.29 (1974) observed that main focus of user is the service. Boothe1990). 2003.” They noted the properties of services as follow: 1. 2. Kordupleski. Experience properties that can only be evaluated during or after the consumption.” The consumer evaluation of actual performance with the expected performance results in perceived service quality (Cronin &Taylor. increasing customer loyalty and profitability (Cronin & Taylor. ( 1993. As cited in Johnson and Sirikit. 1989. The customer feelings about the quality are the determinant of customer satisfaction (Bertrand. Berry and Zeithaml (1985.

p. p. Parasuraman et al. 3. p. Customers expect quality service that considers their needs and improves their quality of life.3 SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS These are characteristics of service that are essential to customers and contribute significantly to the evaluation of quality. (1985)identified that the underlying theme of service quality is based on the following: 1. Credence properties that can’t be directly evaluated before or after the consumption. 2.30 3. Hallowell (1996. service quality involves a comparison of customers’ expectations with customers’ perceptions of the actual service performance.30) affirms that “customer satisfaction leads to customer retention. Gronroos (1984) identified three components of service quality namely.45) defined “total quality service as customer satisfaction. Based on examinations of writings of quality experts and researchers. It is difficult for the consumers to assess the service quality as compared to the goods quality. Assessment of service quality is based on the outcome of service as well as the process of service delivery. 2.” According to Geralis and Terziovski (2003).” Kessler (1995.22) defined service quality as the “conformance of services to customer’s specifications. Benet and Brown (1989. Reichheld and Sasser (1995) proposed that loyalty of customer increases with high level of satisfaction. functional quality and the corporate . Cronin and Taylor (1992) stated that service quality leads to customer satisfaction which affects the purchase decision. technical quality.” Berry. A comparison of consumers’ expectations with actual service performance results in perception of quality. Researchers have tried to identify generic attributes that can facilitate evaluation of quality in specific context.

and understanding/ knowing the customers and customization. credibility. These are function. security and knowledge. security. durability. corporate dimension and interactive dimension. tangibles and social responsibility as the most critical factor to determine the service quality (Sureshchandar. Dotchin and Oakland (1994) observed that. . p. Customers view core service. which are tangibles. conformance to specification. conformance.49). features. p. choice and cost as important dimensions of quality. Rajandran & Kamalanabhan. Mattsson (1992) noted humane (pleasant to use). reliability. tangibles. Based on the study of literature review on service quality. 2001). In addition to the focus on the five dimensions incorporated into the SERVQUAL. Zeithaml and Berry (1988) identified some generic dimensions of service quality in a 22-item scale.Garvin (1984) identified perceived quality.which measures service quality based on five dimensions. Garvin (1984) identified eight customer oriented quality dimensions that include performance.125). courtesy. system of delivery. the other dimensions that they proposed are communication. 2002. serviceability and perception (cited in Mohanty & Lakhe. reliability. Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1982) identified three dimensions of quality that include physical dimension. 2002. reliability. aesthetics and perceived quality. serviceability. Stamatis (1997) presented modified version of eight quality dimensions identified by Garvin (1984). They argued that delivery of service and the outcome are vital determinants of service quality (cited in Mohanty & Lakhe. assurance and empathy. Parasuraman. in services that provide much interaction with consumers.31 image. responsiveness. features. serviceability and aesthetics as the determinants of service quality. competence. essential attributes of service quality are competence. the researchers point out that the core dimensions of service quality may be reduced to five general dimensions. delivery. credibility. called ‘Service Quality’ (SERVQUAL).

The rapid growth offers opportunities and challenges for the mobile phone operators. Semeijn & Janssen 2003). Akbar and Pervez (2009) carried out a survey based research of 304 subscribers of a telecommunication company in Bangladesh. The combined loss is estimated to be about $ 5.6 billion in revenues (Ponder. reliability and responsiveness were considered the main dimensions of quality for customer satisfaction. There is strong evidence from Australia. New Zealand and India that organizations suffer economic losses and loss of customers due to poor customer services. 2.2001.Van Riel. Sureshchandar et al. The results found that tangible. empathy. These studies provide insight to the quality dimensions that mobile phone operators need to consider to remain competitive in changing environment. Customers experiences based on quality has assumed decisive role in sustainable competitive advantage for mobile phone operators (Accenture. assurance and empathy( Parasuraman et al. 2009). 2007).2 billion by 2011. There have been numerous studies that investigated the perspective of mobile phone users with regard to the quality aspects.4 QUALITY OF SERVICE DIMENSIONS – MOBILE PHONE CUSTOMERS’ PERSPECTIVE Teril (2009) indicated that world wide mobile phone subscribers would increase to 5.32 reliability. Quality of services from mobile phone users’ perspective need to be studied with a view to facilitate its measurement. assurance.1988. responsiveness. The revenues from mobile services are expected to grow from $ 624 billion in 2007 to $ 877 billion by 2013. . These have been discussed in succeeding paragraphs.

call quality. J. empathy. 2009). the Wireless Phone Users’ Satisfaction Index of United States of America indicated that important dimensions of service quality were based on customer satisfaction. Power Survey (2009) studied the mobile phone users’ satisfaction in the United Kingdom. voice quality and short message service (PTA. brand image. Important dimensions of service quality included in the survey were coverage. service accessibility. cost of service and options for service plans (Customer Satisfaction Index. billing. The study showed rising customer expectations with regard to the additional features and services from the mobile operators. customer. Based on a study of 220 mobile phone users in Ethiopia. no empirical investigation or study has been undertaken to assess the quality of service based on customers’ perception. . reliability and assurance were main determinants of quality. call quality. Based on the survey of 22052 users of wireless phone in United States in 2008. In Pakistan. PTA regularly monitors the quality of services of mobile telephone operators through quality of service survey.33 In a survey conducted in 2009. bundled services. promotions and offerings of incentives and rewards.D. billing. network aspect. The study was based on a sample of 3325 mobile phone customers throughout United Kingdom. convenience. 2008). Indian mobile phone users indicated diversity of services. 2009) Negi (2009) examined the quality of service of mobile communication from customers’ perspective. In Pakistan. reliable customer services and reasonable pricing as the main features of quality of service (Prabhudesai. prices of service. access delay. the study found that tangible. A qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (consumer surveys) research study about consumer satisfaction was undertaken by Australian Communications and Media Authority. The quality of service parameters include network accessibility. responsiveness.

slow response to customers’ complaints resolutions. United States and United Kingdom. availability of network. Out of 11 operators. Telecom Regulatory Authority India carried out quality of service survey of mobile operators based on users’ satisfaction.: Accenture (2008) carried out survey of 4189 consumers in Australia. citing problems such as drop-outs. . the customer services along with long wait time were cited as the major reasons for leaving the operators. less variety of service features. The survey also found the rising expectations of customers in mature and growing markets. 2008). The research also highlighted the growing number of complaints to Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman during the period 2002 to 2007 about the telecommunication services. poor reliability and lack of bundled services as the major reasons for switching over to new operators in China and India. Brazil. India. France. Canada. price. The survey found price. Asia Pacific Consumer Satisfaction Survey (2008) indicated that in mature markets. More than 67% respondents confirmed poor customer services as the core reason for leaving the operators. China. The study reported highest levels of dissatisfaction with mobile phone services (35 per cent). The important dimensions of regulatory services benchmark dimensions of service quality included billing. inadequate coverage. billing and new applications to meet ever increasing customers’ demands. In a study Singh ( 2008) argued that the unprecedented growth of subscribers in India poses challenges to operators to ensure quality of services based on customer care. poor call quality and interference. Germany. In 2008. only 5 operators achieved the 90% service quality benchmark (Survey. unsatisfactory customer services. customer care. The sample consisted of 1318 mobile phone users. poor voice quality.34 ACMA (2008). value added services and pre-sales and sales dimensions.

competency of delivery personnel. . ease of availability for cards and recharge services. coverage of area. The salient dimensions of quality of service accorded priority by mobile phone users included courteous and facilitating role of front line personnel. affordable prices of the packages. Chi. that coverage and reduction in service charges are essential elements of quality for retention of existing customers and attracting new customers.35 Souki and Filho (2008) carried out a study based of 434 customers in Brazil. accurate information and facts about services. In addition. The important dimensions of service quality of mobile service providers included handset. Yeh and Jang (2008) noted. and customized services. based on a sample of 150 mobile phone users. The study focused on satisfaction of mobile phone users. Joachim and Omotayo (2008) identified convenience. A study of 10 regions in Japan measured the customer satisfaction among 7500 individual mobile telephone service users. in a study of 127 mobile phone users. the accuracy of information about the plan and the fee and frequent communication were considered important factors that the customers value. non-voice functions and services and customer contact strength in that order of priority. facilities and attractiveness of features of service and tangibles as important determinants of service quality. price. availability of products and services at the company outlets. In a study in Nigeria. reliability. Barnhoorn ( 2006) carried out a study in 2008 in South Africa indicated the ever increasing expectations of customers with regard to the services of mobile phone operators. and the coverage provided. 2008). overall ambience of outlets. The results of the study indicated high rating of customers’ services. The results indicated strong dissatisfaction with services termination fees (Mobile Phone Survey. quality of call. quality of connections.

credit facility for connection. These indicators included network access. The study found that quality and reliability of network. service access. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Association identified a list of indicators for mobile phone quality of services. measured the mobile phone users’ preferences for selection of an operators. The study found imperfect information on quality and price. A study by Sukumar (2007). billing services and customer services found to be essential attributes of service quality of mobile phone services that contribute to economical and emotional value that lead to satisfaction of customers in different age groups. The study further highlighted that major factors affecting mobile phone users’ dissatisfaction . p. the consumers satisfaction survey in 2007 based on the responses of 6000 mobile phone users. using a sample of 104 mobile phone subscribers. In Canada. Technology and industry (DSTI) Committee on Consumer Policy. 2007. lack of transparency in roaming charges for international in service and contractual binding in changing the operators affect consumer behaviour. deposit amount and prices in that order of priority. services availability.36 Lim & Kumar (2008) carried out a study in United States based on a sample of 298 mobile phone users of two age groups (college students and old age group). customers services and diversity of bundled options of services (Customer Satisfaction. The study focused on mobile phone users and identified and found that quality of service and price were two major factors for switching over to new operators. indicated the essential elements of service quality of mobile operators as quality of calls. customer care. billing. service integrity and service retainability (Sunderland. prices. The result of the study found important dimensions as brand image. 2007) A study was undertaken in 2007 on Consumer Satisfaction in Telecommunication markets in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries by the Directorate for Science. 20).

quality of voice. The salient dimensions of service quality included call set up rates. percentage resolution of complaints within four weeks. 2007). Park & Park. early termination fee and unsolicited calls and inaccurate billing in United States. Tang and Chen . and lack of meeting and exceeding customer’s satisfaction in Australia (DSTI. In a study was carried out in main land China. In Korea. The results found that the significant aspects of quality of service included attributes of service. ability of service provider to solve problems and attractiveness of services have been viewed as important dimensions of quality for mobile phone users. complaints per 100 bills issued. p. In an empirical study in Canada. 2006). The important drivers of customers’ perception of quality emerged product and service in Scandinavian and Baltic countries. and value added services. by Chich. blocked call rate. Telecom Regulatory Authority in India carried out survey of mobile operators against benchmark quality of service. A study of mobile phone customers satisfaction about quality dimensions was undertaken in 2006 in Finland and other Scandinavian (Denmark. Pricing of the services emerged as the most important dimension of quality (ESPI. image of the operators. based on a sample of 367 customers of mobile phone users focused on the users’ perception of service quality. drop call rate.37 included lack of differentiation in United Kingdom. In 2006. 2007). Sweden) and Baltic (Lithuania and Latvia) countries. time taken to response to customers for services. 2007. a study of 350 mobile phone user indicated interpersonal relationship. prices and quality of services in Portugal. 22). and time taken for all refunds / payments to customers after resolution of complaints (Sutherland. The respondents show great concern for high switching costs (Kim. accumulated down time for community isolation. services access delay. Serenko and Truel (2006) found that differentiated services were rated as the top element for competitive quality of service of mobile phone users.

perceived quality (coverage. reliability. complaints handling. value added services. The results indicated poor quality signals. responsiveness to customers complaints. a study was undertaken to determine the National Customer Satisfaction Index of mobile phone users based on a sample of 1950 mobile phone subscribers. and complaint handling. in a study of mobile phone users in Greece. that customization of service. billing errors. provisioning and restoration (Quality of Service. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India carried out a study on satisfaction of cell phone customers in Delhi in 2005. costs. accuracy and on time issue of bills. The study included questionnaire and focus group discussions. quality of system as the major attributes of service quality. Sigala (2006) noted. call block rate. The sample was based on 562 mobile phone subscribers covering different segments. and empathy. The study identified mobile users’ preference of quality of service for responsiveness. Lai. tangible. company’s image and differentiated features were the important dimensions of service quality of mobile phone users. promotional activities and their fulfillment). 2005). poor response to unsolicited calls and signal messaging services and customer services as major causes of dissatisfaction (Vision RI. Hutchinson.38 (2006). service activation. In Turkey. 150 mobile phone users were administered mail survey. Based on random sampling technique. assurance. The dimensions that emerged in customer satisfaction included meeting customers’ pre-purchase expectations. 2005). (Ozer & Aydin. price. call drop rate. Li and Bai (2005) examined the quality of service in a major mobile communication company in China. convenience. behaviour of staff. service transfer facilities. pleasing interaction of staff and customers. . The study found convenience. 2005) Quality of Service Parameters adopted by Uganda Communication Commission (a regulatory body of communication in Uganda) for mobile phone service operators include network availability. internet connectivity.

found that impediments in changing the operators is cause of customer dissatisfaction of mobile phone users. McKinsey. McKinsey Quarterly. more than 63 % consumers indicated billing related complaints. Feick and Lee (2001) found that satisfaction of mobile phone customers is strongly influenced by the pricing plans. Consumer Reports. (Cap Gemini. (2005) and Lee. 2004). 2004. customer services.. Consumer Report. and data service quality. 2005. . McKinsey. 2005) found that network quality based on data services and voice services strongly influence customer satisfaction and loyalty with regard to the mobile phone usage. In addition poor customer services including lack of or delayed response to customers’ inquiries and complaints were the main factors contributing towards customer dissatisfaction (Consumer Report. billing system. Kim. 2005. Lee et al. McKinsey Quarterly. Mobile users view inaccurate billing inquiries. 2004. 2004). Consumer Survey (Cap Gemini. lack of honest commitment to communicate and the terms of contract as major sources of complaints. Customer satisfaction has been significantly affected by mobile operators’ failure to promptly inform changes in terms of services (Consumer Report. It has been established that customer satisfaction declined significantly when customers’ queries and complaints were not handled appropriately by mobile phone operators. Cap Gemini (2005) and McKinsey Quarterly (2004). Responsiveness to customers needs is an important dimension of service quality of mobile phone service. 2005. 2001. In the survey conducted by McKinsey in 2004. 2004). 2005..39 Based on empirical studies. Gerpott et al.Poor network quality found to be a major source of mobile user dissatisfaction. Park & Jeong. 2005. network quality. Lim (2005) empirically established important quality of service dimensions of mobile phone users that affect customers’ satisfaction as pricing plans.

McKinsey (2004). The study was based on a sample of 583 customers. Sue and Hsu (2002) studied the implementation of quality management practices in 39 telecommunication organizations in Taiwan. responsiveness. Poor training of the staff and weak supplier management were noted as the vital dimensions of quality management for significant performance. empathy and reliability were the main determinants of service quality dimensions that satisfy customers. The results indicated important dimensions of service quality as. In South Africa. availability and assurance (Pampallis. other reasons that emerged were miscommunication. tangibles. assurance. . & Bond. quality of service. empathy. Wal. responsiveness. The study found that major reason of customer defection in mobile markets was the billing volatility (increase in the bill amount over previous month). In a study in based on a sample of 550 customers of Thailand Telecommunication Industry (mobile and fixed line). and change of terms of contract without adequate warning. Wang and Lo (2002) carried out a study of China Mobile and China Unicom (the two leading mobile phone operators) using a sample of 348 mobile phone users. a study was carried out to measure the quality of services in cellular network operators’ outlets. empathy. analyzed 4970 complaints to determine the causes of customers’ dissatisfaction. responsiveness. end of accounts problems. in a study of mobile phone users in United States.40 McKinsey (2004) found that voice quality and coverage was a major source of concern by mobile phone users. assurance and network quality as main determinant of customers’ perception of quality. The study identified tangible (physical infrastructure). reliability. In addition. Johnson and Sirikit (2002) found that tangible. 2002).

quality systems and policies. the study identified top management commitment. The concept of TQM aims at achieving and sustaining excellence in organizational activities with focus on customers.41 Tsang and Antony (2001) identified critical success factors of TQM in UK services organizations including Telecommunication. Leisen and Vance (2001) carried out cross national assessment of service quality in telecommunication industry. The study was based on convenience sample of 200 German and 76 United States residents. availability and responsiveness. training and development. act and deliver the products and services that meet and exceed the customers’ requirements. Based on the study of 300 subjects. assurance. easy of access and billing services ( Lee. supplier partnership/supplier management. supervisory leadership. The results of the study indicated that main dimensions of customers satisfaction were pricing plan. a study was carried out based on a sample of 265 mobile phone users. Totality of quality stresses the importance of quality in every aspect of an organization. 2001). teamwork. empathy. The organization has to energize each individual to recognize. is essential. An integrated approach. without functional biases.5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) Today’s business environment offer challenges to the firms to plan strategically to sustain in the markets. responsiveness and assurance as the major predictor of customers’ satisfaction. This philosophy calls for a comprehensive approach that needs to be identified and executed to achieve the desired results. management of each activity is required to be aligned with this need. Feick & Lee. The respondent reported availability. For an organization to be responsive to the emerging needs. In France. continuous improvement. This calls for a shared vision and . 2. The service quality dimensions were based on tangible. coverage and call quality. customer focus. and cultural change as essential dimensions of TQM.

42 unity of purpose that binds the whole organization to excel in all dimensions. Foster and Whittle (1989) concluded that TQM is the systematic process that is driven by internal way of life of organization. and quality of objectives. commitment of top management. quality of processes. Atkinson (1990) expressed TQM as a strategic approach. continuous improvement. quality of people (including workers. Zaire and Simintiras (1991) viewed that TQM is a process of doing right things at all times with economic constraints. Ishikawa (1985) states that ”broadly interpreted. p.” Oakland (1998. York. As cited in Bounds. quality of company. p. quality of system. engineers.80). employee involvement. Kanji (1996) noted that TQM is a way of life and strives for continuous improvement and customer satisfaction.187) defined TQM as ” essentially a way of organizing and involving the whole organization. Adams and Ranny (1994. and value driven practices. The researcher and quality experts have defined this concept highlighting various dimensions. quality of information. The implementation of this philosophy requires change of mindset and adaptability to market requirements. quality means quality of work. . Sink (1991) stated that TQM philosophy needs to be evolved by top leadership and shared with all with conviction and clarity. Weile. managers and executives). quality of service. The philosophy entails participation at all levels with a focus on analyzing and continuously improving products. quality of division. Dale and William (1997) noted that TQM comprises of guiding principles of customer focus.” Pfau (1989) described it as an approach for continuously improving quality through participation by all elements in the organization. services and processes. The ultimate objective is the customer satisfaction.

a culture which should be visibly practiced by all members in the organization. p 161). Management: Creation of enabling environment.” Steenkamp (2001. and the objectives of the organization.” Mohanty and Lakhe (2002. Total: Functional integration and teamwork at all levels in the organization through institutional management. Wilkinson and Witcher (1993) summarised TQM as having three major requirements as follow: 1.43 Berry (1991) defined TQM as organizational culture and a new management system.” Sohal. ethics. commitment of senior management and provisioning of adequate support facilities. p.77) viewed . Eriksson. p. British Standards 4778. 3. leadership and performance into a unique relationship. a passion.267) views TQM as a “cost effective system for integrating the continuous quality improvement efforts of people at all levels in an organization to deliver products and services which ensure customer satisfaction. Part (2) define TQM as management philosophy: Embracing all activities through which the needs and expectations of the customers and the community. Quality: Strict adherence to the requirements specified by customers ensuring use of appropriate tools.235) stated that “TQM brings together the constellation of productivity. p. 2. vi) argued that “TQM is a way of life. 1997. people and process as three dimensions of TQM. techniques and processes. Price and Gaskill (1990) have identified service. are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective way by maximizing the potential of all employees in a continuing drive for improvement (cited in Boaden. Johasson and Wiklund (2003. p. Dedhia (1995. Tay and Wirth (1989) argued that an integrated approach is needed to control the quality.

The evolution of quality has moved from control driven to culturally driven quality. The evolution of TQM has taken decades in many organizations all over the world. demanding customers and the resource constraints. The attributes of TQM are dynamic change. TQM facilitates managing organization to respond to the changing needs of its stakeholders. customer satisfaction and adoption of best practices. continuous improvement. 2. integrates all functional areas and extends to supply chain partners. tools and techniques that aims at delighting external and internal customers. Based on the analysis of literature. This management system focuses on people. every function.6 EVOLUTION OF TQM The evolution of TQM as a new management philosophy is attributed to changing business environment. participation and cross-functional management to meet the dynamic needs of the customer and to create a loyal but at the same time a diversified customer base. It helps organizations in initiating continuous improvement efforts for customer satisfaction in an efficient manner on consistent basis.44 TQM as: Pragmatic long-term system approach initiated and driven by the top management to bring about a total change culture and interlink and integrate everyone. Feigenbaum (1954) advanced the concept of total quality control integrating quality into all functional areas with minimum cost ensuring customer satisfaction. it is concluded that TQM as a system and a new management culture maximizes customer satisfaction and reduces cost. In essence TQM has the collective ownership of all in the organization with sole objective of improving perpetually with customer focus. TQM is a combination of integrated philosophies. every process and every activity of the organisation through involvement. .

statistical quality control.55) concluded that “while quality remained focused on defect prevention. and required its inclusion in the strategic planning process.” The strategic quality management stage envisaged quality as a competitive advantage. aligning organization to customers’ needs (both internal and external) and pursuing customer focused strategy. quality assurance. In statistical quality control stage. Mehra et al. The stage aimed at continuous quality improvement at all levels and at all times. top managers at the levels of the presidents and chief executive officers have expressed an interest in quality. p 47).(2001. the quality assurance has brought a more proactive approach and some new tools. Garvin (1988) stated the following about this stage: It embodies a dramatic shift in perspective. During the inspection stage. They have linked it with profitability. the processes were evaluated using statistical techniques to assess quality and to minimize non-conformance. p. In this stage. inspection. The inspection stage emphasized performance to established standards. For the first time.45 The evolution of quality has passed through four distinct stages. defined it from the customer’s point of view. Bound at al (1994 p. During the quality assurance stage the focus changed to controlling quality at all stages of the processes throughout the organization. the quality control stressed on inspection to avoid defects. 870) predicted that “TQM systems will shift towards a philosophy of quality based strategic management system”. The quality became an integrated approach and the responsibility of all functional areas of the organization.. As cited in Costin (1999. the main focus was uniform product quality. and strategic quality management. .

Provost & Quayle. 2000. Burr (1993) opined that TQM initiatives. Customer focus is the foundation of this philosophy. 5. Quality experts and researchers (Adinolfi. 2001) identified salient principles that encompass TQM philosophy. 2000. despite having various names.46 The evolution of TQM has primarily been guided by the emerging realities and organizational needs for a new paradigm to align the organization with environmental realities to achieve development. 3. This philosophy emphasizes system approach. Cianfrani & Tsiakals. Strategic planning is vital to integrate and align organizational systems and processes with external environment and the customers’ needs. All interrelated processes should be managed as a system to achieve organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Top management leads the TQM initiatives through visible commitment to this philosophy through words and deeds. . 2. All efforts should be directed to design and provide products and services that meet and exceed customers’ expectations. Yong & Wilkinson. 2003. Nwabueze 2001. 3. Eng & Yusof. This involvement must be based on voluntary commitment to excel and to make the organization best and competitive. Vokurka & Lummus. growth. 2003. Mehta. These are: 1.7 PRINCIPLES OF TQM Dean and Bowen (1994) noted that TQM is identified by its principles and its implementation can only be achieved through these principles that signify this philosophy. 2003. competitiveness and sustainability. Total employees involvement is vital for the success of TQM. share the same principles. Spencer 1994. 2. 2001. West.

Employees inputs need to be institutionalized and their efforts in continuous improvement must be acknowledged. 10. Cultural change is vital to initiate and sustain TQM initiatives. simplify them and provide ownership to those who manage the process. Focus on teamwork is essential. All employees must know that this would enable them to continuously improve the quality and meet the ever changing customers’ needs.47 6. Prevention of defects and problems is critical. 11. Constant monitoring of environment is important with a view to adapt to the changes. All employees must be encouraged to anticipate problems and come up with viable solutions. 13. The rewards system should be fair and equitable. Training should focus on need for TQM. services and processes is important for the organizations to remain competitive. Statistical methods must be used to eliminate errors and achieve standardized products and services. Continuous improvement of products. Training of managers and employees is essential to achieve TQM objectives. and quality tools. 9. vertical and horizontal teams provide an ideal opportunity to employees to work together to achieve quality objectives. customers and other external and internal stakeholders to harmonize the efforts to achieve quality objectives. Cross functional. 14. Due priority should be given to process improvement. The reassessment of all processes must become organizational philosophy. . 12. Partnership should be established with suppliers. its fundamentals. 8. This would save cost. Participation of top management in training is also vital to get the desired results. 7. Organizations need to identify horizontal and vertical processes. The performance should be aligned with quality goals.

This helps the organization to achieve cost competitiveness. based on performance data of about 3000 strategic business units. 1998). profitability.8 IMPACT OF TQM ON BUSINESS PERFORMANCE The relationship of TQM and business performance is evident. accelerates customer loyalty and market share of products and services. Continuous self assessment is necessary to provide a control mechanism to evaluate the existing performance against established benchmarks. 2. The internal focus of TQM results in reducing variation. 16. Fynes and Voss (2001) noted that adoption of quality management enables organization to remain competitive. Researchers and quality experts have agreed that TQM has beneficial effects on business performance. waste and ultimately the cost of production. 1999. profitability is virtually guaranteed” (cited in Ross.48 15. Management by facts is important to formulate objectives and rational decisions. Massachusetts. identify the gaps and initiate appropriate response to bridge the gaps. It states that “one factor above all other – quality management-drives market share. The application of these principles in an integrated manner enables organizations to achieve and sustain competitiveness. The introduction of this philosophy . 9). The conclusion. p. These principles provide the foundation of TQM philosophy. And when superior quality and large market share are both present. is unequivocal. All decisions should be based on hard evidence that is analyzed and disseminated throughout the organization. and market share has been studied in depth by the Strategic Planning Institute of Cambridge. TQM focuses on meeting and exceeding customers’ requirements. The studies found that companies implementing TQM practices show better than average results (Ramesh. The relationship between quality management.

analyze and depict data and processes that need improvement. relations diagram. design of experiments. 2. Zhang 2000). The result reflected significant relationship with business outcome measured in terms of revenue. and process decision chart. Lemark. Mann and Kehoe. These tools are used to collect. Rao. Reed. matrix diagram. 1999. & Tuan. 1997. often called the seven management and planning tools (Nancy. there exists a set of tools normally associated with successful quality transformation. In 1976 the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) developed seven new quality tools which include affinity diagram. organize. Ishikawa (1985) identified seven TQM generic or basic tools that include check sheets. histograms. techniques and tools. Reich. tree diagram. 1996. matrix data analysis. Tobin. profitability and numbers of customers. Seawright & Young. 1994. & Satish. Solis & Raghunathan. 1999. Pareto charts. control charts. flow chart. flow charts.9 TQM TOOLS In addition to the guiding principles that comprise TQM. . 1990). arrow diagram. departmental purpose analysis. Hellsten and Klefsjo (2000) viewed that TQM is a management system consisting of critical factors. questionnaire and sampling. They also recognized quality practices comprising benchmarking. 2005). 1994. and scatter diagrams. Adam. Dale and McQuater (1998) identified other tools consisting of brainstorming.49 leads to superior performance and competitive advantage (Lee. Rahman (2001) studied the positive impact of TQM practices on business outcome of small and medium enterprises in Western Australia. force field analysis. 1998. control plan. Researchers claimed that TQM practices or similar quality management initiatives are found to have significant impact on firms’ performance (Huq & Stolen. cause and effect diagrams.

quality function deployment. ISO-9000.10 OUTCOME OF TQM INITIATIVES IN PAKISTAN TQM initiatives in Pakistan have shown mixed results. 1997).50 failure mode and effects analysis. Nancy (2005) identified some mega quality tools that include Quality Function Deployment (QFD). 2. problem-solving methodology. organizations have implemented TQM philosophy in manufacturing and services industries in Pakistan. The adoption of customer focused philosophy will ensure survivability in competitive global environment. Hellsten & Klefsjo. The study identified a steady . Researchers have found that support and development of quality improvement needs comprehensive use of quality tools and techniques (Bunny & Dale. fault tree analysis. Mehnaz and Ejaz (2006 a). six sigma. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA). Stephens. Dale & Shaw. Curry & Kadasah. There have been primarily two approaches (evolutionary and revolutionary) followed by diverse organizations to pursue TQM interventions. poka yoke. quality improvement teams and statistical process control. The outcome of TQM initiatives have yielded manifold gains as well as provided insight to the weaknesses that need immediate attention at the organizational level to become competitive. found that quality management had a concentration in inspection mode. The changing global competitive environment and impending pressures to meet requirements of World Trade Organization (WTO) offer opportunities as well as challenges for Pakistani business organizations. To align organizational policies to the changing paradigm. quality costing. 1997. 2000. benchmarking. and lean manufacturing. in a case study of Pakistan Knitwear Industry. 2002. 1991.

and Supreme Attitude – training and development) . Important practice to pursue quality management objectives include kaizen. a state owned company. in a case study of quality management practices at Shifa International Hospitals. The intervention resulted in significant development and increase in market share and profitability. Sorting – organizing. the application of TQM philosophy needs more efforts. feedback from customers and employees. In a study of quality management in Pakistan Bedwear Industry. for continuous improvement and sustained excellence. quality . inadequate resources for quality efforts. Pakistan State Oil (PSO. The study found that TQM practices in construction industry is wanting on account of lack of commitment of top management. Spick and Span – standardization. introduced total quality management in its operations. Mehnaz and Ejaz (2006 b) identified the highlights both of the effectiveness and the limits of quality assurance in improving levels of quality in emerging environment. use of PDCA cycle. found that implementation of this philosophy resulted in four times increase in productivity. relationship with suppliers and process approach. The study found that Pakistan's bedware industry need to implement advanced quality management practices to remain competitive in today's global marketplace. identified that the quality philosophy is based on fundamental principles of leadership. Kayani. and internal quality audit. Khan (2006).51 progress towards quality assurance with tangible results. management by facts. and lack of organizational culture to support quality initiatives. 5 S techniques ( Sifting – cleaning up. in the study of TQM initiative in Pakistan Tobacco Company. Naeem and Islam (2006). empowerment. 2007). customer focus. however. Lodhi and Farooqui (2007) carried out study of TQM practices in construction industry in Pakistan. Sweeping – cleaning. quality circles.

within three years of TQM implementation. enhanced profitability. The knitwear export company experience an increase of 43% in revenues. Fifty companies both of private sector (70%) and public sector (30%) participated in this quantitative study. . the firm experienced 25% increase in revenue per employee. The major reasons for lack of its implementation found to be lack of awareness about the technique. reduced lead time.52 product index increased to 80%. in a case study in a reputed Pakistani Hospital. reduced employee turnover by 10%. In consumer product company. reduced costs per employee by about 24%. improved inventory turnover ratio by 63%. the implementation of TQM yielded reduction in defects rate by 8%. and resulted in regaining of market leadership position. while overall revenues showed improvement up to 130% and inventory indicated improved turnover by 56%. increase in return on assets by 7%. improved inventory turnover by 20% and increased lead time by 70%. and per employee output improved by 57% while overall revenues per employee showed an increase of 102% in A Company. Khan (2003) studied the implementation of TQM practices in four companies. Mustafa (2002). examined the application of two modern quality management tools namely Kano Model and quality function deployment. The results showed positive results with regard to customer satisfaction. short term focus and lack of commitment by top management. achieved 99% on time delivery of products to customers and inventory turnover showed an improvement by 26%. the gains were made in reduced lead time. In two engineering services firms. Khan (2002) studied application of quality function deployment for product and process improvement in Pakistani Organizations. In B Company. The study found that only 5% companies are practicing quality function deployment techniques.

examined the total quality management initiatives based on four major steps of study. poor quality objectives. cost reduction. improvement in commitment of workforce. Khan (2000). The results were positive in reducing process time. noted that Deming Cycle (PDCA) facilitates improvement of processes. Siddiqui (2000). inadequate audits. increased customer satisfaction and loyalty. Moosa (2000 b) examined the prominent characteristics of quality culture in Pakistani organizations. and significant cost reduction. The study found that implementation of quality assurance yielded 40% results. The results indicated that companies pursuing revolutionary approach achieved noteworthy improvements in productivity and change in organizational culture that yielded customers’ satisfaction and profitability. Pakistan The initiatives yielded improvement of 14 key cross functional processes. paper breakage and down time. plan. reduction in waste. The study indicated impressive results in terms of cost reduction in steam and water consumption. .53 Ahmed (2000) examined the TQM initiatives and experience of Global Corporate & Investment Banking business of Citibank. in a case study of a public sector organization. lack of frequent management reviews. Khan & Aziz (2000) analyzed the implementation of Kaizen (continuous improvement) in a private packaging company. implement and review. ineffective training and poor vendor selection Khan (2000) investigated implementation of TQM initiatives in six Pakistani organizations. enhanced commitment and satisfaction of employees. The quality initiative resulted in 10% reduction in costs and improved profitability. in a case study of an engineering company. The study was based on the analysis of revolutionary and evolutionary approaches being pursued for implementation of this philosophy. The weaknesses were found in areas of use of statistical process control.

found improvement in processes and enhanced customer satisfaction. Hussain (1998) found. found that quality initiative resulted in cost reduction. The empirical evidence. 1998. Abbasi (1999). in study of quality maintenance at Pakistan International Airlines. reduced turn around time of aircraft and savings in overall maintenance costs. 1999. These results concur with the out come of previous researches (Ross. indicate that most of the initiatives have experienced significant gains in enhancement of quality of products and services. The results yielded cost reduction of about over four million Pakistani rupees. Manzoor (2000). The results exhibited significant improvement in billing process. in case study of quality assurance practices in a poultry company. Tobin. Chaudhry & Rehman (2004). Mann and Kehoe. Hashmi (1999) examined the implementation of quality management information system in a company of Autoparts Vending Industry. found positive results in customers’ and employees’ satisfaction. The causes attributed to poor performance include lack of commitment of top leadership. The studies have also indicated the reasons for poor results of TQM initiatives. improved productivity. reduction in flight delays. 1994. in case study of implementation quality management system in a Textile Group that the initiative resulted in cost saving of about Pakistan Rupees 17. based on the outcome of TQM initiatives in Pakistan. Ramesh. found that the initiative resulted in improved quality of products and processes. Khan (2000).54 and improvement in water base quality. 1990.4 million per year and increased employee satisfaction. inadequate . in the study of quality initiative in an educational institution. improvements in reliability and availability of aircrafts. 2000). Zhang. lead time. customers’ and employees’ satisfaction and organizational profitability. cost reduction and ultimately the customers’ satisfaction. in a case study of changing existing culture to quality culture.

workforce autonomy. Crosby. human resource management. process and perception. however. present some common and core factors. The holistic approach to quality management is vital for competitiveness. Deming (1986) 14 points. information management and relationship with suppliers.11 ESSENTIAL FACTORS OF TQM (TQM PRACTICES) The contemporary quality management philosophy has been strongly influenced by the thoughts of Deming. customer satisfaction.1991). Feigenbaum and Ishikawa. management by facts. Lately some key concepts underlying TQM have emerged. problem solving techniques and quality circles. Firms also use standardized quality models for self evaluation or use them for implementing quality management practices. These quality experts had highlighted the need of essential dimensions of leadership. and Feigenbaum (1986) approach of total quality control are essential elements of a quality strategy. participation and development. value driven organizational change. Byrnes. Achievement of continuous improvement is essential through training. 2. inadequate human resource policies. teaming. and Imai are processes and systems. Robert. relationship with suppliers and management of processes for producing quality goods and services The common elements drawn from Deming. These factors vary from one author to another. Juran. & Weber . These are strategic quality planning. They. Crosby 14 steps to quality improvement. Crosby. McCool. lack of awareness about continuous improvement and inadequate resources provided to support the quality efforts. continuous improvement. complexity and variation ( cited in Cornesky. customers and suppliers. Juran. Juran (1988) trilogy and 10 steps.55 customer focus. The main models are Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award . as identified by Brocka and Brocka (1992). The review of literature identifies different factors for effective quality management.

supplier partnership. Quazi et al. employee training. external interface management. . role of the quality department. strategic quality management. benchmarking. Golhar and Waller (1996) identified 12 factors as top management commitment. employee involvement. Grandzol and Gershon (1998) recognized seven exogenous and six endogenous factors as leadership. training. supplier quality management. quality circles. quality data and reporting. teamwork.(1989) and Badri. identified essential factors as top management responsibility. financial. selection and partnership with suppliers. quality goals and policy. employee fulfillment. operational. internal/external cooperation. operational quality planning and improvement measurement systems and corporate quality culture. product / service design. customer focus. customer focus. supplier quality management. learning. inspection policy. quality data reporting and employee relations. public responsibility. quality policy and role of the quality department. training. supplier performance.56 (MBNQA). product/service quality. customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction. (1998). design quality management. integrating customer requirement. Davis and Davis (1995) identified eight essential factors that are role of top management. product quality and employee empowerment. customer satisfaction. product/service design process. the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model and the Deming Prize. communication. employees’ role. Saraph et al. quality related performance and supportive structure. Ahire. internal quality information usage. process management. process management. Black and Porter (1995) recognized 10 factors as people and customer management. A few empirical researches have been carried out to identify the essential factors of TQM. continuous improvement. statistical process control. process management.

(1999) developed and validated 13 key dimensions of quality management in the international context. supplier quality. process management. continuous improvement.12 TQM PERSPECTIVES 2. strategic quality planning. training. continuous improvement. employee training. customer orientation. According to Claver et al. learning. leadership. process management and benchmarking. Based on the analysis of literature review. Each expert gave his own ideas and solutions to the complex . product/process design. partnership with suppliers. benchmarking. management based on facts. Mexico and Taiwan. human resources development and management. internal quality results and external quality results. employee involvement. The research was based on five countries. (2003) the essential factors are customer focus. human resource management (involvement of all members. the United States. cooperation with suppliers and organizational awareness and concern for the social and environmental context. strategic planning. work teams and communication systems). quality information availability. Salient dimensions identified by them are top management support. information management system.12. quality information usage. social responsibility. China. quality planning. quality culture.57 Rao et al. customer focus. India. quality citizenship. 2.1 Quality Pioneers’ Perspectives A few American and Japanese quality experts substantially influenced the development of quality management system. the essential factors of TQM are visionary leadership and commitment of top management.

Deming chain reaction envisages increase in quality. . 3. However. have been expanded upon by other quality gurus (Crosby. Feigenbaum. Deming advocated open environment. which is the control of the production process. 1986). control of variation through process improvements. 2. formulated into a 14-points approach to management (Deming. 1986. costs. 1979. 1986. His ideas.. Juran. Notion of variation. or the increased business due to a happy customer). which facilitate experimentation and enhance continuous improvement and innovation. Imai. Deming stressed the need to build the quality in all stages to achieve superior products and services. quality culture. These are as follow: 1.points advocated by Deming provide comprehensive guidelines to Managers for quality management. or stock price) without consideration to what is unknown (the cost of losing a customer. The 14. the cost of providing a customer with a poor product. their focus remained on the improvement of the total quality dimensions in the organizations. and continuous improvement philosophy. Salient characteristics of Deming approach are customer focus. 1983). 4. 2. Deming chain reaction. Heavy reliance on what is known (sales. profit.1 W. Role of long term thinking in organizational health and survival. He emphasized the responsibility of senior management in setting the direction for quality management and providing enabling environment to achieve quality at all times. Edward Deming Edward Deming is credited with initiating the quality movement in Japan after World War II.12.1.58 quality issues. Deming (1986) identified some additional concepts that are critical to the understanding and implementing his approach. Deming advocated a holistic approach to quality. free of fear.

2 Joseph M.12. He strongly advocated adoption of new approaches. Juran developed a 10 steps approach to quality improvement. He proposed a three pronged strategy based on projects. He recommended use of statistical control but warned against too much reliance on it.” His approach to quality revolves around three ideas. build up customer satisfaction. Juran emphasized the importance of the human element. p. Juran identified different cost associated with the production and delivery of products and services. known collectively as the Juran trilogy. 2. He argued that responsibility for quality management lies with the senior management. The salient aspects included the following: 1. He stressed creating organizational system that fosters workers’ pride and satisfaction enabling them to contribute towards quality objectives. Juran Juran (1974. Statistical method of quality control is at the heart of Deming approach. 2. .1. the understanding of which is essential for solving technical problems. Identify and establish objectives. He stressed the need of unity of purpose to achieve quality goals. quality planning.59 reduces costs and increases production that will create more jobs. Senior leadership commitment is vital to initiate and sustain quality initiatives. Create awareness to improvement. He stressed that customer needs and teamwork are vital for organizational success. 24) defined quality as “fitness for purpose or use. increase market share and accelerate organizational competitiveness. quality control and quality improvement Juran (1988). functional harmony and continuous improvement as a never ending process. control and annual quality programme to reduce the cost. creation of supporting environment for quality management.

Crosby viewed that improvement in quality of products and services will reduce cost and improve profitability. Structured approach for communication of improvement philosophy. Institutionalize annual improvement as part of organizational processes. prevention. 3. His absolute of quality includes conformance to requirement. What costs money are the quality things-all the action that involve not doing jobs right the first time. Crosby Crosby (1979. Error free workdays. but it is free. 6.60 3. Responsibility of the management towards improvement. Planning for improvement objectives and zero defects.3 Philip B. 5. It’s not a gift. zero defects and price of non-conformance. Enhance human resource competencies to realize improvement objectives.12. Need for generating awareness about quality through appropriate measurement and taking corrective actions to ensure improvement consistently. Team based approach.” His concept of zero defect and quality council as means of sharing information about quality improvement efforts were unique. 7. He advocated 14 points for improvement. 4. Share the outcome with all. 5. . 2. p.1. plans and actions through quality council. Institute a system of reward. 4. 2. ensuring that products or services meet the requirement the first time. The salient aspects of these points are as follow: 1. 6. Human resource development and management.1) stated that “quality is free.

quality training of employees.12. Feigenbaum emphasized that everyone in the organization is responsible for quality. Feigenbaum distinctive contribution is to recognize that all quality approaches are synergistic.4 Armand V.61 8. development of people and institution-wide motivation of workforce. He argued to measure and minimize the cost of control (preventions costs . does not lay sufficient emphasis on statistical methods. 2. however. Quality improvement is a continuous process. and economic viability. Crosby takes a very pragmatic approach in making each of these points value producing for the institutions that practice quality management.1. Feigenbaum Feigenbaum (1986) described TQM as an approach to organizational functioning which employs total quality control principles. According to him. He focused on leadership commitment to quality and a participative organizational culture that foster quality improvement through a shared purpose. . and cost related to quality audit) and cost of failure of control (scraps. Crosby’s 14 points are action steps for institutions to help them implement TQM. superior functional integration is essential for effective quality control. customer complaints and rework material costs) through a quality improvement programme. His approach entails clear action plans to improve quality management. He. His approach regards quality of products and services as a primary business strategy and fundamental determinant for business health. growth. His concept of zero defects is somewhat extremely challenging and considered as risk avoidance that is likely to discourage experimentation which is vital for continuous improvement and innovations.

3. 5. Use of quality circles. . The responsibility of top management to provide direction. Quality based reward system is imperative to promote quality focused performance. execute and sustain quality improvement efforts. and fostering a quality culture in the organization. The need to focus on people and their participation in problem solving. training and development of human resources are essential in shaping beliefs. skills and attitude. 2. 2. The main emphasis had been on the following dimensions: 1. He advocated participation by all to realize the quality goals. Quality management has a strategic orientation. He emphasized the need that all employees should have knowledge of the seven basic tools of quality.5 Karou Ishikawa Ishikawa (1985) viewed that quality of products or services should satisfy customers in most economical manner. commitment. 2. He advocated the following important dimensions: 1. 4. The importance of controlling the processes with emphasis on prevention and not inspection. infrastructure and supportive environment. leadership. The education.1. 2.13 Common Themes of Quality Pioneers’ Perspectives These quality pioneers emphasized a holistic approach to quality management.12. attitude and behaviour to initiate. Ensuring a fine blend of statistical and people oriented techniques. 3.62 He considered education as effective component of TQM and stressed that education and training should focus on development of knowledge.

Two main dimensions of quality management stand out.” Researchers have . Firstly. These fundamental principles do provide a framework to organizations to achieve objectives of quality management. management practices and workforce. no specific approach of quality management has been advanced by them. experimentation and creativity to achieve continuous improvement. The perspectives of quality Gurus offer useful insight into management of quality in the organizations. Ghobaidan and Speller (1994. 7. Quality is a company wide activity and functional integration is vital to achieve quality results. not adequately identified the role of human resources in realizing quality objectives. however. However. Quality management system is unending continuous improvement. Secondly. Kruger (2001) argued that the main focus of these Gurus had been on the technical resources of the firms.63 6. All Gurus have highlighted some fundamental principles for adoption to achieve quality without any specific methodology.54) noted that “it is difficult to connect the general quality concepts and ideas to these specific circumstances of an organization – to its markets. p. Organizational climate must foster open communication. They have. the people approach that emphasizes the role of employees in realizing quality objectives. culture. Quality management provides enormous benefits in tangible and intangible dimensions. Since each organization is unique in its structure. 8. systems and work related practices. This aspect clearly spells out the methods and techniques and their application to measure and achieve quality. it is difficult to apply a single solution to multifaceted problems of all organizations. 9. Each organization can apply these fundamentals of quality management suiting its own environment and requirements. the technical dimension that focuses on use of statistical methods for quality management.

Facilitate self evaluation of quality management practices against benchmarks. 1994. Chase & Aquilano. United States Congress established an annual quality award through Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act.1989). 1987. 2. Deming Prize in Japan. The aim of the award is to encourage American . Garvin. These awards cover various dimensions of organizational activities that affect the quality of products and processes services. 2. Inspire through sharing and communicating successful TQM initiatives and the superior results on account of implementation of this philosophy. The broad aims of these awards are as follow: 1. European Quality Award in Europe. Promote a culture of continuous improvement.1 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) In 1987. Malcolm Baldgride National Quality Award (MBNQA) in United States and Australian Quality Award are some important quality awards. Encourage understanding for the need of achieving excellence in organizational pursuits. 4. 3. 5.14.14 QUALITY AWARD MODELS There are several quality awards that organizations use for self evaluation and adoption to manage the quality to survive in competitive environment.64 acknowledged some gaps in the perspectives propagated by these Gurus. 2. They have identified absence of a clear conceptual framework and lack of specific methodology to identify the quality related issues and appropriate actions required to deal with these issues as the potential gaps (Ghobaidan & Speller. Generating awareness about TQM as a competitive strategy.

The award has four basic elements. The system elements include strategic quality planning. The performance improvement dimensions include (a) quality of products and services. The award model emphasizes value driven approach. measures of progress. These seven categories along with the marks allocated are leadership ( 95 points ) . and (d) quality of organization’s suppliers. and information and analysis management. p. strategic quality planning ( 60 points). The model uses a1000-point scoring system covering seven categories. management of process quality ( 140 points ) . HRM. The system comprises of precise processes that meet customers’ standards. and goals. winning the award has become an obsession for many US businesses. top management of many businesses “claimed that the award has influenced the behaviour of US businesses more than any other award and apply for. The measure of progress is based on continuous customer satisfaction and consistent superior performance. driver. and quality and operational results ( 180 points). customer focus and satisfaction ( 300 points) . The award recognizes the role of top management in setting the quality direction and providing favourable environment to achieve and sustain quality and continuous improvement in the organization. (c) reduction and elimination of waste. The top management is the primary “driver” of the business. (b) improvement in productivity. Customer focus is the ultimate goal and maximizing customer satisfaction leads to increased market share.76). management practices and innovation for excellence in performance and competitiveness. process quality. information and analysis ( 75 points).” Juran (1989) noted that in a short period Baldrige . human resource development and management ( 150 points). and. fosters culture of change in technology. It offers opportunities to the firms through self evaluation and facilitates identification of weak areas that need improvement.65 firms to achieve superior performance through consistent quality. According to Sunday and Liberty (1992. system.

partnership and resources and processes) direct and deliver the desired quality results based on superior performance. programmes.14. people. The enablers (leadership. The nine criteria are grouped into ‘enablers’ and ‘results’ criteria. The Model comprises of nine criteria and 32 sub-criteria. processes.66 Award winners have achieved significant achievements in improved perception of quality and two-fold increase in productivity. presents evidence of achievements that can be used for year on year assessment. size.” Khoo and Tan (2003. regardless of sector. The EFQM Excellence Model provides a comprehensive overview of organizational health identifying strengths and areas for improvement. offers an opportunity for achieving a nationally recognized quality award. p. p. and internal communication and staff contribution to improvement. methods. customer results.20) noted that the award “lacked an emphasis in solving quality problems from their roots. partnership and resources. society results and key performance results. The nine criteria are. people results. which is used in all types of organizations.2 European Quality Award . people. The EFQM Excellence Model is a generic model for quality management. structure or maturity.23) the “model does not prescribe any particular procedures. policy and strategy.” 2. encouraging and recognizing the growth and improvement of effective TQM by European organizations.European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Model The award was launched in 1991 with the objective of supporting. . policy and strategy. According to Ghobadian and Woo (1996. facilitates comparison with a range of private and overseas organizations. leadership. or techniques…it is not all embracing and does not address important areas of management activity. The award model was reviewed and the new EFQM Excellence Model was adopted in 1999.

allowing comparison of performance with other organizations. Deploy. cause and scope on a 5-point scale (0-25-50-75-100%). benchmark. The enablers are divided in twenty four sub-criteria.14. . the Deming Prize was introduced in Japan by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). deployment. The Model uses a measuring instrument called RADAR ( Results. assessment and review with a similar 5-point rating scale as used for the enablers. The resulting sub criteria are scores for trends. Weile et al. Watson (2000) noted that the model offers customer focused quality system that facilitates improved organizational performance. The main objective of the Prize is to recognize successful performance improvement of organizations. (1997) concluded that the standards specified in the Model facilitate understanding of managers about managing a company in TQM environment. targets. The main focus is on use of statistical quality control techniques. Approach. The RADAR measuring system is a hard and prescriptive part of the Model. The four result dimensions are broken down into eight sub criteria which require objective measure. society results and key performance results) provides the measure of actual achievement of improvement.3 Deming Prize In 1951. Assess and Review). The Prize is awarded to public and private organizations for successful implementation of quality control activities. the deployment and the evaluation. customer results. it facilitates firms in pursuing benchmarking based on best practices. In addition. Each sub criterion of the enablers has to be rated on approach. data and fact.67 The result criteria (people results. The Model emphasizes the essential role of leadership in institutionalizing TQM. 2. which are used to assess the approach.

customer focus. The award is non prescriptive and focuses on the desired outcome. 1997). The Deming Prize is prescriptive in terms of tools.5 Pakistan National Quality Award (PNQA) The Pakistan National Quality Award (PNQA) is being introduced to promote quality culture in Pakistani organizations to meet competitive challenges. activities for maintenance and control. quality assurance.Ghobadian & Woo. 2. however. site visits of applicants by the examiners and selection of winner by the Deming Prize Committee. The PNQA is based on universally accepted standards that are found in the MBNQA. Quality assurance is the main focus of this award. the award awaits promulgation. organization. activities for improvement.2003). information. . 2.14. EFQM. information and analysis. policy and planning. The objective of the award programme is to organize and build up complete and current quality management principles and best practices. The award has enhanced focus on importance of multicultural management (Zink.1996. techniques and practices that it recommends. These categories are people.1993.14. processes and leadership. The contours of the award have been finalized.4 Australian Quality Award The award was instituted in 1993 by Australian Quality Council. The evaluation criteria is based on ten categories which are policies. determination of passing applicants and compilation of feedback reports. human resource. Stading & Vokurka. Singapore Quality Award and Malaysian Quality Award. strategy. results and future plans (Hunt. Schmidt & Vos.68 The assessment process is based on three stages comprising document examination. standardization. The award contains seven performance categories.

Employee participation and development. 3. 6. Management by facts. 3. 9. Human resource management. measure of progress. driver. Senior executive leadership acts as driver by setting overall direction. 7. 8. The core values and concepts are embodied in seven categories as under: 1. goals and . Customer driven quality. and goal. Customer focus and satisfaction. Long range view of the future. The core values and concepts are as follow: 1. 2. 11.69 In order to achieve result oriented goals. Process management. Business results. 6. Top management leadership and management of quality. 4. Continuous improvement and learning. 10. Leadership. system. 5. creating values. 2. 4. Result orientation. Corporate responsibility and citizenship. Design quality and prevention. The frame work has four basic elements. Use of quality data and information. 7. Partnership development. Quality assurance of external suppliers. the criteria of the award are built upon a set of values that address and integrate the overall customer and firm’s performance requirements. Fast Response. 5.

productivity and operational effectiveness. Woo & Liu. human resource management. information management. All awards focus on the evaluation and improvement to achieve institutional quality management. strategic planning.70 systems. 1994). Financial performance indicators are linked to these areas. suppliers’ quality. These awards emphasize a customer driven quality management and stress to align organizational systems to purse this strategy.1994). weaknesses and plan remedial measures for improvement (Ghobadian. Internal reasons for applying for awards are advantages from the practice of self-assessment during preparation.e. The measure of progress and goal. The award models provide organizations a mean to measure their performance against universal criteria with a view to identify their strengths and weaknesses in different business . The winning of award yields promotional opportunities and publicity (Crainer. The business results category examines the firm’s performance and improvement in key business areas of products and services quality. The performance is also examined relative to competitors. 2. All awards focus on critical areas of evaluation based on leadership.15 Analysis of Quality Award Models These awards have attracted top management of business communities. The system comprises well defined and well designed processes for meeting customer value and performance requirements. customer focus. process management. and providing conducive environment in pursuits of customer value and organization’s performance. i. is the delivery of ever improving value to customers and success in the marketplace. relationship with stakeholders and performance results. improved morale and motivation on account of recognition for efforts by all in the organization that helps organization to identify its strengths.

shared values. static criteria. 308). Brown and Cliff (2001. the literature review facilitates the understanding of the cultural impact as follow: . disregarding customers in nomination of the firm for award. The award models are also criticized. (1996). According to Ghobadian and Woo. norms. command and control expectations.1989). concerns. This assessment criterion facilitates organizations to affect appropriate improvement strategies. these awards continue to offer organizations with principles. and common beliefs that are understood and accepted by the members of the organization. and operational norms all have influence (Langfield-Smith. the salient aspects of criticism include greater emphasis on process orientation. customs and practices of the organization (Ott. values. routines. Despite the dynamic business environment. Continuous review and updating of these awards provide greater flexibility to organizations to meet emerging quality related challenges.71 processes. p. The organizational structures.16 TQM – A CULTURAL INTERVENTION Organizational culture consists of beliefs. 1995). 2. learning and improvement and failure of top management to attend to key business issues while pursuing the award. The award models are descriptive in nature and do not offer methodology or techniques to address the weak areas identified during evaluation process. As cited in Maull. focus on winning the award and missing the opportunity for self examination. Schein (1992.35) defined culture as a “system of norms. p.” The organizational culture is shaped and articulated not just by individuals but also by new and old organizational features. practices and frameworks for self evaluation and adoption to achieve organizational excellence.

Kim. TQM is a management approach in which the application of practices such as teamwork. TQM is a complete change in an organization’s culture and the way people behave at work. behaviour. 3. Compatibility of organization’s values and basic assumption of total quality management discipline is vital for success of total quality management initiatives. free flow of information and milieu in organization’s ecology. On the other hand. structure and work related practices. McNabb and Sepic (1995) stressed the significance of work related satisfaction. feeling. Successful implementation of TQM requires a significant change in values. TQM initiates a transformation of thinking. Organizational culture is an essential factor in TQM implementation that inhibits or allows the success of such an initiative. 1995).The improvement of quality in organizations is dependent on organizational ability to provide supportive climate and responsive systems and practices. organizational total quality management practices require shared values that emphasize customer satisfaction and shared leadership. Cultural changes to total quality management require a change in every aspect of work life in the organizations. internal customer relationship. Pinder and Reynolds (1995) identified value of decision making in organizational environment. Dastmalchian. Blyton and Adamson (1991) highlighted the importance of managerial support. 2. and involves a major cultural change in the organization (Entrekin & Pearson. Many organizations emphasize on shaping their culture for improving organizational performance . attitudes and culture of the organization. It is argued that cultural change is essential for TQM implementation in the organizations. and supplier partnership are tools for cultural transformation. . The success of TQM as an organizational change will depend a lot on the organizational culture.72 1.

Ulrich & Lake. 1989. Nadler & Tushman. Kanji & Dahigaard. Griffis (1992) noted that without a change in firm’s culture. people and culture transform an organization. Eisenstat & Spector.. Vanisina (1990) concluded that change in culture is essential for TQM success. cooperative leadership style. 1992). employees’ involvement. To make TQM intervention a success. Lewin (1958) identified that change in systems. Visible commitment of top management through provisioning of support infrastructure. open communication and equitable recognition is vital to initiate and sustain this transformation. structure. Researchers have accepted organizational culture as a critical factor and essential element for implementation of quality management (Hildebrandt. A mismatch of TQM initiatives and the organizational culture will result in failure of such pursuits. Low and Chan (1998) noted that organizational politics can seriously affect the quality management initiatives. and communication are essential for successful implementation of total quality practices.1990. Kim et al. a failure to change the organizational culture is not likely to yield the desired results from the implementation of quality management initiatives. Literature review reflects the need of participatory practices for management of effective change (Beer. They further argued that support of senior management. Successful TQM efforts need congruence between shared values. processes and beliefs is essential. employees’ skills and organizational structure and systems. Kristensen. Researchers and quality experts have found strong support of organizational culture and success of TQM initiatives.73 TQM is a revolution in management culture and a fundamental paradigm shift. 1995. development of employees. According to Griffis (1992). 1991). 1991. TQM implementation will fail. appropriate leadership. change in organizational culture. Atkinson (1990) stressed that successful implementation requires cultural change. The reason for failure of TQM in organizations is attributed to the lack . Patten.

According to Huq (2005) TQM implementation requires changes in structure. The findings pointed to a poor implementation. lack of process focus. inadequate collaboration with suppliers and non existence of team work as the major problems in cultural transformation. and process as a necessary precondition to achieve improved business performance and changes in employee behaviour. weak flow of information. Haq (2005) carried out a quasi-qualitative study of 20 service companies over a period of two years to assess their change management practices for implementing total quality management.74 of compatibility of structural and systems change without a change in culture and its integration with organizational practices (Wilkinson. system. The results reflected compatibility of TQM dimensions and corporate culture in each region. For service operations. Adebanjo and Kehoe (1998) found absence of support by the leadership. poor participation of workforce. 1993). Fisher. Abraham and Crawford (1998) carried out a study of 14 Australian Companies that won Australian Quality Award between 1989 and 1993. Salient aspects contributing to the failure included poor employees’ commitment. The study included 133 companies in USA. lack of customer focus. lack of proper learning and absence of a continuous improvement organizational culture. Successful companies focused on strong leadership and an emphasis on strategic and tactical planning. . Marchington & Dale. The study indicated strong support for management commitment to the cultural change. Nystrom and Wiebe (2001) carried out a study to identify the association of firm’s culture and TQM practices in international context. In a study of quality culture in British Organizations. it is even more difficult to implement it because of its preoccupation with internal performance dimensions that cannot keep-up with constantly changing perceptions and preferences of the customers. Switzerland and South Africa. Poza.

HRM act as a catalyst and facilitates cultural change to support total quality management initiatives. De Cock. 1994.75 Silva. customers focus. 2005. A number of studies have highlighted that cultural variables drive TQM success (Dean & Bowen. team working and collaboration. 2. 2005. In total quality management environment. partnership with suppliers. continuous improvement. Rad (2006) concluded that a collaborative and corporate organizational culture supported by long-term management and employees’ commitment and involvement. open communication. 1993). Morrison & Rahim. strategic approach. Tadashi and Kiku (2005) studied world class companies in Japan and Brazil and explored excellent management practices. Kujala & Lillrank. risk taking. people participation achieves customer satisfaction. Experience has indicated that effective human resource management and development is essential to sustain TQM. It is argued that TQM is contingent on management of people (Hoogervorst. and monitoring and evaluation of quality should be developed to realize strategic quality objectives. Metri. Koopman & Flier. respect for individual. 1998). 2004. Tata & Prasad.17 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) – ENABLER OF TQM PRACTICES People make quality happen.. Employee empowerment and performance measurement are crucial strategies that help TQM achieve its principal tenets of . open communication. 1998. The study concluded that the practices that foster quality culture include exemplary leadership. organizational learning. innovation and entrepreneurship. Employees are the vanguard of TQM initiatives. In a recent study in service industry in Iran. effective HRM and customer focus.

open communication. 1993.76 satisfaction of internal and external customers (Barzelay. HRM and TQM initiate and sustain competitive advantage through management of people that nurture creativity. The main aspects include the following: 1. A high failure rate of TQM initiatives had been attributed to the lack of HRM practices. 435) noted that a comprehensive approach to HR practices is needed for total quality organizations. Increased focus on recruitment.class organizations. Keehley. People oriented practices of team work. Milakovich. and develop a sense of purpose to contribute efficiently and effectively to achieve organizational excellence. Yong (2006) found strong significant effect of HRM practices on customers’ and employees’ satisfaction. employee involvement and empowerment. 1993. Hubiak & O’Donnell. appreciation of individual employee’s contribution to total quality as well as reward and recognition are vital to make workforce efficient and effective. . It has been established that employees’ participation in quality related matters enhances their understanding of quality issues and facilitates problem solving at the grass root level in the organization (Powell. 1992. p. Oakland and Oakland (2001) carried out a study about people management practices in world . Garrity. 1991). Blackburn and Rosen (1995) reported that several recipients of the Baldrige National Quality Award have developed HRM policies that support total quality management strategies. synergy. Evan and Lindsay (2002. 1995). organizational communication. The HRM dimensions need to be integrated with TQM principles and must become a strategic imperative in TQM environment. career development and motivation of front line employees. (Gaucher & Coffey. training and development. 1992. The research found that these organizations invest in and value human resource to gain strategic competitive advantage. 1996).

5. 2006). Effective measurement of employee satisfaction to sustain continuous improvement. Proactive retention strategies. Jarrar and Zairi (2000) concluded that this has become an important best practices to enhance performance achieve sustained competitive advantage. Arumugam. 3. McAdam and Kelly. This practice has been established as a catalyst for change. 2007. 2001). Benchmarking is defined as the best practices to achieve superior performance. Palo & Padhi. 2000. Dale & Cooper. 6. 2002). 1999. Mohrman & Ledford 1995. Vellapan & Lok. Emphasize value addition training and development. (Thor and Jarret. 2000.18 BENCHMARKING Researchers view Benchmarking as an essential tool to achieve TQM objectives (Porter & Tanner. Ooi. 2000. 2005. The strategy provides a mirror to organizations to Dow et al (1999) argued that this is an important TQM practice to achieve quality objectives. Cassell et al. Based on empirical evidence. 1996. It facilitates organizations to learn from industries’ best practices and align their internal and external processes for excellence. Lawrel. 2001).. Traditional performance appraisal system needs to be replaced by 360 degree appraisal system. 1992. Many reputable organisations and firms are engaged in training and promotion of benchmarking as essential methodology to achieve sustained business excellence ( Dervitsiotis. Baker.77 2. researchers have concluded that effective HRM practices are critical for accomplishment of TQM initiatives and organizational performance in changing business environment (Cruickshank. Sinclair and Zairi. 4. . Comprehensive reward management based on equity. Yong. 2.

human resource management. team work. quality and operational results and customer focus and satisfaction. Palestine and Saudi Arabia. and emphasis on continuous learning through training and development). over a period of two years. performance based reward system. identified the best benchmark practices that include Leadership. customer focused processes. organizational culture. and use of statistical tools for process improvement. strategic planning. The study concluded that leadership commitment. communication. customer focus. Qatar Saudi Arabia. Malaysia. team work. vendor relationship and management of process were the bench mark practices in different regions of the world. Youssef and Zairi (1995) carried out study based on different industries. continuous improvement. in a study in Hong Kong. communication. customer satisfaction. continuous improvement. training of human resources. and United Arab Emirates) and Far East (Malaysia and Singapore). United Kingdom. customer-supplier relationship management. and use of self assessment framework. continuous improvement and suppliers’ relationship. Huq and Stolen (1998). human resource dimensions (recognition. . reward. In a study of 36 industries. These practices included commitment of top leadership. process management. Nofal. Middle East (Bahrain. Kuwait. workers empowerment. customer satisfaction. organizational culture that support TQM initiatives. identified critical benchmark practices. identified benchmark TQM practices as top management commitment. in different region of the world (United States.78 Chung ( 2001. organizational culture. information management. The focus of the study was to benchmark the critical factors of TQM in different regions. participative management. Zairi and Ahmed (2004) in a comparison four studies conducted in Kuwait.

examined the implementation of best TQM practices. effective reward and recognition programmes. both from manufacturing and services sectors. Sohal. self assessment. in study of 8 Australian organizations. innovative human resource practices. The study found Leadership. managing suppliers. resource management. determination and integration of customer feedback. effective human resource dimensions. and business results. (1997) examined the best quality management practices in HRM in China. Customer focus. participation and empowerment of employees. India and Mexico. were found to be the best practices. and inculcating awareness of quality dimensions were found to be the benchmark human resource development practices to achieve quality goals. leadership. Rao et al. The sample consisted of 22 companies. strategic quality planning. Easton (1993) carried out a study on the state of TQM practices of United States Companies. M. and Zairi. management of people. The benchmark practices on which the evaluation was based included leadership. continuous improvement. The results found that senior management commitment to quality. organizing for quality. management of processes. measurement of customer requirements. Terziovski.79 Kay and Dayson (1995) in a study of 13 organizations with a view to identify characteristics of these organizations based on the best TQM practices. team work. Thiagarajan. and customer satisfaction emerged as the ben TQM . adoption of new technology. process management. systems and process management. & Samson (1996). employee involvement. and implementation of improvement and cross functional teams. The study based on the survey of 389 organizations in these countries found that commitment to training. T. training and education. (1997) examined the best TQM practices. competitive benchmarking and performance measure systems. reward and recognition. policy and strategy.

To pursue this approach. 2000). the Pakistan National Quality Award provides a framework that facilitates assessment of organizational quality management performance against specific benchmark and provide opportunity to undertake appropriate improvement interventions. relationship with suppliers. firms initiate quality management interventions to improve their performance in quality related dimensions.Within the context of Pakistan. . weaknesses and the opportunities and weakness prevailing in external and internal environment (Conti. management of process. organizations use various frameworks to assess their quality management initiatives with a view to identify the strengths and weaknesses. 2. and International Quality Rating System ( IQRS) (Kueng. self assessment provides a mean to organizations to identify its strengths. Oakland. Various quality frameworks are available to organizations. Australian Quality Award. MBNQA. Based on the identification of the gaps in quality pursuits.80 Gandhinathan & Karuppusami (2006) in meta analysis of empirical studies done between 1989 and 2003identified the benchmark practices followed by organisations. Deming Prize. The study concluded that leadership commitment. 1999. Some of the reputed and well established and documented self assessment frameworks that provide general guidelines are EFQM. and services. training and customers focus were the most vital practices pursed by the organizations.19 SELF ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORKS Organizations endeavour to continuously improve its processes. The NASA Quality and Excellence Award ( Q&E). quality policy. According to researchers. products. 2000).

increased employees’ commitment. Poor training of the staff and weak supplier management were noted as the vital dimensions of quality management for significant performance Tsang and Antony (2001) identified critical success factors of TQM in UK services organizations including Telecommunication. Patel and Djerdjouri (2000) examined the implementation of TQM practices in Telecom Fiji. teamwork. . The results indicated significant improvement in profitability and customer base due to effective leadership. supplier partnership/supplier management. customer focus. A considerable improvement in processes was also experienced. Based on the study of 300 subjects. a leading Finnish Telecommunication Company.81 2. improved productivity. supervisory leadership. training and development. the study identified top management commitment. Antilla (2000) investigated the impact of TQM implementation in Sonera Corporation. quality systems and policies. and cultural change as essential dimensions of TQM. increased innovations of products. improvement in management and employee relations. The results of the study indicated a change in organizational culture. and change in organizational culture. learning of employees.20 TQM PRACTICES IN TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRIES Sue and Hsu (2002) studied the implementation of quality management practices in 39 telecommunication organizations in Taiwan. and considerable savings were made in the labour costs. There was a considerable improvement in team based approach which resulted in increased efficiency and effectiveness. continuous improvement. services and processes.

the mobile operator made an investment .21 TQM PRACTICES IN CONTEMPORARY MOBILE PHONE OPERATORS IN THE WORLD 2. The customer focus at the company is guided by performance excellence. a leading mobile phone operator. accountability. The quality of work life promotes healthy life style. challenging and meaningful work. 2009. productive and engaged employees and focuses on compatible remuneration. According to Verizon (2009) the employees are company’s strategic resource. p. work and family life balance practices. innovations and excellence in smarter and faster products and services. the adaptability to do well at work and at home. The main focus of these quality management practices is to develop a knowledge base and long term partnership for sustained excellence.21. and respect for their individuality and perspectives. safe work environment. 5) The mobile phone company put customers focus as its strategic priority.82 2. This vision is translated into guiding principles and leadership manifests its commitment to achieve strategic quality objectives through allocation of appropriate resources and best working environment that nurture and energize diverse workforce to achieve and sustain performance excellence (Verizon. asserts customer focus. A proactive approach to employees’ development is pursed to achieve benchmark performance. In 2008. respect. and integrity at all levels. The company leadership articulates a vision for doing the best for people and the society. Regular customer feedback is sought with a view to align the company’s quality objectives to customers’ needs. partnership with suppliers and other stakeholders as its strategic priorities to achieve excellence through quality management.1 VERIZON WIRELESS (VERIZON) UNITED STATES Verizon (2009). empowerment and development of employees.

83 of $ 344 million in training and growth activities of the employees. The employees dedicated 11.7 million hours to training with main focus on customer services and management development (Verizon, 2009, p.41) In employee survey in 2008, the employees responded favourably with very high percentage of satisfaction to the following dimensions; (a) respect for valuing diversity and inclusion got 89% approval, (b) proud to be a part of the company secured 83 % approval, (c) in conduct of day-to- day work with integrity, the approval was 89%, and (d) workgroup operations on commitment to customers got 89% rating (Verizon, 2009, p.43). The company was placed at 22nd position in Business Week Magazine list of Best Places to Launch a Career. Training Magazine placed the operator in its list of Top 125 Training Organizations in America consecutively for seventh year. Corporate Responsibility Magazine named Verizon among 100 Best Corporate Citizens for 2008. Latina Style magazine placed Verizon at 13th position for Latinas to Work For in the United States (Verizon, 2009, p. 7). Verizon (2009, p.50) notes that through an effective process management and continuous improvement pursuits, the company is exceeding customers’ expectations with regard to innovative products and services to meet ever changing needs of its diverse customer base. Over the last three years, the company made more than over $ 50 million investment in technology infrastructure to keep its leading edge in innovation and speed of products and services to the market. According to Verizon (2009), the relationship with suppliers is based on mutual benefits and highest ethical conduct. A very high standard of compliance is desired form the suppliers with regard to health, safety and environmental laws and regulations. Upholding of human rights of workers is a part of suppliers’ audit that the operator undertakes to monitor the suppliers’

84 compliance. Regular audit of suppliers is an essential dimension of quality management practice to ensure that suppliers’ strictly conformance to the quality dimensions that company stands for.


Vodafone (UK) is the largest mobile phone company providing voice and data services to a customer base of over 18.5 million customers in United Kingdom. The company pursues quality management practices to achieve performance excellence in dynamic competitive environment. Vodafone (2009) leadership views customers’ and employees’ satisfaction at the heart of their business, making profit in a way that maximize the positive and minimizes the negative and provide best benefits to the customers and employees. Vodafone (2009) pursues customer satisfaction through fast, reliable and safe network, great value tariffs, innovative mobile services, product and services that promote flexible working, customers’ safety online, privacy and security of data, favourable prices, and information about mobile phone technology and health, regular meeting and feedback from customers. The company manifests its commitment in providing innovative and differentiated products and services though constant feed back from customers and responding to the changing environment. This alignment is achieved through constant focus on managing processes effectively and pursuing continuous improvement in company’s products, services and processes to delight customers and meeting environmental challenges. The mobile operator has undertaken initiatives to help customers to become greener through development and provision of smart metering, by 2012, for business and residential customers (Vodafone, 2009, p.5).

85 Vodafone (2009, p. 17) emphasizes a strategic and collaborative approach in suppliers’ relationship. The relationship with suppliers is guided by operator’s Code of Ethical Purchasing. The important dimensions include human rights, child and forced labour, working conditions, freedom of association, bribery and environmental management. All major and new suppliers must confirm compliance. The operator expects major suppliers to conform compliance company’s health and safety, fraud management and duty to report policies. It is important for the suppliers to adopt these practices since any failure in supply chain can affect operator’s brand. According to Vodafone (2009, p. 15) the operator constantly strive to create an environment where everyone can succeed and flourish. Managing a diverse workforce of over 10,000 members offer opportunities and challenges. Starting with commitment from the top, the mobile operator has created an environment of employee engagement and advocacy with equal opportunities for all at all levels. The main aim is to attract and retain the best people, to build a diverse team that firm supports with training and development throughout their career. There is a great focus on team building and collaborative working to create synergy. The company spent Pound Sterling 3 million on training and development related activities of the workforce. The operator also trained 6,000 customer service and retail staff to use new Strategic Customer Management tool that enhances efficiency and effectiveness (p. 15). The operator recognizes employees’ great achievements and that everyone is fairly rewarded, and that everyone has a voice – and it will be heard. The company is committed to communicate clearly, openly and honestly, and handle the really tough issues – like redundancy –with professionalism and empathy. In a survey in 2008, the employees’ engagement score increased to 73% (Vodafone, 2009, p.14). In employee survey, 2008 fair treatment of members of team was rated at 87%,

86 autonomy given by managers to employees in their work got 86% approval and adopting better ways to deliver great customer experience is a high priority in my team got 86% rating (p. 16) .The Company has been rated among the Sunday Times 20 Big Companies to work for 2009.


Deutsch Telekom is one of the leading telecommunication companies in global information and telecommunication technology sector with presence in Europe, Asia and United States. T-Mobile is the flagships brand of the company. The company is Europe’s largest telecommunications company, and by far the largest owner of communications infrastructure in Germany. Deutsch Telekom (2008) asserts its role in changing economic environment by assuming more responsibility towards its stakeholders for sustainable development of the future. The company is guided by its values of customers delight, respect and integrity, team work, best place to perform and grow and personal commitment of each employee. According to Deutsch Telekom (2008) customer delight is at the heart of company’s strategic approach. The company offer customers an extensive range of communications options for connected life and work. In addition to broadband networks and versatile product ranges, product innovations include a tailored service. This service is adjusted to the needs of our customers and offers them the best solutions. Excellent service has become a distinguishing factor vis-à-vis competitors. T-Mobile USA tops the table for customer acceptance in the USA, according to the "Wireless Retail Sales Satisfaction Study" by the consultancy J. D. Power and Associates in May 2008. T-Mobile performed well in all areas surveyed and best of all in the

87 sales staff category. This was particularly pronounced in comparison with the industry average. Measuring customer satisfaction is a vital dimension of company customer focus philosophy. The market research institute TNS Infratest does this by calculating its TRI*M Index. The TRI*M Index is an indicator which represents the status quo of the relationship between a company and its customers. The figures calculated in a harmonized procedure confirm an increase in customer satisfaction for 2008, especially company’s international affiliated companies. Attaining TRI*M Indices of over 80 percent, company’s subsidiaries T-Mobile Slovenko and T-Mobile Hungary (Magyar Telekom) have demonstrated the best relations with their customers. Deutsch Telekom (2009, p.16) pursues a comprehensive approach to its suppliers’ relationship ensuring strict compliance of social and ecological standards along its supply chain. The company requires its suppliers to sign and comply with the standards of the Social Charter of the company. The Social Charter lays down compulsory rules relating to human rights, the environment, equal opportunities, occupational health and safety and the right to set up and join a labour union, and is based on the principles of the United Nations Global Compact as well as on the conventions of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The company demands that their suppliers, for their part, apply these standards to their own sub- suppliers. The company asks their suppliers to provide details of their social and ecological work conditions and management systems. On site suppliers’ audit is undertaken by the company. During 2008, the company performed on-site supplier audits at three companies in Taiwan, the People’s Republic of China and Mexico (p.17). Employees with competitive skills and entrepreneurial approach are considered vital in achieving and sustaining success for the Deutsche Telekom. The company has a workforce of about 260,000 individuals in over 50 countries worldwide. Deutsch Telekom (2008, p.22)

88 focuses on human resource development for a knowledge based organization represents a vital aspect of its value chain. This is guided by quality of work life initiatives and talent agenda to attract and retain the best for competitive advantage. In addition to training employees, promoting high potentials, and encouraging a healthy work-life balance, the company also attaches high priority to reinforcing cultural diversity. The human resource strategy of Deutsche Telekom pursues is based on attracting and maintaining talented and competent workforce, service oriented culture, adaptability to change, and proactive role of human resource management as strategic partner. The company manifests its commitment through company wide human resource management projects of strategic dimensions (Deutsche Telekom 2008, p.22) Deutsche Telekom has been among Germany’s largest training providers for many years and had 11,679 trainees at the end of 2007. In 2008, the company created a series of advancement programs for top performers with leadership potential. During 2008, some 350 top performers and talents in the unit have already benefited from targeted advancement under this scheme. The company leads the industry average in the training of its workforce. Training and development programmes, with a strategic focus, are implemented by Telekom Training within the company (Deutsche Telekom 2008, p.23). The company coordinates and designs training courses for experts and executive staff in both the internal and external markets in Germany. One example is the service training seminars that play a key role in positioning the Group as a service company. A total of 17,071 seminars were held in the year 2007. During this period, 108,943 employees participated in a total of 459,124 training days ( Deutsche Telekom, 2008, p. 24). According to Deutsche Telekom ( 2008, p.24)the work life balance programmes at the company offer flexible work times, job sharing and career break ( suspending employment for six months).The company’s subsidiary in Czech Republic was awarded first place in the coveted

89 “Company of the Year: Equal Opportunities 2008 Award” by Czech non-governmental organization (NGO) Gender Studies. The “Social Day” and “One Day for People in Need” programmes of corporate volunteering enhances employees’ society interaction, facilitate promotion of healthy relationship and manifest responsible corporate culture. The staff suggestion programme titled ideas for service competitiveness at Deutsche Telekom generated savings of around EURO 0.1 billion from a total of 8,841 suggestions for improvement (new submissions and subsequent approvals) in 2008 (p.24). Entrepreneurial activities at Deutsche Telekom lay the foundation of innovations for sustained competitiveness. Innovation strategy is based on meeting customers’ present and future needs. To meet this end, Deutsche Telekom is focusing on areas of intuitive usability (easier and convenient to use technology), integrated communication, intelligent access, inherent security and infrastructure development that are considered vital for the future of integrated communication technologies (Deutsche Telekom, 2008, p. 26). Improvement in processes at Deutsche Telekom focuses on improvement in cost structure to remain competitive, sales and services from single source for significant improvement in customer service, offering innovative products and services, and simplification of brand identity in the minds of consumers are core areas for future development for performance excellence and sustainability ( Deutsche Telekom, 2008, p.27).


Optus is the second largest telecommunication company in Australia and is wholly owned subsidiary of Singapore Telecommunications. The company has a workforce of 10679 employees and customer base of over 7.79 million. The company represents about 33% of

Optus has in place an established complaint handling process. This commitment starts at the top leadership level and cascade down to front line employees (p. Financial Advisory Support Team at the company work with customers on a case to case basis. Improving customers’ experience is core to company’s business. The mobile operator is committed to providing clear pricing and information to help customers avoid financial difficulties with regard to receiving its products and services. 24). Optus serves over 7 million mobile customers each day.23). This philosophy is based on company’s guiding principles of customer focus. integrity and personnel excellence. p. challenging spirit. including small businesses and corporations. Optus ( 2008. to see trends and areas of customers’ dissatisfaction. 8). Optus has established a Consumer Liaison Forum (CLF) to gain input into the development of policies and practices to overcome barriers to access and use of telecommunications products and services (p. Optus (2008) focuses on achieving leadership position by providing world class services based on reliability. to determine their eligibility for the hardship program and provide customized solutions to manage their debt (p. and improved service quality by 21 percent (p. the company reduced the average wait time for customers to reach an Optus representative by 10 percent and reduced fault rate for customers. the company invests over Australian $ one billion every year on improving network. 25). According to Optus (2008).90 Australian mobile market. efficiency and best in class customers’ service. As a result of customer satisfaction initiatives. . team work.19) notes that company is committed to being the customers’ champion by listening and delivering to the needs of customers. The company made some significant gains in 2007. The company internally reviews the complaint statistics each month.

56). blending traditional and innovative mediums to maximize the impact of its messages for various audiences across the company.53). Optus (2008) views engagement with employees as an integral part of company’s human resource policies. posters and promotional activities. live and contribute to the community (p. The company aims to recruit and retain the best talent. leadership is an attitude. negotiation skills. the company uses newsletters. Provisions of mentoring and education assistance to employees further contribute to these leadership development programmes (p. working in teams and leadership. Optus undertakes a diverse approach to achieve employees’ participation through a range of activities. At Optus. The company offers its employees to assist their growth in four key segments based on wellbeing. as well as create an environment where diversity is valued and our people are encouraged to develop and make the best of how they work.58). flexible reward to tailor their needs. TV broadcasts and web streams. not a position on an organizational chart. Optus Leaders of Tomorrow programme focuses on identification of talents and its development through a structured approach enabling employees to assume higher responsibilities in different functional area (p. coaching. the intranet.91 Optus (2008) believes that people are at the heart of its quality management philosophy and the employees makes Optus different from its competitors. team management and develop financial management and project management.57). These programmes are augmented through elearning in important areas of strategic planning. For regular internal communication with the employees. carrier choices where people are encouraged exploring their potential through a variety of career paths. and innovative programmes to support people in their personal and professional lives. employee road shows and Optus “Jam” sessions on regular bas (p. emails from CEO and Senior Leaders. The range of such programmes covers diversified dimensions based on performance management. .

9 million subscribers and 158400 employees in June 2009. on average. Rehabilitation and Compensation Commission Award ( best rehabilitation and return to work) 2007. training. the company has been on the list of Fortune 500 companies consecutively for eight years and currently ranked 148th on this list. According to Optus (2008. China Mobile is currently the largest mobile telecommunications operator in the world by network size . In the vast majority of categories. 53). Australian Best Direct Marketing Award 2007. 2.16) notes the external recognition of its commitment to customers. Optus (2009. The company got Australian telecommunication award 2007. employees’ feedback is continuously sought to improve quality of work life at Optus. leadership. employees and the society.21.5 CHINA MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS CORPORATION (CHINA MOBILE) China Mobile operates in mainland China and Hong Kong. p. The survey indicated that 74% of employees were happy with the environment and diversity within the workplace. Results also showed that. and Insurance Australia Group (IAG) Sustainable Supplier of the year Award 2007. Government Sustainability Green Globe Award 2007. With a base of 499. Best International Carrier. 54). p. The company provided opportunities of training to each employee for 41 hours during 2008 (p. 84% employees participated in the survey. 2007. employees were satisfied with career development. During 2008. Safety.92 Employees undertake Equal Employment Opportunity training during their induction and every two years during their time at Optus. Optus ranked higher than the global telecommunications norm. rewards and recognition programmes.

2009." (China Mobile. China Mobile (2009. among other issues. and to create a system that supported employee rights. The company proactively focus on engagement with stakeholders is guided by principles of learn. .3). p.16) highlights the customer focused initiatives of management of payment system. The working environment is designed to support employee development and build a motivated workforce. share and collaborative. Survey results indicated customer satisfaction rates continue to rise. network quality. According to China Mobile (2008).000 customers over the telephone on topics including overall service. leapfrogging from excellence to pre. promotional activities. The company human resource programmes continued to treat employees with equality. The computer assisted telephone survey was conducted in five phases between mid-June and early December 2008. and payment and support systems. to offer professional development opportunities.17). Customer satisfaction is the core of China Mobile strategy. the overall customer satisfaction scores increased to 81. increased privacy protection of customers. p. implementation of its Gold Standard Services and new products and services to special groups.93 and number of customers.eminence. China Mobile (2009. the company surveyed more than 400. effectiveness of new services. Regular feedback from the customers forms an essential dimension of customer relationship.63 in 2006 (p. The operator seeks to align its business to the changing needs of its stakeholders. In 2008. The company continued to commission independent surveys of customer satisfaction with the goal of truly understanding the customer experience and identifying any major challenges.19) affirms that employees are the most important resource and the foundation of sustainable growth. p. The company is guided by its goal and strategy to "become a global leadership company.31 from 79.

32). provide new and varied tariff plans featuring voice-based and valueadded services that appeal to the various customer segments within the Company’s network. employee participation programmes. advances their careers and ensures the sustainable growth of the business. p. customers’ satisfaction is the top priority to achieve sustained performance excellence. achieving revenue leadership and implementing operational consistency throughout its operations. Ukraine.21. and . employees grievance system. Turkmenistan and Armenia with a subscriber base of 91.298 in training per employee (China Mobile. 20).5 hours per employee.94 The company is committed to the principles of equal work for equal pay. p. The operator also made an average investment of Renminbi (RMB) 2. According to MTS (2006. Continuous engagement with employees through employees representative committee meetings.20). p. gender equality and assigning work based on skills and experience. the company trained 646351 employees with an average annual training time of 46.7 million. employee assistance programmes. 2. 2009. The mobile operator aims to maintain its leadership position in its markets through a three pronged strategy based on revenue stimulation. career development and labour rights are key initiatives that foster ownership among employees ( China Mobile 2008.6 MOBILE TELE SYSTEMS (MTS) RUSSIA MTS is the largest mobile operator in Russian and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Uzbekistan. Investing in employee development through training builds employees’ skills. Belarus. The mobile operator is committed to broaden its network footprint and further develop commercial services in regions where the company holds licenses and maintains operations. training. cost efficiency and process excellence. grow and create synergies by increasing MTS’ network in the region. In 2008.

The major achievements resulted in increase in service level by 61% along with prioritize service request.(Customer Service. and delivers cutting-edge products and services in each of the company’s markets of operation. new customer focus initiatives resulted significant improvement in the delivery of enhanced customer care through provisioning of new system. abandoned call rate reduction by 19%. p. leverage scale and all possible synergies between the corporate headquarter and throughout MTS’ markets of operations and cultivates the region’s top management team by attracting and retaining qualified personnel and nurturing a distinctive corporate culture (MTS 2006. The results indicated enhanced customer satisfaction and achieved improved efficiency in functional areas.and achieved cost saving through restructuring the reporting and control processes. MTS emphasizes continuously promoting cost efficiency and process excellence in all functional areas. the mobile operator carried out a comprehensive benchmarking programme to enhance its operational effectiveness. first call resolution boosted to 90%. p. 2006. 24). With competitive environment. increased agent productivity by 72%. According to MTS (2006). The operator continuously evaluate the potential of horizontal and vertical integration and of convergence projects that enhance the company’s market position and deliver exceptional value to customers (MTS. The company focuses on achieving mastery of innovation and technology. . 2007).95 ensures continued customer loyalty through dedicated services and a total focus on the customers’ needs. The company continuously strives to improve and enhance its operational excellence.33).

Brazil and Vatican City. The reactive survey is conducted immediately after an event. This collaboration is designed to guarantee the protection of customers’ rights regarding products and services supplied by the Group. According to Telecom Italia (2008.60 for consumers and 6. innovation. which in some cases has involved directly the top management.6 million subscribers in Italy. The survey with regard to customer satisfaction with customer care indicated overall satisfaction (7.97 for business segments of customers respectively.32 for business segment) respectively The management .21. transparency and performance excellence (Telcom Italia.10 for business segment. courtesy of operator (8. p. During 2008.7 TELECOM ITALIA MOBILE . The reflective survey is based on overall perception of the service quality. the customer satisfaction (for network coverage) was rated 8. These surveys are based on average satisfaction scale ranging from 1 (completely dissatisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied). taking responsibility. The quality management approach of the company is based on its guiding principles of customer focus. 89) two types of surveys are conducted to seek customers’ feedback. 2008. customer focus has been at the forefront of Telecom Italia approach towards sustained quality and performance excellence. According to Telecom Italia (2009).31 for business segment). integration. p.49 for business segment).3 for consumers and 8. and operator competence (8. The initiatives undertaken on this account are based on collaboration with consumers’ associations.50 for consumer and 6.96 2.8).9).16 for consumers and 7.ITALY Telecom Italia Mobile is the largest Italian telecommunication company and has over 70. and to inform the associations about organizational changes that could impact on customers (Telecom Italia. The satisfaction with billing got 7. 2008.74 for consumer and 8. proactivity. p.

the employees expressed 6. 2. p.35 level of satisfaction (Telecom Italia. Scheduled checks of suppliers’ including audit are done regularly in the areas of ethics and sustainability as well as Telecom Italia code of ethical conduct. their activities monitored through rigorous control and regular evaluation is done with regard to the compliance of the laid down standards. Quality of work life and Internal communication form essential dimensions of employees’ fulfillment. Two million hours of training (on-line. and has the leading edge in introducing innovative and new technology trends to . According to Telecom Italia (2008) relationship with suppliers is an essential dimension to achieve quality management objectives. 109). the human resource philosophy is based on nurturing and developing employees to gain and sustain competitive advantage. In employee satisfaction survey in 2008. 2008. Suppliers’ evaluation is based on Global Vendor Rating Index that takes account of suppliers’ performance in the field of environmental and social sustainability. 2008. Telecom Italia (2008.97 compensation is tied to customer satisfaction index and monitored throughout the year for these two types of surveys.42% in 2006 (Telecom Italia. the operator spent 25 million euros on training. on a scale of 1 to 10. During 2008. p. More than 71% of employees have participated in at least one training session. The suppliers are carefully selected.110).40 % against 83. Evaluation of suppliers’ rating by an independent evaluating agency resulted in overall improvement of 87.21.8 SLOVAK TELEKOM – SLOVAKIA Slovak Telekom is a multimedia operator with many years’ experience and international expertise. 90). on the job and in the class) were utilized. p.

are done and the satisfaction of customer was rated at 87% by an independent evaluator (Slovak Telekom. . and to support a work-life balance.learning of management and employees is essential to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. Implementation of a Seven Habits of Highly Effective People development programme for directors was undertaken in 2008 for improving customer-oriented corporate culture. p. Regular employee satisfaction surveys are conducted to measure the satisfaction and loyalty of the employees.14) Slovak Telekom (2008. The Company provides telecommunication network coverage to the whole country. and average development costs per employee were EURO 302. 2008. According to Slovak Telekom (2008). on monthly basis. Slovak Telekom has been announced as 4th Best Employer by Hewitt Associates study recently evaluated in Slovakia. p. growth and development through concentrated training. the company scored a rating of 75%.15) notes that focus on training and e. (Slovak Telecom. Retention programme for key players yielded significant results of 94.1 million. Regular customer surveys.22). the average number of development days per employee was 3. employees.7% success rate for stabilizing and retaining the key players. The company seeks to adopt a proactive approach to remain in touch with customers through multiple means including the introduction of Ombudsman institution to resolve non-standard or difficult to implement customers’ requirements and complaints. Customer focus is the predominant value of the company’s quality philosophy and customers’ needs are paramount in all its processes. p. Slovak Telekom pursues employee centered policies to create attractive working condition. partners. suppliers and community. 2008. the company envisages to be the leader with a commitment to customer. During 2008.98 Slovak telecommunications market. In employee survey in 2008.5.

p. these programmes facilitate new acquisition to quickly adapt to MTN culture and enhance customers’ centered culture. According to MTN (2008). the company especially focuses on transparent selection of its suppliers. 2008).99 According to Slovak Telekom (2008. Slovak Telekom cooperated with over one thousand suppliers. the company reached 100 million subscribers milestone. The company lays great emphasis on its ability to attract and retain talented individuals for continued success. leveraging our footprint and intellectual capacity. . Asia and Middle East countries. the operator undertake efficient and effective human resource policies based on people development. In addition. 2. The company follows a strict compliance approach and regularly monitor and audit the quality of products and services by suppliers (Slovak Telekom. To achieve its vision. employees make significant contribution to make MTN a dynamic and vibrant organisation. In 2008.25). In order to lessen the chances of staff defection. the company strives to be the leader in telecommunications in emerging markets. and convergence and operational evolution (p.9 MOBILE TELEPHONE NETWORKS (MTN) SOUTH AFRICA MTN is South Africa based multinational mobile telecommunication company operating in 21 markets in African. the leadership is pursuing strategy that is built on three pillars – consolidation and diversification. MTN views employees’ development as a strategic priority. In March 2009.66). MTN promotes employees’ development initiative that enhances knowledge sharing. According to MTN (2008). It pays attention that its business partners and suppliers pursue ethical business practices as required by prevalent laws and regulations of Slovak Republic. The suppliers require valid certification and compliance of rules valid for European Union.21.

leadership brand.10 FRANCE TELECOM France Telecom is the main telecommunication company in France.6 million all over the world in September 2008. In addition to existing learning and development initiatives. e.21. improved procurement processes. in this regard. Orange is the flagship brand of France balance. 2. development of leaders within the organization and effective succession planning ( p.g. The revamping its relationship with suppliers resulted in enormous cost saving. This initiative aims at assisting with company’s talent attraction.23). The academy is a mean to achieve competitiveness based on human capital and facilitates development of supportive organizational culture. The innovation approach is based on simplicity. The company's success. p. MTN has created an incubator environment within in its quest for innovative offerings. Regional learning centers are being established in Accra. The mobile operator has subscribers of 117. p. MTN has pursued a new strategic approach to learning and organizational development through launch of its own Academy. insight and creativity. imagination. .32) stresses that innovations in products and services are fundamental to MTN customer focused and continuous improvement strategy.100 work. According to MTN (2008. the third largest in Europe and one of the largest in the world. 33) relationship with suppliers is vital for value addition on long term basis. and effective management of supply chain processes. MTN (2008. mobile payments and utilizing Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). p. manifest in development of new applications. Dubai and Johannesburg (MTN. respect for diversity. 2008. Through procurement function. MTN secures more competitive prices from vendors of network equipment.76). development and retention strategy with a focus on organizational learning excellence.

During 2006. p. France Telecom (2006) aims to build up a total performance approach to suppliers based on quality. 70% contracts showed improvements. 86% of suppliers were evaluated. Customer relations policy is guided by reliability.16). Customer satisfaction can also be monitored very closely thanks to the Customer Loyalty Index. The compliance of social. quality and excellence in performance in all dimensions (France Telecom 2008. and excel in the industry. This programme focuses on improvement in quality of services and solutions. 16) quality of service is the corner stone of operator’s policy. and 58% of suppliers made international commitments to agreements such as Global Compact. p. innovation and respect for sustainable development. ethical and environmental protection dimensions is vital for suppliers. The suppliers are required to adhere to the same commitments as the France Telecom.2). According to France Telecom (2008. The performance levels are tested twice a year based on metrics compatible with international telecommunications standards. The evaluation process provides a framework for initiating and sustaining competitive advantage by adopting best practices (France Telecom. the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct or codes defined by World Business Council for sustainable development and 70% of suppliers implemented environmental management system .101 Leadership at France Telecom is committed in making France Telecom the benchmark quality service provider wherever it is present. Outstanding Customer Expectation Programme launched by the operator aims at exceeding customers’ expectations. through diversification of innovative products and services. The overall objective of this approach is to position France Telecom as the benchmark operator for quality of service. p. More than a contractual relationship. 2008. trust and simplicity. provide exemplary customers’ experience. Regular monitoring and analysis of overall performance of operator’s suppliers is undertaken.

on line training and e-learning has also become essential dimension of training and development of employees. the company promotes management involvement in employee relations and tools tailoring HR solutions to the specific needs of each member of staff. It has over 100 million subscribers as of February. France Telecom (2006. 27-28). 2009. p. As a result of strong focus on training. implementing a dynamic employment policy.36).21. had been implemented to strengthen staff motivation. offering access to training. 2008. p. According to France Telecom (2008. The company is committed to implementing a dynamic. investments were up by nearly 5% for France Telecom. The human resource policies are based on upholding fundamental human rights. The Company had increased overall training effort by 25% for 2006-2008. people. SA and 13% for rest of the Group. international mobility and gender equality.34).102 based on ISO 14001 or to a lesser extent Eco-management and Audit Scheme ( France Telecom. Globally.32) is engaged in employee centered policies to ensure that employees and customers interaction yield performance excellence.friendly employment policy. Training of management and staff is considered vital for sustained excellence. The company has set up management schools in Poland.17% share of wireless services market. known as program ACT: (Anticipation and Competencies for the Transformation). Bharti Airtel is third largest in-country mobile operator by subscriber base. it has more than 33. the company spirit and the sense of cohesion (p. the UK and France. 2. pp. The leadership at Bharti Airtel pursues growth and performance excellence and its sustaining in the days ahead. A project. The quality philosophy at company is guided by empowering people. In India. adaptability to .11 BHARTI AIRTEL INDIA Bharti Airtel is the largest mobile phone operator in India. In addition.

Career progression and succession planning have been the key to build a robust leadership pipeline. entrepreneurial spirit and openness. Customer centered philosophy integrate all internal processes. six sigma plus. lean six sigma. training and development of leadership skills and motivation of employees form essential dimensions of human resource retention strategy. transparency. Quality is at the heart of all activities at the company. passion for new ideas and innovations.103 changing customer needs. The operator’s human resource strategy is based on attracting and retaining the best and improving its intellectual capital to achieve competitive advantage. Employees’ stock ownership plans. The operator’s focus on continuous improvement is guided by eliminating the root causes of each problem through a shared approach. The company benchmarks its processes with global standards and best practices. HR initiatives have helped in reducing . The company has undertaken development initiatives of knowledge management. The company focuses on intensive training and development for employees at all levels to take larger responsibilities and newer challenges. talented manpower is vital to achieve and sustain competitiveness in dynamic business environment. Bharti Airtel passion for innovation manifest in the launch of Airtel Innovation Fund. Bharti Airtel (2009) notes that continuous investment in people development yields significant benefits. Bharti Airtel is a fully ISO 27001:2005 Certified Organization. with an initial funding of India Rupees two million in telecom sector that aims at providing opportunities to entrepreneurs to build innovative businesses. According to Bharti Airtel (2009). The company has the largest numbers of 29 certification for its quality programmes. These are monitored regularly and continuously audited by reputed third party for objective assessment. reduction in variation and standardization of processes.

In addition. customer experience is shared by . Employees input are sought through twice-yearly surveys.18-20). Sprint (2007.26-28) believes that motivated employees are in a better position to satisfy customers and earn their loyalty. According to Sprint (2007. The focus on employees’ satisfaction manifest in employees’ centered policies. the operator is committed to provide products and services that meet customers’ life styles and needs.12 SPRINT NEXTEL CORPORATION (SPRINT) UNITED STATES Sprint is the third largest telecommunication company in United States with 49. Bharti Airtel has received the prestigious Gallup Great Place to Work' award second time in row.3 million customers. an idea bank has been established where employee contribute ideas for improvement and innovations in existing and new products and services (Sprint. p. the leadership is committed to excellence in all its operations. 28). Customer Advisory Council and easy access to discuss products and services related problems facilitate designing of customers’ centric products and services. The essential employees focused programmes include employees’ engagement. This passion for quality is guided by principles of integrity.104 the attrition to 18% from the earlier 28%.9). care about each other and leading by example (Sprint. diverse and inclusive workforce. The Innovative Forum helps create partnership and new products and services. 2. pp. In addition. passion about customers. delivery of results. According to Sprint (2007). The company aims at providing best products and services to its customers. innovation in products and services.21. competitive benefits and work-life balance initiatives that employees accord top priority. to work and win as a team.p. pp. 2007. 2007.

Central and South America and Asia.38) notes that a strategic. customer focus has been the most vital dimension of its quality management practices. According to Telefonica (2008. Benchmarking of best human right practices is undertaken to enhance quality of work life (Sprint. Leadership Excellence programme provide opportunity to future leaders additional opportunities for growth. Improvement in quality and coverage of network and modernizing the retail outlets has been the top priority.26).13 TELEFONICA. 2007. United States. Continuous feedback is sought from customers for sustained improvements. S.A. recognition and celebration of achievements are important human resource dimensions that acknowledge employees achievements and commend top performers. Suppliers’ relations are based on quality. Employee Resource Group provides a platform to employees who share common interest. It operates in Europe. and their abilities to provide solutions in different areas. 2008. . The operator leadership focuses on business excellence. p. an opportunity to meet. Fair reward. innovative and diverse supplier base is critical to sustained competitiveness. (TELEFONICA) SPAIN Telefonica. The company is third largest in world in number of clients and in the top five in the market value. p.10).12). contribution to progress and communication and dialogue by providing transparent and relevant information (Telefonica.A. S. The performance of suppliers are continuously monitored and audited. p.105 employees. network and further foster corporate culture. p. 2. is a Spanish telecommunication company operating globally.21. The goal is to lead and consolidate this lead in customer satisfaction in its areas of operation. certification. honest and transparent management. Sprint (2008.

18) Telefonica. p. Peru and Mexico stood out in the Great Place to Work (GPTW) ranking (Telefonica. Telefónica’s vision of its employees envisages encouraging their professional growth. 17). Chile. in 2008. p. p.16). p. 2008. recognizing diversity.106 During 2008 the customer satisfaction index. employees’ growth yields significant and positive results in operational performance. According to the Telecommunications User Service Office in Spain.6) According to Telefonica (200. 24) acknowledges that collaboration with suppliers is vital to achieve and sustain performance excellence in value chain. (2008. 2009. fostering their talent.000 employees were undertaken. p.77 in 2007. the index indicated satisfaction and commitment level of 83. The operator has its own corporate university. the company had been rated as the Best Place to Work in Ecuador and Uruguay and got third place in Germany by Great Place to Work Institute (GPTW). 2008.92 as compared to 6. development and well being. Similarly the operator in Colombia. personal training plans for 149. 2008. scored 6. p. 79. on a scale of 0-10. Telefónica was the operator with the lowest percentage of complaints in 2008 (Telefonica. 14. and 68.36% by middle managers. initiative and innovation and remunerating them in a way that is both fair and transparent (Telefonica. During 2008. The company invested over EURO 64 million in training in 2008.36% by managers. where 0 means not at all satisfied and 10 means completely satisfied. E-learning is encouraged and promoted. Argentina.). The company responded to 71% of calls between 10 and 20 seconds. According to employees’ satisfaction and commitment survey in 2008. United States.92% by staff (Telefonica. According to independent agencies. A comprehensive approach is . Dynamic and employees centered human resource policies are considered critical for excellence in performance.

Telefonica carried out more than 1100 evaluations and 55 audits of its suppliers. Regular feedback from customers is used to align its priorities to meet and exceeds customers’ expectations. The products and services are innovated to meet the special needs of customers. Eastern Europe and Asia. The operator is passionate about employees development and gives them autonomy to plan and shape their own future. education and experience that promote will to excel at individual and team level. The suppliers are required to comply with the guiding principles of the company in social and environmental dimensions. It is currently ranked as the seventh largest telecommunication company in the world with over 168 million subscribers.14 TELENOR DENMARK Telenor is an international telecommunication company with its operations in Scandinavia. combining its global expertise with local needs and undertaking initiatives with its partners to create and sustain shared values (Telenor. and innovation in products and services through fresh ideas. 2008). Telenor is influencing the telecommunication industry through customers’ empowerment.21. According to Telenor (2008). the operator views customer focus as the corner stone of its strategic priorities. During 2008. Employees development philosophy is based on exposure. . Operator’s Global Training Programme provides an excellent opportunity to employees to enhance personal and professional competence Telenor (2008). The operator’s leadership commitment to provide innovative and quality services is based on the guiding principles of customers’ satisfaction in all operating markets compatible with their cultural values and norms. 2. fulfillment of promises.107 adopted in selecting and evaluating suppliers.

In Telenor. 2008. and focus on health. With a base of over million mobile phone subscribers. safety and environment. in addition to 65 audits of suppliers by the operator. The leadership of TeliaSonera envisages achieving world class status by being the best in class through network quality and excellence in operations (TeliaSonera.3). employees committee.15 TELIASONERA AB . . that energize employees to give their best in achieving quality goals. Initiatives undertaken by the operator include flexible working hours. p. providing wide coverage (extends to more than 99% of population in markets) and network quality through investment initiatives. quality of work life environment and supporting human resource policies and programmes enrich individual and family lives. the company also operates in Spain.12) pursues customer focus provisioning of innovative services to meet divergent and ever changing needs of the customers. and self evaluation by suppliers based on Global Self Assessment Questionnaire. on site inspections of 382 suppliers’ facilities were carried out. In 2008.108 According to Telenor (2008). As a result of these initiatives. safety. Relationship with suppliers is re-evaluated based on non compliance of laid down standards.21. 2. open plan offices. Telenor (2008) recognizes that long term relationship with suppliers is vital to achieve quality management objectives. open door communication. aesthetic work environment. security and environmental standards. this relationship is guided by strict adherence of suppliers to health. just and fair reward system. 2336 corrective actions were initiated in 2008 and these efforts also resulted in reducing the risk factor key performance indicator from 51% in 2007 to 21% in 2008. Turkey and Northern and Eastern Europe. p. compliance with Telenor values and ethical practices. TeliaSonera (2008.SWEDEN AND FINLAND TeliaSonera is the leading mobile network operator in Sweden and Finland.

the company initiated Six Sigma approach to hear and monitor the experiences of customers. and coaching. Focus on higher performers contributes toward talent development. During 2008. customized needs fulfillment. These employees are the driving force to make the operator a world class company. and upholding diversity and equal opportunities for all in order to meet ever changing competence challenge. The operator also evaluates its own performance as well as benchmarks its processes against its competitors and other industries. respect for human rights. fair marketing prices. TeliaSonera Business Schools offers diverse and challenging courses to enhance employees’ competence. the company score on European Performance Satisfaction Index was 68 with improvements in market positions in Nordic and Baltic countries and in Eurasia (pp. and constantly monitoring customers needs and transforming them into innovative products and services. goals. commitment. and respect for freedom of association. The company maintains regular dialogue with customers for value addition to its processes.109 maintaining customers’ privacy and integrity. leadership. the results of the survey indicated an index of 68. Employee Commitment Survey provides opportunity to employees to offer candid opinion on important dimensions of customer focus.13-14) TeliaSonera (2008. During 2008. ensuring work life balance policies. products and services. pp 28-30) considers employees are the strategic asset. life long learning. continuous training and development. . Regular surveys on monthly to yearly basis are conducted. According to TeliaSonera (2008). The operator creates a conducive work environment that nurtures employees through effective leadership. Top Talent and company’s international training programmes are attractive tools to achieve intellectual development of employees. employee engagement. the highest during the last five years. Effective performance management enhances employees’ commitment to their work. and work processes.

110 TeliaSonera (2008, pp39-40) practices enduring relationship with suppliers. This relationship is guided by very high standards of corporate responsibility during selecting, monitoring and evaluating its suppliers. Strict adherence to code of ethics and other mandatory social and environmental standards and requirements cover the whole lifecycle from concept of product design to product recycling. Continuous improvement in supply chain is demanded from suppliers at all times. The operator demands from suppliers’ strict adherence to United Nations Global Compact (ten principles in areas of environment, labour standards, human right and anti corruption). Suppliers’ self assessment, physical inspections of their facilities and frequent audits are carried out by third party or the company to ensure consistent quality in the supply chain.

2.21.16 AT&T MOBILITY UNITED STATES AT&T Mobility operates in United States as the second largest mobile phone operator with over 79 million subscribers. The leadership at AT&T Mobility is passionate in its commitment to customers’ satisfaction and views it as the corner stone of its quality philosophy. Customers’ input provides valuable opportunities to the company to remain competitive. According to AT&T (2008, p.8), the operator endeavors to create inclusive organizational culture that makes it an excellent place to work. The employees are treated as strategic asset and their development is considered essential for strategic performance excellence. The company provides quality of work life and excellent growth opportunities to employees to excel in all dimensions of work and life. The employees training and development programmes in 2008 cost $ 244 million In addition to this, $25 million were spent on reimbursement of tuition fee. Leadership development programme, accelerated development programme and other training and development programmes at AT&T University offer growth opportunities to high

111 performers. On account of its quality of work environment and sustainable workforce development initiatives, the company won accolade (AT&T, 2008, p.48). Relationship with supply chain partners is considered critical for continuous feedback, innovations, quality, cost competitiveness and sustained excellence. These are guided by socio – environmental best practices, ethical governance, human rights, privacy of information and suppliers’ diversity. Suppliers are required to comply with contemporary rules, regulations and conventions as in vogue. AT&T Citizenship & Sustainability Principles of Conduct for Suppliers lays the framework for these relationships. Frequent inspections and audit by the company ensures continuity of these relationships (AT&T, 2008, p.97).

2.21.17 TELECOM CORPORTATION (TELECOM) NEWZEALAND Telecom is the largest provider of telecommunication services in New Zealand. The operator has a subscriber base of over 2.2 million consumers (Telecom, 2009, p. 21). The leadership at Telecom envisions the operator to be the best wireless company through customer focus, innovation in products and services, investing in employees’ growth, enhancing network infrastructure and capability and providing value to stakeholders (Corporate Review, 2009). According to Telecom (2009), motivated and committed employees at the company fulfill customers’ aspiration and make the operator as customers’ first choice. The employees centered philosophy is guided by passion for customers, acting with integrity and openness. Development of employees is considered critical in areas of ethical behaviour, corporate citizenship, customer relationships, resolving customers’ complaints and concerns, business acumen, and products’ knowledge. Various development programmes (graduate leadership development and leadership programmes) at Telecom University caters for diverse development

112 needs of employees. Quality of work life provides opportunities to employees to rediscover themselves and give their best in realizing Telecom strategic quality objectives.

2.21.18 NTT DOCOMO JAPAN NTT DoCoMo is the leading mobile phone operator in Japan. As of March, 2009, the operator had over 53 million subscribers. The operator has about 50% market share of Japan’s cellular market. The quality focused approach at DoCoMo is guided by improved customers’ satisfaction, leadership through innovation in technology, and creating an energizing and dynamic workplace (DoCoMo 2008, p.5). According to DoCoMo (2008, 13), customer first approach is the top priority for the operator. This approach manifests in seeking customers’ input and providing customized products and services to meet the needs of customers. Customized training is provided to staff to internalize the customer service mentality with a view to provide excellent services. Employees are given opportunity to develop own ways to review and implement improvement in customer satisfaction. Initiatives like staff service contest, strengthening customer service support, excellence in outlets’ environment, continuous feed back from customers, and reward and recognition based on customer services are vital dimensions to achieve customer satisfaction. Weekly and monthly analysis of about 50000 comments received from customers is analyzed and improvements are affected (p.14). DoCoMo (2008) philosophy of human resources is focused on individual development, life long learning, provision of a supportive work environment, work life balance policies and growth opportunities for workforce.(p.41). In 2008, the operator arranged 124 training courses and 400 distance learning programmes for employees in critical areas of operations. Regular feedback from the employees is sought to enhance the quality of work life. The open

113 organizational culture nurture employees to meet ever increasing environmental related challenges (p.15). The operator’s relationship with suppliers is based on the principles of mutual trust, quality and responsive delivery. The suppliers are subject to periodic audits about social, ethical and environmental dimensions (p.11).

In competitive environment organizations pursue initiatives to achieve competitive advantage through quality management and customer satisfaction. TQM experts offered different prescriptions for success. Organizations adopted different quality management frameworks for superior performance and competitiveness with excellent results. These achievements led some of the experts to believe TQM philosophy as an organizational panacea. Despite success stories, many quality management initiatives resulted in failure. Since most researchers agree that the philosophy and principles of TQM are sound, examples of TQM failures have led the quality experts and researchers to identify the likely impediments associated with this issue. Researchers have explored organizational failure to achieve transformation to TQM and focused on issues namely; strategic quality management, role of leadership, organizational culture, management style, human resource management and development, resource constraints and relationship with stakeholders. Empirical studies have been carried out to identify the potential barriers to TQM during planning and implementing. Glover (1993) argued that failure of total quality management initiatives is attributed to conceptual weakness, incompatibility of quality management system with culture and poor implementation. Kanji (1996) identified management style that hinders learning, inculcates fear

114 and results in functional paradox (cited in Tamimi & Sebastianelli, 2003, p.48). Matta, Davis and Mayer (1996) found that poor corporate culture, lack of employees’ support and weak integration with suppliers and customers hinder quality management practices. Kotter (1995) identified lack of vision, inadequate involvement and empowerment of employees and failure to institutionalize improvements and new approaches as barriers to TQM. Hemphill (1996, p. 69) concluded that “inexperience TQM consultants, lack of top-level leadership, ineffective employees’ training, incomprehensible terminology and tools and unmonitored cost are the obstacles.” Graham (1992, p. 70) described the reasons for failure of total quality management and summarized that, “there are many reasons, but the most important of these is lack of leadership.” Tamimi and Gershon (1995) in a survey of 378 firms, based on Deming principles, concluded that lack of cultural change resulted in failure of TQM. Kolesar (1995) established that implementation of partial total quality management criteria results in failure. Sinclair and Zairi (1995, p.42) argued that “an inappropriate performance measurement could be major cause of failure in the implementation of total quality management.” Tamimi and Sebastianelli (2003), in a national survey of quality managers in United States, examined the problems of successful organizational transformation. Essential aspects identified were (a) lack of commitment of top management and poor strategic planning for quality management, (b) ineffective HRM, (c) non responsive organizational structure, (d) quality was not everybody’s responsibility, (e) customers were not integrated in TQM initiatives, and (f) best quality practices were not benchmarked. Porter and Parker (1993, p.16) concluded that “the results indicate that where TQM is viewed by management as an optional extra, it is likely to fail.” Cooper and Phillips (1995, p.5) have argued that the “lack of cultural change was one of the reasons for the failure of TQM

115 initiatives.” Zubair (1996, p.14) indicated the reasons for TQM implementation failure to be the “defective understanding of TQM itself.” Ngai and Cheng (1997) identified cultural and employees barriers, infrastructure barriers, managerial barriers and organizational barriers as main impediments to quality management initiatives. Empirical researches have been carried out to identify the barriers to TQM. Various studies carried out by different researchers in different contexts (Edward, 1993; Evans & Lindsay, 2002; Fagadesh, 1999; Rad, 2005; Salegna & Fazel, 2000; Whalen & Rahim, 1994; Wilkinson & Whitcher, 1993; Zain & Kifayah, 2002; Zia, 2005) have identified the most common barriers as follow: 1. Lack of consistent senior management commitment and support. 2. Provision of insufficient infrastructure to support quality management initiatives. 3. Absence of formalized strategic planning for quality management. 4. Inadequate customer focus. 5. Weak integration of suppliers in quality management. 6. Organizational politics. 7. Absence of supporting organizational culture. 8. Resistance to change by employees. 9. Inadequate HRM practices. 10. Considering TQM as a quick-fix. 11. Short-term approach with focus on immediate financial results. 12. Functional paradox (Inter departments’ rivalry). 13. Weak supporting systems. 14. Lack of understanding about implementation of quality management. 15. Continued dependence on traditional incentives, recognition and appraisal systems.

116 16. Inadequate resources. 17. Inefficient process management. 18. Outdated technologies. 19. Ineffective information management system. 20. Inadequate system to measure quality. 21. Unfavourble environment of introducing quality management. These barriers provide insight to the management to understand the hindrance to the success of quality management initiatives. These can help organizations to evaluate their quality practices and identify the areas that need improvement. The diversity of these obstacles makes it difficult to identify which one causes TQM failure. A combination of these factors would be causing failure of quality management pursuits of the organizations. The understanding of perspectives of quality Gurus, the principles highlighted in awards framework and these barriers would help the management to initiate a proactive approach to quality management efforts in the organizations for sustainable performance excellence.

Deming Management Method, a phrase coined by Walton (1986) encompasses the TQM philosophy articulated in a prescriptive set of 14 points. Coupled with these 14 points in the Deming Management Method are seven deadly diseases that inhibit firm’s performance and many obstacles that impede realization of quality objectives of organization (Figure 1). The 14 points in Deming Management Method are essential statements which lay down the foundation and action plan for intra-organizational and inter-organizational behaviour. Adoption of these 14 points offer organizations with requisite strength and energy and provide cure for the seven

They should foresee production problems and problems that . one constantly decreases costs. Western management must awaken to the challenge. aiming to become competitive. Institute leadership. 2.23. 23 – 24) articulated his 14 points as follows: 1. must learn their responsibilities. 4. and must take on leadership in order to bring about change. Drive out fear. 5. We are in a new economic age. to stay in business and to provide jobs. Move towards a single supplier for any one time and develop long term relationships of loyalty and trust with that supplier.117 deadly diseases and facilitate organizations to overcome obstacles in achieving performance excellence. Break down barriers between departments.1 Deming’s 14 Points Deming (1986. 3. Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and service. 8. minimize total cost. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. People in research. 6. sales and production must work as a team. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of the price tag. Supervisors should be able to help people to do a better job. 9. 2. Thus. pp. Institute training on the job. design. and they should use machines and gadgets wisely. Supervision of management and production workers needs to be overhauled. so that everyone may work effectively for the company. Adopt the new philosophy. Instead. 7. Improve constantly and forever the systems of production and service in order to improve quality and productivity.

12. Evaluation of performance. Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. These diseases are: 1. 3. 2. This means. 14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. eliminate management by objectives.2 Seven Deadly Diseases Deming (1986) identified these diseases that affect the organizational health and need to be cured to remain competitive. and provide jobs.23. Emphasis on short-term profits: short-term thinking (just the opposite from constancy of purpose to stay in business). abolishing the annual or merit rating and management by objectives. 11. 2. . Lack of constancy of purpose to plan product and service that will have a market and keep the company in business. exhortations. inter alia. or annual review. and by push from bankers and owners for dividends. and not the workforce. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. fed by fear of unfriendly takeover. 4. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. Institute a vigorous programme of education and self-improvement. The transformation is everybody’s job. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. Eliminate slogans. job-hopping. Mobility of top management. merit rating.118 could be encountered when using the product or service. 13. and targets that demand zero defects and new levels of productivity. These only create adversarial relationships because the many causes of low quality and low productivity are due to the system. Eliminate management by numbers or numerical goals and substitute leadership. 10.

Excessive cost of warranty. 7. with little or no consideration of figures that are unknown or unknowable.119 5. . Management by use of visible figures only. fueled by lawyers that work on contingency fees (only in the US). Excessive medical costs (only in the USA). 6.

p. Seven Deadly Diseases and Obstacles Source: Rungtusanatham et al. (2003.120 Figure 1. 920) . Deming’s 14 Points.

The fallacy of zero defects. and new machinery will transform industry. Use of Military Standard 105D and other tables for acceptance. 8. 6. automation. 13. The 14 points prescribe specific practices and action plans at individual and group levels in all . 24)also noted some obstacles that impede organizational efforts to achieve quality goals. Hope for instant pudding. Poor teaching of statistical methods in industry. 5. Obsolescence in schools. Our trouble lies entirely in the workforce. The supposition that solving problems. 7. 12. 14. Search for examples. Our quality control department takes care of all our problems of quality. 10. False starts. 2. 9. 3. Our problems are different.23. Anyone that comes to try to help us must understand all about our business. p. The existence of this variability is attributed to the lack of understanding of seven deadly diseases and the obstacles on the part of top management. 16. These obstacles are: 1.121 2. We installed quality control. 4. gadgets. The supposition that it is only necessary to meet specifications. 15. 11. The unmanned computer. Inadequate testing of prototypes. The fundamental dimension in Deming Management Method is the belief that inconsistency is natural in all processes.3 Obstacles Deming (1986.

Quality experts ( Gartner and Naughton. However. These 14 points provide essential guidelines to all members of the organization. Ogden and Wu.4 Propositions Based on the original works of Deming. 2001) and Rungtusanatham et al. 2. Hillmer and Karney (1997. these are directly related to the top management and focus on their obligation in pursuit for organizational transformation and continuous efforts for unending improvement. each principle is not meant to be interpreted or embraced independent of the remaining principles”. Knowledge of interdependence of components of the firm is important to optimize the results of entire organization.23.923) stated that “these 14 principles complement and reinforce one another. & Oppenheim 1989) have stressed that Deming’s principles based on his 14 points should be put into action in a synergistic manner within organizations.. Deming also highlighted the concept of profound knowledge that expresses the basis for organizational transformation and facilitates understanding of the need for adoption of 14 points. 2. Proposition 2. These propositions include the following: 1.(c) theory of variation. Four areas of profound knowledge identified by Deming include (a) appreciation of system.122 functional areas and lead to superior performance and continuous improvement in quality of products.924). Proposition 1. optimizing individual system components is essential. 1988. In order to optimize the results of entire system. Gitlow. services and processes.(2003) concluded a set of nine propositions. p. Gitlow. Oppenheim. . (2003. and (d) psychology – to help management transform the prevailing style of management (cited in Rungtusanatham et al. Rungtusanatham.2003. p. (b) theory of knowledge.

5.123 3. To achieve desired results from enlarged system. motivation. 7. The performances of individuals vary. Managers are responsible to create conditions for intrinsic motivation of their employees. The enlargement of a system with a common aim gives optimum results in the long run. This variation is due to factors that are beyond individuals’ control.23. Proposition 7. It consists of a logical sequence of four steps that include the following: 1. 8. they tend to have different interests and require different approaches to learning. People in the system must endeavour to develop mutual trust. 6. Because of difference in people. Proposition 5. Proposition 8. Proposition 3.5 Deming Cycle Deming Cycle is a model for continuous improvement of quality. services and processes. These propositions also provide a framework for managerial guidance in sustaining quality management practices for organizational change. perspective on individual differences and supporting environment for improved performance. Conduct consumer research and use it in planning the product (PLAN). . These propositions reflect the spirit of Deming Management Method and address the essential dimensions of processes. Proposition 9. 4. 2. Managers need to create conducive environment for motivation based on the understanding of what motivates people. 9. it is important that combined entity has a common aim. learning. Proposition 4. Proposition 6. This presents a methodical and integrated approach of incorporating customers needs into products.

(1994). Diffusion and acceptance of the Deming based definition and theory of TQM appear to go beyond the TQM and general management discipline. and for those trained in traditional management techniques. police work. 1995). 1995. Deming philosophy has heralded a new paradigm for the practice of management. Deming Management Method is not merely about productivity and quality control. . Rungtusanatham et al. 6. Management scholars outside the TQM discipline have also embraced the Deming-based definition and theory of TQM (Grant. Continuous Improvement. 2. public administration.124 2. p. Internal and External Cooperation. it is a broad vision on the nature of organization and how organization should be changed. Check the product to make sure it was produced in accordance with the plan (CHECK). Market the product (ACT). The Model. 1995. Process Management. 3. Deming Management Method Model based on the theory of Deming was formulated by Anderson et al. Employee Fulfillment. 4. 5. Learning. Sherman.46) cited examples of the application of Deming philosophy in other disciplines that include agricultural economics. Hackman and Wageman. has seven construct as follows: 1. 4. this philosophy offers opportunity for organizational transformation for sustainable competitive advantage in dynamic environment. and real estate. veterinary medicine. Visionary Leadership. Produce the product (DO). (2003. 3. Figure 2. occupational psychology.

Customer Satisfaction. Visionary Leadership to Learning ( path 2). These construct are based on the works of Deming and other researchers and quality experts and comprehensive reading of quality related literature..125 7. Two important aspects of relationship. The realization of process management practices enables organizations to achieve customer satisfaction through continuous improvement and employee fulfillment. The path diagram in Figure 3 identifies 8 paths based on the relationship of different construct. the feedback mechanism provides necessary input regarding multidimensional aspects to each construct that facilitates necessary alignment and appropriate action to respond to the input provided through feedback mechanism. (1994) compared each construct with existing management literature to lend credibility to the seven constructs in the Model. In addition. the causal direction and the feedback mechanism. The framework expresses effectiveness of the model through concerted leadership efforts towards establishment of cooperative and learning organization systems that facilitates achievement of efficient and effective process management. Anderson et al. are highlighted in Figure 2. These paths are path from Visionary Leadership to Internal and External Cooperation ( path 1).24 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The theoretical framework based on the seven constructs expressing Deming Management Method Model is shown in Figure 2. As a result of extensive research. these concepts were clustered into seven constructs that express the contents of Deming Management Method. Using Delphi study. The causal direction shows the cause and effect relationship between two construct. academicians and practitioners explored the concepts that are fundamental to Deming’s 14 points. 2. Internal and External Cooperation to .

Process Management to Continuous Improvement ( path 5). These paths facilitate the development of hypotheses for the study.126 Process Management ( path 3). Continuous Improvement to Customer Satisfaction ( path 7) and Employee Fulfillment to Customer Satisfaction ( path 8). Learning to Process Management ( path 4). Process Management to Employee Fulfillment ( path 6). .

(1994.127 Figure 2.. p. 481) . Theory of Quality Management Underlying the Deming Management Method Internal and External Cooperation Continuous Improvement Visionary Leadership Organizational System Process Management Process Outcomes Customer Satisfaction Learning Employee Fulfillment Causal Direction Feedback Mechanism Source : Anderson et al.

. (1998) study found paths from Learning to Process Management ( path 4). 1995 and Rungtusanatham et al. These included paths from Visionary Leadership to Internal Cooperation ( path 1). Internal Cooperation and External Cooperation to Process Management ( path 3 & 3A). i. limiting its generalizability. Filippini and Anderson (1998) replicated the first study in Italian industries. considered their findings as preliminary empirical observations based on secondary data from three manufacturing industries. Continuous Improvement to Customer Satisfaction ( path 7) and Employee Fulfillment to Customer Satisfaction ( path 8) were found statistically significant. They. 1998) supported most of the relationships in the Deming Management Method Model. Both studies (Anderson et al.. Process Management to Employee Fulfillment ( path 6). Rungtusanatham et al. and External Cooperation ( path 1 A). Both researches identified the need to further test the Model in other contexts. path from Learning to Process Management (path 4) and from Continuous Improvement to Customer Satisfaction ( path 7) were found statistically insignificant. Forza. Douglas and Fredendall (2004) used the Deming Management Method Model in services (health care) and found results similar to the earlier studies. Anderson. however. Barfield and Mehta (2005) retested the Deming Management Method in United States and Canada. Learning to Process Management ( path 4). The results illustrated strong support for all hypotheses of Deming Management Method Model except Employee Fulfillment. Process Management to Employee Fulfillment ( path 6) and Employee Fulfillment to Customer Satisfaction ( path 8) statistically insignificant.128 In a subsequent study. Fisher.e. Rungtusanatham. Schroeder and Devray (1995) empirically validated Deming Management Method. Two paths. Visionary Leadership to Learning ( path 2). The results of the study supported six out of the eight paths. Rungtusanatham. Process Management to Continuous Improvement ( path 5).

. (1995) .129 Figure. 3 A path diagram representation of the theory underlying Deming Management Method External Cooperation Path 1A Path 3A Path 3 Continuous Improvement Path 7 Path 5 Path 1 Internal Cooperation Visionary Leadership Path 2 Process Management Learning Path 4 Customers Satisfaction Employee Fulfillment Path 6 Path 8 Source: Adapted from Anderson et al.

mission. 2.130 2. The development of pride of workmanship is a challenge for visionary leaders. Review of literature in services and telecommunication industries has been done to find support for these constructs. provides enabling environment to get the best from the workforce and realizes institutional objectives. develop supporting culture.1 Visionary Leadership Visionary Leadership encompasses the role of top management in defining a vision. The employees will own and support organizational goals. and develop partnership and external ambassadors through networking and benchmarking activities and developing leadership in the . creates and exploits opportunities. communicating the vision. recognize people as assets. institutional support structure. institute quality based performance management. employees will start to trust and feel that they are important. Top management must commit to and practice a set of values that continuously reinforces TQM principles and commitment must be present in the form of policies. and shared values for the organization’s growth and development. implementing a plan of action. In order to develop hypotheses.25 DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES Deming Management Method Model has identified seven constructs. Through visible top management commitment. Leadership anticipates need for organizational transformation. and inspiring and motivating the entire organization toward the fulfillment of this vision. The leadership influences employees and tries to obtain the voluntary participation of team members in an effort to reach institutional objectives. these seven constructs are examined separately to explore various dimensions underlying these constructs. They need to generate corporate commitment. strategic objectives. investment and individual responsibility and authority.25.

focus on external and internal customers and managing the quality through a proper structure. leaders focus on employee autonomy. Oakland 2000. Many quality experts maintain that TQM implementation must be a top-down process. integrated into the corporate culture of an institution (Griffin 1996. Zairi (1994) argued that in TQM environment. Landon 2003. . high performance delivery processes and services in support of this objective. Savolainen 2000). and emphasized the need for leadership to establish a high performance culture. cheerleaders (leaders who focus on the rate of improvement and obstacles in the way). (1999) noted that top management is responsible for quality leadership and providing support to achieve superior performance.. Researchers and quality experts have identified the pivotal role of leadership in quality management pursuits. the visionary leaders need to emphasize the importance of transformation through open communication to achieve a shared approach to the change.131 organization. Pierce and Niewstrom (2000) highlighted the importance of leadership in the process of ascending to world-class status. enhance competencies. Rao et al. recognition. Madu & Kuei 1995. Kanji and Moura (2001) acknowledged that outstanding leaders can contribute heavily to total quality by functioning as visible advocates. visionary leaders foster teamwork. development of a vision and set of values for quality culture. coaching and development. focus employees’ attention and enthusiasm on continuous improvement. In TQM context. In quality management context. facilitators. gain follower recognition and acceptance and become facilitators of group activities. assist in problem solving. Easton (1993) identified strengths of senior management in areas of unwavering commitment to quality. and risk takers in inspiring innovative environment. In a study of 22 US companies ( 10 manufacturing and 12 services). Quality pioneers stressed that leadership is vital for effective implementation of total quality management initiatives.

1999. Must express values and beliefs through a clear and inspired vision. 5. Steenkamp 2001). encourage and trust them to ensure employee participation. Foster. Howaqrd and Shannon (2002) found that leadership was responsible for improvement in processes. 4. team work and employees’ satisfaction. 2000.132 In the evaluation of government services. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. . 2. Pun & Hui 2002. Savolainen 2000) have identified five requirements and competencies for effective leadership in TQM environment. Darling. As leaders must get very close to the employees to empower. energize. Oakland 2000. researchers have concluded that leadership and top management commitment is the most critical and crucial prerequisite for institutional success when implementing TQM (Collier & Esteman. Dale 2003. Pierce & Niewstrom.2000. EFQM. Researchers (Collier & Esteman 2000. Graetz 2000. These are as under: 1.Evans & Dean 2003. Develop clear and effective business or service strategies and supporting plans. Based on extensive studies. define the corporate objectives and strategies. Establish critical success factors and critical processes that might make it necessary to review the institutional structure. 3. Anwar (2003) concluded that Vodafone spectacular growth and entrepreneurial culture is attributed to its visionary leadership and senior management involvement. and Australian Quality Criteria Framework single out leadership as the” key driver” for successful total quality improvement efforts. Identify critical success factors for achieving the mission.

Internal cooperation manifest itself into teamwork.25. quality circles and small group activities. including different tasks and contexts. mutual trust and respect for all.133 2. This approach is exemplified through leading or participating in projects.85) focused on team work and collaboration and argued against competitive behaviour when he said “harm comes from internal competition and conflict. cooperation. improves communications and develops interdependence. participation at all levels and shared approach throughout the organization.2. operational results. and accepting assignments that provide valuable on-the-job learning. quality control teams. 236) argued that teamwork “builds up trust. Oakland and Oakland (2001) identified team work as one of the core activities in award winning companies. They suggested that cooperative behaviour results in superior achievements under most circumstances. p. the only efficient way to tackle process improvement or complex problems is through teamwork. customer results. working on cross-functional teams. 2003).” Teamwork has been praised as the key to successful TQM institutions (Lycke. competition and interdependence. Carew and Parisi (1996). Oakland (1989. marketing results. community results and employee results is ensured by using teams such as problem-solving teams. financial results. This cooperation creates synergy and facilitates superior individual and team performance that affects the success of quality initiatives in the organizations. According to Blanchard. unity of purpose. and the fear that is thereby generated. These initiatives provide opportunity to develop individual and team members for collaborative roles in competitive environment. cross-functional teams. p.” Johnson and Johnson (1989) noted three forms of social interaction namely. . Deming (1993. Stevenson (1996) found that continuous improvement in service rendering results. Internal Cooperation (Employees Collaboration) Internal cooperation focuses on selective human resource dimensions of the organization.

France Telecom (2006) forms teams made up of people from diverse cultural and professional background whose skills and talents achieve organizational strategic goals. The suppliers’ interaction with customers provides opportunities for improvement of products. Vodafone (2006) development programmes for managers include team oriented engagements. suppliers are viewed as partners with customers.99) found that a “reduced supply base .3 External Cooperation (Suppliers Relationship) External cooperation is the cooperation between a firm and its suppliers. Shaw.134 Research indicates that people are at their best as part of the team. Through integrated efforts and problem solving. creating cooperative culture to achieve strategic goals.1052) noted that “quality-oriented companies pursue a proactive strategy in developing long term relationship with suppliers and provide support to enhance the quality of their suppliers. In TQM environment.. Shepetuk. This relationship is vital to ensure quality input for organizational processes to achieve higher quality products and services. 1958. 2. 1985. 1981. services and processes. p. Bharti Airtel (2007) values teamwork that forms an integral part of its strategy enabling a focused and integrated solution for its customers. 1994. The essential factor for the success of quality management is team based work environment (Woods. teams can achieve higher results( Katzenbach & Smith. Juran. this relationship is essential to achieve excellence. p. Rao et al. 1991). Robie. In today’s competitive environment. 1997). because of the co-dependent relationship that develops between them. 1997). Researches also found that interdisciplinary team approach provides a faster response to customer needs and superior product and service quality (Ebrahimpour. The suppliers’ knowledge and experience provide necessary information to the organizations in designing new products and services and facilitate faster response to the markets. (1999.25.” Evan and Lindsay (2002.

The system paid for itself in less than 17 months.8 Million by change in culture of purchasing and reducing the number of suppliers. Vodafone (2006) noted that partnerships with their suppliers are essential to their mutual success. Lascelles & Dale. Chilebased Entel (Chile’s leading telecommunications company and a major player throughout Latin America) implemented Supplier Relationship Management.1993. and the need for adjustment to accommodate this variation. The company experienced significant benefits including reduction in direct man-hours by 26%. In research of three case studies from European telecommunications companies. Stone and Abbott (2002) noted that Customer Relationship Management provides essential knowledge about customers through the data provided by the suppliers. Parker (2001) reported that Telewest ( a UK Telecommunication Company) has so far saved Pound Sterling 11. Electronic commerce techniques have changed procurement and vendor/buyers relationship. cost of inventory and storage by 38% and administrative cost were down by 36%. focuses on longterm relationship with its suppliers that could provide differentiated and customized services to achieve cost competitiveness. and . Schlosser & Ford. Telstra (2008) experienced a change from adhoc to strategic management of its suppliers. professionalization of procurement personnel. rework. telecommunication companies can reduce procurement cost by 10% to 15%. thus reducing scrap. classification and consequently different treatment of suppliers. Benefits of the new approach were rationalization of number of suppliers. a more rational and fruitful approach to procurement.” Research on quality management has verified the benefits of working collaboratively and on a long term basis with a chosen supplier (Frey.135 decreases the variation coming into the processes. 1989). noted that Bharti Airtel (India’s largest mobile company). Ravi (2007). Wright. Slaight (1999) opined that through effective suppliers’ relationship. E-procurement had reduced purchase order cost by 50%.

136 changing the relationship between company and its key suppliers from one of attempted and short term exploitation to long term mutually profitable cooperation. processes. Organizations’ willingness to engage in learning is critical to process management. and focused on sharing throughout the organization” (2000 p. Anderson et al. Evan and Lindsay (2000) noted that organizational learning is considered a fundamental practice in the Baldrige criteria. and organizational levels. A significant reduction in cost had been experienced. reward experimentation and enhance personal and team efficiency and effectiveness. driven by opportunities to affect significant change. 97) identified that “education and training of workforce is the basic quality principle. Senge (1990) argued that successful organizations innovate and learn to learn and in the long run. According to Deming (1986) learning is a continual process for the purpose of expanded knowledge with its own merit. Learning practices promote creativity. 2. products and services. (1994) found that learning within the organizational system purposely share knowledge and nurture its generation throughout organization. Barret (1999) noted that learning culture fosters innovative thinking and collaborative system. experiences. This facilitates thinking differently with a view to adopt new approaches. Huq and Martin (2000 p. 21). acknowledge open arguments. failures and successes through a continuous process of organization wide examination and analysis. They further concluded that “continuous improvement and learning should be a regular part of daily work. superior performance depends on learning.25.4 Learning Organization learning entails organization’s willingness and ability to learn from its environment.” Roth and . practiced at personal. work unit.

Rao et al. training is vital for generating awareness and commitment to quality policy and strategy (Palo & Padhi.allows an employee to become an innovator. 1990. initiative taker. Redman and Snape (1995). 1992).” Quality management laid strong emphasis on training of employees. Wilkinson. and considerable amount of effort was put into training and communication. and creative problem solver in addition to being an efficient and effective performer of his or her job. noted that increased teamwork. 2003). Marchington. Oczkowski. Steeples. 1991. China Mobile values the career path . The company undertook initiatives in tailoring development support to individual needs. in case studies of two organizations initiating quality initiatives.. 1933a. quality of working life and employee involvement were cited as objectives of the quality programmes. 2003).137 Jackson (1995) considered operational competence of service firms as their organizational knowledge. According to the research studies. p. provided approximately 287. Goetsch and Davis (2000. China Mobile (2006) reaffirmed its commitment to building a learning organization and continuous efforts have been made to enhance its training. Macklin & Noble.000 training days – equivalent to 5 days training per employee – in 2006/07 and spent approximately £29 million on training covering 91% of employees. b). Best use of abilities of workforce is vital to achieve and maintain high level of quality. Gibson. The results were extremely positive. Telenor (2006) noted positive impact of training and development on individuals and the organization to create value for customers. productivity and costs. Vodafone (2006) noted that provision of training helped employees reach their full potential and benefited the organization. and facilitate building teams (Smith.343) argued that “understanding is implicit in learning …. (Choppin. promoting a caring culture and building quality related competence (Caudron. (1999) identified that training leads to product and process quality.

5 Process Management Process management is a group of activities pertaining to managing a process. It entails use of information. The ultimate goal is to meet customer requirements and improve customer satisfaction. visualize. measure. The company further experienced that e-learning has positive impact on organizational support and performance. The company’s own business schools (distribution school. coordinating and monitoring technical and human aspects of the processes. In 2006 alone. competencies. 2. through the management of existing knowledge assets. investments were up by nearly 5% for France Telecom. Learning begins the moment an employee joins SingTel and continues throughout his or her career. report and improve the processes. The Company transformation project envisaged a dynamic approach to collective progress of employees. . France Telecom (2006) found skill development as a mean of meeting innovative growth services in future. control. Management of process includes planning. China Mobile University facilitates the organization in realizing its dreams of a learning organization. with this stronger focus on training. procedures and systems to define. means. SingTel (2006) asserted that staff development is a significant component of the Group’s human resource strategies.138 planning of employees. Telekom Austria (2006) experienced that training enhanced productivity and revenues per employee increased by 14%. The company concluded that provision of continuous learning and development opportunities to employees is critical in order to secure the competencies required for current and future business needs.25. customer relations school) are also helping strengthen the professional capabilities of its employees.

(b) guarantee that quality is built into products and services. (c) effective management of the product development process. Kunst and Lemmink (2000) established positive relationship of process management and customer and employee satisfaction related programmes. (f) controlling quality and operational performance of all key business processes. China Mobile (2006) asserted that the Company has always believed in the importance of innovation to maintain development. and seven new quality control tools are important techniques for improving processes. Process owners are key to effective process management. Evan and Lindsay (2002) identified the leading process management practices that include (a) translating customer requirements into design features. the company has enhanced . Through process improvement. In TQM context. Taguchi methods (Taguchi. O’Brien and Carman (1995) found that process management facilitates evaluating continuous quality improvement programmes. (g) continuously improving processes using systematic problem solving approaches.1990). Waldman and Gopalakrishnan. (e) managing suppliers’ relationships. process improvement is achieved through use of statistical techniques. (d) defining and documenting important production/delivery and support processes. ISO 9000:2000 and other TQM related programmes emphasize process management that yields improved performance. (1996) suggested that assessment of service quality depends on service process and the interaction between service provider and customer. products and services designs. change of process and eliminating those steps that do not add value to internal or external customers. They have responsibilities for and authority over process design. 1979). operation and measurement of performance. Quality function deployment (Akao. and (h ) innovating to achieve breakthrough performance.139 The quality awards. Shortell. Shingo’s error proofing techniques.

customer satisfaction and employee performance. customers’ satisfaction and rapid response. products and services.140 its capability to plan and implement management innovation and technical innovation. Zairi and Sinclair (1995). In a case study of British Telecom. experienced increased productivity. market oriented technical innovation and service and business innovation has yielded positive results. (1994) identified that continuous improvement is based on process management practices that yield incremental improvement and innovations in . 2. Deming (1986) stressed the organizations to continuously improve the products and services. China Mobile has maintained and realized continuous innovation in business and services. sort. The company three pronged strategy of management innovation. in a case study of telecom service provider.25. approve and process employees’ ideas so that these could be evaluated and implemented efficiently. British Telecom (2002) faced a major problem of how to manage. The management of process yielded cost reduction. Armistead and Pritchard (1999) found that process management yielded significant positive results with regard to cost saving. The evidence found that the effectiveness of process improved employees’ response capabilities.6 Continuous Improvement The concept of continuous improvement implies constant improvement in the processes. one of Australia's three largest telecommunications and internet carriers company. established that effective process management enhanced performance of workforce. AAPT (2006). Telenor (2006) found that research and development activities in process improvement initiatives affected organizational performance. Anderson et al. and cost saving through efficient and effective management of processes. and has attracted more customers with its superior quality. improved the speed of time-to-market. Armistead and Llewellyn (2000) explored service provision process of a large telecommunication company.

4. 7. Prevention of defects. Market driven ongoing commitment. Hardings and Webb (1994) found it as a process of continuous incremental innovation. 2. Austin and Caffyn (1997) concluded that this approach leads to creativity and competitive excellence. 3. Gallagher. Gilbert. (2000) viewed continuous improvement as an initiative that enhances success and decreases failures. Juergensen. p. materials and work methods. This knowledge is difficult for competitors to duplicate because it is often very widely diffused. consisting of a great many customtailored and tightly linked elements. 6. thus. . Customer focus. 8. Baghel and Bhuiyan (2005. Bessant. Motivation of the workforce. it creates a sustainable advantage for the firm. Management by facts. Kossoff (1993) argued that TQM can be accomplished by constantly pursuing continuous improvement. Caffyn. services and processes. Based on extensive literature review. This is an organization wide approach in which every member is responsible for an ongoing improvement in performance. equipment. embodied in its people. 35) noted that continuous improvement: Creates a body of knowledge diffused within the organization. Senior management commitment to philosophy of continuous improvement. Respect for employees. services and processes and setting up of new objectives for their betterment.141 products. 5. Organizations need perpetual reevaluation of existing products. Integrated response to problems solving. Salient aspects of the philosophy of continuous improvement include the following: 1.

1994. strategic focus in planning. employees’ mindset and learning are essential for successful implementation of continuous improvement. Main. Roth and Jackson (1995) highlighted that this process is important for firm’s ability to provide high quality services. supporting organizational culture. However. . Literature review establishes a direct link between continuous improvement and customer satisfaction. Easton. 1991) identified some of the weaknesses that do not give the required results of continuous improvement efforts and resultant customer satisfaction. favourable employees’ attitude. 1986. China Mobile (2006) strives to improve customer services and enhance organizational ability to meet customer needs and improve customer privacy policies and procedures. the way it works with partners. Vodafone (2006) encourages employees to challenge the existing procedures to improve business processes through monitoring and reviewing the performance indicators. Researchers and quality experts (Deming. Lack of management commitment to monitor external environment and organizational alignment to the changing needs. Telenor (2006) continues to challenge itself to improve internal standards. 1993. 1986. Sharman. Schroeder. Main. Sharman. making action plans and involving all employees in process management. Imai. These are: 1. Literature review (Imai. Schonberger. Deming. the desired results can only be achieved with the help of an integrated response through commitment of top management. 1986. & Robinson. firm’s culture. Schonberger. 1986. 1994. and to manage the impact of its services and operations. 1986. 1992) concluded that top leadership. effective planning and execution. 1986. 1992.142 Douglas and Fredendall (2004) found that continuous improvement is critical for service quality.

There are no rewards for process improvement efforts.7 Employee Fulfillment Sureshchandar et al. Lack of setting appropriate priorities for continuous improvement and failure to communicate these priorities throughout the organization. Absence of integrated.25. The employees. 8. The absence of an integrated approach to coordinate continuous improvement activities throughout the organization results in failure to achieve desired goals for sustained continuous improvement. Inability of leadership to foster involvement and creativity duly augmented by allocation of adequate resources. 6. There is no obsession for value addition efforts for customers and organization’s competitiveness. Lack of institutionalized focus on continuous improvement training and absence of top managements’ participation in these activities impede achieving the desired results for improvement efforts. 7. .” Employee involvement is a long-term organizational pledge to value employees. The un-supporting organizational culture that does not focus on small improvements and fails to emphasize individuals to improve their work and team spirit. 4. efficient and effective HRM practices for development of employees and their participation in continuous improvement efforts. 5.(2001. therefore. do not take pride in continuous improvement activities.118) defined employee satisfaction “as the degree to which employees of an organization believe that their needs and wants are continuously satisfied by the organization.143 2. Senior management does not lead by example in organizational pursuits for continuous improvement. 2. This results in failure of employees to internalize the philosophy of continuous improvement. 3. p.

Deming (1986) and Feigenbaum (1983) strongly supported employees’ participation in decision making. This is exemplified in involving employees in quality of work life initiatives. This system needs to be reviewed periodically with a focus on quality. productivity. Suggestion oriented practices should be followed to give them enhanced responsibilities.144 This is a process for giving autonomy to workforce of an organization to become part of decision making. This empowerment yields creativity and positive thinking that nurture innovative ideas to create opportunities for achieving excellence in quality objectives. performance. Geralis and Terziowski (2003) used quantitative analysis to find that empowerment practice had a favourable effect on employees well being. and service quality. Equitable reward system is vital to acknowledge employees’ contribution in organizational performance. participatory management and other employee related programmes. Oakland (1989) concluded that employees are a source of ideas and their competency need to be harnessed to transform these ideas into reality. creativity and self control is vital in developing service oriented approach in the workforce. Sharing of information about different dimensions of performance must be discussed with employees to identify their contributions. TQM transformation needs employees’ involvement as management philosophy and must manifest in all organizational activities. Giving sense of ownership to employees will motivate them to give their best to achieve organizational goals. Top management commitment in formulating employees’ involvement policies is critical to achieve quality objectives. Gronroos (1983) recognized that employees’ involvement with emphasis on independence. This must reflect in providing enabling environment in seeking their input for decision making in those aspects that affect their work. . Employees need independence and full responsibility in work related methods and systems. inspire employees to excellence and support organizational strategic objectives.

which encourages trust and open communication. In case studies of services in United Kingdom. individual and group achievements. According to Oakland and Oakland (2001. Expanded commitment to research and development. open and supportive communication is critical in establishing feeling of being valued and achieving TQM objectives. quality related challenges. Based on the literature review the benefits of internal customers’ satisfaction are: 1.” Free flow of information about need for TQM transformation. enthusiasm and energize them to meet the challenging TQM environment. Adequate infrastructure need to exist and all employees must be encouraged to communicate freely and discuss openly about quality related dimensions and problems and the solutions that they have to offer in dealing with these aspects. and interpersonal understanding. objectives and policies increases employees’ confidence. 3. Pre-disposed collaborative culture. trust. . effective implementation of TQM requires employees focused communication in the organization. communication is “the engine that powers the quality train. Cowling and Newman (1995) noted that the key issues in achieving success in the quality initiatives is through communication. Learning opportunities to enhance professional skills. 2. 6. 779).145 Effective. According to Chowdhury (2000). Greater support of continuous improvement. problem solving. measuring and evaluating. Greater empowerment of employees to have more responsibility for planning. 5. quality vision. 4. Enhancing capacity for better success in the market place. Oakland and Oakland (2001) identified some core activities in award winning companies that also included communication and employees’ empowerment. p. decision making. motivation and involvement of employees. recognition.

TeliaSonera (2007) asserted that company creates conducive environment for employees’ development with consistent dialogue. providing the right conditions. balancing the requirement to reward performance fairly and adequately and providing supportive environment that offer opportunities for employees at all levels and help them manage their work and family needs. and a culture that values ethical conduct and sustainability and helped them behave with integrity. continuous learning and innovation and results in enhanced quality of product. health and safety. Locke. commitment. pride of workmanship. 1992. Smith. Telekom Austria (2006.146 Researchers and quality experts have concluded that employee fulfillment is a multidimensional concept based on employees’ total satisfaction from work environment and manifests in job satisfaction. Wanous & Lawler. diversity. opportunities and rewards. flexible working and an integrated wellbeing framework designed to make . Vodafone (2006) noted that informed and engaged employees are essential for business to operate effectively and engaging them for feedback is vital to the success. processes and services to the customers (Cranny. & Stone. China Mobile (2006) experienced cooperation of its employees and value chain partners in the development and promotion of mobile telecommunication business to suit the needs of customers and in the building of a harmonious industry value chain. 1972). Telemex (2006) stressed its commitment to strengthen training and a sense of belonging among its personnel.” Vodafone (2006) experienced positive results of a comprehensive approach of rewarding performance based on equal opportunities. p. 1976. 1979.28) noted that the “commitment of its employees is instrumental for its success. pension plans. Telefonica (2006) offered its employees the best place to work. Mitchell. DoCoMo (2006) developed organizational climate that fosters individual respect and creates opportunities for development of their competency. SingTel (2006) adopted a holistic approach to employees’ management.

. who are the driving force for the sustained development of the company. SingTel (2006) noted that need based flexi-time initiative. encourages open discussions. seeks continuous improvement. and having regular and direct access to the Board and special training and development opportunities brought a ‘grassroots’ view to the business. Trust and loyalty were paramount to creating fans. Telefonicia (2006) highlighted that turning employees into fans facilitated turning customers into fans.also focused on providing a culture where everyone feels valued. recognizes individual potential and creates opportunities for employees’ growth. and fresh thinking were part of that effort but the company tried to go much further. fair deals. Reward schemes. for example by respecting religious differences and practices. Telefonicia (2006. Everyone is encouraged to speak up and to put customers at the heart of their actions…. an initiative that directly involved employees in high-level decisions. TeliaSonera (2007) emphasized that their values guided the employees to contribute in decision making during its transformation from technology-oriented company to customers focused company. These initiatives paid off in financial and non financial dimensions. flexi-leave and telecommuting enhanced workers’ commitment. China Mobile (2006) asserted that the solid and dynamic foundation of the company is built on the collective efforts of all the employees. respected and included. supports employees to take pride in work. The company’s ‘Real Directors’. p 100) further stated that: People who work here are proud of how we do things. The company continuously extends and improves the communication mechanism with the employees and keeps itself fully informed of the employees’ feedback. SingTel (2006) values employees’ ideas. communicates and shares knowledge.147 people feel great at work.

25. environment. Parzinger and Nath (2000) clearly stated that “in TQM environment the job is not done until the customer is satisfied. commitment to the customer and innovation. trends and use them as yardstick with their competitors (Vavra 2002). Torno and Wiley ( 1991) found that workers’ awareness and mindset is positively related to customer satisfaction. This calls for meeting and exceeding customers’ expectations.148 2. Anderson et al. 2001). value. and Gustafsson.8 Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction is at the heart of TQM philosophy. The . Improved customer satisfaction in services leads to higher customer retention (Rust. Johnson. inter-departmental teamwork. may be more a global concept than simply product evaluation. efficiency. organizations can determine customers’ changing requirements. but also upon the experience surrounding acquisition of the product. customer satisfaction influence’s a firm’s profitability (Anderson. Customer satisfaction levels are directly related to financial results. (1994) noted that customer satisfaction is exemplified by customer-driven focus. timeliness. Berry (2002) identified 10 domains of customer satisfaction that include quality. and psychological needs of its customers. using critical incident technique. By close interaction with customers. Keaveney (1995). Cardozo (1995) noted that customer satisfaction may depend not only upon the product itself.” Customer satisfaction is based on the company's ability to fulfill the business. Zahorik & Keiningham (1995). Customer satisfaction. In service firms. Fornell. identified more than 800 critical behaviour of service firms that caused customers to switch services. emotional. Literature review highlights that internal quality practices of organizations affect customer satisfaction (Nilsson. then.. Satisfaction may involve evaluation of an entire product bundle or offering. ease of access. A proactive approach to responding to changing customer’ needs are vital to attract and retain customers. front line service behaviour. and Lehmann (1994).

inconvenience. Customer satisfaction is an ongoing process that needs to be institutionalized to get the strategic benefits.” Telefonica (2006) acknowledged that customer promise charter is the cornerstone of its strategy and challenge employees to provide the best services to the customers to make them . core service failure.1989. attitude and morale of employees. An organization wide approach is needed to affect customer satisfaction.149 behaviour was categorized into price. Adequate attention is not given to the hiring. Researchers and quality experts (Berry. Zeithaml. & Parasuraman . and perceived ease of use were critical factors for customer satisfaction with mobile services. Absence of proactive management of relationship with customers. ‘Satisfaction 100 Campaign’ enhanced customers’ rights and showed positive results. Chou and Chang (2006. 2.1984 ) have identified some of the dimensions that impede customer satisfaction are the following: 1. 5. in a case study of Chine Mobile. China Mobile (2006) asserted that customers are the foundation for sustained development of the company. 4. A swift and responsive approach by all will make the organization competitive.. 175). and ethical problems. p. Bowen et al. perceived quality. Lack of proactive customer service systems.1990. found “perceived expectations. Everyone in the organization needs to identify the customers. 6. service encounter. Infrastructure does not support front line employees. 3. competition. response to failure. Garvin. perceived value. perceived usefulness. their needs and expectations and the means to satisfy them. Front line employees are not empowered. Services standards are not derived from customer requirements. training.

our communication with our customers are always to be clear. Japan’s leading mobile phone company. (2006.150 happier and loyal. .” Telemex (2006) asserted their commitment to the customers by continuously offering more and better services and the best market experience. 4) noted that “ongoing effort to strengthen customer focus in every part of the business.” Ruhli et al (2007). The Company’s ‘customer-first’ philosophy is the main pillar of its strategic focus that yields positive results for retaining current customers and attracting new users. p.…. p. Do Co Mo (2006). France Telecom (2006. France Telecom (2006) views customer satisfaction as the foundation of its growth and places customer satisfaction on top priority through setting high standards of services and maintaining the trust in the brand. in a case study of comparison of stakeholders’ involvement in three firms in the Swiss telecommunications industry. p. TeliaSonera (2007) emphasized that it creates value for each customer through customization and transforming customer related information into actions. 16) concluded that “trust. noted that good stakeholders relations affect business performance and create a win-win situation. transparent and fair. Vodafone (2006. superior customer care and high quality are vital for users’ satisfaction. highlighted that meeting needs of customers is company’s top priority. reliability and simplicity are the key words in our customer relations policy. In a case study of mobile phone users in India. 18) noted that it “value its long term commitment with customers and believes that it should always act to earn their trust and loyalties.” Telenor. Mohanty and Das (2007) found that better network. which puts quality of service at the heart of our integrated operator strategy.

. removes functional paradox and harmonizes an integrated response to sustain mutually beneficial organizational pursuits. problem solving activities. services and processes with a view to exceed customers’ expectations.151 2. This helps both the supplier and customer focus on “fitness for use” to meet customer needs rather than simply trying to conform to specification. (1998) and Douglas and Frendendall (2004). faster time-to-market . The role of Visionary Leadership in TQM finds advocacy in the writings of Saraph et al. commits and practices set of shared values and provides enabling environment to initiate and sustain quality initiatives. ( 1995). It also fosters a spirit of continuous improvement. Anderson et al. This internal collaboration provides stimulus to achieve continuous improvement of products. The corner stone of this approach is leading by example that provides unity of purpose. Suppliers play a vital role in the performance of the organization. early design advice.26 HYPOTHESES Visionary Leadership articulates a customer focused vision.. Rungtusanatham et al. Their role is manifest throughout the product development process. reduces costs. The philosophy is exemplified in customer focus and collaboration with employees. Based on the above review. The team based philosophy enhances the motivation to work together or mutual benefits like quality planning. from design through distribution. the following Hypoethsis is developed: Hypothesis 1: Visionary Leadership is positively related to Internal Cooperation. Suppliers can provide technology or production processes not internally available.(1989). which results in lower costs. and increased capacity.. and efforts to adjust to market changes are performed jointly. The goal of building partnership with supplier in as extension of the team work principle.

Fulconis & Pache.1998. thus leading the mutual advantage. Christopher. Deming (1993) viewed that leadership provides a cooperative and learning environment. 2005. 1995.. Leaders promote training and education within the organizations. 2001. The role of Visionary Leadership in initiating and sustaining collaboration with suppliers and its strategic importance in improving the management of organizational processes has been highlighted in the studies of researchers (Saraph et al. and establishing trust through openness and honesty. Anderson et al. particularly minimizing the total cost of ownership.1989. 2004. greater coordination in operations. The learning culture enhances individual competence. 2005. to work in cooperation during succeeding stages towards optimization of the efforts of all stages. This facilitates greater cooperation in research and development. 2006). Mohammady Garfamy 2004. inflow of information about the changing markets and the competitors. Rungtusanatham et al. Douglas & Frendendall. 492) noted .152 and improved quality for their customers. Tracy &Tan. The relationship with suppliers is based is guided by recognizing the strategic importance of suppliers in accomplishing business objectives. inculcates pride in work.. Ulga & Eggert. 2000. p. Lowson... Raman & McCllelland. 2001. Mentzer et al. Fisher. Noori. Holweg. the following Hypothesis is developed: Hypothesis 2: Visionary Leadership is positively related to External Cooperation. & Peck. Anderson et al. The leaders must guide the people to see themselves as components in a system. developing win-win relationship through partnership rather than as adversaries. energizes experimentation and motivates employees to improve the performance of the organization. and launching of innovative products which results in competitive advantage to the organization. 2004. (1994. 2004. Based on the above review.

(1995). ultimately. continuous improvement.. (2005). Badri et al. This is exemplified in his desire to leave a “legacy of the importance of system thinking and the idea of a win-win in process improvement”(Anderson et al. p. Rungtusanatham et al. they will have to set the example by becoming learners themselves and involving others in the learning process. Based on the above review. when possible and feasible..392) concluded that “if the organizational leaders of today want to create organizational culture they will themselves be more amenable to learning. seminars and courses of advancement of learning.” Visionary Leadership promotes organizational learning by allocation of resources and administering reward for learning. 493).” Schein (1992. (1998). providing.” Deming (1993) argued that leaders must be unceasing learners. Douglas and Fredendall (2004) and Fisher et al. This relationship had been supported by Anderson et al. 1994. This collaboration results in providing market related input that facilitates experimentation on existing processes and designing new processes..(1995).153 that “through these learning programmes. organizational members embrace a continuous process of learning about their work and learning for the purposes of self. mutual cooperation and team approach in .77) viewed that it is the leaders’ responsibility “to develop their employees so that they can continuously improve. . p. Scherkenbach (1986. the following Hypothesis is developed: Hypothesis 3: Visionary Leadership is positively related to Learning.actualization and intellectual growth. Deming (1986) emphasized cooperation as a requisite to process management and. The role of employees and their involvement helps in forming work units.. p.

1998. This relationship finds support in the studies of Saraph et al.154 problem identification and problem solving. and Rungtusanatham et al.. hypothesized that . Hypothesis 5: External Cooperation is positively related to Process Management.. the relationship with suppliers provides necessary impetus to a shared approach towards accomplishment of quality objectives. Based on the above. The improvement in processes provides intrinsic motivation and enhances individual’s self esteem. The relationship of Internal Cooperation and External Cooperation with Process Management finds support in the writings of Ahire et al.1995.. (1994. (2005). and so forth. using new tools and techniques for prevention and improvement. 493) noted that “knowledge generation affects action on the process. Black and Porter. therefore. services and processes. p. Fisher et al. Anderson et al. 400) viewed that internal cooperation should “facilitate data sharing. 1996. Douglas and Fredendall (2004. mutually reinforcing one another. 1995. 2005. In this respect.. Grandzol and Gershon (1989). which leads to more learning. more action. Douglas and Fredendall. learning and process management are iterative. 2004. the standardization of processes. thus. helps in initiating and sustaining improvements in products. Douglas and Fredendall (2004) and Fisher et al. Anderson et al. It is. p. and the use of statistical tools to identify problems. all emphasizing the management of the process. it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 4: Internal Cooperation is positively related to Process Management.” Similary. the visual tracking of defects.” Competency development of employees enables them to take a proactive approach towards experimentation. This results in enhancing individual and organizational performance. The collaboration.. (1989).

Douglas and Fredendall (2004) and Fisher et al.155 Hypothesis 6: Learning is positively related to Process Management. Training. it is hypothesized that Hypothesis 7: Process Management is positively related to Continuous Improvement. These aspects act as satisfiers and motivate employees to continuously improve their job related activities. and economize resources. The Process Management entails response to the change in external conditions and alignment of organizational activities to remain responsive. participation and collaboration of employees with clients provide important feedback to achieve the desired results. there is always pressure to meet ever changing customers’ expectations and hence the need for reviewing the process and making it responsive to customers’ needs. Continuous quality improvement occurs not only because front-line operators are able to respond faster to correcting quality problems when they do arise but also because they are motivated proactively to prevent . decrease cost. This also helps organizations setting new targets for improvements on continuous basis. (2005). Continuous monitoring of processes facilitates identification of weaknesses and initiation of appropriate actions. In service industries.... So. lessen rework. Process Management offers opportunities to employees to participate in transformation process. increase standardization. Rungtusanatham et al.(1995). development.(1998). The relationship of this construct with Continuous Improvement finds support in the studies of Anderson et al. The management of processes enables the organizations to provide superior quality products and services to achieve excellence in execution. Deming (1982) stressed that continuous quality improvement efforts depend on the engagement and conduct of process management practices that reduce variation.

Effective planning and implementation of performance management practices result in employees who are more intrinsically motivated and satisfied with their work. reimplementation. . At the same time. Lascelles & Barrie.. Researchers found that continuous improvement has a significant and positive effect on customer satisfaction. Based on the above review. p. Angle and Poole. proliferation. it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 9: Continuous Improvement is positively related to Customer Satisfaction. and termination actions. Deming(1986) encouraged organization to improve continuously and for ever the system of production and services.156 quality problems from occurring. This relationship finds support in the studies of Fisher et al..” The approach leads the organization to achieve organizational excellence in products. (Johnson & Daniel. (2005). the increase in the level of autonomy and feedback of employees’ job translate into higher internal work motivation and job satisfaction. services and processes consistently in meeting changing customers’ requirements. Wall et al. (1989. Douglas and Fredendall (2004) and Rungtusanatham et al. The relationship between Process Management and Employee Fulfillment was supported by Anderson et al. discarding. the following hypothesis is developed: Hypothesis 8: Process Management is positively related to Employee Fulfillment. Van de Ven. (1998). Successful process management requires giving ownership of the process to the employees. (1990) found empirical support of improvement in job satisfaction when process control is placed in the hands of the frontline operators.11) viewed innovation as a process of “reinvention.. 1991. Based on the above. (1995) and Douglas and Fredendall (2004). 1990).

& Stone. (2001. 353). Douglas and Fredendall (2004). services quality. Locke. .. noted that “research has shown much evidence of strong relationships between employee perception of employee well-being and customer perception of service quality and satisfaction.(1985) found strong relationship between employees’ perception and attitude and customer satisfaction (cited in Anderson et al. (1995).157 Employee Fulfillment manifest in individual’s job satisfaction. Mitchell. the following hypothesis is developed: Hypothesis 10: Employee Fulfillment is positively related to Customer Satisfaction. Tornow and Wiley (1991) and Wanous & Lawler. and possession of knowledge for initiating improvement in processes. Smith. Sureschandar et al. job commitment and the pride of accomplishment of products. (1979). (1976).” Parasuraman et al. Based on the above review. The relationship finds strong support in the research studies of Anderson et al. (1991).. This is also exemplified in successful engagement in learning and application of this knowledge to enhance personal and organizational development..(1972). Mohr. 1994. (1992). p. Cranny. p 496).

. 1998. 1991. This study uses Deming Management Method Model to evaluate TQM practices in CMTOs in Pakistan. Black & Porter. qualitative and quantitative..158 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. Two major approaches exist in research literature i.. Motwani. Saraph & Schroeder. & Rice.e. Powel.. however. Douglas & Fredendall.. 2005. Rungtusanatham et al. . 1995. 1995.1989). Foker. The studies carried out in this field are empirical and used different models to evaluate the total quality management practices in organizations. Forza.1 RESEARCH APPROACH AND DESIGN The concept of TQM had been the focus of attention in the management literature during the over last two decades. Benson. Mahmoud. 1995. Rungtusanatham et al. Flynn. Sarpah et al. (1994). 2003). These studies. 1994. 1996. 2004. Fisher et al. 1995. The model was used to evaluate the TQM practices in developed countries.1991.. Deming Management Method Model was introduced by Anderson et al. identified the need to use this model in other cultures as well. Schroeder & Sakakibara. These studies identified some essential practices of total quality management that are critical to achieve business competitiveness (Ahire et al. Qualitative methods are used to find and confirm the presence and absence of an .1995. Subsequently the model was used in different studies (Anderson et al..

. The interview is an essential part of the investigation (Cooper & Schindler 2003). 2000). 1995. Fisher et al. Rungtusanatham et al.. the scale applied by Anderson et al... The constructs underlying the Deming Management Method were operationalized using previous published scales (Anderson et al. Bardi et al. (1995) has been used in the present study. the Likert scale rating method is more appropriate when the items consist of statements that give respondents an option to show their response in favourable or unfavourable way by selecting numerical score.159 element. 1996).. For measuring the Customer Satisfaction. 1995. 1995). The use of both methods enhances the understanding of social phenomenon(Sekran. Quantitative research involves use of statistical analysis to obtain findings ( Marezyk. DeMatteo. For measuring responses. Ahire et al.. . 3. This research used both quantitative technique by empirically testing hypotheses through statistical method and qualitative method using semi structured interviews with managers.. (1995) was modified by Douglas and Fredendall. 2005). 1998.. The scale originally developed by Anderson et al. 1986).1989. & Festinger. 2005). while qualitative research includes gathering of data through open ended questions that provide direct quotations. This scaling method is inexpensive and easier to develop (Cooper & Emory. (2004) for research in the services based on Deming Management Method Model. 5 point Likert rating scale ranging from “strongly agree” (5) to “strongly disagree” (1) was adopted in this study. The present study used the questionnaire developed by Douglas and Fredendall (2004). while quantitative methods are used to measure the degree of an element already present (Kirk & Miller. Therefore.2 INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT Much research has been done to collect information regarding practices of TQM (Saraph et al.

The construct of Internal and External Cooperation was further sub divided into quality philosophy (6 items) and supplier involvement (5 items). operational definition of concept and the statistical analysis (Migdadi. . Remaining items of this section included position of the respondent in the management. Part A consisted of demographic data. experience (ranging from below 5 years to over 20 years). The last item consisted of an open-ended question for seeking opinion of respondents about the barriers that they experience in planning and implementing TQM practices in their organizations. Section B of the questionnaire covered the constructs underlying the concept of Deming Management Method Model comprising Visionary Leadership consisting of five items and focused on involvement of top management team. and functional area. Process Management construct was also subdivided in two parts of management by facts (6 items) and total quality methods (5 items) respectively. During the pilot study. this information was kept optional and left it to the discretion of the respondents to fill it or not. The Employee Fulfillment construct had three items while Customer Satisfaction construct had three items.3 ITEMS MEASURING VARIABLES In research the measurement process is composed of exploration and definition of concept of variable. The construct of Continuous Improvement had three items. the respondents showed concern about disclosing information with regard to their names and the name of the organization. and training in dealing with customer driven information..160 The questionnaire had two parts. education ( indicating highest academic degree). Keeping in view this concern. Learning construct consisting of 11 items was subdivided in two parts of total quality training. (2005). 3. It has been stated that no identifying information should be recorded for individuals who do not consent to this (Marezyk et al.

All items of the variables have been discussed in the succeeding paragraphs. Saraph et al. This teaming up provides necessary input for the improvement of processes in the organizations. For the success of total quality management practices.1989).161 2005). 2004. objectives and strategies of quality and its communication to all. 4. Saraph et al. 1989). In this respect..2004.. Goal setting process for quality within the organization is comprehensive (Douglas & Fredendall. 3. The major department heads participate in quality improvement processes (Douglas & Fredendall. commitment of quality at all level.. 2004. Saraph et al. To evaluate the quality philosophy. therefore. 1989). 2. Top management in the organization assumes responsibility for quality performance (Douglas & Fredendall. following five items have been used: 1. Saraph et al. The organization’s top management has objectives for quality performance (Douglas & Fredendall. five items have been used that measure employees’ awareness to organization’s mission. Researchers have identified the vital role of top management in the planning and implementing total quality management practices. This construct had five items to measure the dimensions of Visionary Leadership that focuses on the involvement of top management in providing personal leadership. 2004. Internal and External Cooperation is. Importance is attached to quality by organization’s top management in relation to cost objectives (Douglas & Fredendall. considered essential for success of quality initiatives. proactive approach to ..1989). envisioning the goals. 5. Saraph et al. 1989).The constructs and the operational definition of different concepts have been discussed in the preceding chapters. 2004. collaboration from employees and suppliers are vital.

Zeitz et al. 1997). For measuring suppliers’ involvement. Continuous quality improvement is an important goal of this organization (Douglas & Fredendall. and initiatives for quality focused long term relationship with suppliers. Saraph et al. 4. 2004.. . Managers here try to plan ahead for changes that might affect our performance (Douglas & Fredendall. Saraph et al. For measuring these two dimensions. Saraph et al. 1997).1989). but dependable suppliers (Douglas & Fredendall.. The organization relies on reasonably few. 2004. 7. 6. Longer term relationships are offered to suppliers (Douglas & Fredendall.. six items have been used that assess the practice of selection of dependable and knowledgeable suppliers purely on merit and quality.1997). 2004. 2. Saraph et al. 2004. The organization provides education to its suppliers (Douglas & Fredendall. following 11 items have been included: 1. The organization’s supplier rating system is thorough (Douglas & Fredendall. Zeitz et al. Suppliers are selected based on quality rather than price (Douglas & Fredendall.1989). 10. 2004. Zeitz et al. 1989).. Members of this company show concern for the need for quality (Douglas & Fredendall. Zeitz et al. 2004.1989). 3. Johannesson & Ritchie1997). 1997). Saraph et al. 2004. 5.1989). Zeitz. 2004.162 quality and planning for change to improve quality. 8. 2004. 9. People in this company are aware of its overall mission (Douglas & Fredendall. 2004. There is a strong commitment to quality at all levels of the company (Douglas & Fredendall.

5. Zeitz et al.. 2004. 1989. These items are as follow: 1. Saraph et al. Saraph et al.1997).. benchmarking and quality improvement teams)etc (Douglas & Fredendall.. 2004. dimensions of training given to employees to enhance their competencies to achieve quality goals. 1997). Clear specifications are provided to suppliers (Douglas & Fredendall.1997). Saraph et al. The organization’s top management is committed to employees’ training for quality (Douglas & Fredendall. cause and effect diagrams. The focal point of Learning construct is the training that has been measured on two dimensions.e..1989). 2004. Training is given in the total quality management techniques (such as control charts. Training is given in “total quality concepts” i. Saraph et al. There were 11 items on the instrument to measure this construct.... 2004. 1997).. 4. Saraph et al.. 2. Resources are provided for employees’ training in quality(Douglas & Fredendall. 1997). 3. 2004. Quality related training is given to employees throughout the organization (Douglas & Fredendall. 1989.. Zeitz et al. 1989. The first dimension is the total quality training aspect that has six items and measures the top management commitment to this important aspect. 2004. philosophy of company-wide responsibility for quality throughout the organization (Douglas & Fredendall. Quality related training is given to supervisors and managers throughout the organization (Douglas & Fredendall. Zeitz et al. 2004. Zeitz et al.. 6. 1989. 1989. Zeitz et al. Saraph et al.. problem solving.163 11. Saraph et al. 1997). Zeitz et al. . The second dimension is based on customer driven information that has five items and assesses employees’ knowledge as well as their pursuits in learning about the needs of internal and external customers with a view to enhance their competencies to meet these needs. 1989.

Zeitz et al. 2004. Our associates (employees. has six items and focuses on availability and use of quality data by workers.. The organization uses customer requirements as the basis for quality (Douglas & Fredendall. 1989. satisfaction. management by facts. time etc. 2004. Our associates (employees. 1995). 11.. Powell.. Saraph et al.164 7.. Zeitz et al. 1995). Quality data (complaints. . 2004. 2004.. 3. Our organization is more customers focused than our competitors (Douglas & Fredendall. 1995). Powell. 8. Quality data are available to employees (Douglas & Fredendall. 1997). 1989. Saraph et al. 1997). 1997). outcome. Saraph et al. 10. 1997). Zeitz et al. 2. Powell. Powell. supervisors and managers. Zeitz et al. 2004. 2004.. Quality data is used as tool to manage quality(Douglas & Fredendall.) is available (Douglas & Fredendall. 9. Quality data is timely and easily available(Douglas & Fredendall. The Process Management construct measures two different aspects. supervisors and managers) attempt to measure their external customers’ needs (Douglas & Fredendall. The second dimension contains five items and assesses the use of quality methods and tools by employees in work processes. 4. 2004.1989. 1995). Overall the construct has 11 items as follow: 1. 1989. supervisors and managers) attempt to measure their internal customers’ needs (Douglas & Fredendall.. Powell. Saraph et al. 2004. 1995). The first aspect. 2004. defects. supervisors and managers) know who their customers are (Douglas & Fredendall. Our associates (employees.

1989. 2004. Quality data is available to supervisors and managers (Douglas & Fredendall.. 7.. 2004). Zeitz et al.1997). 2004. cause and effect diagrams. Total quality management procedures (such as brainstorming.. 11.1997).Saraph et al. The construct has the following items: 1.1989. 10.. Zeitz et al. Our associates (employees. Our associates (employees. 2004.1997). Zeitz et al. 2004). 2004). 1997).. 2004.. Zeitz et al. Our associates (employees. 2004. Statistical techniques are used to reduce variation in processes in the organization (Douglas & Fredendall. 1997). Our associates (employees. Zeitz et al. .Saraph et al. 2. supervisors and managers) keep records and charts/other aids for measuring the quality of work displayed in their work areas (Douglas & Fredendall.Saraph et al. teams) are used to analyze information for process improvement in the organization (Douglas & Fredendall. 8. supervisors and managers) in the organization believe that quality improvement is their responsibility (Douglas & Fredendall. Our associates (employees. 6. 9.1989. Quality data is used to evaluate supervisor and managerial performance(Douglas & Fredendall. supervisors and managers) use basic statistical techniques (such as histograms and control charts) to study their work processes(Douglas & Fredendall.165 5.. 2004) Continuous Improvement construct has three questions and measures the employees’ belief in quality and the efforts directed towards achieving the quality. supervisors and managers) analyze the time it takes to get the job done(Douglas & Fredendall. supervisors and managers) in the organization try to improve the quality of their services (Douglas & Fredendall.

2004. Zeitz et al..1989). The last item is based on an open-ended question in which the opinion of the respondents had been sought with regard to the barriers that they experience in planning and implementing total quality management practices in their organizations. 1977).. I feel a little ashamed of myself (Douglas & Fredendall. Fisher et al.1997). .. commitment and empowered behaviour. provisioning of quality products and services as relative to competitors and customer relationship management. Our associates (employees. Our firm is better than the competitors in customers’ relations (Anderson et al. Our customers have been well satisfied with the quality of our products and services overall (Anderson et al. 2004. Doing a good job should mean as much to a worker as a good pay-checque (Douglas & Fredendall. 2004. 2. aligning products and services with customers’ needs.. 2004. 1989). 1977). 1977). Sarpah et al. Fisher et al. 1995. The construct has three items as follow: 1. 3 In general.. Sarpah et al. 1989). 2005. our firm’s level of quality performance over the past three years has been better relative to industry norms (Anderson et al. job satisfaction. The construct of Customer Satisfaction focuses on measuring the customer satisfaction. 2. 3. 1995. Employee Fulfillment constructs evaluates pride in work. Sarpah et al.Khandwalla. I would feel unhappy. if I could not take pride in my job (Douglas & Fredendall. If I do a sloppy job at work. supervisors and managers) in the organization analyze their work process to look for ways of doing a better job (Douglas & Fredendall. Fisher et al.166 3.. 2005. 2005.. Khandwalla. This construct has following three items: 1.. 1995. Khandwalla.

133) writes that “validity refers to the extent to which an empirical measure adequately reflects the real meaning of the concept under consideration. Measuring and . Information Technology. Customer Services. and Finance. Nunnally (1978) argued that there are two standards for ensuring content validity: firstly. the method of constructing the items. The population comprised of about 9000 members of the workforce of CMTOs. each subject was considered to be in a suitable position to provide reliable information and valid data on quality dimensions being practiced. Human Resource Management and Administration. Babbie (1990 p.5 CONTENT VALIDITY Smith (1991. The functional areas were Operations. content validity measures the comprehensiveness and representativeness of the content of instrument. Random probability sampling had been used since the dimensions of total quality management involves everyone in the organization. The participants comprised of members of the organization from different tiers of management working in different functional areas. Sales and Marketing. Content validity refers to checking the measure with regard to adequate coverage of the concept and represents the domain of issue effectively.106) defined the validity as the “degree to which the researcher has measured what he has set out to measure. The sample size considered suitable for the study was 400. These members included officers/associates/executives/senior executives and managers at all levels.4 POPULATION AND PARTICIPANTS Five Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators with 99% of market share were selected for this study.167 3.” Therefore. 3. Tapping the concept comprehensively enhances the credibility of the instrument. All employees of these organizations were the target population.” It is essential that the questionnaire can measure the concept accurately. the sampling of the items and secondly. Procurement. p.

Evans& Deans. Quazi et al. Juran. The content validity of the instrument of this research has been well established by quality experts and researchers (Brocka & Brocka. One study measured content validity only by the review of literature and an expert panel without any explanation about the process of measuring. relevance. 2003. and length of questions. In addition different studies have used the measuring scales and validated the items of the instrument (Ahire et al. In the second step. This type of validity can also help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instrument. the instrument was presented to a panel of four quality experts who approved that the items measure the concept. Yaghmie (2003) studied content validity through review of 38 articles that were published in the International Journal of Nursing Studies. the questionnaire was given to a few managers and other executives working in CMTOs in order to . Sekran (2003) noted that measures that have been either newly constructed or adapted need reliability and validity tests. For face validity.168 reporting content validity of instruments are important.1989).48%) articles discussed content validity. The content validity of the instrument of this study was established using two methods.1996. Finally. 1992.1995. Schein. 1996 (volumes 32 and 33). Badri et al. clarity. one article measured content validity by a 4-point content validity index (CVI) and the judgment of three experts. 1980. Of these articles. Grandzol & Gershon. Black & Porter. 1995. one study's content validity was based on the previous studies. 1989. the interpretations of results are precise. completeness. 1990). Six measured content validity only based on the opinion of experts (from 1 to 10 experts) for accuracy. Rao et al. Saraph et al. Oakland. scoring system. The study found that13 (20. 1995.1998. 1998. Yaghmie (2003) noted that by measuring content validity.1999.

3. They advocated administering the questionnaire to pilot subjects. 1993.. were selected. Confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken for this study to validate the factors used in the instrument.7 PILOT TESTING The researchers and quality experts supported the pre validation process of instrument (Ahire et al. Peat et al. Williams & Xuan 2002. De Vaus. The pilot testing of the instrument was carried out. Baker 1994. They further argued that the methods used for construct validity include judgmental. receiving the requisite feedback and improving the instrument or the procedure of administering the questionnaire (cited in Social Research 2002). The questionnaire was distributed to 50 subjects from the population. Polit.. Mellis. Cooper and Schindler (2003) concluded that the construct validity represents the measuring of the construct and establishes adequacy of the tests to represent the construct. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY Sekran (2003) noted that construct validity indicates the fit between results of instrument and theories on which test is based. correlation of proposed tests with established one. Participants from CMTOs. The first 47 items were framed to measure the TQM practices based on Deming Management Method criteria. The response was affirmative and no ambiguity was experienced in understanding the items in the instrument. factor analysis. The instrument contained 48 items including one open-ended question. Peat. 1996.6. 3. (2002) noted that this facilitates improving internal consistency of the instrument. Beck & Hungler 2001). convergent and discriminate techniques and multitrait-multimethod analysis. The TQM practices .169 ensure that the participants understand the items in the questionnaire.

which ranged from . It took approximately 20-25 minutes to complete the questionnaire and accepted by respondents.170 covering these items were Visionary Leadership. The pilot study indicated that the questionnaire was easy to understand and simple to complete. The data collected was subject to SPSS (Version 16) analysis and a Cronbach Alpha was commuted in order to evaluate internal consistency and reliability for the set of measurement of each construct. suggesting the instrument is compositely reliable and internally consistent as recommended by Nunnally (1978).685 to . Internal and External Cooperation. Continuous Improvement. Table 10 shows the Cronbach alpha values for all factors. A five point Likert scale ranging from Strongly Agree having a score of five (maximum score) to Strongly Disagree having one point (minimum score) was used to measure response for first 47 items. The values of reliability and validity indicate that the instrument used in the study is adequate.90. Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction . Process Management. . Learning.

881 .734 .740 . 6. 2.171 Table 10 Internal Reliability of Scales ___________________________________________________________________________ Variables Number of Items Cronbach’s Alpha ___________________________________________________________________________ 1.685 .900 .892 . 4. Learning Process Management Continuous Improvement Employee Fulfillment Customer Satisfaction 11 11 11 3 3 3 . Visionary Leadership Internal and External Cooperation 3. 7.698 5 . 5.

This required lot of persuasion to get the required information. one hundred and one held managerial positions at tactical level. filled questionnaires were received.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS The survey had been administered to 400 participants using different means (email. The covering letter highlighted the objectives of the research. The survey questionnaires were sent to the members of strategic (20 forms). Thus 290 responses were used in the data analysis for this study. with a response rate of 72. These managers represented Marketing and Sales.172 3. A complete set of questionnaire including a covering letter accompanied the questionnaire. . All responses were scrutinized and all were found complete in all respects. It was also assured that anonymity of all research participants will be ensured and the results would be discussed and reported only in the aggregate. Data collection in Pakistan poses enormous challenges as respondent are generally not willing to cooperate. Semi structured interviews of 20 managers were conducted. This was followed by personal contact and persuasion. personally delivered and through third party). Respondents were given free access at any time for any type of information or assurance they needed.5%. After repeated requests covering a period of over six months. however. The maximum filled questionnaires (180) were received from members holding managerial position at operational levels. Some were. All participants were graduates. Nine respondents held managerial position at strategic level. significance of respondent’s contribution and the time within which to return the instrument. These managers represented different functional areas of the CMTOs. tactical (130) and operational (250) management level. The filled questionnaires were received from members holding different managerial position in CMTOs. Thus 290 filled questionnaires were received. unwilling to disclose their personal or organizational identity. In all 400 survey questionnaires were sent to the sample.

Procurement. 3. Linear regression and multiple regression analysis have been done for hypothesis validation. Reliability and validity of Instrument has been done using Cronbach alpha. Technology ( Operations). Correlation has been calculated to identify any preliminary relationship among the variables being examined and to identify the multicollinearity. 3. homoscedasticity.260) stressed that: Several ethical issues should be addressed while collecting data which include the . Statistical tests has been undertaken to measure the underlying assumptions before multiple regression analysis. 3. Customer Services. 2.9 TESTS FOR DATA ANALYSIS The data has been analyzed using SPSS (version 16) and AMOS (16. checking of outliers.173 Human Resource Management and Administration. Finance. Descriptive statistics has been used to identify the phenomenon of interest. normality. and Operations Planning. 6. p.0). Information Technology. linearity.10 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS Sekran (2003. Salient tests include independence of observations. 7. Identification of total. Following tests have been conducted to analyze the data for the study: 1. multicollineratity and singularity. direct and indirect effects relating to variables has been computed. 5. Confirmatory factor analysis has been done to validate the factors. 4.

174 purpose of the research.1989). invoicing irregularities. and avoiding legal liability. which need to be avoided include violating nondisclosure agreements. it was ensured that the fundamental aspects of ethical consideration are complied. In this study. and avoidance of enforcing the participants in case he/she takes time to respond. respect of the participant in all aspects. .57) noted that “various unethical issues in research. deceiving people. misrepresenting results. the rights of respondents and how these would be protected and kept confidential and obtaining the informed consent of respondents during the process of interviews (O’Sullivan & Ressel. breaking respondent confidentiality. The honesty and truthfulness of the researchers is the most important aspect that needs to be considered ethically. p. Cooper and Emory (1995. ” During the study strict compliance was ensured with regard to the guidelines stressing the need to explain the purpose of study and the benefits expected from respondents. confidentiality of data obtained. Participants were ensured full confidentiality of their identity (personal and organizational) and the information provided.

5% which is considered adequate keeping in view the lack of survey culture in Pakistan and the apprehensions of the respondents with regard to the confidentiality of personal and organizational identity and the information provided. SPSS (version16) and AMOS (16. and Morgan.2 DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS The self administered survey method and semi structured interview technique were used for data collection. 290 responses were received. is illustrated through visual presentation in Figure 4 to Figure 7. Each variable should be coded to obtain maximum information. 3. Barret. All values (codes) for variable must be mutually exclusive. 2. 4.0) software were used for statistical analysis. 4.1 DATA PREPARATION Sekran (2003) noted that making data ready for analysis needs undertaking validity and reliability and hypotheses testing. (2005) were observed as follow: 1. Rules described by Leech . in different combination. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4. All data should be numeric. The response rate was 72. .175 CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS. Out of 400 questionnaire sent. The detail of demographic data. Each variable for each case or participants must occupy the same column in the SPSS Data Editor.

. This is attributed to the commitment of this level to other essential business engagements. The figure shows maximum responses from Customer Services functional area with 27%. The lowest response (3%) is from respondents holding managerial positions at strategic level. The maximum responses (52%) have experience ranging from 5-10 years. The responses from Operations and Marketing and Sales are 21%. The lowest response is from the respondents having more than 10 years. Figure 6 represents the responses from the experience point of view. it is important since this tier of management interacts with the customers and is in a better position to provide quality service and understand the customers’ feelings.176 Figure 4 reflects that the highest response rate (62%) was from the respondents holding managerial positions at operational level. In a service context. While the lowest response is from Finance functional area. the number of respondents having experience between 5 and over 10 years is considered adequate. Figure 5 indicates the responses according to the functional areas. Keeping in view the life span of the CMTOs.

177 Figure 4. Management Position wise Response Rate 70% 60% Response Rate (%) 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Strategic Tactical Management Position 3% 35% 62% Operational Managerial Position of Respondents Responses Received % Response Strategic Level Tactical Level Operational Level 9 101 180 290 3 35 62 .

Figure 5. Response Rate % 10 15 20 25 30 0 21 Technology (Operations) 19 IT 21 Marketing and Sales 27 Customer Services 7 HRM/ADM 3 Procurement 2 Finance 5 Functional Area wise Response Rate 178 .

Experience wise Response Rate 60% Response Rate (%) 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 to 5 34% 52% 14% 5 to 10 Work Experience (Years) > 10 .179 Figure 6.

5%.180 Figure 7 shows the response from members of different CMTOs. The leading Operators’ response rate varied between 71% and 73%. . The overall response rate was 72. Response rate ranged from 70 % to 78 %.

181 Figure 7. Organization wise Response Rate 120 100 100 80 60 40 20 0 Mobilink Ufone Telenor Warid CM Pak 73 71 72 100 100 50 39 50 35 Forms Sent Forms Received .

This facilitates rigorous data analysis for the research (Sekran. Examination of frequencies of all items also indicated that data is normally distributed. The skewness and kurtosis values indicate that all values are within range of + / . mode. skew (symmetry.1 and all variables are normally distributed. The data reflects that minimum and maximum value of all variables is within range. and median). standard deviation. skewness and kurtosis of all items in the survey. .182 4. dispersion (standard deviation). spread. Table 11 shows minimum. measured by kurtosis index) of data. measured by skew index) and kurtosis (peakedness. The descriptive analysis includes examination of central tendency (mean. maximum. 2003). mean. reliability and tendencies that emerge from the data and provides a foundation for advanced statistical tests.3 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS The descriptive analysis of the data provides a vivid picture of normality.

71398 -.393 5.00 Cooperation Learning 1.00 3.00 Fulfillment Customer 1.00 Satisfaction 5.569 -.00 Cooperation External 1.3000 .382 -.679 .00 3.0331 .305 -.6837 .168 5.73209 -.00 4.063 5.227 5.63075 -.3046 .183 Table 11 Descriptive Analysis of All Variables (N=290) ________________________________________________________________________ Variable Min Max Mean SD Skewness Kurtosis ________________________________________________________________________ Visionary 1.00 Leadership Internal 1.00 3.00 4.64409 -.68276 -.00 5.471 -.00 4.770 .65528 -.7555 .6127 .555 .51509 -.591 5.1253 .00 Improvement Employee 1.563 -.00 Management Continuous 1.00 3.719 Process 1.00 4.66075 -.4009 .452 5.544 -.

Process Management (11 items). Table 12 presents the results of confirmatory factor analysis. The Eigen values of all variables was >1 and the % variance of factors varied from 58. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) static and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity was performed. Continuous Improvement (3 items).001. Internal Cooperation ( 5 items) External Cooperation (6 items).184 4.924) indicated that the degree of common variance among the seven variables was marvelous. . Prior to the conduct of confirmatory factor analysis. confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to validate the underlying structure of the model. it was inferred that the relationship between the variables was strong and appropriate for factor analysis. a model with eight factors was considered adequate to represent the data because the result of the analysis can be considered satisfactory. Based on the results. The KMO value (KMO = 0. Thus. The Bartlett’s test of sphericity indicated a Chi square 6. and Customer Satisfaction (3 items). respectively. Employee Fulfillment (3 items).8% to 82%.910 with an observed significance level of p< . Learning (11 items). These factors were Visionary Leadership (5 items). Table 12 contains the details of the factors that were validated through confirmatory factor analysis.4 CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS For construct validity.

40 .74 . Dimension/ Items Factor Eigen % Significance Loading Value Variance ______________________________________________________________________________ Visionary Leadership 1 2 3 4 5 VL1 VL2 VL3 VL4 VL5 Internal Cooperation 6 7 8 9 ICP6 ICP7 ICP8 ICP9 .74 .No.76 .52 .15 63.60 3.69 3.81 .74 .000** .67 73.00 .54 60.52 .185 Table – 12 Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis ______________________________________________________________________________ S.76 .000** 10 ICP10 External Cooperation 11 ECP11 12 ECP12 13 ECP13 14 ECP14 15 ECP15 .64 .000** 3.69 .73 .55 .66 .74 .

53 .79 .45 68 .80 .53 7.56 .82 .46 .No.84 .75 .186 ______________________________________________________________________________ S. Dimension/ Items Factor Loading Eigen Value % Variance Significance 16 ECP16 .75 .000** 7.60 Learning 17 LG17 18 LG18 19 LG19 20 LG20 21 LG21 22 LG22 23 LG23 24 LG24 25 LG25 26 LG26 27 LG27 Process Management 28 PM28 29 PM29 30 PM30 .84 .58 .84 .69 70 .000** .76 .

68 .80 . Dimension/ Items Factor Loading Eigen Value % Variance Significance 31 PM31 32 PM32 33 PM33 .84 .76 .No.61 .46 .187 ______________________________________________________________________________ S.63 .64 PM34 34 Process Management 35 PM35 36 PM36 37 PM37 38 PM38 Continuous Improvement 39 CI39 40 CI40 41 CI41 Employee Fulfillment 42 EF42 43 EF43 44 EF44 .000** 82 .58 .82 1.46 .000** .64 2.79 60 .65 .55 .75 .

01 .75 58.68 1.188 ______________________________________________________________________________ S.46 .33 .No.61 .000** ** p < 0. Dimension/ Items Factor Loading Eigen Value % Variance Significance Customer Satisfaction 45 CS45 46 CS46 47 CS47 .

600. p. According to Statistical Evaluation of Measurement Errors: Design and Analysis of Reliability Studies.70 is acceptable. (cited in Everitt. This suggested that the measure is compositely reliable and internally consistent as recommended by Nunnally (1978). “consistency indicates how well the items measuring a concept hang together as a set.65 alpha value. 307). Cronbach’s alpha is reliability coefficient that indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another”. The results indicated that majority of factors had higher than 0.5 Internal Consistency In order to establish the reliability of measure.189 4. alpha value between 0. its consistency and stability is tested. According to Sekran (2003. 2006). . Table 13 shows the Cronbach’s alpha values and number of items.

190 Table 13 Reliability of Scales (Internal Consistency) _____________________________________________________________________________ S.675 3 7. Internal Cooperation .908 11 4.842 3 6. Continuous Improvement . Customer Satisfaction .911 11 5.No. Learning .606 3 .862 6 3. Variables Cronbach’s Alpha (a) Numbers of Items _____________________________________________________________________________ 1.832 5 3 External Cooperation .853 5 2. Process Management . Employee Fulfillment . Visionary Leadership .

2003). Inferential statistics also provide information about normality through the use of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. multicollinearity and singularity (Pedhazur. Non-normality leads to distortion of results. The skewness and kurtosis have been reflected in Table 11 Descriptive analysis that indicates that all values are within acceptable range.2 Assumption of Normality in Data This assumption implies that all variables are normally distributed. linearity and homoscedasticity. these assumptions need to be complied with. In addition. (Cohen. skewness and kurtosis. . These methods include visual examination of data plots. 4. Table 14 shows the results of this application which was found to be within acceptable range of 1. 4. 2000. If the sample size is larger than 100. West & Aiken. 1997.6. In order to make the results trustworthy.6 UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS FOR MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS Researchers agree that multiple regression analysis rely upon certain assumptions.191 4. Cohen.1 Assumption of Independence of Observations Researchers recommend application of Durbin-Watson coefficient method to measure independence of observation. normality. P-Plots give information about normality. These include testing of independence of observation.5 to 2. outliers. 2005). McCullagh & Nelder.5. Tabachnick & Fidell. Several methods are available to test this assumption.6. the failure of normality will not affect the regression (cited in Migdadi. 1989). Several assumptions of multiple regressions are essential to meet.

55 1.192 Table 14 Assumption – Multiple Regression .Analysis of Independence of Observations S. 3. Visionary Leadership Internal Cooperation External Cooperation Learning Process Management Continuous Improvement Employee Fulfillment 1.No. Independent Variables Durbin-Watson ________________________________________________________________________ 1.84 .99 1.65 1. 4. 2.64 1.84 2.01 1. 7. 6. 5.

Researchers advocate use of Cook’s Distance and Centered Leverage Value to examine the influence of outliers on the regression model. Cooper & Emory. 1985. hence the outlier will have no significant effect on the regression model. It is. Everitt. The acceptable value of Cook’s Distance is < 1.6. The scatter plots have been depicted in Figures 1 to Figure 12 which indicate meeting of this assumption. The Centered Leverage value closer to 0. 1995. Researchers agree that Normal P-Plot and Scatter plots are best means of testing this assumption through visual examination (Berry & Feldman. The normal. Normal P-Plot . Leech et al. Chatterjee & Hadi.193 4. 2000). (2006) argued that this observation may portray anomaly in the distinctiveness of a subject. Researcher are unanimous that scatter plot of standardized residuals is the most preferable method of detection linear relationship. or is the outcome of an inaccuracy in measurement or recording. 4.6. 2006). All the values are within acceptable range.3 Assumption of Outliers Outliers exist when observations deviate from other members of the sample and are significant case in the variable ( Cooper Emory. These values for all variables are shown in Appendix B.6. indicating the non significant effect of outliers (Everitt. 2006). 4. Andersson & Haire.4 Assumption of Linearity Linear relationship between independent and dependent variable is extremely essential to accurately estimate the relationship. it reflects the existence of homoscedasticity. has insignificant influence on regression model (Field. vital to examine the analyses of non-variability. random and even dispersion of residual throughout the scatter plot indicate meeting the assumption of linearity and homoscedasticity (Black. 1995). 1995). 2005.5 Assumption of Homoscedasticity Harlow (2005) notes that homoscedasticity means that variance of score of one variable is the same at all values of other variables. therefore. Tatham.

These figurers indicate meeting the assumption of homoscedasticity. Figures 8 to Figure 21 indicate Scatter Plots and Normal P Plots of standardized residual representing the data used in the model. .194 and Scatter plots have been shown while discussing the respective variable.

195 Figure 8. Dependent Variable: Internal Cooperation Expected Cumulative Probabilities Observed Cumulative Probabilities . Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Visionary Leadership versus Internal Cooperation.

196 Figure 9. Scatter Plot for Visionary Leadership and Internal Cooperation Dependent Variable: Internal Cooperation Regression Standardized Residual Regression Standardized Predicted Value .

Thus the assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity have been fulfilled. The residuals are randomly scattered in a constant width ban about zero and lie within + / .197 Figure 8 shows the Normal P Plot of regression standardized residual for Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and Internal Cooperation (Dependent Variable) of the data used in the model. . Figure 9 ( scatter plot) portrays the standardized residuals versus the predicted values. The Normal P Plot shows observations close to 45 degree line.2 .3 standard deviation of zero line. The shape of the plot exhibits normal pattern.

198 Figure 10. Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Visionary Leadership versus External Cooperation. Dependent Variable: External Cooperation Expected Cumulative Probabilities Observed Cumulative Probabilities .

Scatter Plot for Visionary Leadership and External Cooperation Dependent Variable: External Cooperation Regression Standardized Residual Regression Standardized Predicted Value .199 Figure11.

The shape of the plot exhibits normal pattern. The Normal P Plot in Figure 10 shows observations close to 45 degree line.3 standard deviation of zero line. Figure 11 reflects the scatter plot. Thus the assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity have been fulfilled. Figure 4 portrays the standardized residuals versus the predicted values. . The residuals are randomly scattered in a constant width band about zero and lie within +/.200 Figure 10 shows the Normal P Plot of regression standardized residual for Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and External Cooperation (Dependent Variable) of the data used in the model.2 .

201 Figure12. Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Visionary Leadership versus Learning. Dependent Variable: Learning Expected Cumulative Probabilities Observed Cumulative Probabilities .

Scatter Plot for Visionary Leadership and Learning Dependent Variable: Leaning Expected Cumulative Probabilities Regression Standardized Predicted Value .202 Figure 13.

The Normal P Plot in Figure 4 shows observations close to 45 degree line. The shape of the plot indicates normal pattern. Figure 13 indicate the scatter plot. Thus the assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity have been fulfilled. The residuals are randomly scattered in a constant width band about zero and lie within +/ .203 Figure 12 shows the Normal P Plot of regression standardized residual for Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and Learning (Dependent Variable) of the data used in the model. Figure 5 reflects the standardized residuals versus the predicted values. .2-3 standard deviation of zero line.

Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Internal Cooperation.204 Figure 14. External Cooperation and Learning versus Process Management Dependent Variable: Process Management Expected Cumulative Probabilities Observed Cumulative Probabilities .

205 Figure 15. External Cooperation and Learning versus Process Management Dependent Variable: Process Management Expected Cumulative Probabilities Regression Standardized Predicted Value . Scatter Plot for Internal Cooperation.

Figure 15 displays the standardized residuals versus the predicted values. Thus the assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity have been fulfilled.2-3 standard deviation of zero line. The residuals are randomly scattered in a constant width band about zero and lie within +/. . The Normal P Plot in Figure 14 indicates observations close to 45 degree line. The shape of the plot exhibits normal pattern.206 Figure 14 shows the Normal P Plot of regression standardized residual for Internal Cooperation. External Cooperation and Learning (Independent Variables) and Process Management (Dependent Variable) of the data used in the model.

Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Process Management versus Continuous Improvement Dependent Variable: Continuous Improvement Expected Cumulative Probabilities Observed Cumulative Probabilities .207 Figure 16.

Scatter Plot for Process Management versus Continuous Improvement Dependent Variable: Continuous Improvement Expected Cumulative Probabilities Regression Standardized Predicted Value .208 Figure17.

Thus the assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity have been fulfilled. . The shape of the plot portrays normal pattern. The Normal P Plot in Figure 16 reflects s observations close to 45 degree line. The residuals are randomly scattered in a constant width band about zero and lie within +/.2-3 standard deviation of zero line. Figure 17 displays the standardized residuals versus the predicted values.209 Figure 16 shows the Normal P Plot of regression standardized residual for Process Management (Independent Variables) and Continuous Improvement (Dependent Variable) of the data used in the model.

210 Figure 18. Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Process Management versus Employee Fulfillment Dependent Variable: Employee Fulfillment Expected Cumulative Probabilities Observed Cumulative Probabilities .

211 Figure 19. Scatter Plot for Process Management versus Employee Fulfillment Dependent Variable: Employee Fulfillment Expected Cumulative Probabilities Regression Standardized Predicted Value .

212 Figure 18 shows the Normal P Plot of regression standardized residual for Process Management (Independent Variables) and Continuous Improvement (Dependent Variable) of the data used in the model. . Thus the assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity have been fulfilled. The shape of the plot highlights normal pattern. The Normal P Plot in Figure 18 reflects s observations close to 45 degree line. The residuals are randomly scattered in a constant width band about zero and lie within +/. Figure 19 displays the standardized residuals versus the predicted values.3 standard deviation of zero line.

Normal P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals for Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment versus Customer Satisfaction Dependent Variable: Customer Satisfaction Expected Cumulative Probabilities Observed Cumulative Probabilities .213 Figure 20.

214 Figure 21. Scatter Plot for Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment versus Customer Satisfaction Dependent Variable: Customer Satisfaction Expected Cumulative Probabilities Regression Standardized Predicted Value .

90 and above). Visionary Leadership.0 or -1.215 Figure 20 shows the Normal P Plot of regression standardized residual for Continuou Improvement and Employee Fulfillment (Independent Variables) and Customer Satisfaction (Dependent Variable) of the data used in the model. Learning. 2003. al. Researchers recommend an examination correlation matrix. Figure 21 indicates the standardized residuals versus the predicted values. 1998.10 and VIF <10. The Normal P Plot in Figure 20 reflects s observations close to 45 degree line. 1989). 2005. The results of correlation matrix indicate that all variable are not highly correlated (> .. Thus the assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity have been fulfilled. Process Management.2-3 standard deviation of zero line. 4. Internal Cooperation.0 ( perfect linear relationship between variable) is singularity. 2006). Damodan & Gujrati. Harlow. External Cooperation. Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment are significantly correlated at p < 0. The shape of the plot reflects normal pattern. The residuals are randomly scattered in a constant width band about zero and lie within +/.. . The results indicate a positive relationship between these variables. Hence there is no need to delete any variable. which indicate no multicollinearity (Cooper and Emory1995.6. The Correlation matrix at Table 14 indicates that all constructs namely. when correlation coefficient is equal to 1. The acceptable tolerance value is >0. Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) and finding the values of tolerance to diagnose multicollinearity (Neter et.The extreme form of multicollinearity. Hair et al.6 Assumption of Multicollinearity and Singularity Multicollinearity exists when variables are highly correlated (0.01. Ho.90).

The multicollinearity statistics indicate no multicollinearity problem. The Tolerance indicators for all factors are greater than 0.216 The results of multicollinearity analysis of this study at Table 15 reflect that all VIF for observed variables were less than the threshold value of 10. . Results of multicollinearity diagnosis analysis (Tolerance and VIF) are given for each hypothesis test in the concerned section.10.

663** .618** .199** .150** .698** .642** .575** ______________________________________________________________________________ ** Correlation is significant at p < 0.652** .248** .648** .515 .163** .636** .206** .631** 4.732 .644 .01 level (2 – tailed) .622** .40 .68 (ICP) External Cooperation 3.630 . 608** .209** .12 .713 .242** .590** .75 (PM) Continuous Improvement (CI) Employee Fulfillment (EF) Customer Satisfaction (CS) 4.86 (ECP) Learning (LG) 3.03 .682 VL ICP ECP LG PM CI EF Internal Cooperation 3.676 .655 .183** .738** .234** 4.217 Table 15 Correlation Matrix ______________________________________________________________________________ Variables Mean Standard Deviation ______________________________________________________________________________ Visionary Leadership (VL) 4.30 .745** Process Management 3.209**.618** .680** .30 .163** .164** .

000 Process Management Employee Fulfillment 1.218 Table 16 Assumption of Multicollinearity and Singularity .000 Process Management Continuous Improvement 1.000 1.945 1.058 .Multicollinearity Diagnostics Independent Variables Dependent Variable Multicollinearity Diagnostics Tolerance VIF Visionary Leadership Internal Cooperation 1.00 External Cooperation Process Management 1.000 1.000 1.058 Employee Fulfillment Customer Satisfaction 0.945 1.000 Continuous Improvement Customer Satisfaction 0.000 Learning Process Management 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 Internal Cooperation Process Management 1.000 Visionary Leadership External Cooperation 1.000 Visionary Leadership Learning 1.000 1.000 1.

lack of leadership for quality. . The correlation is < 0. inadequate resources for total quality management and lack of customer focus. standard deviation. lack of planning for quality. These factors are inadequate human resource development and management. 1995). Furthermore.7. The testing of linearity and homoscedasticity at Figure 8 (normal p-plot) and Figure 9 (scatter plot) indicate the meeting of assumptions for Visionary Leadership. For analysis of barriers experienced during planning and implementing total quality management practices. which are also within acceptable range. The responses have been accorded appropriate category of factor based on its relevance and proximity to the concerned factor.00.219 4. therefore there would be no collinearity. multicollinearity diagnosis reveals that variance inflation factor (VIF) = 1. and intercorrelation.1 Testing of Hypothesis 1 Table 17 indicates mean. The data was analyzed using multiple regression.00 and tolerance = 1.7 HYPOTHESES TESTING Multiple regression analysis is a complex statistical technique which is used to explore linear relationship between independent variables and dependent variables (Sekran. Cooper & Emory. the factors identified by Tamimi and Sebastianelli (2003) have been used.90. 2003. 4.

Standard Deviation. and Intercorrelations for Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable and Internal Cooperation (Dependent Variable) ________________________________________________________________________ Variable M SD 1 2 1.63075 0.68276 0. one tailed . Tolerance = 1.01.000 ** p < 0.0331 3. Visionary Leadership H-1 Internal Cooperation 4.000. 2.642** - Note.220 Table 17 Mean. VIF= 1.6837 0.

221 4.642.01). This facilitates higher individual and team performance which contributes to superior performance under varying environment. Hypothesis 1 is supported. regression analysis was conducted. Thus. These factors contribute to enhanced effectiveness of Internal Cooperation (Beta = 0.1.1 Regression Analysis for Hypothesis I In order to test the Hypothesis HI. 288) = 176. The dependent variable Internal Cooperation was regressed on predicting variable of Visionary Leadership. Keeping in view these findings. F (1.412 depicts that this model explains 41. which manifest that Visionary Leadership’s commitment to the total quality management creates enabling environment in the organization and fosters internal cooperation among employees.733.01. Summary of the findings is presented in Table 18. the R Square = 0. .2% of variance in creating Internal Cooperation.7. Further more. The variable of Visionary Leadership significantly predicts Internal Cooperation. p< 0. In addition. conclusion can be drawn that Visionary Leadership positively and significantly affect Internal Cooperation. the impact of Visionary Leadership on Internal Cooperation has been found to be statistically significant. p < 0.

642 -- R Square = 0.676 1.051 0.412.361 .410 p < 0.174 0.222 Table 18 Regression Analysis Summary for the Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and Internal Cooperation (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Variable B SE B Beta H1 Visionary Leadership Constant 0.01).01 .288) = 176.733 (p < 0. Adjusted R Square = 0. F (1.

Furthermore.7. multicollinearity diagnosis reveals that variance inflation factor (VIF) = 1. The correlation is < 0. which are also within acceptable range.2 Testing of Hypothesis 2 Table 19 indicates mean. therefore there would be no collinearity. standard deviation. Figure 10 (normal p-plot) and Figure 11 (scatter plot) show the testing of the linearity and homoscedasticity of the data.90. and intercorrelation. The normality of the data is considered adequate.223 4.00. .00 and tolerance = 1. The results indicate the meeting of assumptions for Visionary Leadership.

and Intercorrelations for Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable and External Cooperation (Dependent Variable) ______________________________________________________________________________ Variable M SD 1 2 1.622** - Note. one tailed .66075 0.01.68276 0. Standard Deviation. 2. Tolerance = 1.0331 3. VIF= 1.000. Visionary Leadership H-2 External Cooperation 4.6127 0.000 ** p < 0.224 Table 19 Mean.

p < 0. the R Square = 0. The dependent variable External Cooperation was regressed on predicting variable of Visionary Leadership.225 4. Leadership that provides supporting environment for collaboration can best take benefits of total quality management initiatives. Summary of the findings is presented in Table 20. Keeping in view these findings. Further more. p< 0. 288) =158.01. F (1. The leadership behaviour generates long term relationship with suppliers and contributes toward effectiveness of External Cooperation. The variable of Visionary Leadership significantly predicts External Cooperation. regression analysis was conducted.622. the impact of Visionary Leadership on External Cooperation has been found to be statistically significant. Thus.7% of variance in creating and sustaining effectiveness of External Cooperation. External cooperation with supplier yields cost reduction and other related information about the markets and competitors. In addition. Hypothesis 2 is supported . This partnership creates synergy and helps in achieving performance excellence in products and services.2.7. which manifest that Visionary Leadership’s commitment to the total quality management creates collaborative support with suppliers through shared philosophy to achieve quality objectives.929.1 Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 2 In order to test the Hypothesis H2. (Beta = 0. conclusion can be drawn that Visionary Leadership positively and significantly affect External Cooperation.01).387 depicts that this model explains 38.

387.288) = 158.929 (p < 0.029 .051 0.640 1. F (1.207 0. Adjusted R Square = 0.226 Table 20 Regression Analysis Summary for the Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and External Cooperation (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Variable B SE B Beta H2 External Cooperation Constant 0.01 .622 -- R Square = 0.384 p < 0.01).

The correlation is < 0.00 and tolerance = 1.227 4. therefore there would be no collinearity. which are also within acceptable range. The results indicate the meeting of assumptions. multicollinearity diagnosis reveals that variance inflation factor (VIF) = 1. . and intercorrelation.00. The normality of the data is considered adequate. Figure 12 (normal p-plot) and Figure 13 (scatter plot) show the testing of the linearity and homoscedasticity of the data.3 Testing of Hypothesis 3 Table 21 indicates mean. Furthermore.7. standard deviation.90.

one tailed . Visionary Leadership H-2 Learning 4.4009 0. Standard Deviation. and Intercorrelations for Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable and Learning (Dependent Variable) ______________________________________________________________________________ Variable M SD 1 2 1.64409 0.000.228 Table 21 Mean.68276 0.0331 3. 2. Tolerance = 1.01. VIF=1.000 ** p < 0.608** - Note.

608.3. Keeping in view these findings.01.7.877. Further more. regression analysis was conducted. In addition. 288) =168. the impact of Visionary Leadership on Learning has been found to be statistically significant. The variable of Visionary Leadership significantly predicts Learning. Leadership that provides learning environment yields the benefits of total quality management initiatives through effective Learning (Beta = 0. Hypothesis 3 is supported. p < 0. the R Square = 0. products and services.229 4. products and services enhance competitiveness of the organization. Continuous improvement in processes. p<0. . which manifest that Visionary Leadership’s commitment to Learning increases individual and team competencies.1 Regression Analysis for Hypothesis H 3 In order to test the Hypothesis H3. Application of the knowledge gained through these competencies stimulates and fosters experimentation and improvement in processes. F (1. conclusion can be drawn that Visionary Leadership positively and significantly affect Learning. Thus. The dependent variable Learning was regressed on predicting variable of Visionary Leadership. Summary of the findings is presented in Table 22.01). .370 depicts that this model explains 37% of variance in creating Learning in the organization.

367 p < 0.044 0. Adjusted R Square = 0. F (1.230 Table 22 Regression Analysis Summary for the Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) and Learning (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Variable B SE B Beta H3 Learning 0.01).088 .288) = 168.01 .370.877 (p < 0.188 0.574 1.608 -- Constant R Square = 0.

90. Figure 14 (normal p-plot) and Figure 15 (scatter plot) show the testing of the linearity and homoscedasticity of data. which are also within acceptable range.4 Testing of Hypotheses 4.00 and tolerance = 1. The results portray the meeting of assumptions. 5 and 6 Table 23 indicates mean. The correlation is < 0.7. multicollinearity diagnosis reveals that variance inflation factor (VIF) = 1. The normality of the data is considered adequate . standard deviation. Furthermore.231 4. and intercorrelation. therefore there would be no collinearity.00.

2.71398 0.745** Note: VIF = 1.6440 0.00.636** 0.00 ** p < 0. Process Management H4 Internal Cooperation H5 External Cooperation H6 Learning 3.6837 0. .648** 0. and Intercorrelations for Internal Cooperation. External Cooperation and Learning (Independent Variables) and Process Management (Dependent Variable) ______________________________________________________________________________ Variable M SD 1 2 3 1. 3.63075 0. Standard Deviation.680** 3. one tailed .232 Table 23 Mean. Tolerance = 1 . 3.7555 3.4009 0.01.652** 0.738** 0.

Similarly Learning enhances the skills and abilities of the workforce and provides them with opportunity to experiment and improve the processes (Beta = 0.222. F (3.01. the R Square = 0.01) and External Cooperation (Beta = 0. . External Cooperation and Learning on Process Management has been found to be statistically significant.01). p < 0. External Cooperation and Learning positively and significantly affect Process Management.1 Multiple Regression Analysis for Hypotheses 4. Further more. The combination of these variables significantly predicts Process Management. 5 and 6 In order to test the Hypotheses H4. multiple regression analysis was conducted. 286) =220. Summary of the findings is presented in Table 24.826.222. In addition. conclusions can be drawn that Internal Cooperation. p < 0. .488. p < 0. p < 0.5% of variance in the Process Management. 5 and 6 are supported. Keeping in view these findings. H5 and H6.4. the impact of Internal Cooperation. External Cooperation and Learning. The dependent variable Process Management was regressed on predicting variables of Internal Cooperation.645 depicts that this model explains more that 64. Thus Hypotheses 4.7.01) create a collaborative environment that facilitate improvement in processes. which manifest that Internal Cooperation (Beta = 0.233 4.

488 -- Constant R Square = 0. F (3.222 0. Adjusted R Square = 0.063 0.224 0.286) = 162. External Cooperation and Learning (Independent Variables) and Process Management (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Variable B SE B Beta H4 H5 H6 Internal Cooperation External Cooperation Learning 0.234 Table 24 Multiple Regression Analysis Summary for the Internal Cooperation.645.708 (p < 0.222 0.161 0.64 .491 0.504 0.01).01 .224 0.064 0.603 p < 0.

therefore there would be no collinearity. The results portray the meeting of assumptions.5 Testing of Hypothesis 7 Table 25 indicates mean. which are also within acceptable range.00 and tolerance = 1. Furthermore. . standard deviation. The normality of the data is considered appropriate.00. and intercorrelation.7.235 4. The correlation is < 0.90. multicollinearity diagnosis reveals that variance inflation factor (VIF) = 1. Figure 16 (normal p-plot) and Figure 17 (scatter plot) show the testing of the linearity and homoscedasticity of data.

236 Table 25 Mean. Standard Deviation. and Intercorrelations Process Management (Independent Variable and Continuous Improvement (Dependent Variable (N = 290) ________________________________________________________________________ Variable M SD 1 2 1.73209 0.7555 0. Continuous Improvement H7 .01.Process Management 4. 2.000 ** p < 0.71398 .000.1253 3. Tolerance = 1.631** - Note: VIF=1. one tailed .

288) =190. . p < 0.5.399 depicts that this model explains about 40% of variance in enhancing continuous improvement in the organization. Further more. In addition.237 4.631. Hypothesis 7 is supported. conclusion can be drawn that Process Management positively and significantly affect Continuous Improvement.1 Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 7 In order to test the Hypothesis H7. The variable of Process Management significantly predicts Continuous Improvement. Keeping in view these findings.7. Thus. .01).865. which manifest that improvement in processes results in continuous improvement of products and services (Beta = 0. the R Square = 0.01. Summary of the findings is presented in Table 26. The dependent variable Continuous Improvement was regressed on predicting variable of Process Management. p < 0. F (1. regression analysis was conducted. the impact of Process Management on Continuous Improvement has been found to be statistically significant.

396 p < 0. Adjusted R Square = 0.647 1.694 0.01).047 0.288) = 190.399.01 .631 -- R Square = 0.865 (p < 0.179 0. F (1.238 Table 26 Regression Analysis Summary for the Process Management (Independent Variable) and Continuous Improvement (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Variable B SE B Beta H 7 Continuous Improvement Constant 0.

and intercorrelation.7. Figure 18 (normal p-plot) and Figure 19 (scatter plot) show the testing of the linearity and homoscedasticity of data. Furthermore.90.239 4. which are also within acceptable range.6 Testing of Hypothesis 8 Table 27 indicates mean. . therefore there would be no collinearity. The results portray the meeting of assumptions. The correlation is < 0. The normality of the data is considered adequate. multicollinearity diagnosis reveals that variance inflation factor (VIF) = 1.00 and tolerance = 1.00. standard deviation.

Tolerance = 1. Process Management H8 Employee Fulfillment 3.240 Table 27 Mean. 2.71398 0.65528 . VIF=1.209** - Note.7555 4.000 ** p < 0. one tailed .000.01. Standard Deviation. and Intercorrelations for Process Management (Independent Variable and Employee Fulfillment (Dependent Variable) ________________________________________________________________________ Variable M SD 1 2 1.3046 0.

. In addition. Hypothesis 8 is supported. regression analysis was conducted. enhance their knowledge. Keeping in view these findings. p < 0. the impact of Process Management on Continuous Improvement has been found to be statistically significant. the R Square = 0.7.1 Regression Analysis for Hypothesis 8 In order to test the Hypothesis H8. skills and abilities and lead to fulfillment of their needs (Beta = 0. 288) =13. Thus.241 4. .6.191.044 depicts that this model explains 4.209. The dependent variable Employee Fulfillment was regressed on predicting variable of Process Management. Summary of the findings is presented in Table 28.01.01). F (1.4% of variance in enhancing continuous improvement in the organization. Further more. p < 0. conclusion can be drawn that Process management positively and significantly affect Employee Fulfillment. which manifest that Process Management enables employees to acquire development in competencies. The variable of Process Management significantly predicts Employee Fulfillment.

288) = 13. F (1.583 0. Adjusted R Square = 0.01).209 -- R Square = 0.191 (p < 0.044.01 .202 0.242 Table 28 Regression Analysis Summary for the Process Management (Independent Variable) and Employee Fulfillment (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Variable B SE B Beta H 8 Employee Fulfillment Constant 0.192 3.040 p < 0.053 0.

The results portray the meeting of assumptions.7. multicollinearity diagnosis reveals that variance inflation factor (VIF) = 0. therefore there would be no multicollinearity.7 Testing of Hypotheses 9 & 10 Table 29 indicates mean. The normality of the data is considered adequate. The correlation is < 0.058 are also within acceptable range. and intercorrelation. standard deviation.243 4. Figure 20 (normal p-plot) and Figure 21(scatter plot) show the testing of the linearity and homoscedasticity of data. .90. Furthermore.945 and tolerance = 1.

058 *p < 0.209* - 3.945.73209 0. and Intercorrelations for Continuous Improvement / Employee Fulfillment (Independent Variables) and Customer Satisfaction (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) ______________________________________________________________________________ Variables M SD 1 2 3 1. H 10 Employee Fulfillment 4. Standard Deviation. one-tailed . Tolerance = 1.3000 0.197* .01. VIF = 0. Customer Satisfaction H-9 Continuous Improvement 4.234* Note.65528 0.3046 0.1253 0.51509 - 4. 2.244 Table 29 Mean.575* 0.

Further more. Keeping in view these findings.01 and (Beta = 0. The dependent variable Customer Satisfaction was regressed on predicting variables of Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment.01) for Continuous Improvement and (Beta = 0 . p < 0.340 depicts that this model explains 34% of variance in the Customer Satisfaction. Summary of the findings is presented in Table 30. The combination of these variables significantly predicts Customer Satisfaction. the R Square = 0. multiple regression analysis was conducted.857. In addition.245 4. Thus Hypotheses 9 and 10 are supported.7. Multiple Regression Analysis for Hypotheses 9 & 10 In order to test the Hypotheses H9 and H10. p < 0. F (2. conclusions can be drawn that the Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment significantly affect Customer Satisfaction. p < 0.555. .1.7.01) for Employee Fulfillment. . 034. the impact of Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment on Customer Satisfaction has been found to be statistically significant.287) =73.

857 (p < 0.038 0.335 p < 0. F (2.034 0.034 Beta 0.340.01 . Adjusted R Square = 0.132 0.287) = 73.436 2. 555 -- R Square = 0.070 SE B 0.197 0.246 Table 30 Multiple Regression Analysis Summary for the Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment (Independent Variables) and Customer Satisfaction (Dependent Variable) (N = 290) Variable H9 Continuous Improvement H 10 Employee Fulfillment Constant B 0.01).

which. External Cooperation and Learning (Dependent Variables). The values of path coefficient portray the strength of the influence related to each path.247 4. This reflects a direct and linear influence of Visionary Leadership (Independent Variable) on Internal Cooperation. The relationship in the case of the Visionary Leadership Internal Cooperation. External Cooperation and Learning. . simultaneously affects Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment. The Model shows three arrows originating from Visionary Leadership and leading to Internal Cooperation. Similarly the paths from Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment on Customer Satisfaction highlight the desired effects. the magnitude of the proposed relationships capture by the paths proposed as affecting Process Management. in turn. External Cooperation and Learning. The Figure 22 reflects the relationship and the Beta and R Square for each path.8 PATH ANALYTIC RESULTS OF THE DEMING MANGAEMENT METHOD MODEL The path diagram for the Deming Management Method Model is shown in Figure 22.

631 *.488 **.248 Figur22.044 Employee Fulfillment * .340 * R Square ** Beta Coefficient . 645 Process Management **.209 *.645 **.622 * .555 *. Path analytic results of the Deming Management Method Model Visionary Leadership **.399 Continuous Improvement **.608 **.222 **.642 **.034 **.340 Customer Satisfaction *.412 * .222 *.370 **.645 *.387 Internal Cooperation External Cooperation Learning *.

708 0.877 0.929 0.129 162.607 158.249 Table 31 Results of Path Analysis S.294 176.631 .857 0.001 Management Process .608 .001 Improvement Employee .399 . Cooperation Learning 6.575 .370 .631 13.044 .039 73.622 12.340 . Cooperation External 5.191 0.222 4.745 .192 162.222 4.224 .001 Management Process .340 .NO.622 . Leadership Visionary 3.574 . Fulfillment Satisfaction Satisfaction Customer .632 13.488 8.865 0.209 . Leadership Visionary 2.001 Paths Internal .070 . Leadership Internal 4.642 13.504 .209 3.645 .640 .001 Process .652 . Management Continuous 9. Visionary 1.608 12.158 162.733 0.642 .412 .192 .001 R R2 B Beta t F Significance .387 .645 .224 .209 .346 73.708 0.001 Continuous .001 Cooperation Learning .857 0.708 0.034 2.636 .676 .815 190.645 . Improvement Employee 10.555 11.001 Cooperation External .436 0. Management Process 7.647 .001 Fulfillment Customer .995 168. Management Process 8.

p< 0. Path of Visionary Leadership and External Cooperation. the path indicates that Visionary Leadership (IV) explained 41. The F statistic ( F = 1. positive and statistically significant relationship with the Internal Cooperation.622). the (DV) with value of (R = 0.294) for the B coefficient provides very strong evidence ( p < .412) highlights 41. the dependent variable (DV) with value of (R = 0. Path of Visionary Leadership and Internal Cooperation. positive and statistically significant relationship with External Cooperation.2% variance in the model. 2. the value of . the value of t statistic ( t = 13.676) is positive.289= 176. indicating direct relationship with Internal Cooperation. The Beta value (Beta = 0. Visionary Leadership Independent variable (IV) appears to have a very strong. indicating direct relationship with External Cooperation.001) that the slope associated with Visionary Leadership was not equal to zero ( b ≠ 0). p < 0.001) highlights a strong impact of Visionary Leadership on External Cooperation. The R Square (R Square = 0.001) for overall regression manifests that the regression is statistically significant and there exist a significant and positive relationship between Visionary Leadership and Internal Cooperation and that Visionary Leadership significantly predicts Internal Cooperation. The B coefficient associated with Visionary Leadership (B = 0.622).2% variance in the Internal Cooperation (DV).001) indicates a strong impact of Visionary Leadership on Internal Cooperation The table reveals that in case of Visionary Leadership. shown in Table 31 are summed up as follow: 1. Visionary Leadership Independent variable (IV) indicates a very strong.250 The path analytical results. p <0. The Beta value (Beta = 0. .733. The B coefficient associated with Visionary Leadership (B = 0.642.676) is positive. The table reveals that in case of Visionary Leadership.62.

7% variance in the conduct of External Cooperation (DV).001) indicates a strong impact of Visionary Leadership on Learning. positive and statistically significant relationship with Leaning (DV) with value of (R = 0.289= 168.995) for the B coefficient provides very strong evidence ( p < . Path of Visionary Leadership and Learning. p < 0. 3. the path indicates that Visionary Leadership (IV) explains 37% variance in the conduct of Leaning (DV).001) that the slope associated with Visionary Leadership was not equal to zero (( b ≠ 0). The table reveals that in case of Visionary Leadership.929. indicating direct relationship with Learning.608).608. The R Square (R Square = 0.. .289 = 159.001) for overall regression manifests that the regression is statistically significant and there exist a significant and positive relationship between Visionary Leadership and Learning and that Visionary Leadership significantly predicts Learning.001) that the slope associated with Visionary Leadership was not equal to zero (( b ≠ 0). The Beta value (Beta = 0. The B coefficient associated with Visionary Leadership (B = 0. the path indicates that Visionary Leadership (IV) explained 38.251 t statistic ( t = 12.001) for overall regression reveals that the regression is statistically significant and there exist a significant and positive relationship between Visionary Leadership and External Cooperation and that Visionary Leadership significantly predicts External Cooperation.877.574) is positive. p < 0.387) shows 38. The F statistic ( F = 1. Visionary Leadership (IV) depicts a very strong.7% variance in the model. p < 0. The R Squared (R Squared = 0.370) highlights 37% variance in the model.607) for the B coefficient provides very strong evidence ( p < . The F statistic ( F = 1. the value of t statistic ( t = 12.

External Cooperation (Beta = 0.192) and Learning (t = 8.222. p < 0.001) that the slopes associated with Internal Cooperation. and R = 0.001). The F statistic ( F =3.488.5% variance in the model. The Beta value (Beta = 0. External Cooperation (t = 4. 5.745 for Learning). The Beta values for Internal Cooperation (Beta = 0.518). p < 0.647) is positive. indicating direct relationship with Continuous Improvement.504 ) is positive. p < 0. Process Management (IV) seems to have a very strong. .205.158) provide very strong evidence (p < .001).001) for overall regression manifests that the regression is statistically significant and there exist a significant and positive relationship between IVs of Internal Cooperation.252 4.286= 162. 224) and Learning (B = 0. External Cooperation and Learning (IVs) explained 64. The B coefficient (B = 0. External Cooperation (B = 0. p < 0. Paths of Internal Cooperation.652 for External Cooperation.001) indicates .631. The R Squared (R Squared = 0. External Cooperation and Learning and Process Management ( DV) and that independent variables significantly predicts Process Management. indicate a strong impact of IVs on DV. and Learning (Beta = 0.708. External Cooperation and Learning (IVs) show a very strong.210). Path of Process Management and Continuous Improvement. Learning and Process Management.645) highlights 64. positive and statistically significant relationship with Process Management (DV) with value of (R = 0. External Cooperation. Internal Cooperation. positive and statistically significant relationship with Continuous Improvement.636 for Internal Cooperation.5% variance in the conduct of Process Management (DV). indicating direct relationship with Process Management. The B coefficients associated with Internal Cooperation (B = 0. R = 0. The table reveals that the value of t statistic for the B coefficient in case of Internal Cooperation (t =3. External Cooperation and Learning were not equal to zero (( b ≠ 0). the paths show that Internal Cooperation.001). p < 0.

289= 190. 6. indicating direct relationship with Employee Fulfillment. p < 0. .865. The Beta value (Beta = 0. positive and statistically significant relationship with Employee Fulfillment (DV) with value of (R = 0. The table reveals that in case of Process Management.399) highlights about 40% variance in the model. The B coefficient associated with Process Management (B = 0. the value of t statistic ( t = 3. .815) for the B coefficient provides very strong evidence ( p < .253 a strong impact of Process Management on Continuous Improvement.362) for the B coefficient provides very strong evidence ( p < . p < 0. The F statistic ( F = 1.001) that the slope associated with Process Management was not equal to zero (( b ≠ 0).209.001) for overall regression manifests that the regression is statistically significant and there exist a significant and positive relationship between Process Management and Continuous Improvement and that Process Management significantly predicts Continuous Improvement. Path of Process Management and Employee Fulfillment.001) indicates a moderately low impact of Process Management on Employee Fulfillment. Process Management (IV) depicts a. the value of t statistic ( t = 13. The table reveals that in case of Process Management. The R Square (R Square = 0. the path reflects that Process Management ( IV) explained about 40% variance in the conduct of Continuous Improvement (DV).192) is positive.209).289= 13.001) for overall regression manifests that the regression is statistically significant and there exist a significant and positive relationship between Process Management and Employee Fulfillment and that Process Management significantly predicts Employee Fulfillment.191.001) that the slope associated with Process Management was not equal to zero (( b ≠ 0). The F statistic ( F = 1. p < 0.

Paths of Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction. the paths indicates that Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment ( IVs) together explained 34% variance in the conduct of Customer Satisfaction ( DV). The R Square (R Square = 0. 7. The R Square (R Square = 0.001).340) highlights 34% variance in the model. p < 0. indicate a low to strong impact of IVs on DV.857.4% variance in the model.070) and Employee Fulfillment (B = 0. and Employee Fulfillment (Beta = 0.001).575) for Employee Fulfillment).555.034.001) provide strong evidence that the slopes associated with Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment were not equal to zero ( b ≠ 0).346.209 for Continuous Improvement) and (R = 0. p < .044) highlights 4.288= 73. The F statistic ( F =2. p < 0.001) for overall regression manifests that the regression is statistically significant and there exist a significant and positive relationship between IVs ( Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment ) and DV ( Customer Satisfaction) and that IVs significantly predicts DV. indicating direct relationship with Customer Satisfaction.05) and Employee Fulfillment (t = 11. p < 0. .4 % variance in the conduct of Employee Fulfillment. The B coefficient associated with Continuous Improvement (B = 0.039.436) is positive. the path reflects that Process Management (IV) explained 4. The table reveals that the value of t statistic for the B coefficient in case of Continuous Improvement (t = 2. The Beta values for Continuous Improvement (Beta = 0. Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment (IVs) show a positive and statistically significant relationship with Customer Satisfaction (DV) with value of (R = 0. p < 0.254 .

9 ANALYSIS OF TOTAL. then the path diagram as drawn is deemed to be consistent with empirical reality. A direct effect exists if a single arrow connects two variables. the effect is deemed to be indirect. direct and indirect effects are shown in Table 28. An unexplained effect between two variables is simply the residual portion of the empirical correlation or covariance between these variables not accounted for by the total effect (sum of direct and indirect effects). For the path diagram in Figure 15 the computed total. . indirect and unexplained effects. When two variables of interest are connected only via other intervening variables.255 4. DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS The decomposition of empirical correlation between any two variables facilitates in determination of direct.If the total effect computed for any pair of variables equals the observed empirical correlation or covariance between the two variables.

Process Management Direct (PM) Indirect Total 5.069 .129 .192 .051 . Direct and Indirect Effects for Path Diagram S.254 .000 .647 .075 .574 .392 .000 .000 .549 .549 .345 . Continuous Improvement (CI) Direct Indirect Total .000 .346 .102 .523 .574 . Visionary Leadership (VL) Direct Indirect Total 2. Employee Fulfillment (EF) Direct Indirect .070 3.129 .000 .000 .249 .271 . Direct Indirect .517 .070 .000 .102 .000 .075 .436 .020 .069 . No Effect of Type of Effects ICP ECP LG PM CI EF CS Total 1.020 .000 .000 .647 .000 . .000 . Internal Cooperation(CP) 3.271 .534 .523 .535 .256 Table 32 Total.534 .000 .069 .000 .535 .000 .249 .517 .392 External Cooperation Total Direct Indirect Total .051 .000 .346 .345 .254 .000 . Learning (LG) Direct Indirect Total 4.436 .103 .000 .192 .103 .000 .069 .000 6.

. Continuous Improvement. External Cooperation and Learning and indirect effects on Process Management. products and services result in continuous improvement and enhance people skills. Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction. Learning has direct effects on Process management only and indirect effects on Continuous Improvement. Similarly. since any incremental or innovative improvement in processes. The indirect effect of Visionary Leadership is attributed to the leader’s role driven by changing environment and the need to align organizational structure and processes to meet ever changing external environment. The indirect effect of Learning on Continuous Improvement is the result of improvement in organizational processes which in turn results in incremental and innovative improvements in products and services. This outcome may be difficult to achieve. Process Management has direct effects on Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment only and has indirect effects only on Customer Satisfaction. knowledge and behavioural aspects to satisfy the customers. if the organizational climate. products and services should yield positive results. The Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment have direct effects on Customer Satisfaction.257 According to Table 28 Visionary Leadership is posited to only have direct effects on Internal Cooperation. The direct effect of Continuous Improvement on Customer Satisfaction is logical. the indirect effect of Learning on Employee Fulfillment results in enhancement of personal competency and attitude towards a positive outcome with regard to personal performance and increased self esteem. Internal Cooperation and External Cooperation have direct effects on Process Management only and has indirect effects on Continuous Improvement. Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction. processes. Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction. The alignment of methodological and behavioural practices to improve the internal dimensions of organizations and aligning people .

The analysis of data and empirical evidence statistically supported all hypotheses.10 SUMMARY OF HYPOTHESES TESTING Based on the review of the literature and the analysis of Deming Management Method Model. 4. . reward and compensation do not support Continuous Improvement effort in the organization.258 management style. There is supporting evidence that satisfied employees yield Customer Satisfaction. statement of the hypotheses. The direct effect of Employee Fulfillment on Customer Satisfaction is vital. 10 hypotheses were developed. Table 33 summarizes the result of all hypotheses (H1 to H10). These results should be examined with externally based measure of Customer Satisfaction. through a separate study. and statistical findings. A purposeful assessment of Customer Satisfaction based on external dimension (external customers) needs to be done to make the results of Customer Satisfaction more objective. covering hypotheses numbers.

259 Table 33 Summary of Hypotheses Testing (H1 to H10) Results ________________________________________________________________________ Hypotheses Number ________________________________________________________________________ H1 Visionary Leadership is positively related to Internal Cooperation. H4 Internal and External Cooperation is positively related to Process Management. H9 Continuous Improvement is positively related to Customer Satisfaction. H 10 Employee Fulfillment is positively related to Customer Satisfaction. H8 Process Management is positively related to Employee Fulfillment. H2 Visionary Leadership is positively related to External Cooperation H3 Visionary Leadership is positively related to Learning. H7 Process Management is positively related to Continuous Improvement. Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Statement of the Hypothesis Results . H6 Learning is positively related to Process Management.

lack of planning for quality and inadequate resources for total quality management were other barriers. . Details of barriers indicated by the respondents in survey as well as during semi structured interviews have been discussed in succeeding paragraphs. The results indicate that inadequate human resources management and development is the most critical barrier that the respondents experienced. The issue was further explored during the semi structured interviews with the managers. Forty percent of the respondents indicated this aspect as the major barrier that inhibits the planning and implementing quality management initiatives in these organizations.11 BARRIERS IN PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING TQM PRACTICES IN CMTOs The respondents were asked to identify the barriers that they experience in planning and implementing total quality management practices in their organizations. Details of these barriers are shown in Table 34. The lack of leadership for quality. Lack of customer focus was noted the second most important barrier indicated by 30% respondents.260 4.

No. Lack of Customer Focus Lack of Leadership for Quality Lack of Planning for Quality Inadequate Resources for TQM 75 58 35 6 25.1 2.261 Table . Dimension Frequency Percentage (%) ______________________________________________________________________________ 1.34 Barriers in Planning and Implementing TQM Practices ______________________________________________________________________________ S. 3. 4. Lack of Human Resource Management and Development 116 40 2. 5.1 .9 20 12.

1 Lack of Human Resource Management and Development The respondents rated HRM dimensions as the most significant barrier with regard to planning and implementing TQM practices.11. 5. 12.11. Delegation of quality to people designated to oversee quality. There is no structured mechanism of suggestion system and its processing. 6.262 4. There is no open communication with middle and top management. 10. 4. 11.2 Lack of Leadership for Quality The important dimensions included the following: 1. 13. 4. Excessive turnover of executives and managers. Data about effectiveness of training and key indicators of effectiveness is not maintained and shared. Company compensation system does not encourage team and individual contribution to quality. . Lack of strong motivation to challenge the status quo and initiate improvement in the processes and services. Formal follow up of evaluation of training is not done. 3. Insufficient growth opportunities. 14. 2. Lack of empowerment and autonomy in decision making. The employees are not involved in quality related efforts. 9. Lack of recognition and rewards for quality efforts. Salient aspects included the following: 1. Lack of opportunities to experiment. 8. Lack of sharing quality vision with subordinates. No internal survey is done to measure employees’ satisfaction. 2. 7. Opportunities are not provided to use the training in realistic job environment.

8. Leaders at different levels often fail to walk the talk. Satisfaction with quick fix. 4. Lack of risk taking opportunities. 6. 8. 6. Lack of support for the team concept to improve quality. 5. 7. Lack of adequate infrastructure support. Lack of Planning for Quality The noticeable aspects included the following: 1. Quality is not institutionalized and it is not treated as everyone’s responsibility. No benchmarking of best practices.3. 4. Focus on short term profitability. Lack of quality culture. Leaders do not exhibit participative style of management. 7. . Quality goals at the operational levels are not well defined. 4. Absence of visibility and accessibility of top management in quality related activities. 3.11. 2.4 Inadequate Resources for TQM Following were the main aspects: 1.263 3. Lack of adequate measurement of quality of work. 5. Functional paradox (Inter department rivalry) 4. Compensation is not linked to quality goals. Adequate time is not given to initiate and implement quality related activities.11. There is no open communication within the organization and especially with subordinates. 2. 9.

264 4. The study significantly supports the crucial role of Visionary Leadership in pursuing company wide quality policies have been well established. The discussion in succeeding paragraphs focuses on analysis of empirical evidence relating to these objectives: 1.11. The results of the study indicate strong empirical support for all 10 hypotheses. There is no structured system for customer complaints handling and processing.5 Lack of Customer Focus The important aspects pertained to the following: 1. The results provided answer to the questions (i) to what extent CMTOs carryout TQM practices based on Deming Management Method Model (ii) what are the barriers that these organizations experience in implementing TQM practices and (iii) how these organization improve competitiveness by best TQM practices. Keeping in view these questions. Tracking of complaints is not done to identify the causes and initiate appropriate actions. 2.12 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The main objective of the study was to empirically examine the TQM practices in the CMTOs in Pakistan. establishing strategic quality objectives. Detailed analysis on each practice of TQM is discussed in succeeding paragraph. role model behaviour. The focus of leadership in articulating quality vision. 4. living by customer . 10 hypotheses were developed. 4. and based on the literature review. Minimum input is sought from the customers through frequent surveys and other means. Lack of customer integration in quality efforts through proactive approach. 3. Quality is not defined by the customer. 2.

aligns organizational processes to changing customers’ needs. 4. Teams create synergy. early design advice and results in lower cost. The results of the study portrayed empirical evidence of this practice being pursued by CMTOs. The results of the study provided strong empirical support of this practice in CMTOs. enhances pride of work. inculcates team spirit.265 focused values and creating unity of purpose to achieve quality goals has been empirically substantiated by the results. improvement in services and leads to perpetual self development which helps in accomplishment of quality goals and superior . The results statistically and significantly indicate that External Cooperation with suppliers is based on need to recognize the strategic importance of the relationship and development of a win-win relationship based on mutual trust. Teams commitment lead to innovative ideas. improve productivity. enhances process quality. creates harmonious internal climate. and striving for continuous improvement that result in high individual and group morale and help in achieving organizational efficiency and effectiveness. 3. removal of functional paradoxes. eliminates fear in the work place. Institution of quality focused training philosophy improves individual confidence and self esteem. cohesion and enhance shared approach towards achievement of objectives. improvement of processes. ability to provide differentiated services and the input about the environment. The study provides statistically significant evidence to the belief that training of employees is vital to realize TQM objectives. ease of solving complex problems. 5. acquisition of technology or production processes not internally available. focuses on continuous improvement. The relationship is essential to achieve quality in product development process. reduces costs. faster time-tomarket. The study provides strong and statistically significant support to the notion that Internal Cooperation through team work is vital to achieve TQM objectives.

7. processes and services to meet and exceed ever changing customers’ needs. Effective Process Management leads to enhanced customers and employees’ satisfaction. the benefits for internal customers’ satisfaction (employee satisfaction) provide greater support for continuous improvement. 8. empower employees. 6. The perpetual commitment to continuous improvement leads to reduced cost. 2001). reduce customers’ complaints. Satisfied employees produce satisfied customers (Afors & Michaels 2001. Specifically the study identified the important role of employees in affecting the customer satisfaction. continuous improvements in products and services. improve quality of products and services. improvement in defects and provision of superior products and services consistently for competitiveness. Rapid changes in technology and customers’ requirements require a flexible approach towards aligning organizational products. Results of this study find empirically strong and significant relationship between Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction. The study provides statistically significant evidence that Continuous Improvement is one of the essential factors in TQM success. The study finds empirical evidence to support the CMTOs carry out this TQM practice. reductions of cost. There is .266 individual and organizational performance. 2003). Gardner. The result of the study statistically and significantly maintain that methodical and behavioural dimensions of Process Management yield significant results in value addition. According to researchers (Lindsay & Petrick. The results of the study provided strong empirical proof that CMTOs pursue this TQM practice. quality focuses culture and individual consistent effort to excel in all dimensions of improvement with a view to achieve sustained competitive advantage. maximizing operational effectiveness. 1998. The results of the study offered sufficient empirical evidence that CMTOs follow this TQM practice. Rienzer & Testa.

1995. motivation and supporting organizational culture enhance employees’ commitment and satisfaction. 2002. The efforts to enable organization “constituents to derive happiness. implement and sustain total quality management practices as advocated by total quality management experts and reported by researchers.267 no doubt that the quality people (employee involvement. quality processes and their interaction with the customer. and recognition. involvement. 2006). team work. 2000. Employees’ contribution in achieving continuous improvement and customer satisfaction is essential for organizations to initiate. Goris et al. they will not align themselves with the quality vision. It is critical to consider how employee behaviour interacts with other TQM practices that affect the quality outcome. quality culture) are essential to realize the quality objectives. In TQM context. growth opportunities. organizational citizenship behaviour. empowerment. emotional contagion and fairness.. p. rewards.In TQM environment. open communication. fair appraisal. employees’ satisfaction is considered as indicator of organizational performance and customer satisfaction. The literature finds strong support of human resource management practices with employee fulfillment and customer satisfaction.656). well-being. communication. and pride of work are potentially instrumental in improved customer satisfaction” (Anderson et al. If employees are not satisfied. These researchers agreed that absence of these practices or their partial implementation is likely to affect employee satisfaction and commitment resulting in poor service and affecting customer satisfaction (Evan & Lindsay.. Researcher suggest that the organization practices of employee empowerment. satisfaction. the behaviour of employees is dependent on internalization of organizational values of customer focus and continuous improvement. Karia & Asaari. It is difficult to achieve an integrated response from TQM practices without wholehearted support of the employees. Customer oriented organizational culture provides necessary stimulus to proactively pursue customer focused behaviour to achieve and sustain performance excellence .

1998.113). 2000. The literature review manifest that the instrument of Customer Satisfaction is developed to operationalize the underlying concepts from customers’ perception rather than the employees’ and managers’ perception. Wong. Dayton. p. 2000). Martensen & Gronholdt. customer-oriented culture and employee empowerment). The results of this study about Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction find empirical support in earlier studies (Afors & Michaels. George & Weimerskirch. The results indicated that the support of the relationship of TQM practices of Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment with Customer Satisfaction had been significant. product / service design. Dean & Bowen. 1994. and hard tools and techniques (e. 9. Eskildsen & Dahlgaard. 2000. Russel. 2002. plan and implement appropriate improvement initiatives to achieve quality goals and sustained competitive advantage.g. In addition. 11. Oakland & Oakland. Lai. information and analysis. . 1994. use of self evaluation is not done that deprive the organizations to identify the organizational strengths and weaknesses enabling CMTOs to initiate appropriate strategies to improve weak areas. 2000. The measure of Customer Satisfaction directly from the customers had not been done in this study. 2001. Palmer & Ziemianski. 1998. 2001. identify the gaps. The Model can help organizations to evaluate their quality management practices. Ang. process management) together are important to achieve success of total quality management practices. 2000. 2001. Gunasekaran. 10. 2002. Eskildsen & Nüssler. The policy of Benchmarking best practices of other organizations is not followed by CMTOs. The study reveals that Deming Management Method Model is applicable in a different cultural environment.”(cited in Lee-man.268 Many researchers point out that “both soft factors (such as top management commitment. Weerakoon & Cheng. Davies & Finlay. 2000.

This aspect. 2000. 2002). 1998. This study reflects that interdependence of these practices in an integrated manner is essential to realize TQM objectives. Savolainen. Yousf & Aspinwall 2000. Fisher et al. Saraph et al. the ‘roof’ (customer satisfaction and operational performance) is in danger of collapsing. 14. The findings support the idea that effects of Visionary Leadership on Customer . eight hypotheses (Anderson et al. Pun & Hui. 2002. Russel. 1996. 1989. 1997. 1995. 1998. 2005. does not find strong empirical support from the study of (Lee-man.. 13. Douglas and Fredend 2004. 15. Internal Cooperation. Choi & Eboch. and Process Management must work through the total quality management system to impact the desired results because these can not do so directly. Townsend & Gebhardt.269 12. 1995. 1998. It is important to note that some practices such as Visionary Leadership. Azarang et al... 2002. Corbett et al... Learning. Flynn et al. This study finds that all the relationship among total quality management practices is statistically significant and the model provided empirical support to how relationship among total quality management practices is specified.1998).. Rungtusanatham et al. This assumption of interdependence implies that it is the joint variance of the quality practices that creates superior quality performance. The results show marked similarity with previous studies on Deming Management Method Model and support for. External Cooperation. Zairi. The findings supported the studies regarding the dominant role of leadership in planning and implementing TQM practices (Kanji & Yui. Kano (1993) uses the ‘House of TQM’ analogy to illustrate the idea that if any of the TQM practice is removed. however. 1994). or lack of. Kanji. The findings of this study revealed the important role of the leadership in driving the total quality management practices in CMTOs. Flynn et al. 2000. 1994. A fundamental assumption in virtually all of the quality management literature is the ‘interdependence’ of the total quality management practices (Ahire et al. 1998. Wilsey. 1995.1994. Tata & Prasad.

External Cooperation and Learning. Internal Cooperation.270 Satisfaction is dependent on creating and sustaining a quality focused organizational culture (Waldman and Gopalakrishnan. H2 and H3 were supported that indicate that Visionary Leadership positively affect Internal Cooperation. 2005.12. as measured. 1996). In addition the path coefficients of Visionary Leadership to Internal Cooperation.. The results of this study are consistent with the findings of previous studies (Anderson et al. External Cooperation. Fisher et al. Flynn et al. have been met. External Cooperation ( H2) and Learning ( H3) The statistical analysis in the previous chapter showed that H1. Continuous Improvement. Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction ( indirect effects). and Learning have been found statistically significant. The results of this study reveal that Visionary Leadership affects all other practices of total quality management namely. The empirical evidence based on the results of HI.. Rungtusanatham et al. 1998)... External Cooperation. Visionary Leadership is positively related to Learning. .1 Visionary Leadership H 1: H2: H 3: Visionary Leadership is positively related to Internal Cooperation. 1995. Visionary Leadership is positively related to External Cooperation. H2 and H3 reveal that Visionary Leadership positively contributes towards achieving Internal Cooperation. 1994. Douglas & Fredendal 2004. External Cooperation and Learning. 4. and Learning (direct effects) and Process Management. On the whole the theoretical and practical dimensions of Visionary Leadership. It was hypothesized that Visionary Leadership positively affect Internal Cooperation (H1).

Participative management techniques such as quality circles and autonomous work groups have more synergistic effects on TQM success. 1985. Deming. 1997. Thus visionary leaders contribute heavily to total quality management by functioning as visible advocates.. 1986.. 1995. 1995. Chiu & Hsieh. Juran 1986. 2001. customers and other stakeholders. Ishikawa. Lee. Based on the above discussion and the results of hypothesis test. focuses employees’ attention and enthusiasm on continuous improvement. Reed & Satish.2000). 1984. 1989. 1999.1996. Lee. Pun. Crosby.. . and play significant role in creating an innovative and supportive environment and high performance culture. Saraph et al. This leadership fosters teamwork. Zhang et al. Powell. Rao et al. facilitates problem solving. gains follower recognition and acceptance.. visionaries and consensus builders.Lin. 2001. it is established and can be claimed that Visionary Leadership plays significant role in nurturing and sustaining internal cooperation. Visionary Leadership pursues a partnership with employees. 2001. Participative management style empowers employees to take any necessary action to ensure customer satisfaction. All quality pioneers and contemporary researchers have found that Visionary Leadership is the driver of planning and implementing total quality management practices in organizations (Ahire et al. 1983. facilitators. Dayton. and becomes a facilitator and orchestrator of group activities. Leadership style of managers is an important factor in TQM success. Zairi & Youssef. Feigenbaum. external cooperation and learning.271 It has been established through empirical evidence of different studies in the literature that the commitment of leadership at top and middle management level plays the leading role in planning and implementing quality management initiatives in the organizations.

The collaborative dimensions of internal team work generate innovations through team actions. aspects that can be achieved by means of teamwork.. Flynn et al. generates innovative ideas. The practice focuses on a collaborative approach internally within employees. The findings are consistent with earlier studies (Anderson et al. experience and . 1998). Kreitner & Kinicki.. Rungtusanatham et al. On the whole the theoretical and practical requirements for Internal Cooperation as a dimension are met. Collaboration has various dimensions that include inter individual collaboration. provide diversity of knowledge.. 1990. There is strong empirical evidence that collaboration among employees provides synergy. Fisher et al. In addition Internal Cooperation portrays indirect effect on Continuous Improvement. The empirical evidence based on sample provides support that CMTOs plan and implement total quality management practice of Internal Cooperation.12. 1998. increases motivation and provides individual development opportunities.. 1995. The path coefficient from Internal Cooperation to Process Management has been found statistically significant. Bass. 1994.272 4. Empirical evidence based on literature review finds a strong relationship of this cooperation on improvement of processes and increasing quality of products and services. 2005. intra organizational (between various functional areas) and inter organizations (collaboration with business partners). The results of the study reflect very strong and direct effect of this practice on Process Management.2 Internal Cooperation H 4: Internal Cooperation is positively related to Process Management. facilitates open communication and decision making. The current competitive environment requires flexible and expedient actions. Douglas & Fredendal 2004. reduces conflict. The outcome of this approach results in system view of the organization and provides necessary input for the improvement of processes. and Employee Fulfillment.

4. Suppliers are viewed as strategic partners and this relationship is based on strategic orientation. This collaboration facilitates sharing of strategic information and prevailing market trends.12. and support of top management will increase and significantly contribute towards process management. Olian & Rynes (1991). and use of this information in designing. Fisher et al. Katz (1993).. 1994. 1989. boost morale and ownership through participation.. Lascalles & Dale. 2005.. On the whole the theoretical and practical requirements for External Cooperation as a dimension are met.273 expertise. Flynn et al. remove cross functional barriers. The path coefficient from Internal Cooperation to Process Management has been found statistically significant. producing and delivering quality products and services to the customers. Keeping in view the above discussion and the results of H2. it is clear that collaboration within the organization at all levels based on mutual trust. The empirical evidence based on sample provides support for H4 that this practice of total quality management significantly affects process management.. commitments and risks to promote such long term . and facilitate rational decision making and effective implementation of these decisions. 1995. The statistical analysis and the above discussion confirms that Internal Cooperation positively affect process management.3 External Cooperation H 5: External Cooperation is positively related to Process Management.Rungtusanatham et al. This relationship facilitates sharing of customers’ goals. The results of this study portray very strong and direct effect of suppliers’ cooperation on Process Management. Garvin. 1998 Steepless 1992). 1984. The findings are consistent with earlier studies (Anderson et al. win-win-philosophy and mutual trust. Douglas & Fredendal 2004.

Employee satisfaction. motivation and the ability to contribute to the process of continuous improvement depend largely on education and training.274 relationship. This TQM practice highlights the ability of the organization to enhance competencies of employees considered essential for realizing the objectives of total quality with emphasis on continuous improvement of self and the processes. Evan & Lindsay. 1999. 4.. increase organizational response to the changing needs of the markets. the indirect effects of Learning on Continuous Improvement were strong. Flynn et al.4 Learning H 6: Learning is positively related to Process Management. improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the organizational processes.Smith et al.. 1995. Rungtusanatham et al. It is argued that training within an organization is necessary to implement concept of total quality in such a way that it will be to the financial advantage of the organization.. Caudron. In addition. it is concluded that External Cooperation yields significant improvement in processes and makes important contribution towards process management. above discussion and the statistical results. enhances improved designs of services. 2005.12. The results of the study showed significant strong effects of Learning on Process Management in the form of value addition to the organizational processes. Based on the findings. The empirical evidence based on the results found significant support for this practice and its positive relationship with Process Management and support of H4. 1998. 1994. This collaboration with suppliers minimizes overall costs. Fisher et al.. Palo & Padhi.. . Huq & Martin. 2000.. products and services. 2003. The results are consistent with previous studies (Anderson et al. Douglas & Fredendal 2004. 2000. 1933. Rao et al. 2003). It is a major investment that yields positive results.

Kanji 1995. The path coefficients from . Federal Express and Solectron treat their employees as asset to be developed.. Management itself should participate in all culture changing training. Top performing institutions like Motorola. The results of this study indicated positive relationship and significant contribution of this practice with Continuous Improvement and Employee Fulfillment. Based on the empirical evidence and the discussion. consistent institution-wide effort to performance enhancement. 4. Training ensures a systematic. Training and learning give confidence to employees and they become more willing to participate in planning and effective implementation of quality management programmes. Through training. management can establish a culture of trust that can make an important contribution to productivity improvement and employees’ commitment. They invest in people through training because they expect high performance from their employees (Claver et al. H 8: Process Management is positively related to Employee Fulfillment. it is affirmed that a learning philosophy with focus on employees’ development and enhancement of human resource competencies make vital contribution towards achieving an efficient and effective process management.275 Within TQM context. 2003. every member of the organization needs to enhance personal and team competencies to improve the processes. integrated. Corning.12. 1998).5 Process Management H 7: Process Management is positively related to Continuous Improvement. George & Weimerskrich. spending significant training hours per year. Training in TQM dimension with focus on its principles and tools and techniques is never ending.

Kunst & Lemmink. Use of Process Management tools facilitates and enhances organizational effectiveness. Armistead & Pritchard. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research which found that Process Management significantly contributes towards continuous improvement and employee fulfillment. Douglas & Fredendall. the cornerstone of continuous improvement is process management. Evan & Lindsay. 1990. This requires an integrated approach through collaboration with external and internal customers. The alignment of machine and people is important to get the desired results from the processes. Process Management focuses on improvement of processes with a view to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of organizations. (Akao. 2000). According to Lindsay and Petrick (1998) and Kanji (2000).” The focus of this effort is to eliminate waste. The empirical evidence support H7 and H8.539) noted that “process management is required to continuously improve operations. 2002. Improvement in processes gives selfconfidence to employees and contributes to their self-esteem. Sinclair and Zairi (2001. Process Management entails harmonizing the operations of the organization for value addition in meeting customer expectations and enhancing operational efficiency and effectiveness. The empirical evidence supports that CMTOs plan and implement TQM practice of Process Management.276 process management to continuous improvement and employee fulfillment have been found statistically significant. There is a need to give the ownership of the process to employees since they are in a better position to identify the causes of problems and implement the best course of action to eliminate the causes associated with problems. 2004. redundancy and bottlenecks. 1999. p. .

4. 200).277 Based on the above discussion and empirical evidence. services and satisfied and fulfilled employees. . continuous improvement assumes great importance.. Improvement is a process that never stops. characterized by changing technology and customers’ demand for higher levels of value.. The quality culture and customers’ and employees’ satisfaction should drive the continuous improvement process for the achievement of higher results. The study by Anderson et al. The practice emphasizes organization’s willingness to pursue incremental and innovative improvement of its processes. The results of this study portrayed positive relationship and significant contribution of continuous improvement on customer satisfaction... (1998).12. Rungtusanatham et al. 1998. However. effective planning and execution. favourable employees’ attitude. it is concluded that an effective and efficient process management significantly contribute towards attainment of continuous improvement in processes. however. and a participative approach. Rao et al. The empirical evidence support H7. 1999. In competitive environment. change in culture. (1995) and Rungtusanatham et al. 1993. Literature review establishes a direct link between continuous improvement and customer satisfaction. products. products and services.6 Continuous Improvement H 9: Continuous improvement is positively related to customer satisfaction. the desired results can only be achieved with the help of an integrated response through commitment of top management. 2005. Kossoff. Sureschandar et al. Thus continuous improvement requires a strategic focus. supporting organizational culture. do not support this relationship. The results are consistent with earlier studies (Fisher et al. systematic approach to service rendering and problem solving.

2002. Mosadeghrad. When employees can work together efficiently and effectively..278 Based on the above discussion and empirical evidence. 4.7 Employee Fulfillment H 10: Employee fulfillment is positively related to Customer Satisfaction. 2002. (1998). 1995.. the this relationship is in contrast with the findings of studies by Anderson et al. The employee fulfillment is directly dependent on quality of work life dimensions. effective recognition and reward. Total customer satisfaction entails having an unwavering focus on the internal customers. Kanji & Asher. they will service better their external customers with value-added products and services by improved service delivery. McAdam & Kelly. The results of this study concur with the findings from previous studies (Buch & Rivers. Cebeci & Beskese.. Lawler et al. 2002. opportunities for growth and . (1995). 1993. Thus happy and empowered employees and happy external customers could bring higher performance to the organization. empowerment and involvement. 1993). However.. costs will be reduced. Everett. Fisher et al. The results indicated a positive relationship of Employee Fulfillment with Customer Satisfaction and the contribution of this practice was found to be significant.12. Mehra et al. To be more competitive and offer a product and service that would be perceived by the external customer as better (in comparison with others) requires a higher level of involvement during the process of delivering the service. 1998. 2003. and Rungtusanatham et al. 2005.. it is concluded that an integrated approach of continuous improvement significantly contributes towards fulfillment of customer satisfaction on consistent basis. External customers will then give the organization an opportunity to serve them. 2002. The empirical evidence support H10. Shetty. If employees are happy and empowered.

When an institution serves customers with passion. open communication. Absence of these dimensions or using these practices as rhetoric only will affect the satisfaction and commitment of employees. customer satisfaction has become an enormously important ingredient of TQM in services. Customer obsession is a unifying vision that guides everyone’s efforts in the organization towards shared goals. Listening to the customers and responding quickly to their changing needs.279 development.8 Customer Satisfaction Total Quality Management is a customer focused philosophy and hence the customer must find a predominant place in total quality initiatives. overtime they will come to feel passionate about the institution’s products and services. They would not own the quality initiatives. The empirical evidence and the above discussion verify that employees’ fulfillment increase their commitment and morale that would have positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction results in customer loyalty and profitability. Quality focused organizations place high priority on proactively and systematically understanding and responding to current and future external customers’ needs. training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of decision making and supportive organizational culture. expectations and perceptions are some of the basic TQM requirements.12. Without inspired employees the satisfaction of external customers is difficult to achieve. the organizational effectiveness has become synonymous with customer satisfaction. . The key to organizational survival is retention of satisfied customers. Within TQM context. supportive top management. In competitive environment. 4.

The results of the study. Parzinger. Internally the employees do not internalize the quality management initiatives and externally do not respond to the customers in the desired manner. Dean & Terziovski. The cumulative outcome is exemplified in inadequate quality products. Absence of supporting HRM practices seriously affect the behaviour and attitudes of employees which affect the internal and external dimensions of the organization. In addition. Capezio & Morehouse. Tamimi & Sebastianelli. The empirical evidence also established other barriers which are related to the lack of leadership for quality. 2003. Eng.12. 1997. Rienzer. & Yusof. Gronholdt. The empirical evidence found that lack of adequate management and development of human resources was found to be the most critical barrier to planning and implementing quality management initiatives in CMTOs. .280 The empirical evidence based on sample provides support for this practice. 2003).2000). the desirable customer services during the delivery process become difficult to achieve. 1993. & Kristensen. 2000. inadequacy of resources and lack of customer focus. & Nath. & Gresham. 2003. 2000. Saliba. Martensen. 4. These results of this practice draw support from previous studies (Kotter. Fontenot. & Fisher. services and processes. verify that these barriers are affecting the overall satisfaction level of the employees with its effects on continuous improvement efforts and customer satisfaction. 1995. based on the sample. 2000. 2001. Salegna & Fazel. 2002. 1994. & Testa. Lakhe & Mohanty. The findings of present study concur with the studies of researchers (Behara. lack of planning for quality.9 Barriers in Planning and Implementing TQM Practices in CMTOs Findings of the study also draw attention to the barriers that the CMTOs experience during planning and implementing TQM practices. Ngai & Cheng.

Continuous Improvement and Customer Satisfaction. 2. there are areas that need further improvement which have been discussed in the succeeding paragraphs. Learning. In order to get the desired results. The results of path analysis show positive and statistically significant relationship among variables of Visionary Leadership. Internal Cooperation. Continuous Improvement. the se TQM practices need to be implemented in an integrated manner for realizing TQM objectives. . 4. External Cooperation.281 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. 3.1 CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY Based on the empirical evidence. Process Management. Internal Cooperation. External Cooperation. Learning. Process Management. Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction. Validated by confirmatory factor analysis the measurement items associated with all constructs were identified as reliable and valid indicators of the conceptual domain underlying the model. following conclusions are drawn from the study: 1. The study highlighted the importance of interdependence of these TQM practices. However. The results of the study provided strong empirical support for Deming Management Method Model. The empirical evidence supported the theoretical relationship proposed in these hypotheses. The results established that CMTOs pursue TQM practices of Visionary Leadership. The study postulated 10 hypotheses.

does not find support through concrete actions. Process Management. There is general understanding of need for quality and commitment to quality at all levels in CMTOs. . In addition. 6. This manifests in lack of sharing of quality vision with employees at the grass root level. in CMTOs.282 5. The participation of employees in planning for quality objectives is not given due importance. The study validates that Deming Management Method Model is applicable in a different cultural environment. the role that has to be played by leadership to indicate their commitment to total quality management practices is not strong. The Model provides an opportunity to organizations to utilize it as an intervention strategy to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. External Cooperation and Learning variables. This perception. Employee Fulfillment and Customer Satisfaction. The top management of CMTOs’ assumes responsibility for quality performance. Continuous Improvement. However. sets objectives for quality. This significant influence of leadership on all other variables is due to existing systems of the organizations through which the influence is exercised. absence of explicit participative style of management. There is a short term focus on profitability and a tendency with quick fix arrangements. involves department heads in setting quality goals and attaches importance to the quality in relation to cost objectives. and delegation of responsibility of quality to others. however. Quality goals are not well defined at the operational level. Leadership visibility and accessibility in quality related dimensions is not up to the desired level in these organizations. There is no structured mechanism to adequately measure the quality of work at operational level. and indirectly other variables namely. Result of the study highlighted Visionary Leadership as the most significant and vital variable influencing directly Internal Cooperation. 7. 8. people show some concern for quality.

However. 10. The findings. Adequate mechanisms exist in CMTOs to select and evaluate performance of suppliers and developing long term relationship with them. Data about effectiveness of training and key indicators of effectiveness are not maintained. achieving excellence. however. indicate that in these organizations. Quality related training is given adequate importance. reward and recognition and management support in these organizations. Training is given to all tiers in CMTOs and adequate resources are allocated for training. Important dimensions of quality related training based on need analysis is lacking. do not foster creativity. formal follow up of training evaluation is not done. In CMTOs. however. However. The suppliers are partially co-opted in quality management initiatives. 11. there is a lack of understanding on the part of employees to fully comprehend the basic concept of process and application of basic principles of process management enabling them to do their work properly. and improvement.283 9. The overall climate. The documentation of refinement in processes needs further improvement. The employees do not internalize the philosophy of continuous improvement. The scope of training is limited to the courses offered by outside training establishments. in these organizations. The frequency of using total quality management techniques and procedures is not up to the desired level. There is no direct participation in suppliers quality related activities and improvement projects. no mechanism exists. in these organizations. There is a lack of mechanism to collect employees’ ideas for . the employees and managers understand the need for continuous improvement and try to take required action in their own jobs. Adequate arrangement exists in CMTOs for availability of quality related data to all employees. employees are not given opportunity to use the training on jobs. Moreover. supervisors and managers and its usage in process management. 12. to carryout suppliers’ audit.

in these organizations.284 improvement and its further processing. proactive management of relationship with customer is wanting. There is no mechanism to measure employee satisfaction through internal satisfaction surveys. The employees’ job satisfaction and commitment is not up to the desired standards. The quality culture is not institutionalized and quality is not viewed as everyone’s responsibility in CMTOs. There is a general tendency to wait for the customer complaints and input. In addition. lack of leadership for planning. There is strong indication that there are no aids or techniques to rate customer satisfaction and customer needs. lack of customer . lack of planning for TQM. absence of best HR practices. 15. excessive turnover of employees. The important impediments in employee fulfillment are lack of empowerment and involvement. However. In addition. lack of recognition and reward for quality efforts. improvement is not viewed as an ongoing process. absence of open communication. Customers’ input is sought occasionally in CMTOs on account of rapid growth in the market. limited growth opportunities. Lack of Employee Fulfillment appeared to be the major irritant in CMTOs. There is strong indication that commitment to cultural change to practice quality management is not up to the desired level in CMTOs. autocratic style of management. 13. 16. there is no well defined mechanism to establish service standards derived from customer requirements. Similarly. There exist major barriers in planning and implementing total quality management practices in CMTOs which include lack of effective and efficient human resources management and development. The surveys do not go beyond current customers. 14. and lack of strong motivation to challenge the status quo and undertake improvements. handling and processing of customers’ complaints is not given top priority. The proactive approach of reaching out to customers for feedback is lacking. The focus on proactive approach to quality management practices does not exist.

mission and values that give the direction to all to achieve strategic quality objectives.2 RECOMMENDATIONS TQM is a management philosophy that seeks continuous improvement in every facet of organizational life through internal and external collaboration with a view to achieve excellence. Based on the empirical evidence of the study. Lack of objectives assessment inhibits taking proactive actions to meet environmental challenges. The study findings also offer opportunities to address the issue and take appropriate actions to make the CMTOs competitive. CMTOs need to attend to these barriers. The best practices in the field of Cellular Mobile communication offer opportunities to CMTOs for improvement. a transformational leadership style is essential to initiate and sustain total quality initiatives. in CMTOs. There is no mechanism to undertake self assessment of quality management practices over time with a view to identify the gaps and initiate improvement on continuous basis. The analysis of the results of the study offer challenges and opportunities. 5. Top leadership is the driving force for planning and implementing TQM practices.285 focus and inadequate resources for TQM. In CMTOs. following recommendations are made: 1. Leaders are expected to articulate and communicate a quality vision. 17. The study provides an objective assessment of present TQM practices in these organizations. However. 18. Top management of CMTOs should identify and use the leverage point for transformational change. inspire and energize employees to accomplish challenging goals and provide enabling environment that . to achieve performance excellence. benchmarking of best quality practices of Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators and other renowned organizations in the world is not accorded appropriate priority. identify the causes and take appropriate actions to eliminate these impediments to become competitive.

empowerment.286 foster cooperation. meet customers’ requirements and strive to exceed their expectations. happy and empowered external and internal customers could bring capabilities to the organization. considerable investment in human and financial resources. strategic and spiritual change in the organization and stimulate the entire organization towards the accomplishment of the vision. 2. Customer satisfaction should be continuously measured and analyzed. The visible commitment of the leaders is exemplified in provision of adequate resources to the implementation of quality management efforts. Thus. The ultimate competitive advantage is established when an institution develops a culture that supports its internal and external customers. Organization long term success is tied to customer retention efforts. involvement. In prevailing competitive environment in Telecom Sector. Continuous focus of leadership commitment should be the foundation of quality management initiatives in CMTOs. Visionary leadership is required to lead and espouse a mental. and be accessible and visible in leading quality pursuits. customer expectations are dynamic in nature and hence CMTOs need to understand current and future needs. They should act as role models in all quality related issues. they must set the example by becoming learners themselves and involving others in the learning process. The efforts should be focused on making customer as partners in designing and improvement of services and related processes. CMTOs should adopt a proactive approach in service standards derived from customers’ . A flexible and efficient customer feedback processing mechanism is needed to exploit the opportunities that this input offers. Customer satisfaction is the ultimate goal of TQM programmes. They are required to be passionately involved and support all aspects of quality efforts in the organizations. CMTOs should adopt a proactive approach in their customer oriented pursuits. self development and sense of purpose among the employees. particularly. The leadership of CMTOs should be more amenable to learning.

The process of continuous improvement should encompass all groups horizontally and vertically in these organisations. These organizations need to develop key indicators that drive customer satisfaction. the interdependence of buyers and suppliers has increased dramatically. suppliers’ audit. and seven management and planning tools should be extensively used by CMTOs to improve the services and processes.287 requirements. Relationship with suppliers provides opportunities for collaborative pursuits of quality management and leads to cost effective procurement that yields competitive advantage. front line empowerment. suppliers’ performance evaluation. Continuous improvement provides a way for managers to provide a form of strategic control that allows their institutions to respond more proactively and timely to rapid developments in the different areas that influence an institution’s success. 3. The most potent value in TQM is continuous improvement where high-performing organizations create cultures that seek to evaluate and improve everything they do. suppliers’ communication. Suppliers play a more direct role in an organization’s quality performance. The strategy of proactive management of relationship with customers and use of listening posts for effective monitoring of customers and changing environment should be pursued by CMTOs with a view to align organizational services and processes accordingly. PDCA cycle. Developing partnership with suppliers is one of the major TQM implementation practices. . 4. Continuous improvement is exercised through self assessment activities. CMTOs should encourage fostering creativity and innovation to achieve continuous improvement. The quest for quality improvement is not a specific destination but a continuous journey that yields endless opportunities. and high level satisfaction of employees to derive maximum benefits from customer interface. In today environment. CMTOs should vigorously pursue this collaborative strategy that is exemplified by efficient selection criteria.

Process management tools. People make quality happen. and orders and in their place give employees the freedom to take responsibility for their ideas. Expressing confidence in them will provide necessary . In TQM context. and employees’ fulfillment. Documentation of process improvements should be undertaken by CMTOs to set the new milestones for future endeavours in process refinements. 7. Empowering the employees forms the basis for improved performance and customer satisfaction. CMTOs should ensure that all processes function in harmony in order to realize improved customers’ and employees’ satisfaction. giving them resources and authority to make quality improvement decisions in their jobs. 6. Salient aspects that need special attention in this regard have been discussed in succeeding paragraphs. HRM focuses on creating sustained competitive advantage through high performance work practices that contribute to employees’ job satisfaction. decisions. 5. streamlined and controlled processes to continually improve operations with a view to respond proactively to the changing needs of customers.288 suppliers’ training and participation directly in suppliers’ quality related activities such as supplier improvement projects and training. Effective and efficient HRM is critical for the success of TQM practices. This requires cross-functional efforts free of departmental biases. and actions. This creates a workforce that is energized by an enhanced ability to give its best. policies. which enhance institutional performance. The focus of process management is to implement and coordinate measured. pride of workmanship. CMTOs need to align human resource focus with strategic quality objectives. should be used by these organizations. job commitment. The basic focus of empowerment strategy is to free employees from the rigorous control imposed by instructions. CMTOs should operationalize empowerment by encouraging employees to respond to quality-related problems. CMTOs need to pursue empowerment strategy for excellence.

8. In addition. decision making. procedures and quality dimensions of culture of the organization as well as the requirements for their jobs. The evaluation of effectiveness of training and key indicators of effectiveness need to be maintained at various levels of these organizations. and regular surveys and feedback programmes. task identity. The scope of the quality related . eight planning and management tools. Hence.289 impetus for excellence in individual and group performance. The training should cascade down the organization. and problem solving. and participation in formal and informal brainstorming sessions. Involvement of employees in quality pursuits is vital for its success. quality objectives. everyone is required to gain additional capabilities to improve the processes. coupled with training in interpersonal and communication skills. CMTOs’ should give priority to training of employees to become a source of competitive advantage. 9. institute performance based reward system and enriched jobs. Involvement in quality management activities enables employees to acquire new knowledge. The scope of training should include awareness to strategic quality policy. these organizations should create opportunities for employees to participate in decision making. Involvement inculcates a sense of ownership in their jobs and quality improvement activities with a view to achieve the quality goals. comprehensive training programmes are necessary and must be institutionalized within these organizations. In the TQM environment. openings for career development and task meaningfulness. quality of work life initiatives. CMTO should pursue active involvement of employees through suggestion system. see the benefits of quality discipline. and obtain a sense of accomplishment by solving quality problems. Achieving total quality management goals is dependent on a learning orientation with focus on promotion of individual and team learning. Training is the most effective TQM practice in vogue in the best organizations. seven basic quality tools.

Employees’ communication is directly related to productivity and performance of employees. Recognition and reward is a guiding principle of TQM practices. CMTOs’ need to institutionalize open communication through sharing of information. 11.290 training should flow out of training need assessment which should be undertaken by CMTOs on consistent basis. CMTOs’ should use reward management to motivate employees for benchmark performance in achieving quality goals. and visibility and accessibility of top and middle management to other employees. work information. personal letters. CMTOs need to institute a fair and equitable reward and recognition system with focus on extrinsic and intrinsic dimensions. breakdown functional and psychological barriers. CMTOs’ should promote team work through quality circle. Team work has been identified as a key success factor in the total quality improvement process. Informal mode of communication should also be promoted. 13. Teams provide synergy and economize the over all efforts to achieve quality goals. 10. Benchmarking of best practices should be done with a clear focus on the goal of improving the service processes and reducing cost. The rewards must support quality objectives and superior quality programmes. The reward system should also be introduced on teams’ performance basis. reinforce the value and goals of quality culture and encourage champion of change for quality culture. top-down and horizontal communication among the staff. improves problem solving. bottom-up. cross-functional teams. 12. and self managed teams. and enhances employees’ commitment. department improvement teams. Effective communication increases employees trust. enhances understanding of the need for change. problem solving teams. The benchmark performance of Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators and other world class organizations provides opportunity to .

2. Its importance in service industry becomes critical. CMTOs must establish a self-assessment mechanism to evaluate quality management practices on regular basis. In an industry with educated members of the organization. The information thus gained should be shared within the organizations to achieve unity of purpose. products.3 Future Research The competitive business environment offer many challenges to the organizations. Employee fulfillment is a critical factor to achieve desired results in TQM context. . Rapid changes in technology. major aspects that cause lack of employees’ fulfillment in CMTOs need to be further explored. Therefore. This would enable these organizations to identify the gaps in realizing quality objectives. Prompt and integrated actions should be undertaken to bridge the gap and improve the performance. services and processes to survive. 5.291 benchmark the service processes of world best Operators. Organizations need to pursue a two pronged strategy of external focus on customers and internal focus on employees. The success of TQM practices depend on a supporting organizational culture. Employees with low morale on account of variety of reasons are not likely to come up to the desired expectations of the customers. this dimension becomes even more important. CMTOs should avail these opportunities with a view to achieve excellence in their services and processes. customers’ preferences and the workforce place great demands on the organization to align themselves to meet these challenges. 14. A proactive approach in this regard is vital for sustained competitive advantage. Based on the intensive literature review and the insight gained during this study. following are suggested for future research considerations: 1.

3. identifying the bottlenecks for adaptation of this philosophy of change and initiating the required response to enhance organizational competitiveness. identify the shortfalls with a view to make these practices more responsive to the TQM requirements. to changing business paradigm. There is a need for further study in this area to determine the quality of service of these organizations through an external measure. Telecom Industry. There is a need to further study the cultural dimensions of CMTOs in other Pakistani organizations and its compatibility to TQM philosophy. being the major factor of growth in Pakistan. The phenomenal growth of Cellular Mobile Industry offers challenges and opportunities for organizations to meet the rising numbers of subscribers. The model also offers opportunities for its further development based on the study and exploration of additional paths. Effective management of people results in proactive response. 6. the cultural dimension becomes even more important for the success of TQM initiatives. 4. This is an area that needs much attention and offer opportunity for exploration. 5. Deming Management Method Model has been found to be useful in all cultural contexts. The perception of quality of service of CMTOs needs to be objectively explored purely from customers’ perspective. There is a need to use this model in other industries in Pakistan to validate the findings of this study. internally and externally.292 In Pakistani business environment. . This would further refine the theory based on the Deming Management Method. should be studied to identify the compatibility of HRM practices with TQM principles. The response to TQM initiatives in different cultural context has been studied. HRM is enabler of TQM.

identification of barriers in planning and implementation of TQM practices is essential in Pakistani organizations.293 7. The findings of this study offer opportunities for further investigation of these barriers in other industries with a view to adopt a proactive response strategy in realizing the objectives of TQM practices. The socio-economic and political environment in Pakistan poses unique challenges. 8. security. There is a need to study the effects of these variables (energy crisis. changing government policies. and non availability of inaccurate data) on the implementation of TQM. financial and political instability. In order to manage quality dimensions effectively. .

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5. 1.1 1.345 APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE SECTION .4. Department in which working---------------------------------------------------------------- .___________________________________ Gender 1. Your experience in this organization.3 Operational Middle Top 1.1 1.1 1.7.4. Company Name ________________________________________________ Your Name (Optional).6. Your position in the Management. 1 1.3.A GENERAL INFORMATION 1. Education: (Indicate the highest academic degree) ------------------------------------ Below 5 Years 5 – 10 Years > 10 Years 1.3.3. (Tick 1. (Tick whichever is applicable).2 1.4.2. 1.2 Male Female whichever is applicable).5. 1.2 1.5.

The top management in the organization assumes responsibility for quality performance. 5. . 4. but dependable suppliers. Mangers here try to plan ahead for changes that might affect our performance. Internal and External Cooperation (Quality Philosophy) 6. 3. There is a strong commitment to quality at all levels of this company. People in this company are aware of its overall mission. 8. Internal and External Cooperation (Supplier Involvement) 11. 12.B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE To what degree you think the following dimensions of total quality management are practiced in your organization. The organization’s supplier rating system is thorough. 7. the lowest. 10. The goal-setting process for quality within the organization is comprehensive . Your Response Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree (1) (SD) Visionary Leadership (4) (AG) (3) (UC) (2) (DA) 2. 9.346 SECTION . Members of this company show concern for the need for quality Continuous quality improvement is important goal of this organization. indicate your opinion by selecting a number on the scale ranging from “Strongly Agree” (5). 13. the highest to “Strongly Disagree” (1). Importance is attached to quality by the organization’s top management in relations to cost objectives. For each question. The major department heads participate in the quality improvement process The organization’s top management has objectives for quality performance. The organization relies on reasonably few. Strongly Agree (5) (SA) 1. Suppliers are selected based on quality rather than price.

Process Management (Management by Facts) 28. Quality data (complaints. outcomes. The organization’s top management is committed to employee training for quality. Quality data are available to supervisors and managers. Quality-related training is given to supervisor and managers throughout the organization. 24. 30. 19. Training is given in the total quality management techniques(such as control charts. The organization provides education to its suppliers. time. 16. satisfaction. supervisor and managers) attempt to measure their internal customers’ needs (customers inside the organization). supervisor and managers) know who their customers are. 22. 15. Longer term relationships are offered to suppliers. 29. Clear specifications are provided to supplier. Quality data are used as tools to manage quality. Our associates (employees. Learning (Total Quality Training) 17. and managers) attempt to measure their external customers’ needs (customers outside the organization). Our organization is more customers focused than our competitors. etc) are available Quality data is timely and easily available. Our associates (employees. Training is given in “total quality concepts” (i. 25. Learning (Customer Driven Information) 23. 18. Quality data are available to employees. supervisor. 32. The organization uses customer requirements as the basis for quality. 31. 27. .e. Resources are provided for employee training in quality. 21. 26. cause and effect diagrams. defects. philosophy of company-wide responsibility for quality) throughout the organization. Our associates (employees. problem solving. 20.347 14. benchmarking and quality improvement teams etc). Quality-related training is given to employees throughout the organization.

Our associates (employees. supervisor. 36. and managers) keep records and charts/ other aids for measuring the quality of work displayed in their work area Statistical techniques are used to reduce variation in processes in the organization. supervisor. cause-and effect diagrams. and managers) in the organization analyze their work process to look for ways of doing a better job. In general. Our firm is better than the competitors in customer relations. and managers) analyze the time it takes to get the job done. Customer Satisfaction 45. 43.348 33. If I do a sloppy job at work. Our associates (employees. and managers) use basic statistical techniques (such as histograms and control charts) to study their work processes. 38. . Doing a good job should mean as much to a worker as a good pay-cheque. Our customers have been well satisfied with the quality of our products/ services overall. Our associates (employees. Total Quality Management procedures (such as brainstorming. supervisor. Quality data are used to evaluate supervisor and managerial performance. our firm’s level of quality performance over the past three years has been better relative to industry norms. Our associates (employees. and managers) in the organization try to improve the quality of their services. supervisor. 40. Our associates (employees. Our associates (employees. I feel a little ashamed of myself. and managers) in the organization believe that quality improvement is their responsibility. Employee Fulfillment 42. Continuous Improvement 39. 35. 41. supervisor. 46. I would feel unhappy if I could not take pride in my job. 37. teams etc) are used to analyze information for process improvement in the organization. Process Management (Total Quality Methods) 34. 47. 44. supervisor.

In your opinion.349 48. what are the barriers that you experience in planning and implementing total quality management practices in your organization? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ .

00427 0.00186 0.00427 0.00001 0.00026 0.00001 0.00001 0. 13.00974 0.00888 0. 15.00166 0. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance 1.00001 0. 22.00001 0.00131 0.00888 0.00001 0.00296 0.00256 0.00361 0.00001 0.00367 0.00888 0.00131 0.00002 0.00001 0.00226 Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00001 0.00502 0.00001 0. 12.00001 0.00795 0.00001 0.00103 0.00000 0.00662 0.00122 0.00032 0.00671 0.00888 0.00885 0.00197 0.00452 0.00042 0.00001 0.00646 0.00001 0.00301 0.00256 0.00088 0.00045 0. 11. 23.00200 0.00092 0. 7.00624 0.00306 0. 20.00321 0.00058 0.00001 0.01957 0.00888 Centered Leverage Value 0.00653 0.04337 0.00888 0.00048 0.00226 0.00051 0.00092 0. 18.00001 0.00001 0.00022 0.00888 0.00888 Centered Leverage Value 0.00997 0.00888 0.00888 Centered Leverage Value 0.01052 0. 9.00096 0.00019 0.03791 0.00503 0.00001 0.00226 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00019 0.01849 0.00182 0.00392 0.00005 0.00106 0.00001 0.03027 0.00102 0.00001 0.00761 0.00226 0.00001 0.00452 0. 4.00125 0.00006 0.01295 0. 5.00001 0. 14. 21.00888 0.00001 0.00031 0.00001 0.00573 0.00974 0.01071 .00001 0.00127 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance 0.00001 0.000142 0. 16.00016 0.00889 0.00131 0.03687 0.00896 0.00001 0.00888 0.00001 0.00137 0.00285 0. 0.00518 0.00001 0.00088 0. 19.00001 0.00001 0.02737 0.00800 0.00212 Learning Cook’s Distance 0.02038 0.00158 0.00005 0.00000 0.00001 0.01956 0.00001 0.00211 0. 3.00727 0. 6.00005 0.00974 0.00001 0.00115 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00888 0.00248 0.00248 0.00009 0.00518 0.00001 0.01496 0.00888 0.00146 0.00018 .00006 0.00846 0.00001 0.B COOK’S DISTANCE AND CENTERED LEVERAGE VALUE FOR ALL VARIABLES Table 35 Cook’s Distance and Centered Leverage for all Variables S. 10.00032 0.00888 0.02410 0.350 APPENDIX . 2. 8.00182 0.00001 0.00422 0.00006 0.00061 0.00088 0.00375 0.00001 0.00001 0.00375 0.00526 0.00241 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance 0.00256 0.00621 0.00888 0.00030 0.00001 0.00001 0.00888 0.00394 0.00888 0. 17.

00897 0.00077 0.04037 0.00272 0.00001 0.01606 0. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00547 0.00002 0.01526 0.00000 0.00635 0. 45.00131 0.00062 0. 31.00888 0.00260 0.00088 0.00001 0.00204 0.04896 0.00017 0. 43.00001 0.00008 0.00006 0.00077 0. 28.00425 0.00001 0. 30.04037 0.00118 0.00197 0.00102 0. 34.00092 0. 36. 47.01956 0.00001 0.00001 0.00131 0.00888 0.00139 0.00189 0.00013 0.00001 0.00140 0.00069 0.01295 0.00001 0.00236 0.00001 0.00957 0.00001 0.00001 0.00965 0.00001 0.00001 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 25.00256 0.00288 0.00609 0.00077 0.01541 0.00021 0.03402 0.00256 0.00130 0.00103 0.00272 0.00372 0. 46.00272 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 48.00589 0.00001 0.00888 0.00908 0.00526 0.00031 0.00841 0.02886 0. 42.00001 0.00902 0.00045 0.00236 0.00183 0.00001 0.00023 0.00398 0.00045 0.00422 0. 44. 26.03056 0.00888 0.01030 0.00001 0.00518 0.00256 0.00744 0. 0.00001 0.00005 0.00139 0.00301 0.00131 0.00725 0.00156 0.00001 0.00361 0.00256 0.00474 0.00156 0.00264 0.00001 0.00013 0. 35.00048 0.00001 0.00031 0.00001 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.03974 0.00182 0.00126 0. 40.00001 0.00001 0. 32.00123 0.00123 0.00236 0.00974 0.00370 0.00306 0.01030 0.01540 0.00103 0.03974 0.00001 0.00370 0.00131 0.00074 0.00001 0.00001 0.00888 0.00001 0.01496 24.00248 0.01214 0.00974 0.00001 0.01030 0.00001 0.00013 0.00001 0. 33.00213 0.00002 0. 49.00189 0.00001 0.00202 0.00006 0.03974 0.01131 0.00005 0.01540 0.00013 0.00023 0.01047 0.00182 0.00888 0.00009 0.00888 0.00023 0.00247 0.01541 0.00171 0. 41.00888 0.00888 0. 29.00001 0.00213 0.00011 0.00482 0.00260 0.00008 0.00411 0.00079 0.00888 0.00001 0.00166 0.03687 0.00007 0.01446 0.00372 0.00001 0.00231 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00062 0.00088 0.02043 0.03921 0.00247 0.00146 0.01595 0.00609 0.00236 0.00140 0.00780 0.00558 0.00275 0.00001 0.01295 0.00888 0. 39.00846 0.00001 0.00017 0.00007 .00888 0.00888 0.00045 0. 50.00023 0.00001 0.00001 0. 27.00142 0. 37. 38.00609 0.00254 0.00406 0.351 S.00472 0.00077 0.00724 0.00056 0.06622 0.00102 0.00001 0.00248 0. 51.22741 0.

01047 0.00472 0.00171 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00254 0.00231 .00001 0.00156 0.00452 0.00197 0.00649 0.00183 .00738 0.00001 0.00125 0.00452 0.00005 0.00002 0.00146 .00888 0.00965 0.352 S.00472 0.00023 .00888 0.00001 0.00016 0.00609 0. 65.00011 0. 77.00001 0.00102 0.00001 0.00406 0.00001 0.00186 0.00000 0.00088 0.00074 0.00888 0.00001 0.00392 0.00001 0.00092 0.00974 0.00001 0.00425 0.00001 0.00361 0.00001 0.00226 0.00016 0.22741 .00272 0.00226 0.00002 0.00254 0.01917 0.00001 0.00888 0.00069 0.00006 0.00236 0.00001 0.00088 0.00026 0.00888 0.01469 0.00011 0. 76.01314 0.00213 .00957 .00102 0.00288 0.00197 0.00474 0.00474 0.00001 0. 58.01849 0.00189 0.03974 0.00060 0.00370 0.00021 0.00102 0.00001 0.00635 0.00888 0.00130 0.00724 0. 70.00005 0.00001 0.00912 0.00031 0.00888 52. 59.00897 0. 67. 61.00888 0.00077 0.00213 0.00609 0.00103 0.00189 0.00888 0.00122 0.00472 0. 74.00001 0. 75.01446 .00653 0.00102 0.00001 0.00001 0.00744 0. 64. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00841 .00001 0. 66.00001 0.00001 0. 63.00106 0.00074 0. 54.00260 .00001 0. 78.01030 0.00635 0.02270 0.00021 0.00197 0.00260 .00912 0.00202 0.00897 0.00052 0.00589 .00102 0.00974 0.01626 0.00288 0.00031 0.00306 0.00482 0.00411 .00001 0.00889 0.00030 0.04094 0.03056 . 71.00272 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00908 0.00001 0.00000 0.00001 0.00001 0.00370 0.00001 0.03791 .00609 0. 56.00001 0.00001 0.00019 0.02886 .00888 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00021 0.00001 0. 79.00001 0.00146 0. 0.00200 0.00001 0. 55.00000 0.00406 0.00211 0.00021 0.00264 0.01606 .00147 0.00275 .00001 0. 53.00202 0.00126 0.00888 0.00051 0.00897 .00002 0.00888 0. 57.00256 0.00029 0. 68. 69.00092 0.00056 0.00130 0.00001 0.00902 0. 60.00061 0.00002 0.00367 0.00079 0.00309 0.00902 0. 62.00896 0.00558 0. 73.00001 0.03921 0. 72.00547 .00131 0.00000 0.00077 0.00021 0.00213 .01295 0.00001 0.00001 0.00421 0.00744 0.00226 0.00394 0.00079 0.00888 0.00158 0.02043 0.00888 0.00503 0.00558 0.00156 0.00002 0.00106 0.00001 0.00022 0.00127 0.00106 0.00147 0.00005 0.

00001 0.00197 0. 98.00189 0.00001 0.00001 .00558 0.01030 0.00653 0.00000 101.00001 0.00140 0.00001 0.00472 0.00609 0.02270 .01626 0.00474 0. 0. 88.00001 0.00006 0.00001 0.00106 107.00031 0.00421 0.00001 0.00092 0.00001 0.00888 0.00200 106.00888 0.00058 0.00001 0.00103 0.00001 0.00001 0. 0.00394 0.00370 0.00372 0. 86.00001 0.00001 0.00888 0.00013 0.00888 .02043 0. 0.00106 0.00002 0. 82. 81.00247 0.00103 0.00011 0.00001 .00088 0.01626 0.00272 0. 99.00023 0.00001 0.00115 0.00074 100.00361 0.00139 0.00264 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00609 0.00236 .00001 0.00001 .00005 .00272 0.00288 0.04896 0.00001 0.00965 0.00001 .00001 0.00186 0.00370 0.00001 0.00001 .00888 0. 0.00001 0.00367 0.00780 0.04037 0.00122 0.00306 0. 89. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value .00897 .00031 0.00001 .00421 0.00888 .00653 0.01917 0.01849 0.00888 0.00902 0.00001 0.00001 0.00888 80.00001 0.00888 .00367 103.00974 0.00000 0. 83.00001 0. 0.00974 0.00001 0.00236 0.00001 0.00021 0.00045 0.00186 0.00213 .00908 0.00001 0.00001 .00019 0.00002 0. 0.01030 0.00001 0.00197 0.00888 0.00001 .00001 .00392 0.00197 0.00052 0.00103 104.00016 0.00060 0.00226 0.00125 0.00211 0.00635 0.00202 0.00211 0.00001 0.00254 0.00088 0.01595 0.00017 0.00001 0.00026 0.00738 0.00008 0.00001 0. 97.00392 0.01461 0.00023 0.00088 .00123 0.00030 0. 96.00001 0.01541 0.00086 0.01849 0.00780 0.00398 0.00102 0.00102 0.00001 0.00016 102.00016 0.00482 0.00077 0.00002 0.00888 0.00001 0.00974 .00001 0.01540 0.00236 0.00744 0.00156 0.00125 0.01496 .00077 0.00888 0.00001 0.00888 0.00609 0.03974 0.00897 .00200 0.00030 0.00001 .00001 . 92.00002 0.04094 0. 0.03974 0.00888 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00062 0.00060 0.00026 0.00029 0.03921 0.353 S.00001 0.00649 .00425 0.00001 0.00204 0. 84.00001 0.00069 0. 91.00189 0.00056 0.00052 0. 87.00019 0. 94. 93.00001 0.00394 105.00212 0. 85. 0.00406 0.00001 0. 90.00016 0.00000 0. 95.00888 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.01314 0.00001 0.00006 0.00888 0.04094 0. 0.00130 0.00724 0.00609 0.00001 0.01314 0.

00653 0. 0. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value .00001 0.00474 0. 0. 0.00102 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00272 0.00001 0.00179 126.00026 0.00102 0.04094 0.03921 116.00888 0.00156 0.00006 0.00021 0.00001 0.00889 0.00615 133. 0.00974 0.00001 0.00724 0.00088 0.00002 0.00744 0.00011 0.00001 0.00211 0.00019 0.00088 0.01505 124.00888 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00724 112.00069 0.00385 132.00052 0.00005 0.00272 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 .00452 0.00000 0.01030 0.00888 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.01469 0.00001 0.00896 0.00130 0.00106 0.00001 0.00204 0.354 S.00029 0.00888 0. 0.00001 0.00361 0.00425 0.02043 114.00013 0.00001 0.00888 0.00079 120.00558 0.00965 0. 0.00000 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 0.00021 117. 130. 0.00394 0.00888 0. 0. 0.00974 0.02043 0.00288 0.00226 0.00001 0.00001 0.00888 0.00780 0.00306 0.00888 0.02879 128.00021 0. 0.00147 0.00102 0.00001 0.00888 0.00309 0.00088 0.00888 0.00738 0.00077 0.00745 131. 0.00083 122.00115 109.00289 129.00609 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0. 0.00031 . 0.01849 0. 0.00001 0.00189 0.00158 0.00001 0.00472 0.00001 0.00007 0.00062 119.00016 0.00002 0.00001 0. 0.00001 .00001 0.00392 0.00001 0. 0.00609 0.00197 0.00472 0.00902 0. 0. 0.00001 0.00001 0.00482 0.03974 0.00001 123.00001 0.00001 0.00002 0.00146 0.00001 0.00016 0.00204 111.03974 .00001 0. 0.00079 0. 0.00001 .00202 0.00254 0.00888 0.00021 0.00301 0.00001 .00001 0.00226 110.01030 0. 0.00001 0.00074 134.00609 0.00461 127.00888 .00001 0.00370 0.03974 0. 0.01759 135.00060 0.00000 0.00005 0.00272 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00030 0. 0.00001 0.00888 .00406 0.00000 0.01611.00888 108.00189 0.00908 0.00023 125.00370 0. 0.00001 0.00912 0. 0.00001 0.00888 0.00367 0.00001 0.00635 0.00421 0.00965 115.00002 0.00056 0.00001 0.00092 0.00103 0.00051 0.00115 0. 0.00226 0.00226 0.00001 0.00001 0.00226 0.00122 0.00125 0.00001 0.01030 0.01917 0. 0.00888 0.00002 118.00001 0.00031 0.00028 121.00001 0.00022 0.01314 0.00197 0.00061 .00056 113.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00974 0.00092 0.00001 0.00888 0.00001 0.00888 .00186 0.03921 0.00503 0.01626 0.00200 0.

00001 0.04037 0.00027 142.00077 0.00001 0.00001 0.00425 0.00888 0.00888 0.00317 137.00017 0.00744 0. 0.00079 0.00974 0.00000 160.00077 0.00008 0.00001 0.00001 0.00062 0.00001 0.00006 150.00026 148.00103 0.00016 0. 0.00888 0.00609 0.00058 0.00001 0.00888 0.00001 0.00228 138.00370 0.00226 0.00609 136.00254 0.01461 0.03974 0.00103 0.00001 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00247 0.00197 0. 0.00106 0.00016 0.00001 0.00653 158.00001 0.00211 0.00023 0.00272 0. 0.00609 0.03921 0.00001 0.00001 0.00088 0.00472 0.00425 0. 0.00609 0.00272 0.00272 0. 0.00888 0.00370 0.00001 0.00023 0.00888 0. 0. 0.00482 0.00780 0.00888 0.00888 0.00452 0.00001 0.00001 0.03974 0.02043 0.00236 0.00288 0.00888 0.00888 0.00092 0.00125 0.00361 0.00122 147.00462 139.00189 0.00186 152.00609 0.00635 0. 0.00031 0.00367 0.00130 0.01030 0.00000 0.00001 0.00001 0.00019 0.04896 0.00974 0.00398 0.00370 0.00011 0.00888 0.00060 0.00306 0.00021 0.00189 0.00474 0.00264 0.00019 156.00001 0.00001 0.00406 . 0.00069 0.00001 0.00125 155.00123 0.00103 0.00279 141. 0.00432 145.00367 162.00102 0. 0.01314 0.00001 0.00888 0.00272 0.01030 0.00482 0.01849 149.00001 0.00139 0.00001 0. 0.00120 146.00002 0.00376 140.00001 0.03791 0.04094 0.00653 0.00029 0.00421 0. 0.00001 0.00888 0.01030 0.00013 0.00001 0.00392 157. 0. 0.00074 0.00006 0.00005 0. 0.00001 0.00001 0.00202 0.00236 0. 0.03974 0.01849 0.00888 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00008 144.00001 0.00102 0.00069 0.00016 161.00001 0.00031 0.00115 0.00001 0. 0.00026 0.00197 153.00001 0.00609 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00088 0.01595 0. 0.01541 0.00888 0.00361 0. 0.00002 0.00189 0.00001 0.00030 0.00204 0.00052 0.00086 0.00002 0.00045 0.01917 0.00056 0.00001 0.00472 0. 0.00370 0.00002 154.00001 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00212 0.00372 0.00122 0.00392 0.00461 143.00738 0.00186 0.01626 0.00030 151. 0.00197 0.355 S. 0. 0. 0.00724 0.00001 0.00189 0.00002 0. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00211 159.00001 0.00609 0.00031 0.00965 0.00888 0. 0.

00106 0.00472 0.00264 0.00724 171.02737 0.00624 0.00275 0.00102 0.00671 0.00635 0.00472 0.01469 0.00011 0.00888 0.00965 174.00146 0.00030 0.00140 0.00888 0.00122 176.00137 0.00957 0.00361 0. 0.00908 0.00122 0.00573 0.00211 188.00031 0.00115 0.00260 0.00902 0. 0.00609 0.00888 0.00272 0.00001 0.00001 0. 0. 0.00888 0.00888 0.00226 0.00000 0.00254 0.01314 0.00761 0.00000 189.00260 0.00186 0.00130 0.00653 0.356 S.00052 0.00002 183.00019 185.00002 0.00724 0.00021 0.00021 0.01030 0. 0.00662 0.00092 0.00965 0.00022 0.00306 0.00394 164.00060 0.00021 0.00005 0.00002 0.01917 0.02410 0.03974 0.02043 0.00609 0.00202 0.00589 0.00997 0.00589 0.01917 0.00002 0.00226 0.00885 0.00183 0.00841 0.00370 0.00000 0. 0.00275 0. 0. 0.00394 0.00912 0.00231 0.00000 0.00056 172.00780 0.00392 186.00482 0.00272 0.01849 0. 0.00213 0. 0. 0. 0.00226 169.00370 0.00392 0.00023 0. 0.00200 0. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00452 0.00156 0.00001 0.00001 0. 0.22741 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00102 0.00000 0.00186 181.00000 0.00888 0.00074 0.00026 177.00069 0.00125 184.02043 173.00197 182.00056 0.00908 0.00001 0.00204 170.00285 0.00021 0.03921 0.00156 0.00211 0. 0.00001 .00102 0.00888 0.00125 0. 0.03056 0.00013 0.00023 0.00007 0.00260 0.00957 0.00006 179.00001 0.00146 0.00738 0.00001 0.00411 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0. 0.01849 178.00888 0.00272 0.00260 0.00019 0.00474 0.00051 0.03921 175.00106 0.02741 163.00896 0.00738 0.00558 0.00029 0.00026 0.00375 0.00425 0.00309 0.02886 0.00029 0. 0. 0.00106 166.00800 0.01626 0.00146 0. 0.00016 0.00115 168.00031 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00006 0.00226 0.00002 0.00213 0.00183 0.02886 0.00001 . 0.01540 0.04094 0.00272 0.00888 0. 0. 0.01030 0.00197 0.00077 0.00016 0.00231 0. 0.00030 180.00092 0.00001 0.00204 0.00609 0.00264 0.00005 167.00744 0.00079 0.00016 0.00841 0.03974 0.00296 0.00272 0. 0.00411 0.00002 0.00653 187.00226 0.00147 0. 0.00200 165.00197 0. 0.00888 0.00001 0.00189 0.00503 0.00421 0.03056 0.01469 0.01052 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.

0.00001 0.00013 0.00001 0.00103 0. 0.00226 198.00045 214. 0.00001 0.00247 0.00088 0.00001 0.00118 0.02043 202.02886 0.00001 0.04896 0.00394 193.00226 0. 0.00974 0.00609 0.02270 0.00236 208.00019 0.00056 201.00052 0. 0.00231 0.00045 0.00547 0. 0.00060 0.00211 0.00001 0.00115 0. 0.03791 0.00102 0.00189 0.00204 199.00547 0.00001 0.00077 0.00264 0. 0.00001 0.00260 0.00197 0.00888 0.00001 0.00001 0.00392 0.00724 0.00212 0.00398 0.01917 0.00001 0.00275 0.00106 195.00102 0.00649 0.00361 0.00008 0.00197 0.00247 0.00171 0.00001 0.00888 0.00074 0.02270 0. 0.00889 0.03921 0.00236 0.00254 0.00974 0.01849 0.00005 0.00841 0.00001 0. 0.01606 0.04037 215.00001 0.01071 0.00213 0.00001 0.00023 216.00026 0.00897 0. 0. 0.00200 194.00609 0.03402 0.00621 0.00001 0.00130 0.00001 0.00411 0.00888 0.00526 0.00079 0.01446 0.00394 0.00103 210.00131 0.01595 0.00965 203.00965 0.00122 0. 0. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 0.00115 197.00103 192.00272 0.00139 0.00023 0.01606 0.00086 0.00061 0.01496 0.00062 0.00908 0.00106 0.00103 0.00001 0.00727 0.00058 0.00023 0.00306 0.00202 0.00001 0.00213 0.00635 0.00016 0.00213 0.00011 0.00008 213.00213 0.00002 0.00088 0.00780 0.00062 206.00088 0.00131 0.00092 0.03921 204.00001 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00186 0.03056 0.00001 0.00406 0.00236 0. 0.00421 0.00001 0.00375 0.00021 0. 0.00123 211.00649 0.00171 0.04037 0.00001 0.00001 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00897 0.00123 0.00260 0.01526 0.00897 0.04094 0.00236 0. 0.00001 0.00030 0.01541 0.00125 0.04337 0.00888 0.00023 0.00213 0. 0.01314 0.00744 0.00001 0.00056 0.01496 0. 0.00204 0.00001 0.01446 0.01541 217.00558 0. 0.00724 200.00183 0.01461 0.01214 0.00653 0.00005 0. 0.00288 0.00888 0. 0.00000 .00006 0.01626 0.00897 0.00589 0.357 S.00146 0.00272 0.00139 209.00236 212.02043 0.00902 0.00897 0.00236 0.00452 0.00001 0.00001 0.00367 0.00957 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 0.00077 207.00005 196.00001 0.00001 0.01957 0.00367 191. 0. 0.00013 205.00029 0. 0. 0.00974 0.00000 0.00474 0.00738 0.00158 0.00031 0.00897 0.00888 0. 0.00001 190.00001 0.00200 0.00002 0.

00001 0.00474 0.00001 0.00635 241. 0.00007 226.00102 243.00997 0.00011 0.00001 0.00147 230.00001 0.00001 0.00254 235.03974 0.00183 0.01030 0.00375 0.00001 0. 0. 0.03791 0. 0.00102 242.00005 0.00212 0.00001 0.00171 0. 0. 0.00077 231.00021 234.00974 0.00841 0. 0.00888 0.00052 0.00147 0.00001 0.01030 0.00001 0.00888 0.00092 0.00001 0. 0.00077 0.00001 0.02879 0.00156 227.00780 0. 0.00213 0.00462 0. 0. 0.00306 0.00228 0.00001 0.00888 0.00260 0.00058 0.00411 0.00001 0.00001 0. 0.01611. 0.00398 0.00472 232.00372 220.00001 0.03056 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00624 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00079 0.00001 236.00074 0.00204 0. 0.00001 0.00558 0.00888 0.00074 0.00761 0.00888 0.00912 228.00007 0. 0.00202 0.00275 0. 0.03921 0.00724 0.00023 0.00231 0.00744 0.00001 0.00156 223.00031 0.00472 0.00056 0.00461 0.00260 0.00897 0.00745 0. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00888 0.00001 0.00001 0.00589 0.02886 0.00197 239.00974 0.01759 0.00394 0.00088 0.00021 0.00226 0.00001 244.00156 0. 0.00888 0.02737 0. 0.01030 0.00317 0.00001 0.00888 0.00285 0.00017 0. 0.00649 0.00061 0.00021 0.00888 0.00077 221.00547 0.00137 0.00385 0.02410 0. 0.00888 0.00001 0.00897 0.00016 0.00013 225.00615 0.00288 0.00001 0.03974 0.00001 0.00106 0.00001 0.00888 0.00001 0.358 S.03974 0.00001 0.01626 0.00296 0.00888 0.00965 0.00001 0.00200 0.01595 0.00888 0.00001 0.00001 0.04094 0. 0.00372 0.00474 238.00021 0.00744 237.00800 0.00140 224.01606 0.00021 233.00077 0.00888 0.00017 219. 0. 0.00902 0.00001 0.01314 0. 0.00213 0.00573 0.00001 0.01540 222.00001 0.00001 0.02270 0.00888 0.00452 0.00367 0.00001 0.00001 0.00888 0.00106 229.00102 0.00156 0.00912 0.00254 0.01540 0.00001 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00202 0.00115 0.00103 0.00001 218.00001 0. .00421 0.01446 0.00888 0.00106 0.00888 0.00102 0.00013 0.01496 0.04896 0.00289 0.00213 0.00002 0. 0.00885 0.02043 0.00001 0.00146 0.00671 0.00140 0.00001 0.00001 0.00016 0.00197 0.00897 0.00088 0.00002 240.00060 0. 0.00406 0.00130 245.00001 0.00236 0.00001 0.00001 0.00888 0. 0. 0.00001 0.00130 .00635 0.00301 0.22741 0.

00102 0.00011 0. 0.04337 0.00213 0.00558 0. 0.00103 0.00001 0.00007 0.00406 0.00056 0.00001 0.00079 253.00272 0.00001 247.00001 0.00888 0.00139 0.03974 0.01626 0.00052 0.00062 0.00001 0. 0.03921 0.00171 0.00888 0.00609 0.01917 0.00017 .00029 0.00002 0.01052 0.00001 0.01540 0.04037 0.00888 0.359 S.00888 0.00103 271.00367 270. 0.00122 0.00888 0.00202 0.00780 0.01446 0.00247 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.01469 0.00372 0.01917 0.00060 255.00635 0.00272 0.00197 0.00888 0.00888 0.00902 0.00609 0.00001 0.00965 0.00264 0. 0. 0.00029 0. 0. 0.00001 0. 0.00001 0.00079 0.00001 0.00017 0.00609 0.00001 0.00288 0.00727 0.00888 0.00008 0.00272 0.00001 0.00482 0.00957 0.03974 0.00780 0.00045 0.00908 0. 0. 0.00001 0.00139 0.00264 0.01849 257.00392 265.00027 0.00001 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00156 0.00211 267.00079 0.00125 263.00189 0.00254 0.00008 0.01541 0.00001 0.00186 260.00016 269.00031 0.00908 0.00197 261.00102 0.00406 0. 0.00421 0.00001 0.00026 256.00272 0.00001 0.00902 250.00001 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.01461 0.00002 0.00001 0. 0.00902 0.00189 0. 0.00738 0.00432 0.00001 0.00001 0. 0.00001 0.00016 0.00231 0. 0. 0.00888 0.00001 0. 0.00001 0.00558 251.00609 0.00288 248.00074 0.00021 0. 0.00006 258.00023 0.00288 0.00744 0.01606 0.00023 0.00060 0.00279 0.00086 0.00001 0.00000 0.00019 264.00001 0.00023 0.00247 0.00023 0.00375 0.00888 0.00001 0.01030 0.01541 0.00074 0.00272 0.04037 0. 0.00662 0. 0. 0.00000 0. 0.00888 0.00077 0.00123 0.00236 0.00888 0.00780 254.00001 0.00236 0.00021 0.00002 0.01030 0.00260 246.00361 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 0.00156 0.00030 259.00140 0.00461 0.00103 0.00013 0.00001 0.00888 0.00123 0.00026 0.00394 272.00001 0.00106 0.22741 0. 0.00888 0.00621 0.00213 0.00120 0.00888 0. 0.02043 0.00001 0.00013 0.00738 0.00074 252. 0.00001 0.00376 0. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00653 266.00254 0.00001 0. 0.00001 0.04094 0.00045 0.00002 262.01957 0.00361 0.00558 0.00001 0.00200 273.01314 0.00897 0.00077 0.01496 0.00001 0.00008 0.00131 0.00001 0.00001 0.00236 0.00000 268.00031 0.00547 0.00406 249.00888 0.00474 0.

00001 0. 0.00001 0.00001 0. 0.00957 0.00001 0.00021 0. 0.360 S.00213 0.00001 0.00635 0. 0.00017 0.00077 0.00888 External Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 0.00083 289.00102 0.00472 0.00260 0.01505 0.00001 290.00744 0.00888 0.00106 0.00171 274.00406 0.00197 0.00031 0.00841 0.02043 281.00902 0.00140 0.00908 0.00189 0.00609 0.00077 0.00189 0.00001 0.00069 0.00002 0.00007 0.00254 0.00974 0.00002 0.00226 277.00912 0.00264 0.00001 0.00001 0.00370 0.00001 0. 0.00130 0.00156 0. NO Visionary Leadership Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00744 0.00005 275.00001 0.00077 0.00001 0.00001 0.00011 0.00888 0.00147 0.00001 0.00372 0.00888 0.01540 .00146 0.00147 0.00724 279.00001 0.00001 0.00609 0.00547 0.00204 278. 0.01446 0. 0.00077 0. 0. 0.00472 0. 0.00425 0.00635 0.00062 286.00288 0.00102 0.00372 0. 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00965 282.00001 0.00001 0. 0.00275 0.00106 0.00558 0.00013 0.00888 0.00411 0.00001 0. 0.00102 0.22741 0.00002 285.00079 287.00888 0.00115 276.00474 0.00088 0.00589 0.00001 0.00183 0.00074 0.00156 0.00021 284.03056 0. 0.00370 0.00001 0.00202 0.00088 0.00001 0.01540 0.00272 Learning Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00197 0.00001 0.00028 288.00609 0. 0.00021 0.00888 Internal Cooperation Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.01606 0. 0.00102 0.00974 0.00056 280.00472 0.00474 0.00888 0.00001 0.03921 283.00079 0.00912 0.02886 0.00897 0.00272 0.00000 0.

01606 0.00021 0.00001 0.00372 0.00309 0.00189 0.00411 0.00062 0.00197 0.00000 0. 14.00461 0.00000 0. 15.00001 0.00897 0.00001 0.00472 0.00385 0.00275 0.00288 0.01540 0.00902 0.00236 0.00001 0.01611.00474 0.00069 0. 0.00370 0.00031 0.00069 0. 16.00744 0.00462 0. 2.00558 0.00001 0.00031 0.00236 0.00957 0.00008 0.00002 0.00103 0.00213 0. 17.00213 0. 20.00156 0.02886 0. 5.00102 0.00179 0.01505 0.00272 0.00079 0.00130 0.00370 0.00013 0.00001 0.00074 0.00425 0.00260 0. 0.00001 0.00908 0.00062 0.00317 0.00123 0.00083 0.00635 0.00023 0. 11. 19.00074 0.00077 0.00189 0.01541 0.00140 0.01446 0. 21.00002 0.00146 0.00264 0. 7. 3.00013 0.00183 0.00017 0.00780 0.00301 0.00000 0.00482 0.00028 0. 4.00361 0.00609 0.00272 0.00045 0.22741 0.00482 0.02879 0. 22.00007 .00272 0.00272 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00264 0.00023 0.00077 0.00609 0. 12. 13.00231 0.00609 0.00370 0.00841 0. 6.00002 0. 8.00023 0.03056 0.00228 0.00002 0. 18.00425 0.00908 0.00247 0.00609 0.00171 0. 9.00289 0.00102 0. 10.00547 0.00272 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00745 0.00139 0.00472 0.04037 0.00361 0.00589 0.01496 1.361 S.00011 0.00370 0.00406 0.01759 0.00189 0.00202 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00272 0.00254 0.00609 0.00079 0.00615 0.00260 0.00189 0.

00125 0.00011 0.00846 0. 27.00001 0.01314 0.00102 0.00001 0.01849 0.00001 0. 31.00472 0. 34.00001 0.00248 0.00131 0. 30.00166 0. 25.00001 .00367 0.01461 0.00006 0.00006 0. 40.00254 0.00432 0.00376 0.00279 0.00001 .00202 0.00256 0.00045 0.00001 0.00392 0. 39.00086 0.00649 0.00088 0.00048 0. 29.00019 0. 38.00182 0.00912 0.00029 0. 35.00026 0.00897 0.00897 0.00888 0.00001 .00005 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00186 0. 44.00001 0.00030 0. 41. 24.00197 0.00888 0.00609 0.00023 0.00421 0. 0.00001 .00197 0.00288 .00236 0.00016 0.362 S.00156 0.00474 0.00001 0.00002 0.00001 0.00001 23. 36.00000 0.00002 0.01917 0.00248 0.00002 0.00106 0.00182 0.00186 0.00211 0.00001 0.00021 0.00001 . 45.00001 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 42.00131 0.00029 0. 28.00461 0.01849 0.00609 0.00001 0.00001 . 32.00125 0.00060 0.00122 0.00001 0.00197 0.00211 0.00147 0.00019 0.00016 0. 43.00001 .00001 0.00367 0.00002 0. 37.00006 0.00392 0.00653 0.00052 0.01956 0.00001 0.00000 0.00088 .00001 0.01469 0.00030 0.00027 0.00120 0.00021 0.00001 .00744 0.00130 0.00213 0.00001 0.00021 0.00001 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00635 0.00122 0.00738 0.00256 0.01626 0.00016 0. 33. 26.00974 0.00001 0.00008 0.01917 0.00001 0.00026 0.00077 0.02270 0.00102 0.00888 .00888 .00974 .00653 0.00256 0.04094 0.00738 0.

00001 0. 56.00106 0.00256 0.01030 0.00006 0.00197 0.00102 0.00609 46.00472 0. 58.00425 0.00102 0.00001 0.00006 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00009 0.00005 0.00370 0.00306 0.00965 0.00503 0.01314 0.00137 0.00226 0.00503 0.01047 0.00888 0.00296 0.00026 0.00031 0.00761 0.00103 0.00888 0.03921 0.00016 0.00226 0.00001 0.00896 0.00001 0.00902 0.00422 0.00226 0.00186 0.00001 0.00001 0.01030 0.00406 0. 55.00001 0.00122 0.00051 0.00001 0.00002 0.00226 0.00125 0.00001 0.00131 0.00060 0.00482 0. 57.00800 0.00001 0. 0.363 S. 54.00888 0.02043 0.00079 0.00306 0.00002 0.00005 0.00204 0.00997 0.00888 0.03921 0.00375 0.03974 0.00056 0. 53. 59.00001 0.03974 0. 50.00001 0.00001 0.00146 0.00126 0. 64. 66.00724 0. 61.00074 0.03687 0.00780 0.01626 0.00200 0.04094 0.00724 0.00088 0.00031 0. 68.02043 0.00001 0. 52.00518 0. 49. 63.01295 0.00005 0.00204 0.00888 0.00888 0.00106 0.00056 0.00888 0.00974 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 48.00092 0.00001 0. 62.00115 0.00189 0.00671 0.01849 0.00103 0.00001 0.00394 0.00001 0.00115 0. 51.00127 0.00051 0.00001 0.00285 0.00965 0.00022 0. 60.00888 0.00001 0.00030 0.00200 0.00888 0.00022 0.00888 0.00052 0. 47.02737 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00092 0.00019 0.00888 0.00001 0.00885 0. 67.00896 .00361 0.00558 0.00146 0.00394 0.01295 0. 65.00421 0.

00965 0.02043 0.00254 0.03921 0.00226 0.00001 0.00724 0. 72.00367 0.00131 0.00452 0.00013 0.00092 0.00653 0.00306 0.00888 0.00248 0.00202 0.00452 0.00062 0. 83. 76.01214 0. 89. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00005 0.00212 0.01469 0.00212 0. 77.00609 0.00888 0. 82.00231 0. 80. 84.00031 0.01526 0.00000 0.00889 0.00573 0.00888 0. 70.00888 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00226 0.00001 0.00031 0.00727 0.00000 0.00031 0.00000 0.00118 0.00021 0.00001 0. 91.00260 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.364 S.01957 0.00106 0.00001 0.00738 0.00001 0.00375 0.00236 0.00029 0. 88.03974 0.00200 0.00213 0.00452 0.00115 0.00021 0.00001 0.00001 0. 0. 81.00001 0.00021 0. 85.00526 0.00398 0.00061 0.00226 0.00001 0.00016 0.00609 0.00061 0.00023 0.01052 0. 74.00001 0.00131 0.00058 0.00069 0.00392 0.00001 0.04896 0.04896 0.00000 0.00211 0.01071 0.00272 0.00092 0.00058 0.00092 0.01030 0.00001 0.00092 0.00204 0.00103 0.00361 0. 78.00001 .00398 0.00005 0.00272 0.00077 0.00226 0.00370 0.00888 0.01917 0.00888 0.00005 0.00189 0.01595 0. 86.00001 0.04337 0.01595 0.00182 69.00158 0.00226 0.00254 0.00306 0.03402 0.00131 0.00394 0.00001 0.00621 0. 90.00624 0.03791 0.00908 0.00045 0.00888 0.00264 0.00452 0.00056 0. 87.00158 0.02410 0.00609 0. 71.00001 0.03791 0. 75.00662 0. 73.00002 0.00202 0.00889 0. 79.00272 0.

00102 0.03974 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 102.00001 0.01541 0.01295 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00288 0.00001 0.01606 0.00001 0.00744 0.00102 0.00888 0. 100.00130 0.00256 0.00001 0.00841 0.00744 0.00589 0. 114.00017 0.00077 0.00166 0.00131 0.00421 0.00897 0.00127 0.00102 0.00079 0. 110.22741 0. 94.00256 0.00236 0.00077 0.00001 0.00156 0.00001 0.00248 0.00088 0.00260 0.00183 0.00052 0.365 S.00001 0.00897 0.02886 0.00902 0.00156 0.03687 0. 97. 0.00102 0.00001 0.00474 0.00888 0. 106.00247 0.00074 0.01446 0.00372 0.00005 92.00001 0.04037 0.00846 0.00256 0.00123 0.00406 0.00171 0.00131 0.00060 0.01295 0.00213 0. 98.00256 0.00406 0.00074 0.00902 0.00001 0.00005 0. 108.00518 0.00897 0. 111. 104.00780 0.01956 0.00002 0. 93.00197 0.00957 0.00006 0.00547 0.00006 0.00009 0.00140 0.00001 0.00912 0.00182 0.04094 . 95.00411 0.00422 0.00013 0.00888 0.04094 0.00023 0.00558 0.00008 0.00635 0.00106 0. 109.00421 0.01626 0.00139 0.00780 0.02270 0.00635 0.00147 0.00011 0.00130 0.00974 0.00558 0. 105.00001 0.00079 0.00052 0.00213 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00197 0.00649 0.00001 0.00060 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.01540 0. 101.00288 0. 99.00001 0.00103 0.00048 0.00045 0.00888 0.00146 0.03056 0. 103.00002 0. 113.00001 0.00011 0. 107.01496 0. 112. 96.00888 0.00007 0.00275 0.00888 0.00474 0.01626 0.

00048 0.00256 0.00889 0.00375 0.00001 0.01956 0.00001 0.00427 0.00472 0.00888 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 116. 136.00306 0.00001 0.00761 0.00226 0.00016 0.00001 0.0001 0. 126.00427 0.02737 0.00166 0.01496 0.00137 0.00974 0.00032 0.00102 0.00361 115.00662 0.00158 0.00092 0.00761 0.00001 0. 122. 127.00018 .00888 0.00000 0.00126 0. 134.00795 0.00146 0. 124.00301 0. 132.00001 0.00256 0.00088 0.02038 0.00019 0.00182 0.00131 0.00452 0. 129.00256 0.00001 0.01052 0.00001 0.00248 0.02410 0.00888 0.00032 0.00624 0.00888 0.00526 0.01957 0.00001 0.00137 0.00009 0.00092 0.00001 0.00997 0.00051 0.00001 0.00285 0.00001 0. 125.00005 0.00422 0.366 S.00662 0. 131. 128.00573 0.00885 0.00997 0.00001 0. 121.01314 0.00001 0.00621 0. 133.01314 0. 123.00361 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00285 0. 0.00001 0. 118.00518 0.00800 0.00671 0.00031 0.00005 0.01957 0.00321 0.00621 0.00646 .00800 0.00001 0.00022 0.04337 0.00096 0.04337 0. 135.00624 0.00006 0.02410 0. 120.00296 0.00226 0.00846 0.00001 0.00896 0.00236 0.00375 0.00727 0. 117.00671 0.00518 0.00182 0.00502 0.00573 0.00045 0.00885 0. 130.00042 0.01052 0.00727 0.00248 0.00016 0.02737 0.01295 0.01030 0.00131 0.000142 0.00452 0. 119.00061 0.01047 0.00021 0.00226 0.00503 0.00296 0.

157.00411 0.00131 0.01526 0.00103 0. 149. 145.00609 0.00725 0.01131 0. 153. 151.00183 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00256 0. 158.00526 0.00275 0.00301 0.00398 0. 154. 146.367 S.00001 0.01526 0.00077 0.00013 0.00131 0.00609 0.00260 0.00212 0.00888 0.01214 0.03402 0.00888 0.00023 0.00256 0.00306 0.00241 0.00202 0. 142.00260 0.00130 0.00526 0.01071 0.00062 0.00045 0.00131 0.00231 0.00146 0.00197 0.00589 0.00744 0.00635 0.00248 0.00031 0.00146 0.00589 0.00370 0.00023 0.00045 0.01956 0.03056 137.01047 0.00139 0. 156.00256 0. 150.00841 0.00183 0.00182 0.00213 0.00048 0.01030 0.00023 0.00008 0.00213 0.00001 0.01595 0.00189 0.00069 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00474 0. 148. 143. 0.00123 0.03974 0.00001 0.00001 0.00425 0.00131 0.00131 0.00102 0.00118 0. 140. 138.03402 0.00275 0. 152.00127 0. 141. 147.00001 0.01541 0.00142 0. 155.00166 0.02886 0.00023 0.00361 0.00236 0.04896 0.00092 0.00482 0.00118 0.02886 0.00231 0.00370 0.00375 0.00236 0.00260 0.00182 0.00411 0.00006 .00260 0.00375 0.00002 0.03056 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00888 0.01214 0.00001 0.03687 0.00841 0.00006 0.00126 0.00005 0.01071 0.00058 0.00472 0.01295 0.00001 0.00001 0.00002 0.00021 0.04037 0.03791 0.00102 0. 139. 144.00254 0.06622 0.00131 0.03027 0.00248 0.00846 0.

00147 0.00001 0.00077 0.00897 0.03687 0.00005 0.00077 0.00131 0. 166.00171 0. 162.01540 0.00001 0.01606 0.00236 0.00001 0. 161. 171.00021 0.00017 0.00897 0.00264 0.00236 0.00062 0.00897 0.00421 0.00908 0.00957 0. 178.00260 0. 176.00202 0.00009 0.00780 0.00518 0.00213 0.00000 0. 179.00106 0. 0. 174.00006 0.00156 0.01314 0. 163.00472 0. 167.00897 0.00902 0.00474 0.00001 0.00649 0.00126 0. 180.00744 0. 168. 160.01917 0.00744 0.00547 0.00213 0. 175.00005 0.00474 0.00213 0.00002 0.00372 0.00011 0.00131 0.00231 0.01469 0.00060 0.22741 0.00139 0.02270 0.00021 0.01295 0.00013 0.01626 0.00254 0.00202 0.00001 0.00912 0.04094 0.00558 0.00213 0. 169.00171 0.00183 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00609 0. 170.00021 0.00236 0.00738 0.00021 0.00031 0.00272 0.00001 0. 177.00189 0.00103 .00649 0.00007 0.00156 0.01446 0.00001 0.00001 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00077 0.01446 0.01295 0.00001 0.02270 0.00247 0.00888 0.00254 0.00001 0.00272 0.00029 0.00013 0.00256 0.00957 0.00897 0.22741 0. 164. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.01496 0.00001 0.01606 0.00897 0.00016 0. 165.00146 0.00547 0.00023 0.00001 0.00127 0.00074 0.00001 0. 172.00213 0.00272 0.368 S.01047 0.00288 0.00079 0.00609 0.01496 0. 173.00001 159.00888 0.00422 0.00256 0.00140 0.00001 0.00052 0.00406 0.

198.03974 0.00001 0.03056 0.00213 0.00197 0.00001 0.01314 0.00001 0.00001 0.00372 0.00001 0.00888 0.00888 0.00288 0.00156 0.00558 0.04094 0.02270 0.00079 0.00001 0.00411 0.00074 0.00001 0.00001 0.00002 0.00077 0.00780 0.00635 0.00197 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00472 .00023 0.00171 0.00974 0.00001 0.00888 0.00589 0.00001 0.01446 0.00001 0.01626 0.02886 0.00088 0.00001 0.00635 0.00060 0.00406 0.00001 0.02741 0.00558 0.00001 0.00888 0.00888 0.00102 0.00275 0. 184.00421 0.00974 0.00060 0.00077 0. 187.00957 0.00888 0.00001 0.00897 0.00897 0.01540 0.00147 0.00106 0.00074 0. 191.04037 0.00001 181.00130 0.00102 0.04094 0.00912 0.00236 0.00130 0.00001 0.00079 0.00156 0.00001 0.01496 0.00007 0.00002 0. 193.01541 0.00902 0.00897 0. 182.00140 0.369 S.00008 0. 189.00841 0.00236 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.01606 0. 0.00011 0.00902 0.00888 0.00013 0.00547 0.00260 0. 199.00001 0.00888 0. 196.00052 0.00102 0.00017 0. 190. 195.00001 0.00011 0.00001 0. 200.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0. 185.00888 0.00888 0.03974 0.00001 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00213 0.00088 0.01626 0.00247 0.00001 0. 202.00888 0.00780 0.00001 0. 192. 186.00045 0.00123 0. 188.00102 0. 201. 194.00288 0.01314 0.00001 0.00888 0.00649 0.00406 0.00052 0.00001 0.00421 0. 197. 183.00001 0.

00744 0.00002 0.00016 0.00908 0.00031 0.00006 0.00030 0.00888 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00001 0.00000 0. 223.01849 0.00106 0.00211 0.00211 0.00202 0. 0.00189 0.00002 0.00001 0. 212.00001 0.00102 0.00001 0.00406 0.00370 0.00254 0.00002 0.00425 0.00392 0.00653 0.00001 0.00609 0.00001 0.00189 0.00635 0.00019 0. 222.00106 0.00000 0.00394 0.00130 0.00000 0.00021 0.00361 0.00115 0.00361 0. 219.00367 0.00001 0. 218.00000 0.00974 0. 207.00482 0.00001 0.00102 0.00001 0.00016 0.00103 0.00197 0.00394 0. 211.00609 0.00026 0.00888 0.00272 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00088 0. 215. 220.00002 0.00653 0.00001 0.00558 0.00069 0.370 S.00011 0.00272 0.00122 0. 208.00103 0.00370 0. 216.00288 0.00474 0.00370 0.00026 0.00272 0.00609 0.00272 203.01030 0. 214.00609 0.01030 0. 204.00888 0.00001 0.00370 0.01849 0.00186 0.00001 0.00197 0.00902 0.00005 0.00005 0.00001 0. 210.00002 0. 221. 205.00482 0.00016 0.00031 0.00001 0. 224.00189 0.00197 0.00001 0.00908 0.00425 0.00189 0.00367 0.00001 0.00069 0. 217.00074 0.00200 0.00001 0.00264 0.00006 0.00888 0.00472 0.00125 0. 206.00001 0.00200 0.00888 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00392 0.00079 . 209.00016 0.00021 0.00030 0.00019 0.00186 0.00472 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00609 0.00125 0.00609 0. 213.00264 0.

02043 0.00285 0.00888 0.00001 0.00609 0.00738 0.00461 0.00236 0.00001 0.01917 0.00888 0. 244.00029 0.00002 0.00062 0.00202 0. 227.371 S.03974 0.00744 0.00062 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.01030 0.00001 0. 243.00011 .00013 0.00197 0.00888 0.00021 0.00888 0.00021 0. 235.00272 0. 0. 238.00001 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance 0.01030 0.00002 0.00888 0.00083 0.00289 0. 229.00001 0.00001 0.00077 0. 240. 0.00888 0.01030 0.00056 0.00001 0.00247 Centered Leverage Value 0.00635 0.00001 0.00888 0.00002 0.01469 0.00056 0.00001 0.00023 0.00001 0.01469 0.00029 0.03921 0.03974 0.00001 0.00609 0.00139 0.00028 0.00023 0. 231. 245.00002 225.00060 0. 241.00474 0.00888 0. 226.00002 0.04037 0.00001 0.00724 0.00888 0.00001 0.00724 0.00088 0.00001 0.00204 0. 228. 234.03921 0.00965 0.00115 0.00001 0.02879 0.01541 0. 239.00001 0.00888 0.00052 0.00103 0.00965 0.00008 0.00236 0. 236.00671 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance 0.00079 0.00738 0.00179 0.00888 0. 230. 242.01917 0.00102 0.00888 0.04094 0. 246.03974 0.00800 0.00130 0.00226 0.00780 0.00254 0.00016 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 237.02043 0.00102 0.00226 0.01505 0.00001 0.00001 0.00045 0.00021 0.01314 0.00001 0.00974 0.00001 0.00888 0.00001 0.00001 0.00888 0.00204 0.01626 0.00001 0.00421 0.00272 0. 233.00745 Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.00123 0.00021 0.01611. 232.

00077 0.00472 0.00062 0.00761 0.00008 0.00888 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance 0.00888 0.00264 0.00264 0.00156 0.00888 0.00123 0. 0.00088 0.00189 0.00425 0.00005 0.00609 0.00997 0.00462 0.00127 0. 249.04037 0.372 S.00370 0.00236 0.00103 0.00902 0.00001 0.00001 0.00236 0.01541 0.00189 0.00056 0.00029 0. 252.04037 0. 251.00738 0.00008 0. 257.00001 0.00013 0.00908 0. 267.03687 0.00375 0.00001 0. 254.00077 0.00013 0.00062 0.00236 0.01541 0.00001 0.00001 0.00001 0.00372 0.00077 0.00166 0.00001 0.00139 0.00062 0.00007 0.00228 0. 250.01917 0.00131 0.00908 0.00780 0.01030 0. 264.00123 0.00008 0.00001 0.00001 0.00023 0. 268.00017 Centered Leverage Value 0. 248.00236 0.00031 0.00123 0.00317 0.00558 0.00272 0.00140 0.00000 0.00888 0.00288 0.00079 0.00301 0.00189 0.01295 0.00236 0. 259.00361 0.00001 0.00045 0.00001 0.00385 0.00006 0. 263.00406 0.00009 0. 266. 261. 255.00103 0.01469 0.00001 0.01540 0.00609 0.00888 0.00045 .00482 0.00103 0.01759 0.00974 0.00139 0.00247 0.00965 0.00609 0.00272 0. 256.00013 0.00017 0.00001 0.00615 0. 265.00002 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance 0.00236 0.00045 0.01295 247.00000 0. 260.00077 0.00001 0.00006 0.00001 0.00256 0. 258.01956 0.00422 0.00518 0.00139 0. 262.00001 0.02043 0. 253.00023 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0.00074 0.00247 Centered Leverage Value 0.00074 0.03921 0.

00021 0. 274.00957 0.00001 0.00213 0.01030 0.00482 0. 280. 283.00077 0.00007 0. 289.00023 0.00031 0.00411 0.00589 0.00156 0.22741 0.00526 269.00156 0.00001 0.00370 Employee Fulfillment Cook’s Distance 0.00013 0. NO Process Management Cook’s Distance Centered Leverage Value 0. 271.00372 0.00912 0.00156 0.00888 0.00472 0.00472 0.00140 0. 290. 275.00023 0.00001 0. 270.00897 0. 281.00002 0.00285 0.00156 0. 276.00888 0.00106 0.00398 Centered Leverage Value 0.00912 0. 285.00058 0. 0. 277.00001 0.01540 0. 273.00001 0.00077 0.00260 0.00131 0.00147 0.00156 0.00017 0.00106 0.00106 0.00472 0.00247 0.03974 0.00007 0.00002 0.00888 0.01606 0.00001 0.01540 .00017 0.00001 0.00372 0.00077 0.00005 0.00888 0. 284.00001 0.00213 0.00147 0.04037 0.00275 0.00021 0.00061 0.00021 0.00197 0.00912 0.03791 0.00171 Continuous Improvement Cook’s Distance 0.00001 0.00231 0.00156 0. 287.00140 0.00888 0.00017 0.00002 0.01030 0.00452 0.00001 0.00001 0.00888 0.00474 0.00635 Centered Leverage Value 0.00001 0.01047 0.00001 0. 272.00841 0.03974 0.00888 0.00372 0. 278.00126 0.03056 0.00077 0.373 S.00146 0.01541 0.00256 0.00077 0.00888 0.00001 0.00372 0.00212 0.00077 0.01540 0.00140 0. 286.00888 0.00021 . 282.00744 0. 279.00147 0.00253 0.00888 0.00001 0.00800 0.00007 0.01540 0.00013 0.00077 0.00013 0.00361 0.00547 0.00254 0.00183 0.00123 0.02886 0.00260 0.01446 0. 288.00001 0.

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