ATM Overview (1

)
s Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) traffic will be carried using Asynchronous

Transfer Mode (ATM) at the physical layer
q q q

B-ISDN Designed to provide similar services as ISDN B-ISDN is substantially more capable than ISDN B-ISDN technology x Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching x Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) for transport

s ATM versus Synchronous Transfer Mode (STM) q STM is circuit-switched; ATM is packet-switched q STM would require all channels to use some standard multiple of 64 Kbps; ATM more flexible x High complexity if many standard rates x Inefficiencies if few standard rates q ATM benefits from high-speed packet switching -- very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits x Cell processing x Switching
EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM - 1

ATM Overview (2)
s An ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) above ATM divides messages or bit

streams from above into ATM cells (packets) and reconstructs messages or streams at receiver s AALs and other protocols support different traffic models
q q q q

Constant bit rate (CBR) Variable bit rate (VBR), including isochronous and asynchronous Unspecified bit rate (UBR) Available bit rate (ABR)

s Mapping to layers … it depends

CBR
data link physical

VBR

UBR

ABR
transport network data link physical
ATM - 2

ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) SONET

EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97)

© 1996, 1997, Scott F. Midkiff

3 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) s ATM’s basic unit of transfer is the fixed-length cell q 5 bytes of header q 48 bytes of data s Fixed cell size makes switches simpler q Per cell processing normally done in hardware rather than software q Per connection processing still normally done in software s Cell size is a compromise q Small size selected to minimize packetization delay for voice transmission q Larger cell size would be more efficient for data x Per packet processing x Header overhead Header 5 bytes Data 48 bytes EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .4 © 1996. Scott F. Midkiff .BISDN Protocol Reference Model Layers and Sublayers Convergence Segmentation and reassembly Generic flow control Cell VPI/VCI translation Cell multiplex and demultiplex Cell rate decoupling HEC header sequence generate/verify Cell delineation Transmission frame adaptation Transmission frame generate/recovery Bit timing Physical medium CS SAR AAL ATM CS: convergence sublayer SAR: segmentation and reassembly TC: transmission convergence PM: physical convergence TC PHY PM EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . 1997.

5 Virtual Channels and Virtual Paths (1) s Virtual channel identifier (VCI) -. Scott F. 1997.connections and paths through the network are established on an as-needed basis s Connection-oriented eliminates need for q Source and destination addresses in header q Sequence number for resequencing s Error control and flow control are only done on an end-to-end basis if needed by application s Header functions q Connection identification q Congestion control q Cell loss priority q Payload type EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .8-bit field in header q Identify a path over which the VCI does not change q Used for semi-permanent connections 8 12 = 4K paths can be carried over one link q Up to 2 = 256 to 2 q There can be 64K VCIs over one VPI VC switch VP switch VC switch path EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .6 © 1996. Midkiff .connections and paths through the network are established when network is established q Switched virtual circuit (SVC) -.ATM Header Functionality s ATM is a connection-oriented (virtual circuit) network q Permanent virtual circuit (PVC) -.16-bit field in header q Identify a virtual channel on a link between two ATM switches 16 = 64K different channels can be carried over one link q Up to 2 s Virtual path identifier (VPI) -.

8 © 1996. Scott F.7 ATM Header Format (1) s There are two header formats: q User network interface (UNI): user to subnet q Network node interface (NNI): internal subnet 8 1 2 3 4 5 VCI GFC VPI 5 4 VPI VCI VCI PTI HEC 1 8 VPI 5 4 VPI VCI VCI 1 1 2 3 PTI CLP 4 5 CLP VCI HEC UNI Header Format NNI Header Format EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . 1997.Virtual Channels and Virtual Paths (2) B VPI=3 VPI=3 A VCI=8 VCI=9 B VPI=3 VCI=4 VPI=3 VCI=9 A B C VPI=1 VCI=9 VPI=1 VCI=8 VPI=2 VCI=7 VC switch VP switch C VPI=2 VCI=7 D VPI=3 VCI=6 A D VPI=3 VCI=8 VPI=2 VCI=5 VC switch C EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . Midkiff .

Midkiff . e. 1997. but without multiplexing or error detection q Other classes being defined.g. e. packetized voice or video q Class 3/4: Non-real-time data in messaging or streaming modes q Class 5: Similar to class 3/4. Scott F. 12 bits in NNI format q VCI and VPI together identify the virtual connection x 24 bits in UNI format x 28 bits in NNI format q A special reserved address indicates “unassigned” or “idle” cells which carry no data but are needed to fill up a cell slot in transmission s Generic Flow Control (GFC): May be used by the user to multiplex data from multiple applications or devices onto the access link to the network (8 bits) s PT: Payload type -. then AAL is a transport layer s Operation depends on the type of source traffic: q Class 1: Constant bit rate (CBR) traffic.AAL s The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) is responsible for breaking incoming source data into 48-byte pieces and reconstructing the data at the receiver q q Used at entry and exit from network If ATM is viewed as a network layer.g. Class 6 for MPEG-2 video data link physical ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) SONET transport network data link physical ATM .10 EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) © 1996.g.9 ATM Adaptation Layer -. e.user data versus network control information (3 bits) s CLP: Cell loss priority bit (1 bit) s Header error control (HEC): CRC check over the header (does not include data) -. 64 Kbps voice and fixed-rate video q Class 2: Variable bit rate (VBR) traffic to be delivered with fixed delay.ATM Header Format (2) s Addressing q The address field (channel identifier) consists of two subfields: x Virtual channel identifier (VCI): 16 bits x Virtual path indentifer (VPI): 8 bits in UNI format.use switches between error detection and error correction (8 bits) EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .

1997. Scott F..lower than Class 3/4 AAL q No error detection in the SAR (just at CS) q No multiplexing q No buffer allocation information CS-SDU (user data) CS CS-PDU SAR ATM cells .11 Class 5 AAL s Promoted by the ATM Forum to match the needs of q LAN equipment manufacturers q High data rate.Adaptation Layer Sublayers s Convergence Sublayer (CS) q Upper-layer frames are basic data units q Concerned with flow control and error recover for Class 3 (connection-oriented) traffic s Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) Sublayer q Segments of upper-layer frames are basic data units q Concerned with segmenting frames at source and reconstructing frames at destination ATM Adaptation Layer Convergence Sublayer Service Specific Common Part Segmentation/Reassembly (SAR) Sublayer ATM EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .12 EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) © 1996. ATM ATM .. Midkiff . connection-oriented data service users s Features q Low overhead -.

especially for LAN backbone networks Ethernet OC-3c (155 Mbps) bridge/ router router FDDI ATM switch DS3 or SONET ATM switch computer ATM switch computer computer EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . Scott F.Data Networking with ATM s ATM switches are now largely used for LAN applications.14 © 1996.000 × + increase in amount of data “in the pipe” s Deployment alternatives q Native ATM q Classical IP over ATM q ATM LAN Emulation (LANE) EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .000-75.13 Difficulties with Data Networking with ATM s Legacy networks q The world will not instantly convert to ATM s Network services q Typical LANs are connectionless q No connection setup needed q Connections established at higher layers s Protocol performance with large latency-bandwidth product -.flow control problem q q q 10-15× + increase in bandwidth 100-5. Midkiff .000× + increase in latency 1. 1997.

Midkiff .g.Native ATM Interface s Applications designed to use ATM s Applications can leverage ATM’s features s API may be more general.15 Classical IP over ATM s Classical IP and ARP over ATM defined in RFC 1577 s ATM is used as a link layer s IP (and other network protocols) adapted to utilize ATM and to cope with differences from other LANs Applications Transport (TCP. Winsock 2 Applications AAL n ATM Application Program Interface (API) EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . e. 1997. Scott F.16 © 1996. UDP) Network (IP) AAL 5 (or 3/4) ATM Existing API New Interface EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .

18 © 1996. supports any existing network layer Applications Transport (TCP. UDP) Network (IP) LLC/MAC (LANE) AAL 5 (or 3/4) ATM Existing API Existing Interface EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . Midkiff . Scott F.17 ATM LAN Emulation s LANE defined by the ATM Forum to address: q Migration and interoperability of ATM and legacy LANs q Service differences between ATM and legacy LANs s Uses IEEE 802.0 issued in January 1995 EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .2 Logical Link Control (LLC) s Connectionless service approach q Connection-based for most unicast frames q Server-based for broadcast frames s Version 1. 1997.LANE s An emulated MAC layer is built on ATM s LANE hides ATM from the network layer.LAN Emulation -.

19 EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) LANE Protocol Model (2) IEEE 802.20 LANE Configuration Management © 1996. Midkiff . Scott F.2 LLC ATM MAC (LANE) entity Multicast Unicast Address Address Framing Resolution Resolution Connection Management Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) ATM Layer Physical Layer EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . 1997.LANE Protocol Model (1) Appl TCP IP LLC LANE AAL 5 ATM Phys Appl TCP IP LLC MAC Phys Bridging LANE ATM Phys AAL 5 MAC ATM Phys Phys ATM host ATM switch ATM-Ethernet IWU Ethernet host ATM .

1997.21 LANE Components (2) Non-proxy LEC host LANE Host ATM Switch LECS LES BUS Proxy LEC LAN/ATM Switch LANE IWU host host EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .LANE Components (1) s LANE is based on a client-server model q LAN Emulation Client (LEC) x ATM hosts in a “virtual LAN” x ATM-LAN IWUs q LANE servers s LANE servers q LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS): connection setup q LAN Emulation Server (LES): maps MAC addresses to ATM virtual connections q Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS) EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . Midkiff . Scott F.22 © 1996.

Midkiff . LAN type.23 LAN Emulation Server -.24 © 1996. ATM address.LAN Emulation Configuration Server -. maximum frame q LECS assigns LEC to a LAN and provides ATM address of a LAN Emulation Server (LES) s LECS required only for LEC start-up. 1997. and then makes a connection s LES provides ATM address of Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS) for MAC broadcast address (all 1’s) EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . Scott F.LECS s LAN Emulation Client (LEC) uses the LECS to join an emulated LAN q LEC specifies MAC address.LES s Client registration q LEC provides its MAC address and ATM address q LES adds LEC to its table of ATM-MAC address translations q LES provides an LEC ID to the LEC s LEC uses the LES to map MAC addresses to ATM address. one LECS can service a large network EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .

25 Broadcast and Unknown Server -.Broadcast and Unknown Server -.26 © 1996. the BUS adds the LEC to a point- to-multipoint connection s LEC uses the BUS to forward broadcast and multicast frames s LEC also uses the BUS to forward unicast frames while the LEC establishes a connection to the destination q Masks the overhead of establishing the connection s BUS “serializes” broadcasts EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . Scott F.BUS (1) s LEC establishes a connection to the BUS. Midkiff .BUS (2) ATM host Host ATM host Host ATM Switch LAN/ATM Switch host host ATM-LAN IWU BUS EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM . 1997.

Scott F. Src MAC=A Dest IP=B. Src IP=B * = broadcast EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .Address Resolution s Address resolution still a problem since LES only know LECs. Midkiff . Src IP=A A B B Dest MAC=A. not all LAN hosts s Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) on a LAN A Dest MAC=*. Src MAC=B Dest IP=A. Src MAC=B Dest IP=A. Src IP=A A LAN-ATM ATM Switch LE-ARP (in LES) B C Dest MAC=A.28 © 1996. 1997. Src MAC=A Dest IP=B.27 Address Resolution with LE-ARP B C A LAN-ATM ATM Switch LE-ARP (in LES) Dest MAC=*. Src IP=B EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks (4/27/97) ATM .

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