Generic Name Albuterol

Trade Name

Classification Bronchodilator

Dose 2.5 mg Onset

Route NEB Peak

Time/frequency RTQ2HPR Duration

Administration/Handling Nebulization Administer over 5–15 min. Nebulizer should be used with compressed air or O2 at rate of 6–10 L/min.

Reason for Medication: Relief of bronchospasm due to reversible obstructive airway disease, prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm Teaching  Follow guidelines for proper use of inhaler.  Increase fluid intake (decreases lung secretion viscosity).  Do not take more than 2 inhalations at any one time  Rinsing mouth with water immediately after inhalation may prevent mouth/throat dryness.  Avoid excessive use of caffeine derivatives (chocolate, coffee, tea, cola, cocoa). Interactions: DRUG: Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta-blockers) antagonize effects. May increase risk of arrhythmias with digoxin. MAOIs, tricyclic antidepressants may potentiate cardiovascular effects. Thyroid hormones may increase effect, enhance risk of coronary insufficiency in pts with coronary artery disease (CAD). HERBAL: St. John's wort may decrease levels/effects. Ephedra, yohimbe may cause CNS stimulation. FOOD: None known.

Action Stimulates beta2-adrenergic receptors in lungs, resulting in relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle. Therapeutic Effect: Relieves bronchospasm and reduces airway resistance. For IV meds, compatibility with IV drips and/or solutions N/A Contraindications: History of hypersensitivity to sympathomimetics. Cautions: Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus. Side effects Frequent: Headache, restlessness, nervousness, tremors; nausea, dizziness; throat dryness and irritation, pharyngitis, B/P changes, including hypertension; heartburn, transient wheezing. Adverse effects/Toxic Reactions Excessive sympathomimetic stimulation may produce palpitations, extrasystole, tachycardia, chest pain, slight increase in B/P followed by substantial decrease, chills, diaphoresis, blanching of skin. Too-frequent or excessive use may lead to decreased bronchodilating effectiveness and severe, paradoxical bronchoconstriction. Lab value alterations May increase blood glucose level. May decrease serum potassium level.

Baseline Assessment Assess lung sounds, pulse, B/P, color, character of sputum noted. Offer emotional support (high incidence of anxiety due to difficulty in breathing and sympathomimetic response to drug). Reasons to Hold

Evaluation 

Monitor rate, depth, rhythm, type of respiration; quality and rate of pulse; EKG; serum potassium, glucose, ABG determinations. Assess lung sounds for wheezing (bronchoconstriction), rales.

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