Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/). When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. Contributors:Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

MLA Formatting and Style Guide
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA.

General Format
MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material by other writers. If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd edition). The MLA Handbook is available in most writing centers and reference libraries; it is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site. See the Additional Resources section of this handout for a list of helpful books and sites about using MLA style. Paper Format The preparation of papers and manuscripts in MLA style is covered in chapter four of the MLA Handbook, and chapter four of the MLA Style Manual. Below are some basic guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style.

General Guidelines
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Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper. Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are recognizable one from another. The font size should be 12 pt. Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise instructed by your instructor). Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides. Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the Tab key as opposed to pushing the Space Bar five times. Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Always follow your instructor's guidelines.) Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis. If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted).

Formatting the First Page of Your Paper
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Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested. In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use double-spaced text. Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters. Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Morality Play; Human Weariness in "After Apple Picking" Double space between the title and the first line of the text. Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit last name/page number header on your first page. Always follow instructor guidelines.)

Here is a sample of the first page of a paper in MLA style:

Image Caption: The First Page of an MLA Paper Section Headings Writers sometimes use Section Headings to improve a document’s readability. These sections may include individual chapters or other named parts of a book or essay. Essays MLA recommends that when you divide an essay into sections that you number those sections with an arabic number and a period followed by a space and the section name. 1. Early Writings 2. The London Years 3. Traveling the Continent 4. Final Years Books

MLA does not have a prescribed system of headings for books (for more information on headings, please see page 146 in the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition). If you are only using one level of headings, meaning that all of the sections are distinct and parallel and have no additional sections that fit within them, MLA recommends that these sections resemble one another grammatically. For instance, if your headings are typically short phrases, make all of the headings short phrases (and not, for example, full sentences). Otherwise, the formatting is up to you. It should, however, be consistent throughout the document. If you employ multiple levels of headings (some of your sections have sections within sections), you may want to provide a key of your chosen level headings and their formatting to your instructor or editor. Sample Section Headings The following sample headings are meant to be used only as a reference. You may employ whatever system of formatting that works best for you so long as it remains consistent throughout the document. Numbered: 1. Soil Conservation 1.1 Erosion 1.2 Terracing 2. Water Conservation 3. Energy Conservation Formatted, unnumbered: Level 1 Heading: bold, flush left Level 2 Heading: italics, flush left Level 3 Heading: centered, bold Level 4 Heading: centered, italics Level 5 Heading: underlined, flush left How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA Entire Website The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2010. Web. Date of access. Individual Resources Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Russell. Web. Allen Brizee. must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List. and Elizabeth Angeli. 20 July 2010. so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. and the Works Cited page. not in the text of your sentence. Purdue U Writing Lab. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text.) upon the source medium (e. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. DVD) and (2." The Purdue OWL. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers.Contributors' names. Both books provide extensive examples. whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text. endnotes/footnotes. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered in chapter six of the MLA Handbook and in chapter seven of theMLA Style Manual. but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses. Purdue U Writing Lab. Russell Keck. Print. Date of access. Web. Contributors:Tony Russell. Elizabeth Angeli. Tony. In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation." The Purdue OWL. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. Allen Brizee. 2010. 4 Apr.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. For example: . This resource. in-text citations.). Basic In-Text Citation Rules In MLA style.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.g. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase. Last edited date. Web. More specifically. "Title of Resource. General Guidelines   The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.

Thus. Lyrical Ballads. since the reader does not know the author of the article.‖ GLOBAL WARMING: Early Signs. ‖ (―Impact of Global Warming‖ 6). Print. Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3). use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. entire websites) and provide a page number. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has ―more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change .P. articles) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e. provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. . Print. London: Oxford U. The Works Cited entry appears as follows: ―The Impact of Global Warming in North America. Literature. 1999. (263) and (Wordsworth 263). In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author When a source has no known author. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence. In-text Citations for Print Sources with Known Author For Print sources like books. and Method. Kenneth. scholarly journal articles. and newspapers. plays. where. William. Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation. books. These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (e. Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). 1966. under the name of Wordsworth. 23 Mar. If readers want more information about this source.g. . they would find the following information: Wordsworth. they can turn to the Works Cited page. which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited: Burke.g.. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life. . an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. magazines.Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263). Web. In this example. Berkeley: U of California P. tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. Both citations in the examples above. television shows. 2009. 1967. Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3). the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page.

give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page. part (pt.). but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay. chapter (ch. Miller 46). and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76). Yang. Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors. For instance. Miller 12). provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. Yang. For a source with more than three authors. The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith. Yang. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79. Yang.). 4). but additional citation information can help literary scholars. 1). and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (Jones et al.).). if two or more authors have the same last name. who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto. or list all the last names. list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith. so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. Jones et al. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol. Author-Page Citation for Classic and Literary Works with Multiple Editions Page numbers are always required. counter Smith. of course) followed by a semicolon.).).We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit. or paragraph (par. book (bk. use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. section (sec. Or . and Moore 76). For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Or Legal experts counter Smith. and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4). In such cases. ch. others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Citing Authors with Same Last Names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken.

"Visual Studies" 63). For such indirect quotations. use "qtd." each with faces of a man. followed. If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using. chapter. chapter and verse. followed by a shortened title of the work. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation. if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence. then provide the page number(s).) . Ezek. include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. because it is such a new discipline. though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17). followed by book (do not italicize or underline). an ox. you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title). and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4). a lion. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers. Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38). Driscoll. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures. when appropriate. (If you only cite from one volume. you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma.5-10). by page numbers: Visual studies. and they don't do that well" (qtd. and Bell counter Smith. provide only the page number in parentheses.Jones. may be "too easy" (Elkins. Ackerson. in Weisman 259). in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. always include the volume number followed by a colon. Additionally. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible. as each version varies in its translation. . . 1. and verse in the parenthetical citation. Citing Indirect Sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. Citing Multivolume Works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author. Yang. Put a space after the colon. as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1: 14-17). list only the book. .

or Internet sources. these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes. dir. 2002. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource). You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function. In the two examples above ―Herzog‖ from the first entry and ―Yates‖ from the second lead the reader to the first item each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page: Herzog. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo.a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and colonialism" (Garcia.). author name. website name. follow the following guidelines:    Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.cnn. Palmer House Hilton.. remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited. During the presentation. film. Electronic Sources One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo is ". Presentation.. Unless you must list the website name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry. Its ―MLA Formatting and Style Guide‖ is one of the most popular resources (Stolley et al." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition. like CNN.com as opposed to writing out http://www. but often.com. Perf. Fitzcarraldo. Miscellaneous Non-Print Sources Werner Herzog's Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog's long-time film partner. you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments. a domain name. Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet. Yates. Film. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers.com or Forbes. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. ―Herzog: a Life‖). 1982. Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research.Note that. a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source. Klaus Kinski. but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. do not include URLs in-text. . Klaus Kinski. article name.forbes.g. CCCC. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition. Jane. For electronic and Internet sources. Werner. for example. film name). in most cases. Herzog and Kinski were often at odds. rather than citing an indirect source. Filmverlag der Autoren.com or http://www. When creating in-text citations for electronic.

updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.).‖ meaning.. In the second example. endnotes/footnotes. Stolley. . two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. however. ―and others. 10 May 2006. and include a . Allen Brizee. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal. The Film School of New Hampshire. separate the citations by a semicolon: .‖ for the article ―MLA Formatting and Style Guide. for example. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced. Short Quotations To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text. 2 May 2002. you will format quotations differently depending on their length. 8 Jan." Online Film Critics Corner. Elizabeth Angeli. as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide. and the Works Cited page. enclose the quotation within double quotation marks.In the first example." The OWL at Purdue. Remember. well-known quotations or common knowledge. they'll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. 12 May 2006 . Karl. This resource. When a Citation Is Not Needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. Elizabeth.‖ Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows: Garcia. MLA Formatting Quotations When you directly quote the works of others in your paper. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs. Contributors:Tony Russell. ―Stolley et al. the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text. Purdue University Writing Lab. the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below). Multiple Citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference. Web. in-text citations. Thus. this is a rhetorical choice. based on audience. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper.‖ in the parenthetical citation gives the reader an author name followed by the abbreviation ―et al. "Herzog: a Life. . 2009. Dewey 21). Russell Keck. provide line numbers) in the text.

or else attracted by hearing his voice. commas. Earnshaw's door. Finestone. and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Shugrue 202) When citing two or more paragraphs. Inquiries were made as to how it got there. But I hung on like death: Such waltzing was not easy. Indent the first line of each quoted paragraph an extra quarter inch: . I put it on the landing of the stairs.complete reference on the Works Cited page. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. maintain original line breaks. Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)? Mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash. use block quotation format. it crept to Mr. Punctuation marks such as periods. We Romped until the pans Slid from the kitchen shelf." Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father: The whiskey on your breath Could make a small boy dizzy. hoping it would be gone on the morrow. My mother's countenance Could not unfrown itself. and I had no more sense. (quoted in Shrodes. keep formatting as close to the original as possible: In his poem "My Papa's Waltz. and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. According to Foulkes's study. or even in their room. Start the quotation on a new line. so. I was obliged to confess. at the end of each line of verse: (a space should precede and follow the slash) Cullen concludes. and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text. dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184). with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin. "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12). though others disagree. When quoting verse. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay. /.) For example: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them. (Bronte 78) When citing long sections of poetry. Long Quotations For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose: place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. maintain double-spacing. By chance. For example: According to some. dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184). Only indent the first line of the quotation by a half inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. even if the passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines.

. you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text.. For example: In an essay on urban legends.. Allen Brizee. .. have not been to me As is a landscape to a blind man's eye: .. ) preceded and followed by a space..). . . which are three periods ( . With tranquil restoration.. .. endnotes/footnotes. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78)." David Russell argues: Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and examinations came into wide use in the 1870s. This resource. Russell Keck. And passing even into my purer mind. If you omit a word or words from a quotation... .. Through a long absence. . . and felt along the heart. . When omitting words from poetry quotations. use a standard three-period ellipses. you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipsis marks. . (22-24.. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless adding brackets would clarify your use of ellipses. Jan Harold Brunvand.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem: These beauteous forms. . From its birth in the late nineteenth century. Elizabeth Angeli.. when omitting one or more full lines of poetry. in an essay on urban legends. 28-30) Contributors:Tony Russell. progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrail society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widerning number of citizes into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society (promoting social equity). Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . Felt in the blood. and the Works Cited page.. however.In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement. and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78)... eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination. (3) Adding or Omitting Words in Quotations If you add a word or words in a quotation. MLA Endnotes and Footnotes . updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. in-text citations. . ....

should be listed on a separate page. you can also use endnotes/footnotes for occasional explanatory notes(also known as content notes). for papers submitted for publication. MLA style does. Formatting Endnotes and Footnotes Endnotes Page MLA recommends that all notes be listed on a separate page entitled Notes (centered. MLA discourages extensive use of explanatory or digressive notes. Hull. Numbering Endnotes and Footnotes in the Document Body Endnotes and footnotes in MLA format are indicated in-text by superscript Arabic numbers after the punctuation of the phrase or clause to which the note refers: Some have argued that such an investigation would be fruitless. however. Do not use asterisks (*). no formatting). (Use Note if there is only one note. however. angle brackets (>).) The Notes page should appear before the Works Cited page. see Pyle 43. scholars have failed to address this point8—a fact that suggests their cowardice more than their carelessness. Or. or other symbols for note references. 2. which refer to other publications your readers may consult: 1. Each endnote is indented five spaces. See Blackmur. not a politician!" (Weller 124). which refers to brief additional information that might be too digressive for the main text: 4. In a 1998 interview. allow you to use endnotes or footnotes forbibliographic notes. as indicated below) should correspond to the note references in the text. the footnote/endnote number appears before the dash: For years. On the problems related to repressed memory recovery. The notes themselves should be listed by consecutive arabic numbers that correspond to the notation in the text. This is especially important for papers being submitted for publication. for an insightful analysis of this trend. Notes are double-spaced. especially chapters three and four. See Johnson and Hull 45-79.7 so we would do well to ignore it. Kather 23-31. certain publishers encourage or require note references in lieu of parenthetical references. she reiterated this point even more strongly: "I am an artist. The list of endnotes and footnotes (either of which. see Wollens 120-35.6 Scholars have argued for years that this claim has no basis. Note that when a long dash appears in the text. for a contrasting view. Snyder 21-35. Johnson. most academic style guidelines (including MLA and APA) recommend limited use of endnotes/footnotes. Krieg 50-57.Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers. Krieg 78-91. 3. . Several other studies point to this same conclusion.

but do not skip spaces between entries. 230-32). when needed. page number header as the rest of your paper. Basic Rules      Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. 7th edition (sec. Double space all citations.subsequent lines are flush with the left margin.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.5. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. endnotes/footnotes. List page numbers of sources efficiently.5. Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. in-text citations.). offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. For more information on using endnotes and footnotes. Russell Keck. Place a period and a space after each endnote number. Footnotes (below the text body) Please note that the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook does not specify how to format footnotes. Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent. Contributors:Tony Russell. MLA Works Cited Page: Basic Format According to MLA style. or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Provide the appropriate note after the space. subsequent lines are flush with the left margin. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name. The 6th edition of the MLA Handbook contains information on how to format footnotes. Begin footnotes four lines (two double-spaced lines) below the main text. (Each footnote is indented five spaces. Allen Brizee. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250.) Place a period and a space after each footnote number. This resource. Consult your instructor to see what his or her preference is when formatting footnotes in MLA style. list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50. 3rd edition (sec. Provide the appropriate note after the space. . however. Footnotes are single-space with a hanging indent. and the Works Cited page. consult ―Using Notes with Parenthetical Documentation‖ in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Elizabeth Angeli. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text. 6. 259-60). 7. you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.

Kenneth Levy. John". or DVD. New to MLA 2009: Use italics (instead of underlining) for titles of larger works (books. and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first: Burke. MA. for entire edited collections. Kenneth.) with names. You do not need to provide subscription information in addition to the database name. if your instructor or publisher insists on them. Saint.. list solo-author entries first: . A book listing an author named "John Bigbrain.." or "II. A Grammar of Motives. A Rhetoric of Motives.Additional Basic Rules New to MLA 2009    For every entry. break lines only at slashes. [. Jr.] When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group. Most entries will likely be listed as Print or Web sources. a work by Dr.. DDS. Capitalization and Punctuation   Capitalize each word in the titles of articles. middle names or middle initials follow the first name: Burke. However. Author names are written last name first. The Art of War. you must determine the Medium of Publication. Wallace. order the entries alphabetically by title. prepositions. but do not capitalize articles (the. Jr. CDROM. Sir. articles) Listing Author Names Entries are listed alphabetically by the author's last name (or. do. etc. books. There Is Nothing Left to Lose." with the suffix following the first or middle name and a comma.. include suffixes like "Jr.) or degrees (PhD.. Writers are no longer required to provide URLs for Web entries. If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database. you should type the online database name in italics. would be cited as "King. etc. PhD" appears simply as "Bigbrain. or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the Wind. an). etc. editor names).] ---. Martin Luther. however. [." Putting it all together. David M. but other possibilities may include Film. include them in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period.. magazines) and quotation marks for titles of shorter works (poems. Martin Luther King. David Foster Do not list titles (Dr. More than One Work by an Author If you have cited more than one work by a particular author. For long URLs.

5. 148-81). Steven. Book with More Than One Author .. Russell Keck. publisher. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design. book title. For more information. Title of Book. Steven and Karen Pomeroy. Denver: MacMurray.] Boring Postcards USA. publication date. The Hummingbird House. use a shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your paper. 
Heller. Place of Publication: Publisher. 185-211). in-text citations. This resource. or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.. Work with No Known Author Alphabetize works with no known author by their title.6. Year of Publication. New York: Penguin. Henley. MLA Works Cited Page: Books When you are gathering book sources. The Education of an E-Designer. [. first name format. be sure to make note of the following bibliographic items: author name(s).] Contributors:Tony Russell. Chaos: Making a New Science. A Rhetoric of Motives. Elizabeth Angeli. Allen Brizee. Print. and the Works Cited page. 6. Patricia. 7th edition (sec.5. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Simulacra and Simulations. Medium of Publication. 1999. The basic form for a book citation is: Lastname. 3rd edition (sec. In this case. endnotes/footnotes. [.). Firstname... Print. place of publication. Kenneth. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. ed. Basic Format The author’s name or a book with a single author's name appears in last name. Book with One Author Gleick.] Burke. [.Heller. Boring Postcards USA has no known author: Baudrillard. 1987. The medium of publication for all ―hard copy‖ books is Print. James.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.. consult ―Citing Nonperiodical Print Publications‖ in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.. Jean.

or you may list all the authors in the order in which their names appear on the title page. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. 1998. Book by a Corporate Author or Organization A corporate author may include a commission. New York: Random. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. Johndan Johnson-Eilola. Martin's. An. 1993. For each subsequent entry by the same author. Print. Shaun and Forsythe. Boston: Allyn. 2004. Logan. or Wysocki. Gillespie. Print. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Two or More Books by the Same Author List works alphabetically by title. Print.The first given name appears in last name. New York: Somerset. 1993. Encyclopedia of Indiana. et al. Palmer. Logan. 2000. 2004. Anne Frances. and The. 1997. Print. For example. Print. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean. first name format for the first entry only. If there are more than three authors. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring.‖). Jonathan. or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page. and Neal Lerner.‖ Also note that there is never a period after the ―et‖ in ―et al. you may choose to list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Allergies in Children. use three hyphens and a period. UT: Utah State UP. William J. provide the name of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses. Cynthia L. Print.) Provide the author’s name in last name. List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. first name format. subsequent author names appear in first name last name format. Print. Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author. and Geoffrey Sirc. American Allergy Association. UT: Utah State UP. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP. Anne Frances. ---. (Remember to ignore articles like A. Selfe. Wysocki. Dickens and New Historicism. Book with No Author List by title of the book. Paula. New York: St. a committee. (Note that there is a period after ―al‖ in ―et al. You may also use .

Add "Trans. Print. 1999. Anthology or Collection (e.a shortened version of the title of the book accompanied by the page number. which you can link to at the bottom of this page. 3rd ed. 1998. New York: Vintage-Random House. Michel. list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "ed. 2004."—the abbreviation for translated by—and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s). Margaret Smith. but add the number of the edition after the title. Richard Howard. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection (more common). Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. A Translated Book Cite as you would any other book. Crowley. A Work Prepared by an Editor Cite the book as you normally would. see A Work in an Anthology.e. see An Edition of a Book below. An Edition of a Book There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor). This sort of entry is somewhat rare. Bronte. Foucault. and Debra Hawhee. New York: Routledge. or Collection below. 1988. New York: Perennial-Harper. Butler." or. Print. 1984. Print. for multiple editors. Print. Sharon. 1990. For more information see In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author section of In-text Citations: The Basics. insert the original publication date before the publication information. Love Medicine. A Subsequent Edition Cite the book as you normally would. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. New editions are typically revisions of the original work. Oxford: Oxford UP. For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one. Charlotte. Gender Trouble. different from the first or other editions of the book). but add the editor after the title. Republished Book Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition.g. Erdrich. 1993. New York: Pearson/Longman. "eds" (for edited by). Louise. Jane Eyre. Ed. Print. For books that are new editions (i. Reference. Collection of Essays) To cite the entire anthology or collection. . Trans. Judith.

and Marguerite Helmers. the title of the essay. Portsmouth. Swanson. Red Rose. eds. NH: Heinemann. Reference. for each individual essay from the collection.. Steven Heller. Ed. 13-24. 1998. Print. To do so. Jamaica. Print. Ed. Year. or Collection Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology. Tim. Poem or Short Story Examples: Burns. list the author's name in last name. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. and Irwin Weiser. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers. Print. "Finding Ourselves in the Past: An Argument for Historical Work on WPAs. Tobias Wolff. First name. first name format. Muriel. MLA indicates you maycross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. Ed." Title of Collection. Peterson. 1997. 1994. Charles A." Rose and Weiser 153-67.. Print. Ed. 26. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. "Red. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows: Lastname. Shirley K. Place of Publication: Publisher. Print. NH: Heinemann.Hill.. 1999. or a chapter of a book. 2000. "Girl. New York: Allworth Press. 2004. Peeples. Then. Medium of Publication. Robert. "'Seeing' the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping. . Gunnar. New York: Vintage. Ed. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. "Title of Essay. Editor's Name(s). Print. 24-34. Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection." 100 Best-Loved Poems. eds. "Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art: Design and Knowledge in the University and The 'Real World. ed. 306-07." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One. Barbara. Print." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories." Rose and Weiser 131-40. Mahwah. Portsmouth. Defining Visual Rhetorics. include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor's name as below: Rose.'" The Education of a Graphic Designer. Some examples: Harris. Ben Rafoth. A Work in an Anthology. Page range of entry. the editor's last name. New York: Dover. and the page range: L'Eplattenier. 1995. Kincaid. Philip Smith. Nancy J. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.

which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. Encyclopedias. write the name of the author(s) of the piece you are citing. "I Sing the Body Electric. 4 vols. 1980. Print. Also. Foreword. Carter. cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication. Vol. 1995. Farrell. New York: Dodd. if the reference book is organized alphabetically. a foreword. Preface. or after the work's editor or translator. New Haven: Yale UP. H. 3rd ed. A Multivolume Work When citing only one volume of a multivolume work. If the volume you are using has its own title. cite the total number of volumes in the work. or an afterword. New York: Penguin. Institutio Oratoria. Print. if you were to cite . When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work. 1991. cite the piece as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information.) Quintilian. Print. Walt. Dictionaries) For entries in encyclopedias. Quintilian. Trans. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP. Churchill. Introduction. Print. Butler. The Age of Revolution. If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work. 12-19. Angela. An Introduction. Trans. Print. By Farrell. which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page. 1957. Also. 1993. do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item. E. "The Tiger's Bride. a preface. then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By. Print. Thomas B. 154-69. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP." For example. 2. (See Citing Multivolume Works on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page. include the volume number after the work's title. be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s). Article in a Reference Book (e." Selected Poems. as most are. "Ideology. Print. Institutio Oratoria.If the specific literary work is part of the an author's own collection (all of the works have the same author). 1997. Norms of Rhetorical Culture. E. 1980.g. H. Then give the name of the part being cited. then there will be no editor to reference: Whitman. 1-13. dictionaries. Winston S." Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories. New York: Dover. and other reference works. or Afterword When citing an introduction. Butler." The American Heritage Dictionary.

Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs. any editor(s) associated with it.Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. For congressional documents. Hugh Dalziel. 1st sess. 110th Cong. Print. xiii-xliv. Ed.Hugh Dalziel Duncan’s introduction of Kenneth Burke’s book Permanence and Change. United States. 1935. 1984. United States. first name format) or corporate author in the place where the author name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. A Government Publication Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. 1985. be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed. Otherwise. 2007.) Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. followed by the publication information. Washington: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Washington: GPO. Susan Jones. The Bible Give the name of the specific edition you are using. Washington: GPO. By Kenneth Burke. the chapter and verse(s). Print. followed by an abbreviation of the book. you would write the entry as follows: Duncan. put the name of the author (last name. (See Citing the Bible on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page. 2006. Senate. If the pamphlet you are citing has no author. Berkeley: U of California P. Print.) The New Jerusalem Bible. committees. followed by the agency (including any subdivisions or agencies) that serves as the organizational author. Print. Introduction. Cong. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. Other Print/Book Sources Certain book sources are handled in a special way by MLA style. which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page. If your pamphlet has an author or a corporate author. Print. Government Accountability Office. (See also Books by a Corporate Author or Organization above. . US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office. A Pamphlet Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. New York: Doubleday. 3rd ed. which MLA abbreviates as GPO. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Pamphlets and promotional materials commonly feature corporate authors (commissions.. start with the name of the national government. 2006. cite as directed below. or other groups that does not provide individual group member names). Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible.

endnotes/footnotes.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Diss. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. 7th edition (sec. Sacramento. Ann Arbor: UMI. Print. newspapers. italicize the title and include the publication date. magazines. If the work is not published. Karen Lynn. and the Works Cited page. 5. This resource. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Ohio University. 2005. Allen Brizee. Feminism. For more information on citing periodicals. or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Russell Keck. AAT 3191701.5. 3rd edition (sec. You may also include the University Microfilms International (UMI) order number if you choose: Bishop.Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs. 2002. Stolley.g. Purdue University. Tarez Samra. Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign. 2006. Karl. Diss. 2007. Jeffrey." Diss. put the title in quotation marks and end with the date the degree was awarded: Graban. but the MLA Style method for citing these materials and the items required for these entries are quite different from MLA book citations. 2002. in-text citations. MLA Works Cited: Periodicals Periodicals (e. Print. 2006. 136-48). Elizabeth Angeli. of Social Services. (or MA/MS thesis) followed by the degree-granting school and the year the degree was awarded. Print. Purdue University. 174-85). Cite the work as you would a book. "Toward a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory. CA: California Dept. Article in a Magazine . Dissertations and Master's Theses Dissertations and master's theses may be used as sources whether published or not. consult ―Citing Periodical Print Publications‖ in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Contributors:Tony Russell. but include the designation Diss. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. and scholarly journals) that appear in print require the same medium of publication designator—Print—as books." MA thesis. 2004. "Towards a Feminine Ironic: Understanding Irony in the Oppositional Discourse of Women from the Early Modern and Modern Periods. Print. If the dissertation is published. and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership.). Ecology. Bile. Ann Arbor: UMI. 6.4. Purdue University. Print.

and short stories). Trembacki. of" for Review of and provide the title of the work (in italics for books. Choice Apr. of Radiant City. James. Medium of publication." Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette. Dana. Print. K. Medium of publication. Paul. identify the edition following the date (e. 2000: 20." Post and Courier [Charleston. "Presidential Hopefuls Get Final Crack at Core of S. Weiller. "A Special Education. of Sport. 17 May 1987.g. Print.). 2007: A11. 2006: 143-48. An Editorial & Letter to the Editor . Article in a Newspaper Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article. If the newspaper is a less well-known or local publication. Print. Robert. SC] 29 Apr." Good Housekeeping Mar. Democrats. by Author/Director/Artist." New York Times 21 May 2007 late ed. ed.Cite by listing the article's author. Print." Time 20 Nov. and Gender: Historical Perspectives and Media Representations. putting the title of the article in quotations marks. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients. Finally. Krugman. plays. Rhetoric. H. "Brees Hopes to Win Heisman for Team. dir. Andrew. Behre. 2007: 1377. New York Times 30 May 2007 late ed. Poniewozik. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call. and italicizing the periodical title. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs. A Review To cite a review.. "Title of Article. Bill. of Performance Title. Gary Burns and Jim Brown. in quotation marks for articles. provide performance and/or publication information. Print. late ed. Rev. then the abbreviation "Rev." Rev. but note the different pagination in a newspaper. The basic format is as follows: Author(s).: E1. Linda K. "Fear of Eating." Rev. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper). Title of Periodical day month year: page. 2000: 70-71. Print. Follow with the date of publication. and films. "Title of Review (if there is one). Fuller.C. Review Author. Seitz. IN] 5 Dec. include the city name and state in brackets after the title of the newspaper. If You Can Really Call It Living. Print."Washington Post 24 May 2007: LZ01. Brubaker." Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. include the title of the review (if available). Buchman.: A1. Matt Zoller. poems. Print. Remember to abbreviate the month.

issue of Journal of Contemporary History 2. but include the designators "Editorial" or "Letter" to identify the type of work it is.‖ Literature and Society." Arizona Quarterly 50. and finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical." The Economist 26 May 2007: 82. Hamer. Print. followed by the rest of the information required for a standard scholarly journal citation. Anthony. "Business: Global Warming's Boom Town.1 (1996): 41-50. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th edition (2009) eliminates this step. 2006/Jan. 2007: 7. . Duvall." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature15. Add the descriptor ―Spec. Letter. Print. An Article in a Special Issue of a Scholarly Journal When an article appears in a special issue of a journal. 24 Oct. Tourism in Greenland. Print. Wall Street Journal east." Title of Journal Volume. cite the name of the special issue in the entry’s title space. Anonymous Articles Cite the article title first. and end with a period. issue of‖ and include the name of the journal.Issue (Year): pages." Editorial. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise. Bagchi. 2003: A14. Print. Medium of publication.3 (1994): 127-53. An Article in a Scholarly Journal In previous years. Always provide issue numbers. "Aging. ed. American Journalism Review Dec. Spec. ―Politics in the Novels of Graham Greene. Women Expect to Care for Aging Parents but Seldom Prepare. MLA required that researchers determine whether or not a scholarly journal employed continuous pagination (page numbers began at page one in the first issue of the years and page numbers took up where they left off in subsequent ones) or noncontinuous pagination (page numbers begin at page one in every subsequent issue) in order to determine whether or not to include issue numbers in bibliographic entries. Alaknanda. Print. John N. "Title of Article. in italics. Web entries should follow a similar format.Cite as you would any article in a periodical. when available. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu. also in italics.2 (1967): 93-99. "Of Mines and Men. Author(s). Print. Burgess."Women's Health Weekly 10 May 2007: 18. Print. John.

―Eve's Apple.g. Poetics. MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications) MLA lists electronic sources as Web Publications. in-text citations. 10 Feb.).‖Technocriticism and Hypernarrative. .p. ‹http://classics. list the medium as Web. you might use the Bookmark function in your Web browser in order to return to documents more easily. Use n. better. Contributors:Tony Russell. Most Web browsers will include URL/electronic address information when you print. MLA explains that most readers can find electronic sources via title or author searches in Internet Search Engines. Use n. Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in MLA citations. Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources If publishing information is unavailable for entries that require publication information such as publisher (or sponsor) names and publishing dates..3 (1997): 631-650. when including the medium of publication for electronic sources. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information. to keep your own copies for future reference. MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. Web Atomic and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Aristotle.. H.mit. when possible. which makes later reference easy. This resource. Trans. MLA requires the use of special abbreviations to indicate that this information is not available. to indicate that neither a publisher nor a sponsor name has been provided. Web. 13 Sept. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. It is good practice to print or save Web pages or. Thus.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. and the Works Cited page. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. endnotes/footnotes. Elizabeth Angeli.Case. Spec. Web. Sue-Ellen. or Women's Narrative Bytes. they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the Web (e. Because Web addresses are not static (i.d. The Internet Classics Archive. 4 Nov. when the Web page does not provide a publication date. Break URLs only after slashes. For instructors or editors who still wish to require the use of URLs.e.edu/›. 2008. 2007. S. Also. Russell Keck. Butcher. using a program like Adobe Acrobat. on multiple databases). issue of Modern Fiction Studies 43. Allen Brizee. 2010.

or issue numbers. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Purdue U. The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. Not every Web page will provide all of the following information. 2008. Dino. like domain names [e. Date you accessed the material. posting dates. including revisions.g.com or . Publisher information. 2003. author. for example. collect as much of the following information as possible both for your citations and for your research notes:          Author and/or editor names (if available) Article name in quotation marks (if applicable) Title of the Website. if no publishing date is given. Course or Department Websites Give the instructor name. Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases) Here are some common features you should try and find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. 10 May 2006. Web. 23 Apr. Version number. 2008. use the abbreviation n. Be sure to include the complete address for the site. URL (if required.d. Date of access. Citing an Entire Web Site It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated. if no publishing date is given. date of resource creation (if available).net]. Editor. . The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). They may. Name of Site. or book in italics. include the additional information or otherwise modified information. However.) Any version numbers available. Take note of any page numbers (if available). or compiler name (if available).d. (Remember that some Print publications have Web publications with slightly different names. Medium of publication. following the course title. project. Remember to use n. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. volumes. and information available on one date may no longer be available later. 28 Nov. Felluga. Medium of publication.When an entry requires that you provide a page but no pages are provided in the source (as in the case of an online-only scholarly journal or a work that appears in an online-only anthology). pag. Web.p. . including the publisher name and publishing date. if no publisher name is available and n. or for your own personal reference). Remember to use n. Give appropriate department and school names as well.

American Greetings. the institution and city where the work is housed. An Article in a Web Magazine Provide the author name. Web.com. medium of publication. Dino. title of the Web magazine in italics. Web. 16 Aug. and the date of access. publisher name. 14 May 2009. the title of the work. the medium of publication. 31 May 2007. English Department. brandychloe.d. If the work is posted via a username. Web. use that username for the author. An Image (Including a Painting. Klee. Madrid. 24 Feb. all volume and issue numbers. publication date. Remember to use n. Mark. Paul. Aug. article name in quotation marks. and then follow the citation format for a website. The Family of Charles IV.p. 1800. if no publisher name is available and n. Web. provide the author(s) name(s).. Survey of the Literature of England. n. 2009. eHow. 20 Apr. 2002. Francisco. then provide the name of the artist. the date of creation. Museo Nacional del Prado. Webshots. New York. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. A Page on a Web Site For an individual page on a Web site. Remember to use n.Felluga. Twittering Machine. 2009. Purdue U. the title of the publication in italics. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics. if not publishing date is given. 2009. 5 Nov. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili. the name of the article in quotation marks. 1922. if no publishing date is given. Web." eHow. or Photograph) Provide the artist's name. 2006. and the date of access. Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal . list the author or alias if known. Museo National del Prado. If the work is cited on the web only. Museum of Modern Art. Bernstein. 22 May 2006. A List Apart Mag.The Artchive. and the year of publication. Goya. Purdue U." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites.p. followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites. Web. the medium of the work.d. An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal For all online scholarly journals. "Great Horned Owl Family. if no publisher name is available and n. Sculpture. Web.d." Photograph. 22 May 2006. the work of art italicized. 22 May 2006. 4 May 2009.

"Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. E-mail. ―Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England. provide the title of the database italicized. the publisher. Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print. "Re: Modernist Literature. 2009. 20 May 2009. Dolby. be sure to consult the appropriate sections of the Works Cited: Periodicals page. 2005: 642-44. David. E-mail (including E-mail Interviews) Give the author of the message. Claire. ProQuest. the Web site name in italics. JSTOR. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers. Neyhart. An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service) Cite articles from online databases (e. and the . or Blog Posting Cite Web postings as you would a standard Web entry. Wolfgang. the title of the posting in quotation marks. Nadine. Discussion Group." Emerging Infectious Diseases6. 2000. Andrew. Web) and the date of access. Kunka. Web. to denote that there is no pagination for the publication. ―Nature's Rotary Electromotors. pag.1 (2007): 173-96. which you can access via its link at the bottom of this page. 2000. use the abbreviation n.‖Historical Journal 50.‖ Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal 6. and the medium of publication. Wheelis. 8 Feb.g.2 (2008): n. Web. Web. 1 Dec. E-mail. LexisNexis. the date the message was sent. the medium of publication. Junge.‖Science 29 Apr. A Listserv. ScienceDirect) and other subscription services just as you would print sources. Provide the author of the work. ProQuest. Provide the medium of publication that you used (in this case. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i. including the page range of the article. and the date of access. 2009.MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. pag." Message to Joe Barbato. Web. Science Online. 5 Mar. ―Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions. followed by the subject line in quotation marks. 15 Nov. This information is no longer required by MLA. 27 May 2009.6 (2000): 595-600. Note: Previous editions of the MLA Style Manual required information about the subscribing institution (name and location). and Nathan Nelson. Mark.e. State to whom to message was sent." Message to the author. Since these articles usually come from periodicals. "Re: Online Tutoring. Langhamer. In addition to this information.

Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.). 2009. Allen Brizee. MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources Several sources have multiple means for citation. author. DVDs. use the abbreviation n. This resource. ―Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Personal Interviews Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. videocassettes. The following section groups these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print.p. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Pete.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. place the author’s name in brackets. BoardGameGeek. An Interview Interviews typically fall into two categories: print or broadcast published and unpublished (personal) interviews. and the Works Cited page.posting date. Russell Keck. Published Interviews (Print or Broadcast) List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Web. 2008. similar formats such as in email format or as a Web document. 1 Dec. published and unpublished conference proceedings. although interviews may also appear in other. If the name of the interview is part of a larger work like a book. Medium of publication. a television program. screen name. Date of access. 5 Apr. Contributors:Tony Russell. If both names are known. Personal interview.‖Name of Site. endnotes/footnotes. Remember if the publisher of the site is unknown. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). 29 Sept. Purdue. Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. Max Number of Rooms?‖ BoardGameGeek. published and unpublished interviews. 2000. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. interviews over email. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Follow with the medium of publication and the date of access. Editor. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. especially those that appear in varied formats: films. Elizabeth Angeli. place the title of the interview . or compiler name (if available). ―Posting Title. periodical. or a film series. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. and electronic sources sections. Version number (if available). in-text citations.

add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name. The medium of publication is Print. give the publisher name (or sponsor). If the interview has a title. By Dale Salwak. Web. Conference Presentation). Kingsley.p. For books. italicize it. Place the title of the larger work in italics. Interview with Charles Bock. and the date. West Lafayette. if the publisher is not known.3 (1999): 129-50.in quotation marks. Bob. 1984. Determine the medium of publication (e. the medium of publication (Web). add this information after the published proceedings title. If the interview appears as an independent title. Remember that if no publisher name is give. .. Guest Lecture. IN. 15 Mar. Purdue University. Address. Mississippi Review 27. Keynote Address. Reading. Skewed & Reviewed. print. and the date of access. Gaitskill. Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title. Lectures. Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title. Amis.p. Union Club Hotel. if the date is not known. 2009.g. Print.d. Use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation (e. or Other Oral Presentations (including Conference Presentations) Provide the speaker’s name. CA: Borgo. Follow with the name of the meeting and organization. if the publisher is not known. the location of the occasion. Craig. San Bernardino. Print. Place the name of the Website in italics. Keynote Speech. Zinkievich. Then. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach.g. use n. DVD) and fill in the rest of the entry with the information required by that medium. If the date and location of the conference are not part of the published title. if the date is not known.‖ Interviews with Britain’s Angry Young Men. Published Conference Proceedings Cite published conference proceedings like a book. ―Mimic and Moralist. add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name.p. Online-only Published Interviews List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Web. include the author or editor name after the book title. You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper. You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper. Remember to use the abbreviation n. Lecture. insert the abbreviation n. Skewed & Reviewed.. Stein. place it in quotation marks. 23 May 2003. the publication date. Speeches. Computers and Writing Conference. Cite the remainder of the entry as you would other exclusive Web content. 2009. Remember to use the abbreviation n. use n. give the title of the speech (if any) in quotation marks.d. Mary.

cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace. To cite a DVD or other video recording. 939. Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location. If relevant.d. begin the citation with the name of the desired performer or director. consult ―An Image (Including a Painting. Conference Date. Perf. Place of publication: Publisher. including page or reference numbers (plate. or Photograph Include the artist's name. to head the list. Film. Bryan Singer. 1995. FirstName. FirstName. 1800. If the date of composition is unknown. Place the name of the presentation in quotation marks. Madrid. 10th ed. Conference Title that Does Not Include Conference Date and Location. Print. begin with the presenter’s name. place the abbreviation n. figure. Provide the date of composition. Sculpture. Museo del Prado. images of artwork in a book). The Family of Charles IV. Date of Publication. Use the abbreviation perf. Print. Sculpture. list performer names after the director’s name. Goya. Polygram. and the release year. 1800. Finally. Kleiner.).g. and Benecio del Toro. Tansey and Fred S. ―Conference Paper Title. Gabriel Byrne. Date of Publication. followed by the appropriate abbreviation. A Painting. The Usual Suspects. The Family of Charles IV. see ―Recorded Films and Movies‖ below. FirstName. Conference Location. Museo del Prado. LastName. Conference Editor(s). or Photograph)‖ by following the link Works Cited: Electronic Sources at the bottom of this page. . Goya.). Francisco. Stephen Baldwin. Print.‖ Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location. Dir. Films or Movies List films (in theaters or not yet on DVD or video) by their title. For photographic reproductions of artwork (e. Francisco. Madrid. Chazz Palminteri. Ed. Follow with publication information for the conference proceedings. By Richard G. To cite a presentation from a published conference proceedings. provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution. ed. Give the title of the artwork in italics. Place of publication: Publisher.LastName. LastName. List film as the medium of publication. Print. the film studio or distributor. For artwork in an online format. Kevin Spacey. Date of Publication. Gardener's Art Through the Ages. etc. ed. Place of publication: Publisher. in place of the date. Include the name of the director. To emphasize specific performers (perf.) or directors (dir.

g. 19 Jul. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. Also include the network name. Provide the name of the series or program in italics." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season. the show Friends is in DVD release under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season). Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date (or n. "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry. perf. list the title that would be help researchers locate the recording. when needed.. Videocassette) Cite recorded television episodes like films (see above). . dir. George. Touchstone. Sound Recordings List sound recordings in such a way that they can easily be found by readers. They might also be listed by composers (comp.) or performers (perf. Otherwise. 1977. Twentieth Century Fox. Give the distributor name followed by the date of distribution.. Johnny Depp. Album names are italicized. Laser disc). performers. Television.g. call letters of the station followed by the city. Broadcast Television or Radio Program Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks. Use the abbreviation perf. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Begin with the episode name in quotation marks. 1994. DVD.Lucas. Recorded Films or Movies List films by their title.). Dir. Warner Brothers. Atlanta. For MP3 recordings. Ed Wood. Use appropriate abbreviations for these contributors (e. Include the name of the director.. End the entry with the appropriate medium of publication (e. When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series (e. CD. Writ. End with the medium of publication (e. Sarah Jessica Parker. 2004.g. Kevin Bright. citations begin with the artist name. prod. writ. if date is unknown). DVD. "The Blessing Way. Dir.. writers. End with the publication medium (e. Use the appropriate abbreviation after the person’s name and a comma. Audiocassette). Tim Burton. Radio). Perf. list composer and performer information after the album title. and the release year. list performer names after the director’s name. Recorded Television Episodes (e. dir. DVD. Patricia Arquette. Videocassette.g. Television." The X-Files. DVD. Follow with the series name in italics. Film. List the appropriate medium at the end of the entry (e. 1998. WXIA.g. For television episodes on Videocassette or DVD refer to the ―Recorded Television Episodes‖ section below.. to head the list.g. see the ―Digital Files‖ section below. Laser disc).d. Fox. If relevant. Generally. Martin Landau.). Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen. VHS.g. DVD. LP. the distributor. Note: The writer may choose to include information about directors. producers between the title and the distributor name. and the date of broadcast.

or other campus resources for help.Note: If you know and desire to list the recording date. 2006. Perf. RCA. NBC Symphony Orchestra. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Moonlight Sonata. MLA Additional Resources It's always best to consult the current MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for any MLA question. MP3s. Geffen." Nevermind. Cond. If you are using MLA style for a class assignment. Crownstar.) and list the recording date (dd mm year format) before the manufacturer name. This resource. endnotes/footnotes. Smith. 1991. image. and the medium of publication. JPEGs) Determine the type of work to cite (e. Hedberg. sound recording) and cite appropriately.. Microsoft Word file. ―Yorkshire and the Novelist.‖ 2005. 2005. Ludwig van. Allen Brizee. JPEG file. Strategic Grill Locations. Phyllis. Use the abbreviation for ―recorded‖ (Rec. TA. give the author’s name. and the Works Cited page. advisor. Microsoft Word file. Nirvana. Elizabeth Angeli. Beethoven. Comedy Central. Beethoven. Mitch. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.g. PDF file. the name of the work. If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation. CD.g. article. the date of creation. Use Digital filewhen the medium cannot be determined. Ludwig van. Audiocassette.). Bentley. in-text citations. Contributors:Tony Russell. JSTOR. The 9 Symphonies. Foo Fighters. 2003. End the entry with the name of the digital format (e. They're the ones who can tell you how the style should apply in your particular case. 2003. . it's also a good idea to consult your professor. Digital Files (PDFs. Spoken-Word Albums Treat spoken-word albums the same as musical albums. CD. include this information before the manufacturer name.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Russell Keck. ―Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace. CD. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. "Smells Like Teen Spirit. PDF. MP3. In Your Honor. Arturo Toscanini. RCA..‖ The Kenyon Review 30.4 (1968): 50922. George. MP3).

James. and the Works Cited page. Print Resources from the Modern Language Association MLA Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. where the period should come before the abbreviation: assn. .gov (URL suffixes) Note: Degree names are a notable exception to the lowercase abbreviation rule. R. in-text citations. . Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. CD. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Elizabeth Angeli. unless referring to an internet suffix.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. though there are always exceptions to these rules. except in the case of proper names: US.edu. 7th Edition (ISBN-13: 978-1-60329-024-1) Contributors:Tony Russell. This guide provides only a very small portion of the abbreviations suggested by MLA. Uppercase Letter Abbreviations Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations composed solely of capital letters.com. Tolkien. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. HTML P.. contact the Writing Lab for help at (765) 494-3723 or email us at this form. For a complete list of common abbreviations used in academic writing. Eng.For extraordinary questions that aren't covered clearly in the style manual or haven't been answered by your teacher or advisor. MA. B. Allen Brizee. . D. R. White Lowercase Letter Abbreviations Use a period if the abbreviation ends in a lower case letter.. E.). . Each section cross-references the appropriate sections and page numbers of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers and theMLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. J. 3rd Edition (ISBN-13: 978-0-87352-297-7) MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. conf. see Chapter 7 of theMLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. and Chapter 8 of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. endnotes/footnotes. esp. 3rd edition.. MLA Abbreviations There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using MLA. 7th edition. This resource. Russell Keck.

or Section 8. Month names longer than four letters used in journal and magazine citations: Jan. Sherbrooke. Time Designations (235) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. i. e.m. UT. Sept. Abbreviations in Citations Condense citations as much as possible using abbreviations. PsyD Use periods between letters without spacing if each letter represents a word in common lower case abbreviations: a. Manchester.2. Geographic Names (236-40) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. Time Designations Remember to follow common trends in abbreviating time and location within citations.PhD. and state names. for anonymous C. Time Designations (262-63) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 7th edition.. or ca. QC For more information on time designations.and lowercase letter abbreviation designations.2. os.1. Geographic Names Geographic names of states and countries in book citations when the publisher's city is not well known or could be confused with another city. ns For more on upper. or Section 8. 7th edition. Geographic Names (264-69) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.1... EdD. rpm. province. for circa .e. Introduction (261-62) of theMLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.g. Logan. see Section 7. 3rd edition. see Section 7.3... Eng. 7th edition. Scholarly Abbreviations List common scholarly abbreviations as they appear below:   Anon. 3rd edition. or Section 8. Introduction (234) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. For more information on time designations. 3rd edition. see Section 7. Nov. Other notable exceptions: mph.3. Abbreviate country.

4. . ERIC.3. for Educ. Inc. Assn. Cambridge UP or U of Chicago P) Here is a short list of publisher abbreviations that you might use. 7th edition. for compiler Fwd. (Academy for Educational Development. Press.3. MLA suggests a few rules for you to follow when abbreviating publishers:      Omit articles. business abbreviations (like Corp.g.g. or Section 8.4. or Inc. for foreword Jour. Brown and Company. for series Var. for variant Writ.g.) Harper (Harper and Row.g. & HarperCollins Publishers. for written by or writer For more information on scholarly abbreviations. Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words (269-82) of theMLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Publishers’ Names (247-49) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. or Soc. 3rd edition. or sect. Publishers’ Names (282-85) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.g.         Acad. 3rd edition. House) Cite only the last name of a publisher with the name of one person (e. Inc. and descriptive words (e. for library Sec. 7th edition. or Section 8. Inc. GPO) Use only U and P when referring to university presses (e.g. McGraw for McGraw-Hill) Use standard abbreviations when possible (e. Dev. Publisher Names Shorten publisher's names as much as possible in book citations.        Comp. W. Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words (240-47) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. Publishers. Consult Chapter 7 of the MLA Handbook for a more complete list. MLA. Inc.) MIT P (The MIT Press) NCTE (The National Council of Teachers of English) SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series) UMI (University Microfilms International) For more information on publisher names.) Little (Little. Inc. Many publishers can be identified by only acronyms or a shortened version of their names. see Section 7. Norton for W. Publishers.). for journal Lib. Norton) and only the last name of the first listed for a publisher with multiple names (e. see Section 7. for section Ser.) Gale (Gale Research. You only need to provide your readers with enough information for them to identify the publisher.) Use the acronym of the publisher if the company is commonly know by that abbreviation (e.

Sun-Times News Group. 24 May 2009. Print Nordhaus. "Global Warming Economics. Marcel. Cooler Heads Coalition. Web. Web. 2006. 25 May 2009. Gowdy. An Inconvenient Truth.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. MLA Sample Works Cited Page This handout provides an example of a Works Cited page in MLA 2009 format.4 (2006): 63. 24 May 2009. Web. Roger. William D. .2 (2006): 31-34. and Daniel Kahneman. Clinton. 24 May 2009. Leroux.). endnotes/footnotes.‖New York Times. dir. 8 May 2007. Allen Brizee. in-text citations. of An Inconvenient Truth. Billy West." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 14. Al Gore. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. 25 May 2009. ―Clinton on Climate Change. Bill. New York: Springer. Myron Scholes. Russell Keck. Web. Rogerebert. and the Works Cited page. Environmental Defense Fund. Revkin." New York Times." Environmental Defense Fund." Science 9 Nov. "An Inconvenient Truth. 24 May 2009. New York Times. Gary Becker. Web.org. 22 May 2007. 2001: 1283-84. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Interview by Andrew C. Milken.1 (2007): 27-36. Michael. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming. Ebert. Dean. Web. Science Online. Elizabeth Angeli.com. Print. Davis Guggenheim.Contributors:Tony Russell. 2007. Cornelia. ---. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability. GlobalWarming. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. Works Cited "Blueprint Lays Out Clear Path for Climate Action. "On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances. Davis Guggenheim. DVD." American Economic Review 96. Paramount. 2 June 2006. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet. 2005. John. May 2007. Dir." Rev. Print." New Perspectives Quarterly23. This resource. Perf. Print. New York Times.

Allen Brizee. US News & World Rept. This resource. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Determine what types of illustrations best suit your purpose. select the MLA 2009 Sample Paper PDF file in the Media box above. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.com. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.).Shulte. Elizabeth Angeli. endnotes/footnotes.). MLA Sample Paper This resource contains two sample MLA papers that adhere to the 2009 updates. and the Works Cited page. in-text citations. Often pixilation and distortion occurs when . 2003. 24 May 2009. and Examples The purpose of visual materials or other illustrations is to enhance the audience's understanding of information in the document and/or awareness of a topic. Russell Keck. Allen Brizee. Gather the source information required for MLA Documentation for the source medium of the illustration (e. Economic Theory and Global Warming. Bret.g. in-text citations. or. Use illustrations of the best quality. podcast). Hirofumi. Russell Keck. endnotes/footnotes. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. "Putting a Price on Pollution. Contributors:Tony Russell. how it contributes to the purpose of the document and the reader's understanding. This resource.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. and the Works Cited page.. Contributors:Tony Russell. Writers can embed several types of visuals using the most basic word processing software: diagrams.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. musical scores. audio/video applications. Figures. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Avoid blurry. Print. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. pixilated.Consider the purpose of each illustration. Uzawa. General Guidelines    Collect sources. To download the MLA sample paper. 6 May 2007. photographs. MLA Tables. web. for documents that will be read electronically." Usnews. or distorted images for both print and electronic documents. and whether or not the audience will be able to view and/or understand the illustration easily. Web. Elizabeth Angeli. print.

These entries appear much like standard MLA bibliographic entries with a few exceptions:     Author names are in First_Name Last_Name format. Reproduce distorted graphs. Keep images in their original sizes or use photo editing software to modify them. see Note on Manuscripts below. a caption and/or source information. Captions provide titles or explanatory notes. while illustrations enhance. a label.    The illustration label and number should always appear in two places: the document main text (e. but be sure to include all source information.) The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th edition states that if the table or illustration caption provides complete citation information about the source and the source is not cited in the text.  writers manipulate image sizes. (For preparing manuscripts with visual materials for publication. MLA lists sources in note form. 1) and near the illustration itself (Fig. Labels. or diagrams with spreadsheet or publishing software. Illustrations cannot carry the entire weight of the document. (See examples below. Examples . instructors often do not count the space taken up by visual aids toward the required page length of the document. If you provide source information with all of your illustrations. Remember that texts explain. Note: Use semicolons to denote entry sections when long series of commas make these sections difficult to ascertain as being like or separate. authors do not need to list the source in the Works Cited list.Documenting Source Information in "Note Form" Book . In the case of student papers. and Source Information Illustrations appear directly embedded in the document. appreciation for the subject. Use illustrations sparingly. Source Information and Note Form For source information. and/or illustration of the main points. Source information documentation will always depend upon the medium of the source illustration. 1). Do not provide illustrations for illustrations' sake. Do not use illustrations to boost page length. Scrutinize illustrations for how potentially informative or persuasive they can be. except in the case of manuscripts that being prepared for publication. a number. Commas are substituted for periods (except in the case of the period that ends the entry). see fig. Captions. Decide what items can best improve the document's ability to augment readers' understanding of the information. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page.) Each illustration must include. year) appears in parentheses.g. Always represent the original source information faithfully and avoid unethical practices of false representation or manipulation. tables. Relevant page numbers follow the publication information. Publication information for books (location: publisher.

one-inch margins). provide a corresponding lowercase letter (not in superscript). then provide the correct MLA bibliographic information for the source in note form (see instructions and examples above). If additional caption information or explanatory notes is necessary. and notes are double-spaced. Dept. Print. 2008) also necessitates the semicolons. a space. 5 Feb. of Commerce. Mining. captions. flush-left. provide a caption for the table. figures. Census Bureau. Tables          Refer to the table and its corresponding numeral in-text. US Dept. making sure to maintain basic MLA style formatting (e. Mining. In this example. Below the source information. "(see table 2)"). use lowercase letters formatted in superscript in the caption information or table. the commas in Manufacturing.Tom Shachtman. Label the table Table and provide its corresponding Arabic numeral. Housing Units Authorized by Building Permits. Labels. No punctuation is necessary after the label and number (see example below). Figures. MLA Documentation for Tables. Mining. This is typically done in parentheses (e. of Commerce. On the next line. their inclusion here (US Dept. and Census Bureau would have necessitated the use of a semicolon before and after the title and between ensuing sections to the end of the entry. Below the title. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. Align the table flush-left to the margin. most often the table title. and Examples MLA provides three designations for document illustrations: tables. Website (using semicolons to group like information together) United States. Manufacturing. the publisher and date in a standard entry are separated by a comma and belong together. and the note.g. and Construction Statistics had not appeared in the entry. and examples (see specific sections below). 5 Feb. Dept. Situate the table near the text to which it relates. Even if Manufacturing. 1999) 35. If you provide source information with your illustrations. and Construction Statistics. indent. the multiple "author names" ofUnited States. Table Example . and Construction Statistics prompt the need for semicolons in order for the series information to be read easily. followed by a colon. 2008. Place the table below the caption. Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 23 Dec. of Commerce. 2008. Use standard capitalization rules.g. Use a hanging indent for lines after the first. Furthermore. of Commerce. thus. signal the source information with the descriptorSource. Web. table 1a. Do not capitalize the word table.

1999a Image Caption: Example Table Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. table 35A.500 (see table 1). 1985. Note: Rates for 65 and over category are age-adjusted using the 2000 standard population. a. 1995.700 less women of that age group were enrolled in 1999.In-text reference: In 1985.000 to 39. men over the same time period ranged from 30. and though 11. population figures are adjusted for net underenumeration using the 1990 . Mar. 1997.000 persons while women accounted for 49. Beginning in 1997. women aged 65 and older were 59% more likely than men of the same of age to reside in a nursing home. Older Americans 2008: Key Indicators of Well-Being. Web.00 to 61. 2008. By Sex and Age Group. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. Table reference: Table 1 Rate of Nursing Home Residence Among People Age 65 or Older.

thus. portions of a musical score). provide . Type these placeholders on their own line. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. 27 Dec. one-inch margins). Figures      All visuals/illustrations that are not tables or musical score examples (e. Do not capitalize figure or fig.. making sure to maintain basic MLA Style formatting (e. Beginning with the same line as the label and number. [table 1]). Fig. diagrams.) are labeledFigure or Fig. 2008. Put placeholders in the text to show where the illustrations will go. MLA does not specify alignment requirements for figures. Example is often abbreviated Ex. podcasts. provide a label name and its corresponding arabic numeral (no bold or italics).g. for example. maps. At the end of the document.g. Below the figure. Census Bureau. provide the label (capitalized Example or Ex. are capitalized. If you provide source information with your illustrations. the podcast. provide a title and/or caption as well as relevant source information in note form (see instructions and examples above).National Population Adjustment Matrix from the U. MuggleCast. Note on Manuscripts Do not embed illustrations (tables.g. Figures Example In-text reference: Some readers found Harry’s final battle with Voldemort a disappointment. Figure caption (below an embedded podcast file for a document to be viewed electronically): Fig. 1. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. Refer to the example in-text and provide an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the example. Do not capitalize example or ex.S.). Below the example. of what part of the score is being illustrated. 2. videos. or examples) in manuscripts for publication. People residing in personal care or domiciliary care homes are excluded from the numerator. and bracketed (e.g. flush left. Harry Potter and Voldemort final battle debate from Andrew Sims et al.g. Web. ―Show 166‖. 2). etc. The caption or title will often take the form of source information along with an explanation. one-inch margins). and recently. followed by a period (e. these images may be embedded as the reader sees fit.com. continue to follow basic MLA Style formatting (e.) and number and a caption or title. Refer to the figure in-text and provide an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the figure. Examples     The descriptor Example only refers to musical illustrations (e. Supply the illustration. charts. figures.g. However.Figure and Fig. 19 Dec. MuggleCast debated the subject (see fig. MuggleNet. 2008. If you provide source information with your illustrations. Here.

as a print-quality resource (120 dpi). in-text citations. Please keep in mind that the file size. Allen Brizee. This resource.). Elizabeth Angeli.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Allen Brizee. Russell Keck. Russell Keck. MLA Classroom Poster The MLA poster at the link below is a printable jpg file you may download and print out at different sizes for use in classrooms. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. number. is large. writing centers.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. in-text citations. If you provide source information with your illustrations. endnotes/footnotes. Elizabeth Angeli. or as a pocket reference. and the Works Cited page. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. caption. This resource.). endnotes/footnotes. Elizabeth Angeli. in-text citations. and the Works Cited page.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Select the Undergraduate MLA 2009 Sample Paper PDF file in the Media box above. Contributors:Tony Russell. and source information in an organized list. MLA PowerPoint Presentation Select the MLA PowerPoint Presentation link in the Media box above to download slides that provide a detailed review of the MLA citation style. This resource. Russell Keck. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. Contributors:Tony Russell. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Contributors:Tony Russell. endnotes/footnotes. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. so it may take a while to .label.). Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. MLA Undergraduate Sample Paper This resource contains an undergraduate sample MLA paper that adheres to the 2009 updates. and the Works Cited page. Allen Brizee. Send files for illustrations in the appropriate format to your editor separately.

broadcast. please see the complete OWL MLA resources here. The Purdue OWL cannot grant requests to print and mail posters. rewritten. contact a local print shop to print the poster.download. . Purdue OWL MLA Classroom Poster (Please note: The poster is best viewed in Firefox.) Copyright ©1995-2011 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. please use the resources we have available here for printing on standard 8. English 490. All rights reserved. in spring 2009. or redistributed without permission. You may adjust the print size of the poster from your print menu.Purdue OWL Internship class. The Purdue OWL MLA Classroom Poster was developed by Kate Bouwens for the Purdue Professional Writing . standard printers cannot print the poster." Also please note that the poster only contains basic MLA guidelines. If you do not have access to a print shop to print the poster. the poster is 27 x 36 inches. scroll down to the bottom of the page. This material may not be published. If you do not have access to a printer that can print large documents. and click "Full Resource for Printing. As is. reproduced. Because the poster is quite large. For detailed instructions.5 x 11 inch paper. Go to resource you would like to print.

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