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Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting II – Alexander et al (eds) © 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415


Performance of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) with different curing conditions and its retrofitting effects on concrete member
T.P. Chang, B.T. Chen, J.J. Wang & C.S. Wu
Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

ABSTRACT: The material performance of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) with two different curing conditions, water-curing of 25ºC and steam-curing of 85ºC and 95% relative humidity, were studied experimentally. The reinforcing effects of the RPC with two wrapping thicknesses of 10 and 15 mm, respectively, on the surface of cylindrical concrete specimen were evaluated. Major experimental results show both the engineering properties and indices of durability of RPC with steam-curing at four different ages have substantially increased except for the supersonic pulse velocity and dynamic moduli of elasticity and shear. The ratio of increase of compressive strength of cylindrical specimens retrofitted with 10 and 15 mm of wrapping RPC are in the range of 9.5 to 38.0%. 1 INTRODUCTION aggregates of conventional concrete are totally eliminated such that the amounts of fine aggregate, Portland cement and silica fume need to be substantially increased. Because the least costly components of conventional concrete have been replaced by more expensive ingredients and the required addition of steel fiber in order to increase the tensile strength, the cost of RPC is estimated to be 5 to 10 times higher than that of traditional High-Performance Concrete. As a result, a cost-effective application of RPC is used for concrete repair and retrofit (Lee et al. 2007). In this study, the material performance of RPC with two different curing conditions, water-curing of 25ºC and steam-curing of 85ºC and 95% relative humidity were evaluated by comparison on the changes of engineering properties and indices of durability. 2 EXPERIMENTAL PLAN

Reactive powder concrete (RPC), a cement-based composite material well known for the ultra-highstrength, high-durability and low-porosity, made its international debut in 1994 (Richard, 1994). The advance mechanical and physical properties of RPC are obtained by optimizing packing density of concrete mixture with precise gradation of all mix particles, and by using highly refined silica fume to improve the microstructure of hydrated cement pastes through the pozzolanic reaction. To produce a very high compressive strength of RPC, applications of pressure before and during setting and heat-treating after setting are normally required. Compressive strengths of 200 to 800 MPa, moduli of elasticity of 50 to 60 GPa and flexural strength of 6 to 13 MPa have been achieved with RPC (Richard, 1995). On the other hand, maximum compressive strengths for the commonly used normal weight concrete in most concrete structures are in the range of 30 to 60 MPa with the corresponding moduli of elasticity of 14 to 35 GPa (Mindess et al. 2003). Due to advantage of the super material properties, RPC has been applied to many real constructions where the substantial weight savings of structure can be appreciated and where its distinguished features of material property can be fully utilized (Adeline & Cheyrezy 1998, Etinne et al. 2001, Rebentrost & Cavill 2006). In a typical RPC mix proportioning, in order to enhance the homogeneity and optimize the density of concrete granular mixture, the coarse

The experimental plan in this study was composed two major parts. The first part was the evaluation of the variations of material properties of reactive powder concrete (RPC) resulting from two different curing conditions, water-curing of 25ºC and steamcuring of 85ºC and 95% relative humidity. The second part was the evaluation of the reinforcing effects of RPC when it was used as a retrofitting material to cast circumferentially on the surface of the cylindrical normal weight concrete specimen. Such circumferential RPC layer provided a confining effect.


a proper order of mixing the ingredients was used.e.$ kg/m3 1044 *SP = superplasticizer. The slag contained about 64. First.22.97%. = fine aggregate..# kg/m3 592 $ F. Imported straight fiber plated by a thin layer of copper to avoid corrosion was used. respectively.82) were used as the coarse and fine aggregates respectively. Type II Portland cement of the fineness of 314 m2/kg using air permeability test was utilized. Ordinary Type I Portland cement complying with ASTM C 150 was used. each of two latter types of smaller cylindrical specimens was placed into a φ100 × 200 mm steel mold and cast with fresh RPC to form a circumferential layer of thickness of 10 and 15 mm.02 μm with a specific surface area more than 20. respectively.000 m2/kg. either Type II or Type IV Portland cement can be used.2% of SiO2 and 24.65. respectively. Its fineness and specific gravity were 311 m2/kg and 2. blast furnace slag. Water kg/m3 235 # SP* kg/m3 0. respectively.47 and 2.6 is given in Table 1. Ingredient Cement Water Composition of RPC. Amount kg/m3 553 165 41 166 184 Ingredient Silica fume Quartz powder Quarter sand Steel fiber Amount kg/m3 79 184 1227 156 The composition of normal weight concrete (NC) with water-to-cement ratio (W/C) of 0. fly ash.9% of SiO2 and 41.1 Specimen preparation Table 2. φ80 × 200 mm and φ70 × 200 mm. Its diameter and length were 0. i. To obtain a good consistency of fresh RPC.70 was used to activate the reactivity of RPC during the cement hydration under elevated curing temperature.A. Natural crushed gravel (maximum size of 10 mm) and river sand (specific gravity of 2. The NC was used to cast cylindrical concrete specimens with three different diameters. The water and SP were mixed in advance and then added gradually to the dry granular mixture while it was still in a round container stirred by a rotating propeller eccentrically for another 2 to 5 minutes until the cement paste had a proper consistency and flowability. as the retrofitting material.85. Its particle sizes were in the range of 0. and quartz powder were mixed for 3 to 5 minutes with low-speed gear to have a uniform mixture. Finally.6% of SiO2.A.02 μm and a specific gravity of 2. Three types of cylindrical NC specimens: (a) φ100 × 200 mm. The quartz flour having a particle sizes in the range of 2. ASTM C 1240 standard.67 to 5. In practice. F.98 C. In this study. as shown in Figure 1. respectively. Then. in order to reduce the cement hydration heat and increase the capability of sulfate resistance. = coarse aggregate. the loss of ignition (LOI). the fine granular components of RPC in dry state. the specimens were cured in saturated lime water for 28 days. φ100 × 200 mm. respectively. C.17. silica fume. fineness modulus of 2. 98. cement. Cylindrical RPC specimens of φ100 × 200 mm were 200 mm 200 mm 200 mm 1204 .A. the steel fibers were spread into the cement paste and continuously mixed for another 2 to 3 minutes with middle-speed gear to complete the mixing of fresh RPC. reactivity index at 7 days and specific gravity were 0. The mixture of quartz sand was composed of four different sizes of ground quartz particles in the range of 75 to 600 μm. Based on test result by Superplasticizer Fly ash Blast furnace slag Table 1. To maintain a good workability. Imported silica fume was used which contains about 94.A. The fly ash contained about 51. The composition of RPC with a water to cement ratio (W/C) of 0.8% of CaO. Cement kg/m3 392 Composition of normal weight concrete (NC). Its fineness and specific gravity were 800 m2/kg and 2. polycarboxylate based superplasticizer in liquid form was used. (b) φ80 × 200 mm and (c) φ70 × 200 mm.193 used in this study is given in Table 2.2 mm and 16 mm. Cylindrical φ50 × 100 mm paper mold was used to cast the RPC specimens for the test of compressive strength. quartz sand. After demoulding. which forms a major compact skeleton of granular assembly of RPC. Beam specimen of 40 × 40 × 160 mm in a steel mould was used to test the flexural strength.3% of Al2O3. φ 100 mm φ 80 mm φ 70 mm (a) (b) (c ) Figure 1.41 to 15.2.

electrical resistivity. To increase the density of mixture and ultra high strengths of RPC.1 17. 7.1 0. The cylindrical specimens were dried in oven for 24 hours first and then its oven-dried weight was measured denote by WD.9% for the splitting tensile strengths and 19. The splitting tensile strength of RPC specimens was obtained according to ASTM C 469 standard. respectively. A fourelectrode measuring instrument was used to obtain the electrical resistivity of RPC specimens.5 to 17.8% for the flexural strength are also observed. Because the Table 2. water absorption and chloride permeability.4 0.6 18.0 to 23.27 7D 87 13. Both the ratios of increase of 13. wiped out the excessive water on the surface of specimen with cloth and measured its saturated weight denoted as WW.S. the latter was referred to. (a) Third-point-loading method for flexural strength of RPC specimens. an elevated temperature of 250 to 400ºC and a pressure of 50 MPa can be applied simultaneously to the fresh RPC during setting stage (Richard.20 (a) (b) Figure 2. Procedures of ASTM C31.866 to 1. 2. and chloride permeability.5 0. 3D* 84 11.0 19. Two types of indices to evaluate the performance of RPC at ages of 3. In general.7% at four ages. 1994. (2) Durability properties including electrical resistivity. Engineering properties of RPC under watercuring of 25ºC. Then the dried specimens were saturated completely in water for one hour. Two kinds of curing conditions were used afterwards. as shown in Figure 2(a). The ultrasonic pulse velocity of 3 3. The water absorption ratio Ra is simply defined as Ra = WW − WD × 100% WD (1) The chloride permeability test was performed according to ASTM C1202. The curing temperature was also kept at a relatively lower value of 85ºC.22 28D 106 13. The first one was that the RPC specimens were cured in a steaming chamber at a temperature of 85ºC for three days and then submerged in the saturated lime water until the day of testing.also cast for the tests of ultrasonic pulse velocity.4 22. Erudite Resonant Frequency Tester as shown in Figure 2(b). In this study. Properties Compressive strength (MPa) Splitting tensile strength (MPa) Flexural strength (MPa) Dynamic Young’s modulus (GPa) Dynamic shear modulus (GPa) Dynamic Poisson’s ratio *D = day. The dynamic moduli of elasticity and shear and the resulting dynamic Poisson’s ratio were obtained according to ASTM C215 standard tested by a C.1 18.0 46. three days and seven days. dynamic modulus of elasticity and dynamic shear modulus.N.213 MPa. C192 and C617 standards were followed to obtain the compressive strengths of RPC cylindrical specimens. 14 and 28 days were conducted: (1) Engineering properties including the compressive strength. (b) Resonant Frequency Tester. no additional pressure was applied. ultrasonic pulse velocity.9 15.3 18.5 44.3 to 25. they were demoulded.1 0. The results in Tables 1 and 2 indicate that the compressive strengths of RPC specimens cured with the steam increase by ratios of 17. 1995).1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Engineering properties of RPC The engineering properties of RPC under two different curing conditions are shown in Tables 2 and 3. The second one was the RPC specimens were continuously cured in the saturated lime water until the day of testing. After these fresh RPC specimens were cured in laboratory under ambient temperature for 24 hours. 1205 .2 Experimental variables for performance evaluation RPC was obtained according to ASTM C597. one day. In order to keep the strength and modulus of elasticity of RPC at hardened state be as close as possible to those of the base NC solid cylindrical specimens. flexural strength.2 – 45.23 14D 93 13. either the ASTM C642 or BS1881:122 standards can be used for the water absorption test of RPC specimens. splitting tensile strength. The thirdpoint-loading method was used to test the flexural strength with a stress rate of 0. Then the specimens were taken out of water.6 44.

90 – 48.7 to 2.5 0.61 0. Durability properties of RPC under water-curing of 25ºC. ε Figure 4.0 4.Table 3.7 18.96 – 145 4.001 *D = day.002 -0. Both the ratios of decrease of 0. The results in Tables 4 and 5 indicate that the electrical resistivity of RPC specimens cured with the steam increases drastically by ratios of 333. **: dubious test results will be ignored.2 Durability properties of RPC The durability properties of RPC under two different curing conditions are shown in Tables 4 and 5. It is noted that. Typical failure modes of RPC specimen after testing: (a) Compressive test.2 45.5 0.04 to 3. Engineering properties of RPC under steamcuring of 85ºC and 95% relative humidity.0%.0 to 66. Table 4. The strength development for the RPC specimen cured in the water under ambient temperature is apparently much slower.23 14D 115 15.7% imply this test method although is rather simple but seem to properly reflect 1206 .1 – 45.02 528 (a) (b) Figure 3.4% for ultrasonic pulse velocity indicate that this property is not sensitive to the changes of other material with ages.51 0.9 22. fly ash and blast furnace slag in the RPC mixture will be activated energetically by the high temperature and moisture of curing steam. Typical failure modes of RPC specimens from the compressive and splitting tensile tests are shown in Figure 3(a) and (b) respectively.004 -0.0 16.5 19. Properties Electrical resistivity (kΩ-cm) Ultrasonic pulse velocity (km/s) Water absorption ratio (%) Chloride permeability (Coulomb) *D = day.8 22** 45. 3.8 0.69 – 13. Typical stress-strain curve for the RPC specimens.003 0. and Poisson’s ratio are insignificant. (b) Splitting tensile test.001 0.62 1. Properties Compressive strength (MPa) Splitting tensile strength (MPa) Flexural strength (MPa) Dynamic Young’s modulus (GPa) Dynamic shear modulus (GPa) Dynamic Poisson’s ratio 3D* 101 13.2 0. On the other hand.5 41. Typical stress-strain curve for RPC specimen.23 28D 124 15. only in the range of −0. These three measured values are not very sensitive to the changes of other material properties of RPC with the increase of ages.8 to 5485.7% at four ages.5 18. 3D* 7D 14D 28D 7. these failed RPC specimens are still kept together by the steel fibers. unlike the normal weight concrete specimens with the failure modes of either in crushed state or two separated pieces. pozzolanic reaction resulting from the ingredients of silica fume.53 0.21 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 RPC at 7 days Compressive strength (MPa) Tensile strain 0 Compressive strain 0.6 18. the increases of dynamic moduli of elasticity and shear.9 4. The ratios of decrease for water absorption are in range of 49.27 7D 106 14. Such pozzolanic reaction causes a denser microstructure of C-S-H cement hydrate and results in a faster development of strength gain.002 0.9 4.

respectively. 182–189. & Cheyrezy.62 0. A preliminary study of reactive powder concrete as a new repair material. Average Compressive strength* MPa 36. Etienne. In this study.C. respectively. The failure mode will change from the brittle to the ductile. Prentice Hall. Mindess. Using Eq.5 38. M. the experimental ultimate compressive 1207 . Amsterdam. the concept of transformed composite section was used to account for the composite effects on the axial stress due to the additional strengthening of RPC at the circumferential layer. (1). September.52 307 Control set Retrofitted with layer of 10 mm Retrofitted with layer of 15 mm the function of pozzolanic reaction activated by the steam curing.5% (10 mm thickness of layer) to 38. FIP 98.3 Retrofitting effects of RPC Because the addition of steel fibers.20. The Sherbrooke Footbridge: the first RPC structure. Properties 3D* 7D 547 4. Causse.. Paris. the strengthening mechanism for the cylindrical normal weight concrete specimen wrapped and retrofitted by an outer ring layer of RPC ought to be divided into two parts: axial composite effect and circumferential confining effect. Water absorption test is rather simple but seems to be able to provide distinguishable change of material properties resulting from the apparent pozzolanic effects due to steam cuiring.34 – 14D 551 4.5% and 38.0%.0 Electrical resistivity (kΩ-cm) 391 Ultrasonic pulse velocity (km/s) 4. S. Thus. 4 CONCLUSION Major experimental results show that the compressive. M. As a result. These two values are too close to develop a apparent circumferential confining effect. 865–876.Table 5.36 Water absorption ratio (%) 0. the increases of dynamic moduli of elasticity and shear. & Chiu. Increase of compressive strengths of cylindrical normal weight concrete specimen retrofitted by the circumferential RPC layers of different thickness. D.51 −49.F. and Poisson’s ratio are not very sensitive to the changes of other material properties of RPC with the increase of ages. On the other hand. 2007.. n = E R /E N . M. The average compressive stresses were increased from 9. RPC needs to have certain amount of thickness and inherent high stiffness when it is used to retrofit the column-type structural members. 2003. Third International Arch Bridge Conference. and ER and EN are the moduli of elasticity of RPC and NC respectively.. J. Similar trend is also observed for the supersonic pulse velocity of RPC which is also insensitive to curing condition. D.22 and 0. the Poisson’s ratios of RPC and NC are 0. unlike the conventional retrofitting sheet-type material such as Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). Design and building of Seoul Peace Footbridge.59 0. The stress of composite cylindrical specimen at the failure load Pmax is calculated by the following equation: stresses of composite cylindrical specimens encircled with a retrofitting RPC layer of thicknesses of 10 mm and 15 mm.09 39.0% (15 mm thickness of layer). Y. respectively. C. REFERENCES Adeline. 2001. Lee. 3. 1998. Construction and Building Materials 21. 2nd Ed. Concrete.G. & Behloul. Increases of compressive strength of cylindrical specimens retrofitted with 10 and 15 mm of wrapping RPC are 9.. were calculated and shown in Table 6. Durability properties of RPC under of RPC under steam-curing of 85ºC and 95% relative humidity. splitting tensile and flexural strengths of RPC with steam-curing increase substantially. M.46 0. Properties 4. These two good material properties of RPC are the major advantages to consider it to be used as the retrofitting materials. Young. Wang. respectively. & Darwin.23 Chloride permeability (Coulomb) – *D = day.43 – 28D 629 Table 6. σc = Pmax AN + nAR (2) where AN and AR are the cross-sectional areas of NC and RPC. May.80 Ratio of increase % – 9.T. However. R. RPC has a rather high tensile strength and impact resistance compared with the normal weight concrete.

12–15 September. Musya. Cement and Concrete Research. O. 1995. April. Proceeding of the 1st fib Congress. 1208 . 1994. Ootake. Y. P.Rebentrost. M. A.. Richard. & Cavill. M. & Kaneko. M. Reactive powder concretes with high ductility and 200–800 MPa compressive strength. 25(7): 1501–1511. Tanaka. B. ACI Spring Convention. October. Japan. Shimoyam Y.. & Cheyrezy. Perth. P. San Francisco.. Osaka. Composition of reactive powder concretes. Australia. & Cheyrezy. Design and construction of Sakata-Mirai footbridge using reactive powder concrete. 2002. Reactive powder concrete bridges. 6th Austroads Bridge Conferences. H. Richard. 2006.