1 | Þ a g e

Hcn Huucv`s
£nvIvnnmcntuI Luw OutIInc
PvnI. CLuvcz ~ SpvIng 2o1o
[Z`WZ`_
apLer 1 Ŷ LnvlronmenLal Þollcy ÞerspecLlves ŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦ 1
apLer 2 Ŷ LnvlronmenLal ommon Law ŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦ 3
apLer 3 Ŷ 1e AdmlnlsLraLlve Law of Le LnvlronmenL ŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦ 12
apLer 4 Ŷ LnvlronmenLal lederallsm ŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦ 16
apLer 3 Ŷ nLÞA Ǝ Le Þower of lnformaLlon ŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦ 18
apLer 6 Ŷ Þubllc Ǝ CuaslŴÞubllc 8esources ŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦ 23
apLer 10 Ŷ Alr ÞolluLlon onLrol ŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦ 29
apLer 11 Ŷ WaLer ÞolluLlon onLrol ŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦŦ 32


Chapter 1 Ŷ Lnv|ronmenta| Þo||cy Þerspect|ves
1) WaL ls LnvlronmenLal Law?
a) lnLro
l) LnvlronmenL ƹ pyslcal (waLer/alr/dlrL)ţ blologlcal (planLs Ǝ anlmals)ţ Ǝ soclal (economyţ eLcŦ)
(1) LnvlronmenLal law regulaLes uman acLlvlLy w/ respecL Lo Le 1
sL
Lwoţ buL Lls affecLs Le soclal
parL of our envlronmenL as well
b) 8lcard !Ŧ Lazarusţ 8esLorlng WaL's LnvlronmenLal AbouL LnvlronmenLal Law
l) ommon denomlnaLor for envlronmenLal law ls ecologlcal ln[uryŦ
ll) unlque Ǝ 8ecurrlng AspecLs of Lcologlcal ln[uryť
(1) lrreverslbleţ aLasLroplcţ Ǝ onLlnulng ln[ury
(a) 1usţ errors ln declslon maklng can be cosLlyţ buL by Le same Loken so can delays ln
declslon maklngŦ
(b)LnvlronmenLal law musL address arm LaL lncreases over LlmeŦ
(2) Þyslcally ulsLanL ln[ury
(3) 1emporally ulsLanL ln[ury
(a) CfLen noL lmmlnenL Ŷ Le ln[ury won'L be reallzed unLll some Llme ln Le dlsLanL fuLure
(4) uncerLalnLy Ǝ 8lsk
(a) Þrlmary source of uncerLalnLy ls Le complexlLy of Le naLural envlronmenLţ and ow muc
ls sLlll unknown abouL lLŦ
(b)We don'L ave Le ablllLy Lo know beforeand Le envlronmenLal lmpacL of cerLaln acLlonsŦ
(3) MulLlple auses
(a) LnvlronmenLal arms are more Lyplcally Le resulL of Le cumulaLlve resulL of mulLlple
acLlonsţ ofLen spread ouL over slgnlflcanL Llme Ǝ spaceŦ 1ls sLems from Le sarlng
lnerenL ln any common naLural resource baseŦ
(6) noneconomlcţ nonuman aracLer
(a) Many of Le ecologlcal ln[urles are noL readlly suscepLlble Lo moneLary valuaLlon Ǝ ave a
dlsLlncLlvely nonuman caracLerŦ
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lll) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) CLer aspecLs of envlronmenLal lawť
(a) CfLen as many vlcLlmsŦ
(b)lrequenLly lmpllcaLes dlfflculL Lradeoffs beLween confllcLlngţ deeply eld valuesŦ
(2) 1e ÞrecauLlonary Þrlnclple
(a) 1e ldea ls someLlmes you ave Lo acL before all Le lnformaLlon ls lnŦ
(b)ºWere Lere are LreaLs of serlous or lrreverslble damageţ lack of full sclenLlflc cerLalnLy
sall noL be used żasŽ a reason for posLponlng cosLŴeffecLlve measures Lo prevenL
envlronmenLal degradaLlonŦ"
(c) 1ls slfLs Le burden from regulaLors Lo Le proponenLs of envlronmenLally rlsky acLlvlLlesŦ
(d)(noLes say LaL Lls rlsks leadlng Lo paralysls of acLlon Ǝ LaL lL ls a ºealLy recognlLlon of
our lgnoranceţ deslgned Lo encourage addlLlonal lnqulry Ǝ learnlng were Le value of
lnformaLlon ls very lgŦ" l'm noL sure l agree based on Le above quoLe from Le LexLŦ)
2) lnslgLs from Lcology
a) !udy LŦ Meyerţ 1e uance of naLureť new oncepLs ln Lcology
l) ln Le 1960s Ǝ 1970s Lere was an equlllbrlum/balance of naLure concepL ln ecologyţ buL lL ls no
longer followed ln ecology or lawŦ
ll) 1e conLemporary paradlgm recognlzes LaL ecosysLems are open and noL necessarlly ln
equlllbrlumŦ
lll) We can'L we anLropocenLrlc cange Le same way as naLural cange because lL ls dlfferenL boL ln
quallLy and raLeŦ lL ls ofLen of a Lype never before experlenced ln naLural ecosysLemsŦ
lv) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) Lven Loug Le equlllbrlum concepL ls no longer followedţ Le prlnclple of lnLerconnecLedness
sLlll appllesŤ a ºcomplex web of lnLerconnecLednessŦ" Wlle noL everyLlng ls connecLedţ Lere
are enoug Lo creaLe a sorL of webŦ
(2) omplexlLy Ŷ ecosysLems are compllcaLed Ǝ poorly undersLoodţ wlc makes lL dlfflculL Lo
make predlcLlons abouL effecLs of ºperLurbaLlonsŦ"
(3) Scale Ŷ Le same evenL can be dlfferenL dependlng on lLs scaleŤ a small flre mlgL elp purge
wlle a large flre mlgL upseL Le wole ecosysLem
(4) A common quesLlon LaL we face ls waL our role as manklnd ls ln all of LlsŦ
3) lnslgLs from Lconomlcs
a) AllocaLlng Scarce 8esourcesť Lfflclency Ǝ MarkeLs
l) LnvlronmenLal problems are problems of compeLlLlon among confllcLlng demands for scarce
resourcesŦ 1usţ we musL make colces abouL ow we allocaLe LemŦ
ll) An efflclenL allocaLlon maxlmlzes lndlvldual preference saLlsfacLlonţ aggregaLed across socleLyŦ 1e
mosL efflclenL allocaLlon ls known as Þareto eff|c|encyţ wlc occurs wen any cange ln allocaLlon
would reduce aL leasL one person's preference saLlsfacLlon (lŦeŦţ ls aL mosL efflclenL sLaLe)Ŧ
lll) 1ere are some prerequlslLes/requlremenLs for aclevlng efflclencyť
(1) 8uyers Ǝ sellers musL ave full lnformaLlon abouL Le goods/servlces excangedŦ
(2) 1ere musL be a large number of playersţ so LaL Lere ls no monopoly or oLer colluslve
powerŦ
(3) 1ere musL be well deflned and enforceable properLy rlgLsŦ
(4) 1e LransacLlon cosLs musL be low enoug Lo faclllLaLe beneflclal LransacLlonsŦ
lv) 8ellance on Le markeL ls crlLlclzed on Le basls LaL lL doesn'L necessarlly reac efflclency ln
allocaLlonţ and even soţ efflclency ls noL Le only (or aL leasL noL necessarlly Le mosL lmporLanL)
goalŦ
3 | Þ a g e


b) MarkeL lallure Ǝ MarkeL orrecLlon
l) CarreLL Pardlnţ 1e 1ragedy of Le ommons
(1) lf everyone ls able Lo exLernallze Lelr cosLs and lnLernallze Lelr beneflLsţ overconsumpLlon wlll
resulLŦ
(2) Lxamples of Le oceans Ǝ naLlonal parksŦ
(3) 1e Lragedy of Le commons as a food baskeL can be averLed by prlvaLe properLyţ buL Le
Lragedy of Le commons as a cesspool musL be prevenLed anoLer wayţ elLer vla ºcoerclve"
laws or LaxaLlonŦ
(4) noLes
(a) ldea of co||ect|ve goodsţ suc as naLlonal defense or clean alrţ wlc generally enLall
Lragedy of Le commons lssuesŦ
(l) 8ecause Le supply of goods cannoL be llmlLed Lo Lose wo payţ Le markeL sysLem
breaks downŦ no one consumer wlll pay Le full prlce of Le goodţ because no one
consumer can reallze Le full beneflLŦ 1ls leads also leads Lo free rldlngţ Le ldea LaL
some people wlll raLlonally declde noL Lo pay buL expecL Lo en[oy Le beneflLsŦ
(ll) ln sorLţ collecLlve goods are Lerefore overconsumed Ǝ undersupplled ln Le markeLŦ
(lll)8ecause Le soluLlon ls one of markeL fallureţ Le soluLlon ls socleLal lnLervenLlon ln
some form Lo correcL Le fallureŦ
(b)C ls ow Lo lnLervene wen Le markeL falls Lls way Ŷcan regulaLeţ prlvaLlzeţ or creaLe
economlc lncenLlves (Laxesţ flnesţ subsldles)
(l) ommand Ǝ onLrol (regulaLlng)
1Ŧ 1ls ls Le predomlnanL sLraLegy ln our currenL sysLemŦ
(ll) ÞrlvaLlzlng Le ommons
1Ŧ 1e problem wlL Lls from Le envlronmenLal perspecLlve ls LaL prlvaLe owners
would sLlll be llkely Lo explolL Le resourceţ Ley'd [usL do lL ln Le mosL efflclenL
wayŦ Cov'L does noL ave Le same lncenLlve (presumably)Ŧ
2Ŧ 1ere's Le ldea of permlLs as a means of prlvaLlzaLlonŦ 1ls ls baslcally Le ldea of
cap Ǝ LradeŦ
3Ŧ ºlearţ secureţ Lradable properLy rlgLs allow a prlvaLe markeLţ wlL Le beneflLs of
decenLrallzed declslonmaklngţ Lo flourlsŦ"
(lll)Lconomlc lncenLlves
1Ŧ an be negaLlveţ suc as Laxes or flnesţ or can be poslLlveţ suc as Lroug subsldlesŦ
2Ŧ 1axes ave Le drawback of noL assurlng a speclflc level of conLrolţ Ǝ lL can be
dlfflculL Lo deLermlne ow muc Lax ls necessary Lo lnfluence beavlorŦ
c) osL 8eneflL Analysls
l) Lfflclency under cosLŴbeneflL analysls ls less sLrlngenL Lan ÞareLo efflclencyŦ
ll) 1e ka|dorŴn|cks eff|c|ency looks Lo weLer Le aggregaLe galns ln preference saLlsfacLlon exceed
Le aggregaLe lossesŦ A cange LaL lmposes eavy losses on a small number of people wlll
noneLeless be efflclenL lf lL provldes a very small beneflL Lo a large number of peopleŦ
lll) osLŴbeneflL analysls LesLs for kaldorŴPlcks efflclency by comparlng Le LoLal socleLal cosLs of a
pollcy wlL Le LoLal socleLal beneflLsţ ln Lerms of dollarsţ and dlscounLlng fuLure amounLs Lo
presenL valuesŦ 1e dlscounLlng can be conLroverslalţ because small canges ln Le dlscounL raLe
can lead Lo large dlscrepancles ln Le resulLsţ and some Llngsţ suc as Le beneflL of a LoxlnŴfree
rlverţ are ard Lo quanLlfy moneLarllyŦ
(1) MeLods of valulngť
(a) onLlngenL valuaLlon Ŷ surveys people and asks waL Ley would pay
4 | Þ a g e


(l) rlLlclzed b/c people wo ave never LougL abouL Le lssue are llkely Lo plck a flgure
aL randomţ people may noL be wllllng/able Lo express Lelr envlronmenLal values ln
Lerms of moneyţ and people may oversLaLe Lelr wllllngness Lo pay b/c Ley don'L
acLually ave Lo payŦ
(b)Pedonlc Þrlclng Ŷ aLLempLs Lo compare Lo slmllar properLy
(l) ompares Lwo properLles LaL are Le same ln all buL one respecL Lo deLermlne Le
value of Le dlfferenL caracLerlsLlcŦ
(ll) Þroblem w/ Lls ls LaL lL cannoL reflecL exlsLence valuesţ Le exLenL Lo wlc people
care abouL aspecLs of Le envlronmenL LaL Ley do noL expecL ever Lo useŦ
lv) rlLlcs of cosLŴbeneflL analysls say envlronmenLal concerns sould noL be moneLlzed Ǝ LaL
valuaLlon ls a sub[ecLlve ºarLŦ"
d) 1e lnLerface of Lconomlcs Ǝ Lcologyť LcosysLem Servlces
l) naLure supplles us wlL a number of servlcesţ suc as wasLe decomposlLlon Ǝ deLoxlflcaLlonţ alr Ǝ
waLer purlflcaLlonţ crop polllnaLlonţ pesL conLrolţ Ǝ flood conLrolŦ 1ese are collecLlve goodsŦ
ll) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) Some envlronmenLal laws forbld conslderaLlon of cosLs ln seLLlng envlronmenLal sLandardsŦ ls
LaL reallsLlc?
(2) Slnce 1981ţ federal agencles ave been requlred by execuLlve order Lo prepare cosLŴbeneflL
analyses of ma[or regulaLlonsŦ lf a sLaLuLe forblds conslderaLlon of cosLsţ Le agency musL
prepare Le cosLŴbeneflL analyslsţ buL lL cannoL base lLs regulaLory declslon on Le analyslsţ
wlc begs Le quesLlon Ŷ waL's Le polnL of Le analyslsţ Len?
(3) 8us ll slgned an execuLlve order requlrlng agencles Lo ldenLlfy Le markeL fallure (exLernallLlesţ
markeL powerţ lack of lnformaLlonţ eLcŦ) LaL new agency acLlon ls belng Laken Lo address
before Le acLlon could be LakenŦ
4) 1e 8ole of values
a) Aldo Leopoldţ A Sand ounLy Almanacť wlL oLer Lssays on onservaLlon from 8ound 8lver
l) ÞroŴenvlronmenLŤ baslcally calls for a ºgolden rule" Lype approacŤ noLes fallures of economlcŴ
based sysLem
b) Wllllam lŦ 8axLerţ Þeople or Þengulnsť 1e ase for CpLlmal ÞolluLlon
l) ÞroŴbuslnessť re[ecLs ldea LaL Lere ls a morally ºrlgL" or ºwrong" approac Lo Le envlronmenL Ŷ
aLLempLs Lo equaLe uman acLlon w/ naLural desLrucLlon (eŦgŦ volcanoes)Ť ldea ls LaL Lere ls no
ºnormaLlve deflnlLlon of Le naLural sLaLe" (no normaLlve deflnlLlon of clean waLerţ alrţ eLcŦ) oLer
Lan wlL respecL Lo Le needs of manklnd
c) Mark Sagoffţ We Pave MeL Le Lnemy Ǝ Pe ls us or onfllcL Ǝ onLradlcLlon ln LnvlronmenLal Law
l) Makes some lnLeresLlng polnLsŦ Asked ls class wo would vlslL a cerLaln wllderness slLeţ almosL
everyone gave an excuse wy noLŦ Wen asked lf Ley would go see a Leme park Lereţ Le
lnLeresL lncreased dramaLlcallyŦ neverLelessţ Le class as a wole LougL Le Leme park ldea
was ºloaLsome Ǝ desplcableŦ"
ll) 1usţ ºżoŽne problem w/ Le economlc Lecnlques of 'cosLŴbeneflL analyslsţ' oweverţ ls LaL Ley
may fall Lo reglsLer ldeologlcal or eLlcal convlcLlons clLlzens enLerLaln abouL Le very Llngs LaL
lnLeresL Lem as consumersŦ"
lll) º1e Llngs we cerlsţ admlreţ or respecL are noL always Le Llngs we are wllllng Lo pay forŦ
lndeedţ Ley may be ceapened by belng assoclaLed wlL moneyŦ lL ls falr Lo say LaL Le worL of
Le Llngs we love ls beLLer measured by our unwllllngness Lo pay for LemŦ" Pe Len goes on Lo
glve Le example of love Ŷ so crlLlcally lmporLanL LaL we'd do almosL anyLlng for lLţ excepL pay for
lLŦ
S | Þ a g e


d) uan 1arlockţ LnvlronmenLal Lawť LLlcs or Sclence?
l) Argues LaL envlronmenLal pollcyţ lawţ eLcŦ sould derlve from sclenceţ noL eLlcsŦ
e) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
l) CbllgaLlons Lo fuLure generaLlons Ǝ Le posslblllLy of subsLlLuLlonť ºlf oll or scenlc vlsLas run sorL Ŧ
Ŧ Ŧ people wlll flnd someLlng else Lo saLlsfy Lelr deslres for energy Ǝ esLeLlc pleasureŦ vlewed ln
Lls llgLţ lnLergeneraLlonal equlLy requlres only LaL Le currenL generaLlon provlde Le fuLure wlL
a robusL sLock of aggregaLe caplLalŤ lL does noL maLLer ow muc of LaL caplLal ls naLuralŦ
LcologlsLs are far less llkely Lo see naLural caplLal as replaceable by means of uman lngenulLyŦ
1ey Lerefore belleve LaL lnLergeneraLlonal equlLy requlres Le proLecLlon of naLural caplLal for
fuLure generaLlonsŦ
ll) LnvlronmenLal 8aclsmť 1ls arose ln Le 1980s wen a serles of sLudles revealed LaL raclal
mlnorlLles ln Le uŦSŦ are dlsproporLlonaLely llkely Lo llve near azardous wasLe faclllLlesŦ 1e LÞA
as acLually developed a deflnlLlon of ºenvlronmenLal [usLlce" LaL seeks Lo proLecL everyone from
envlronmenLal azards equallyŦ

Chapter 2 Ŷ Lnv|ronmenta| Common Law
1) lnLro
a) ommon law remalns relevanL becauseţ unllke sLaLuLory lawţ lL provldes Le flexlblllLy Lo address new
Lecnologles Ǝ newly recognlzed armsŦ
b) ommon law also provldes for compensaLory damagesţ wlc are generally noL avallable vla sLaLuLory
lawŦ
2) ommon Law LnvlronmenLal uocLrlnes
a) nulsance Ŷ proLecLs use Ǝ en[oyment
l) ÞrlvaLe nulsance
(1) ls an unreasonable lnLerference wlL Le use Ǝ en[oymenL of landŦ
(2) 8Ŧ2d calls for llablllLy for acLs LaL are elLer (1) lnLenLlonal Ǝ unreasonableţ or (2) unlnLenLlonal
and oLer wlse acLlonable under Le rules conLrolllng llablllLy for negllgenL or reckless conducLţ
or for abnormally dangerous condlLlons or acLlvlLlesŦ
(a) AcLs are consldered lnLenLlonal lf Le are subsLanLlally cerLaln Lo produce armţ weLer or
noL Le acLor deslres Le armŦ
(b)An lnvaslon ls unreasonable lf Le gravlLy of Le arm ouLwelgs Le uLlllLy of Le conducL
or Le arm ls serlous Ǝ Le economlc burden of compensaLlon would noL make Le
conducL lnfeaslbleŦ
(c) lacLors ln deLermlnlng Le gravlLy of Le arm Ǝ Le uLlllLy of Le conducL lncludeť
(l) 1e exLenL Ǝ caracLer of Le arm
(ll) 1e soclal value of Le plalnLlff's use of land Ǝ defendanL's conducL
(lll)1e sulLablllLy of eac Lo Le caracLer of Le locallLyţ and
(lv)1e burden on Le plalnLlff Ǝ defendanLţ respecLlvelyţ of avoldlng Le arm
(3) 1ls ba|anc|ng of ut|||t|es ru|eţ wlc ls followed ln mosL Amerlcan [urlsdlcLlonsţ ls baslcally a
modlflcaLlon of Le 19
L
cenLury common law rule of uslng your own properLy so as noL Lo
ln[ure LaL of anoLerŦ
(4) lamous quoLe from !usLlce SuLerland ln Luclldť ºmerely a rlgL Llng ln Le wrong placeţ llke a
plg ln Le parlor lnsLead of Le barnyardŦ"
ll) Þubllc nulsance
(1) ls an unreasonable lnLerference wlL Le lnLeresL of Le communlLy or Le rlgLs of Le general
publlcŦ
6 | Þ a g e


(2) Pas been used Lo proLecL Le publlc ealLţ safeLyţ convenlenceţ and even morals
(prosLlLuLlon/gambllng/drug use)Ŧ
(3) 1radlLlonally could only be brougL by publlc auLorlLles or by a prlvaLe clLlzen wo ad
suffered ln[ury dlfferenL ln klnd from LaL suffered by Le general publlcŦ Poweverţ Le 8Ŧ2d of
1orLs allows prlvaLe clLlzens Lo sue as a represenLaLlve of Le general publlcţ as a clLlzen ln a
clLlzen's acLlonţ or as a member of a class ln a class acLlon wlLouL avlng Lo ave speclal ln[uryţ
buL can only abaLe Le nulsanceţ noL recover damagesŦ
b) 1respass Ŷ protects r|ght to exc|us|ve possess|on
l) ls knowlng pyslcal lnvaslon of land w/o Le possessor's permlsslonŦ (requlres knowlng/lnLenLlonal
acLlon!!!)
(1) Llable for acLual Ǝ ls enLlLle Lo nomlnal damages lf Lere ls no armŦ
(2) May overlap wlL nulsanceŦ
ll) !urlsdlcLlons wlc allow Lrespass clalms for polluLlon Lyplcally requlre LaL Le plalnLlff
demonsLraLe subsLanLlal damageŤ oLers requlre Langlble pyslcal lnvaslonŦ
c) negllgence
l) 1ls fllls Le gap LaL Lrespass doesn'L cover Ŷ acLs LaL aren'L knowlng or lnLenLlonalŦ
ll) AlLoug LradlLlonally nulsance was an lnLenLlonal LorLţ lL as been expanded ln mosL [urlsdlcLlons
Lo lnclude acLlons for wlc llablllLy can approprlaLely be lmposed under negllgence or sLrlcL
llablllLyŦ
lll) LlemenLsť duLyţ breacţ causaLlonţ damages
d) SLrlcL LlablllLy
l) Cenerally
(1) MosL [urlsdlcLlons recognlze llablllLy for damages caused Lo persons or properLy by abnormally
dangerous acLlvlLles w/o requlrlng any sowlng of faulLŦ
(2) 8esLaLemenL facLorsť
(a) WeLer Le acLlvlLy poses a lg degree of rlsk (of arm Lo peopleţ landţ or personal
properLy)Ť
(b)1e llkellood of grave armŤ
(c) WeLer Le rlsk can be ellmlnaLed by Le exerclse of reasonable careŤ
(d)WeLer Le acLlvlLy ls common or noLŤ
(e) WeLer lL ls approprlaLe Lo Le place were lL ls carrled onŤ and
(f) 1e exLenL Lo wlc lLs value Lo Le communlLy ls ouLwelged by Le danger lL posesŦ
(3) !usLlflcaLlonsť
(a) lorces acLor Lo lnLernallze cosLs of Le acLlvlLyŦ
(b)Avolds unfalrnessŦ
(c) ueLerrlng lgly dangerous acLlvlLlesŦ
(d)8educlng cosLs lnerenL ln provlng negllgenceŦ
(4) 1e courL decldes as a maLLer of law weLer an acLlvlLy ls abnormally dangerous or noLŦ
ll) lndiono norbor 8e/t kŦkŦ coŦ vŦ 4mericon cyonomid coŦ (7
L
lrŦ 1990) pŦ 41
(1) ou know Lls case from 1orLs Ǝ ÞroperLyŦ Amerlcan yanamld manufacLured acrylonlLrlle ln
Loulslana and was slpplng vla rall Lo new !erseyŦ 1e rouLe Look lL Lroug lcagoţ were Le
Lanker car oldlng Le cemlcal leaked ln a small swlLclng yard owned by Le lndlana Parbor
8elL 8allroad ompany because Le lld on Le car was brokenŦ osL $981k Lo clean upŦ 88
alleged abnormally dangerous acLlvlLy Ǝ won aL summary [udgmenL ln dlsLrlcL courLŦ
(2) uses Le Cullle oL alr balloon ln n case Lo lllusLraLe ow Le resLaLemenL facLors (see above)
are applled Ŷ rlsk of armţ weLer approprlaLe Lo Le areaţ eLcŦ Þosner goes Lroug Le
7 | Þ a g e


raLlonales belnd sLrlcL llablllLyţ noLlng LaL lL covers areas LaL negllgence could noL because
addlLlonal care wlll noL prevenL Le armţ and Lerefore someLlng oLer Lan addlLlonal care ls
necessary Lo mlLlgaLe Le armŦ
(3) Poweverţ ere Le splll was caused by Le faulLy lldţ wlc could ave been prevenLed wlL due
careţ suggesLlng negllgenceŦ 1e negllgence reglme would be sufflclenL Lo
prevenL/dlscourage/remedy Lls armŦ
(4) Þosner also addresses Le locaLlon lssueţ noLlng LaL lL would be an undue burden Lo rerouLe
Le 88 around Le clLy Ŷ 88s are ºub and spoke" sysLems ln wlc Le ubs are generally ln
ma[or meLropollLan areasŦ
(a) ºlL ls no more reallsLlc Lo propose Lo rerouLe Le slpmenL of all azardous maLerlals around
lcago Lan lL ls Lo propose Le relocaLlon of omes ad[acenL Lo Le 8lue lsland swlLclng
yard Lo more dlsLanL suburbsŦ lL may be less reallsLlcŦ 8ruLal as Loug lL may seem Lo say
lLţ Le lnapproprlaLe use Lo wlc land ls belng puL ln Le 8lue lsland yard and nelgborood
may beţ noL Le LransporLaLlon of azardous cemlcalsţ buL resldenLlal llvlngŦ"
lll) eof kiver lorest Productsţ lncŦ vŦ lerquson (MlssŦ 1993) pŦ43



lckasaway 8lver

Þascagoula 8lver

lerguson ÞroperLy

Mlll
Leaf 8lver

żŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ 123 mllesŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŽ


(1) Þaper mlll began operaLlng ln Mlsslsslppl ln 1984Ŧ uloxln was dlscovered ln Le Leaf 8lverţ
wlc resulLed ln Le sLaLe closlng Le Leaf and Þascagoula rlvers for a few monLsŦ A
consumpLlon advlsory was also lssuedţ buL lL was llfLed for Le Þascagoula sorLly LereafLerţ
alLoug lL remalned ln place for Le Leaf 8lverŦ 1e lergusons sued on negllgenceţ sLrlcL
llablllLyţ nulsanceţ and Lrespassţ alleglng LaL Ley ad suffered emoLlonal dlsLress and sougL
$360 mllllon ln acLual Ǝ punlLlve damagesŦ
(2) ÞLAln1lllSť Þs ad some lssuesŦ 1ey refused Lo LesL Lemselves or Lelr properLyŦ 1e
usband dld noL Lake Le medlclne LaL ls psycologlsL prescrlbedţ and e ad been sub[ecLed
Lo asbesLos exposure LaL mlgL ave conLrlbuLed Lo ls fearŦ 1e wlfe LesLlfled Lo a fear of
cancer from all Le caLfls LaL se ad eaLen from Le rlverţ buL Le fear dld noL ºparalyze er
or keep er from funcLlonlngŦ" !ury awarded $3Ŧ1 mllllon on Le nulsance Ǝ emoLlonal dlsLress
clalmsŦ
(3) LxÞL81Sť
(a) lergusons' experLs lncluded a pyslclan wo sald dloxln ls a ºsuper Loxln" LaL causes
cancer and recommended LaL Ley geL LesLedţ noLlng LaL Lere fear was reasonableŦ
8 | Þ a g e


ÞsyclaLrlsL sald LaL Le fear was reasonable as wellŦ Appralser says Lelr properLy ad
decreased ln value by $63k and LaL Ley sould geL Le properLy LesLedŦ
(b)1e Mlll's experLs lncluded Le former LÞA admlnlsLraLorţ wo sald LaL Le Leaf 8lver was
noL Le worsL ln Le counLry for dloxln polluLlonţ an ecology prof wo sald LaL Lere was no
dlfference beLween downsLream Ǝ upsLream Ǝ LaL more Lan 100 mlles downsLream ls
Loo far Lo ave an lmpacLţ an appralser wo sald Lere was no decrease ln valueţ a psyc
prof wo sald LaL Le oLer doc sould noL ave examlned Lem LogeLer and LaL Lelr
fears were unreasonable b/c Ley ad noL been LesLedţ and a docLor wo sald LaL dloxln
was noL llnked Lo cancer and LaL Ley would ave Lo be LesLed anyway Lo see lf Ley ad
even been exposedŦ
(4) 1LS1lnCť 1e lergusons relled on LesLs ln Le LLAl 8lver (noL Le Þascagoula)ţ as dld Le MlllŦ
none of Le LesLs Look place ln Le vlclnlLy of Le lergusons' properLyŦ
(3) 1e courL says LaL you cannoL ave an emoLlonal dlsLress clalm based on a fear of conLracLlng
a dlseaseŦ 8evlews SuLes caseţ buL noLes LaL Le lergusons' rellance on lL lsn'L on all fours b/c
ln LaL case Le planL was lmmedlaLely ad[acenL Lo Le properLy and Lere was pyslcal
evldence (dylng vegeLaLlonţ waLerlng eyesţ runny noses) of Le damageŦ
(6) ourL says LaL Lere was lnsufflclenL proof of damagesţ and LaL Le evldence was lnsufflclenL
Lo esLablls lnLerference w/ Lelr use Ǝ en[oymenL of Le properLyŦ
lv) Jo/sh vŦ 1own of 5toninqton Joter Po//ution contro/ 4uthority (onnŦ 1999) pŦ 31 Ŷ nulsance sulL
over sewage planL
(1) 8AkC8Cunu Ǝ AuMlnlS18A1lvL PlS1C8ť ÞrlvaLe nulsance acLlon for arm caused by odors
from sewage LreaLmenL planLŦ 1e planL ad applled Lo Le sLaLe for renewal of lLs dlscarge
permlLţ Le commlssloner appolnLed a earlng offlcer wo conducLed a publlc earlng aL wlc
several clLlzens ob[ecLedţ one of Le clLlzens flled a peLlLlon for lnLervenLlon ln accordance w/
Le procedure provlded for by sLaLuLeţ Le peLlLlon was granLedţ and Le earlng offlcer found
LaL Le odors dld noL consLlLuLe unreasonable polluLlon Ǝ LaL Lere was no reasonable
alLernaLlveŦ 1e commlsslonerţ oweverţ parLlally re[ecLed Le earlng offlcer's flndlngsţ
deLermlnlng LaL Le polluLlon was unreasonableţ buL e neverLeless relssued Le permlL b/c
e deLermlned LaL Lere was no reasonable alLernaLlveŦ !ury awarded Þs $673k aL LrlalŦ
(2) 1PL ln!u8ť 1e planL emlLLed several odorsť sewageţ roLLen eggţ dleselţ sweeL odorţ and
clorlneŦ 1ey caused couglngţ vomlLlngţ eadacesţ and a burnlng sensaLlon Lo Le llps Ǝ
eyesŦ
(3) u ls argulng LaL Le Lrlal courL falled Lo lnsLrucL Le [ury on Le balanclng LesL Lo deLermlne Le
reasonableness/unreasonableness of Le conducLţ buL Le courL dlsagrees b/c Le lnsLrucLlon
Lold Le [ury Lo ºconslder Le locaLlon of Le condlLlon and all of Le clrcumsLancesŦ"
(4) 1PL 8LASCnA8LLnLSS LLLMLn1ť ourL says Lls ls welglng processţ lnvolvlng a comparaLlve
evaluaLlon of confllcLlng lnLeresLsŦ
(a) u relles on yr caseţ argulng LaL Le uLlllLy ouLwelgs Le armŦ 1e ourL says LaL Lls ls
lnconslsLenL w/ Le 8Ŧ2d of 1orLsţ wlc says LaL Le reasonableness cannoL be welged ln
Le absLracLţ Ǝ Le LesL musL also facLor ln waL ls belng done Lo Lry Lo amelloraLe Le armŦ
lf lL was uLlllLy aloneţ Len lL would become an allŴorŴnoLlng LesL and Þs would ave no
remedyŦ
(3) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(a) LCnCMlSť 1ere ls an lnLeresLlng dlscusslon abouL Le cosL Lo amelloraLe Ǝ ow wo
pays lL as an effecL on weLer acLlon wlll be LakenŦ 1e example as 23 omesţ eac
lowered ln value by $20k ($300k LoLal)Ŧ lf Lere ls an opLlon Lo conLrol Le odors LaL cosLs
9 | Þ a g e


$430kţ Len Lls ls Le mosL efflclenL soluLlonŦ lf Le planL as Lo acLţ Len lL sould coose
Lo conLrol Le odorsţ because lL $30k ceaper Lan compensaLlng Le omeownersŦ ln
Leoryţ Le omeowners would make Le same colceţ because lL would be a neL beneflL Lo
eac of Lem of $2kŦ Poweverţ Le LransacLlon cosLs and problems w/ freerlders are
probably Loo subsLanLlal for Le omeowners Lo bearŦ Moreoverţ lL's probably easler for
Lem Lo [usL bear a $2k lossŦ
(b)lLuL8AL CMMCn LAW Cl nulSAnLť SC1uS recognlzed a federal common law
nulsance acLlon ln Mlssourl vŦ llllnols (1906)ţ wlc sLaLes could lnvoke agalnsL lnLersLaLe
polluLlonŦ 1e followlng year Le ourL granLed Ceorgla an ln[uncLlon agalnsL Lwo
1ennessee copper smelLers ln Ceorgla vŦ 1ennessee opper oŦ (1907)Ŧ
(l) Poweverţ sLaLuLory lawţ suc as Le lean WaLer AcLţ llmlLs Le reac of Le federal
common law of nulsanceŦ ln essenceţ Le AcL preempLs /c ongress as occupled Le
fleldŦ Mllwaukee vŦ llllnols (1981)Ť Mlddlesex ounLy Sewerage AuLorlLy vŦ naLlonal Sea
lammers Ass'n (1981)Ŧ
(ll) SLaLe nulsance clalms are noL on Le same fooLlngţ b/c Le ourL presumes LaL sLaLe
law ls noL preempLed unless LaL was Le clear Ǝ manlfesL purpose of ongressŦ ln facLţ
Le lean WaLer AcL as a ºsavlngs clause" LaL says lL does noL resLrlcL any rlgL LaL
any person mlgL ave under Le common lawţ and mosL federal envlronmenLal
sLaLuLes lnclude slmllar provlslonsŦ
(lll)lnLersLaLe nulsance cases are governed by Le law of Le source sLaLe raLer Lan LaL of
Le recelvlng sLaLe!!!
(lv)vlolaLlon of federal polluLlon laws can be a basls for negllgence per se (ln addlLlon Lo
waLever penalLles are provlded for by sLaLuLe)Ŧ ompllanceţ oweverţ ls noL a bar Lo
sulLţ alLoug lL can be evldence of reasonableness of Le expecLed sLandard of careŦ
(c) 8LMLulLSť PlsLorlcallyţ Le remedy for nulsance was ln[uncLlve rellefŦ Poweverţ posLŴ
lndusLrlal revoluLlon Le courLs became wary of en[olnlng economlcally valuable polluLlng
acLlvlLlesŦ 1e 8oomer vŦ ALlanLlc emenL (1970 Ŷ from ÞroperLy law class) ls a good
example of Llsţ were Le courL allowed Le planL Lo pay compensaLory damagesŦ 1odayţ
courLs ºbalance Le equlLles" Lo deLermlne weLer ln[uncLlve rellef ls [usLlfled ln a nulsance
caseŦ
(l) ln[uncLlve rellef Ǝ moneLary damages are noL muLually excluslveţ Loug!
(ll) MoneLary damages can someLlmes pose some problemsţ suc as wen Lere ls a
repuLaLlonal arm noL connecLed Lo acLual conLamlnaLlonţ especlally lf Þ cooses Lo sLay
on Le properLyŦ uamage prevenLlng recreaLlonal use may be dlfflculL Lo valueŦ
(lll)nulsance clalms generally are noL avallable for buslnesses LaL depend on Le naLural
resource (eŦgŦ resLauranLs LaL depend on fls from a polluLed lake or a sLore LaL renLs
[eL skls for use on Le lake) because Le damage Ley suffer ls noL Lo Le use of Le real
properLyŦ 1ls ls someLlng Le courLs ave sLruggled wlLţ generally dlsLlngulslng
beLween ºdlrecL" arm Lo lnLeresLs suc as commerclal flslng from nonŴcompensable
ºlndlrecL" arm Lo processorsţ resLauraLeursţ and oLers (we dlscussed Lls ln 1orLs)Ŧ
(lv)ÞunlLlve damages may be awarded ln polluLlon cases lf u's conducL ls sufflclenLly
wrongfulŦ
(v) noLe LaL rellef can also be sougL vla pollLlcal processes/acLlon and Le markeLŦ
3) 1oxlc 1orLs
a) Cenerally
10 | Þ a g e


l) 1oxlc LorLs are personal ln[ury acLlons based on exposure Lo subsLances LaL presenL an unusually
lg rlsk Lo uman ealL or Le envlronmenLŦ
ll) ausaLlon ls ofLen an lssueŦ Þs musL sowť
(1) 1aL Ley were exposed Lo cemlcals released by usŤ
(2) 1aL Lose cemlcals can cause Le Lypes of arm LaL Ley sufferedŤ and
(3) 1aL Le cemlcals dld ln facL cause Lelr armŦ
lll) 1ese elemenLs may requlre experL LesLlmony and LesLlngţ maklng Loxlc LorL cases cosLly Ǝ Llme
consumlng Lo llLlgaLeŦ
b) ln re "4qent Oronqe" Product iobi/ity itiqotion {£ŦuŦNŦYŦ 1985) pŦ 63 Ŷ proof of causaLlon problems
l) 8AkC8Cunuť 13ţ000 agenL orange class acLlon plalnLlffs seLLled a sulL on bealf of 24 mllllon
veLerans Ǝ seLLled for $180 mllllonţ glvlng $12ţ700 Lo eac plalnLlffŦ Several undred plalnLlffs ad
opLed ouLţ wlc ls waL Lls sulL was abouLŦ
ll) º1e mosL serlous deflclency ln plalnLlffs' case ls Lelr fallure Lo presenL credlble evldence of a
causal llnk beLween Le exposure Lo AgenL Crange and Le varlous dlseases from wlc Ley are
allegedly sufferlngŦ"
(1) Lpldemlologlcal SLudlesť use sLaLlsLlcal meLods Lo deLecL abnormally lg lncldences of dlsease
ln a sLudy populaLlon Ǝ Lo assoclaLe Lem w/ unseal exposure Lo suspecL envlronmenLal facLorsŦ
1e general sLudles clLed by Le Þs [usL esLablls LaL Lere ls a connecLlon beLween dloxln and
dlseaseţ and are noL sufflclenL Lo esLablls LaL AgenL Crange caused any speclflc plalnLlff's
speclflc dlseaseŦ
(2) uocLor's LxperL 1esLlmonyť LssenLlally says LaL lf AgenL Crange ls a causeţ and Lere are no
oLer causesţ Len AgenL Crange musL be Le causeŦ 1e problem ls LaL Lere are oLer
posslble causesŦ
(3) ºenLral Lo Le lnadequacy of Þs' case ls Lelr lnablllLy Lo exclude oLer posslble causes of Þs'
lllnessesŸLose arlslng ouL of Lelr servlce ln vleLnam as well as Lose LaL all of us face ln
mlllLary Ǝ clvlllan llfeŦ"
lll) 8olls down Lo Lwo causaLlon lssuesť (1) LaL Lelr speclflc dlseases were caused by AgenL Crangeţ
and (2) LaL any parLlcular u (Lere were 7 companles belng sued) produced Le AgenL Crange Lo
wlc parLlcular Þs were exposed LoŦ
lv) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) Þrovlng causaLlon ls ofLen exceedlngly dlfflculL ln Loxlc LorL cases b/c of Le long laLency perlod
of lllness caused by carclnogens Ǝ oLer Loxlc cemlcalsţ and Le facL LaL Le general
populaLlon suffers Le same dlseases requlres Þs Lo prove LaL oLer lnLervenlng exposures or
forces acLually caused Le ln[uryŦ
(2) Þs musL prove genera| causat|onţ LaL Le subsLance Lo wlc Ley were exposed can cause Le
ln[uryţ and spec|f|c causat|onţ LaL Le subsLance caused Lelr speclflc ln[uryŦ
(3) onLrolled LesLs of Le effecLs of dellberaLe exposure areţ for obvlous reasonsţ rarely avallableţ
wlc means LaL Þs ave Lo rely on oLer evldenceť (1) experL LesLlmonyŤ (2) experlmenLal
sLudles w/ anlmal Llssue (º|n v|tro" stud|es)Ť (3) experlmenLal sLudles w/ llve anlmals ("|n v|vo"
stud|es)Ť and (4) epldemlologlcal sLudles of uman dlseaseŦ
(a) lL ls dlfflculL Lo exLrapolaLe from anlmal LoxlclLy LesLsţ wlc are ofLen performed uslng lg
does and anlmal sLralns known Lo be especlally suscepLlble Lo dlseaseţ Lo low dose exposure
of uman belngsŦ
(b)Lpldemlologlcal sLudles ofLen carry Le greaLesL welgL w/ Le courL because Ley dlrecLly
relaLe uman exposure Lo dlseaseţ buL Lelr resulLs can be dlfflculL Lo lnLerpreL Ǝ ave Lelr
own problemsţ lncludlng cosL and Llme llmlLaLlonsŦ
11 | Þ a g e


(c) Crdlnary LorL prlnclpals lead Lo over or under compensaLlonŦ Say Lere are on average 10
ouL of 10ţ000 cases of a dlseaseţ buL 21 ouL of 10ţ000 of Le exposed group geL Le dlseaseŦ
esţ 11 of Lem are llkely caused by Le exposureţ buL wlc ones? lf we compensaLe allţ
Len some geL a wlndfallŦ lf we compensaLe noneţ Len some are lefL w/o a remedyŦ ln
addlLlonţ Le smaller Le dlfferenceţ (eŦgŦ say only 16 ouL of 10ţ000 ln Le exposed group)ţ
Le less llkely LaL causaLlon wlll even be esLabllsedŦ
(4) AnoLer lssue ls weLer Le sLaLlsLlcal margln or error sould be accounLed forţ andţ lf soţ
owŦ
(3) 1nL SU8S1AN1IAL IAC1Ck 1LS1ť Some courLs ave loosened Le causaLlon requlremenLs for
Loxlc LorL plalnLlffs by allowlng Lem Lo prevall on a sowlng LaL Le u's acLlon was a
subsLanLlal facLor ln Le ln[uryţ wlLouL avlng Lo prove LaL Le ln[ury would noL ave occurred
absenL u's acLlonŦ 1e Loxlc subsLance musL ave ad more Lan negllglble or LeoreLlcal
conLrlbuLlon Lo Le ln[uryŦ
(a) rlLlclsm ls LaL rlsk does noL equaLe wlL causaLlonŦ
(b)Cne professor suggesLs LaL Lese cases dlscourage us Lo avold dlscloslng lnformaLlon abouL
poLenLlal ealL rlsksţ and LaL Le llablllLy reglme sould be based lnsLead on fallure Lo
provlde Le publlc wlL lnformaLlon abouL Le rlsks of a subsLanceŦ
(6) lederal clvll procedure as gone Lroug evolvlng sLandards of evaluaLlng experL LesLlmonyţ
from Le 1923 ltye case LaL looked Lo weLer Le Lecnlque employed was generally
accepLed ln Le sclenLlflc communlLyţ Lo Le 1993 uoobett case developed a facLor LesL LaL
many belleve as led Lo closer scruLlny Ǝ more frequenL excluslon of experL LesLlmonyŦ SLaLe
courLs ave spllL on uauberLŦ
(7) 1nL DISCCVLk¥ kULLť vlrLually all [urlsdlcLlons now Loll Le SCL Lo Le Llme aL wlc Le Þ
knew or sould ave known abouL Le ln[uryŦ
(a) Lven Lls rule as problemsţ because ofLen Le vlcLlm Llnks LaL Le sympLoms come from
someLlng elseţ glven LaL Ley occur so long afLer Le lnlLlal exposureŦ
(8) ourLs generally wlll noL allow recovery for mere lncreased rlsk of developlng dlseaseŦ
Poweverţ many courLs allow clalms for negllgenL lnfllcLlon of emoLlonal dlsLressţ buL many also
requlre proof of some presenL pyslcal lmpacL or ln[ury oLer Lan mere exposure aloneŦ
(a) ln addlLlonţ fear of fuLure dlsease musL be reasonable Lo supporL recoveryŦ
(b)1e allfornla Supreme ourL requlres Þs Lo sow a ºmore llkely Lan noL" probablllLy of
geLLlng Le dlsease Lo prevall on nLLu clalmsŦ
(c) Someţ buL noL allţ courLs ave allowed recovery of Le cosLs of medlcal monlLorlng followlng
Loxlc exposureŦ
4) ommon Law vŦ Þubllc Law
a) SLeven Savellţ LlablllLy for Parm vŦ 8egulaLlon of SafeLy
l) Argues for a blend of regulaLlon Ǝ common lawŦ 1e facLors of dlfferenLlal knowledge and
admlnlsLraLlve cosLs favor a common law sysLemţ wlle Le lncapaclLy Lo pay for arm done Ǝ
llkellood of escaplng sulL favor regulaLlonŦ
b) 8oger Melners Ǝ 8ruce andleţ ommon Law Ǝ Le oncelL of Modern LnvlronmenLal Law Þollcy
l) rlLlclzes regulaLlon as a soluLlonŦ ls concerned abouL Le lnefflclency of governmenL acLlonŦ Also
noLes Le role of properLy rlgLs Ǝ flndlng efflclenL Ǝ flexlble soluLlonsţ suc as allowlng Le
polluLer Lo pay Le cosL of Le damage lf ls lL worL dolng so Lo conLlnue lLs acLlonsŦ
ll) lLes Le uyaoga 8lver burnlng as an example of a bad resulL from lneffecLlve regulaLlonŦ
lll) noLes Le cosL ($200 bllllon per year for Le LÞA) of admlnlsLraLlonţ and Le addlLlonal cosL were
regulaLlon as curLalled common law remedlesŦ
12 | Þ a g e


lv) Says LaL sLaLuLory law ls Loo lax on polluLers Ŷ Ley are never suL down ([usL flned)ţ as Ley mlgL
be en[olned under a common law acLlonŦ
c) lrank 8Ŧ rossţ ommon Law oncelLsť A ommenL of Melners Ǝ andle
l) rlLlclzes prevlous arLlcle's falL ln Le common lawŦ Says LaL Le common law as generally noL
been preempLedţ because Le sLaLuLes almosL all ave savlngs clauses LaL say Ley do noL
preempLŦ
ll) 1e oLer beneflL of sLaLuLory law ls LaL lL can make LorL clalms easler by allowlng for negllgence
per seŦ Makes proof of breac of duLy easler ln negllgence casesŦ CuoLes survey sowlng lncrease
ln nulsance clalms slnce Le passage of envlronmenLal leglslaLlon Ǝ noLes LaL envlronmenLal
problems were aL Lelr peak durlng Le common law eraţ buL mosL ma[or problems ave been
allevlaLed ln Le age of sLaLuLesŦ
d) Ldward 8runeLţ uebunklng Wolesale ÞrlvaLe LnforcemenL of LnvlronmenLal 8lgLs
l) noLes problems w/ LorL soluLlonsŦ Plg LransacLlon cosLs can prevenL mlnor ln[urles from belng
remedledŦ 8ecovery ofLen requlres cooperaLlon of Le adversary uŦ ln addlLlonţ a large amounL of
Le recovery goes Lo pay Le legal feesŦ
e) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
l) lree markeL envlronmenLallsLs belleve Le governmenL's prlmary role ln envlronmenLal proLecLlon
sould be Le creaLlon Ǝ enforcemenL of clear properLy rlgLs ln naLural resourcesţ raLer Lan
command Ǝ conLrol regulaLlonŦ
ll) 1ere are speclflc areas ln wlc federal envlronmenLal law does preempL sLaLe LorL lawţ and ln
dolng so may well ave lncreased Le accepLable level of exposure Lo envlronmenLal armsţ suc as
by relylng on lnformaLlon from Le manufacLurers LaL are belng regulaLedţ wlc ls noL nearly as
proLecLlve Lo people wo are exposed as sLaLe LorL law would beŦ
3) °°ectlcot vŦ Ametlco° ílecttlc let mpo°yţ l°cŦţ 382 lŦ3d 309 (2d lrŦ 2009) Ŷ posLed on 1WLn
a) ÞreempLlon/ulsplacemenL
l) ulsplacemenL Ŷ federal sLaLuLe dlsplaces federal common law
ll) ÞreempLlon Ŷ federal sLaLuLes preempLs sLaLe common law
b) 8esLaLemenL Ƈ 821b
l) LlemenLs
(1) unreasonable lnLerference
(a) Þubllc ealL/safeLy/comforL
(b)onducL proscrlbed by sLaLuLe
(c) onLlnulng or permanenL/longŴlasLlng naLure
(2) 8lgL common Lo Le general publlc
c) us argumenLs Ŷ general feel of Lls ls LaL Ley're flgLlng Lls clalm on every posslble angle
l) Cnly applles Lo ºslmple" nulsances
ll) Cnly applles Lo ouL of sLaLe sources
lll) MusL be noxlous/polsonous maLerlal
lv) MusL be an lmmedlaLe ln[ury
v) MusL be locallzed
d) uld us go Loo far Ŷ ls Lelr poslLlon sancLlonable (lack of auLorlLy for argumenLsţ Laklng language ouL
of conLexLţ eLcŦ)?


Chapter 3 Ŷ 1he Adm|n|strat|ve Law of the Lnv|ronment
1) 1e AdmlnlsLraLlve ueclslon Maklng Þrocess
13 | Þ a g e


a) lnLroducLlon
l) AL Le federal level agencles suc as Le LÞA (creaLed ln 1970) lmplemenL Le general pollcles seL
by ongressŦ AdmlnlsLraLlve agencles can affecL Le envlronmenL ln Lree prlnclpal waysť
(1) underLaklng acLlons LaL ave envlronmenLal effecLs
(2) Llcenslng or permlLLlng acLlvlLles by oLers LaL ave envlronmenLal effecLs
(3) AdopLlng regulaLlons or oLer pollcles LaL lmpacL envlronmenLal quallLy
ll) nLÞA lmposes an obllgaLlon on federal agencles Lo lncorporaLe envlronmenLal concerns lnLo Lelr
declslon maklng processesŦ
lll) AdmlnlsLraLlve Þrocedure AcL (1946) Ŷ sougL Lo address concerns abouL Le growlng power of Le
admlnlsLraLlve agencles by prescrlblng agency procedures Ǝ dellneaLlng Le role of Le courLs ln
revlewlng agency acLlons
b) Agency Þollcymaklng AlLernaLlves
l) lnLro
(1) 1wo ways agencles make pollcyť 1) rulemaklng and 2) ad[udlcaLlon
(2) ongress may speclfy ln a parLlcular sLaLuLe wlc meLod an agency musL followţ buL
oLerwlse Le agency musL follow Le AÞAŦ
ll) ku|emak|ng
(1) lnLro
(a) AÞA deflnlLlon of a ruleť ºLe wole or a parL of an agency sLaLemenL of general or parLlcular
appllcablllLy and fuLure effecL deslgned Lo lmplemenLţ lnLerpreLţ or prescrlbe law or pollcy"
(b)1roug a ruleţ an agency can announce a coerenL Ǝ compreenslve pollcy response ln an
area under lLs auLorlLy on a case by case basls (Lls ls Le ldea of a slngle rule lnsLead of
1000 lndlvldual deLermlnaLlons)Ŧ
(c) 1wo baslc Lypesť formal Ǝ lnformal
(2) l°€tmol / Ntlce Ǝ mme°t kolemokl°–
(a) AÞA Ƈ 333 Ŷ Le AÞA requlres noLlce of proposed regulaLlons Lo be publlsed ln Le federal
reglsLer (wlL some excepLlonsţ suc as for lnLerpreLlve Ǝ procedural rules)ţ afLer wlc
ºlnLeresLed persons" can submlL daLaţ vlewsţ or argumenLsŦ
(l) AfLer conslderlng Le commenLsţ Le agency musL publls Le flnal rule along wlL a
ºconclse general sLaLemenL of żlLsŽ basls Ǝ purpose" ln Le lederal 8eglsLerŦ
(b)lnformal rulemaklng refers Lo rulemaklng under AÞA Ƈ 333 Ǝ ls Le mosL common and
slgnlflcanL form of rulemaklngŦ
(c) 1e AÞA lmposes only mlnlmal requlremenLs for lnformal rulemaklngŦ
(d)SC1uS vermonL ankee declslon Ŷ Le courLs cannoL lmpose addlLlonal procedures on Lop
of Lose lmposed by Le AÞA or sLaLuLeŦ
(e) lnformal rulemaklng ls ofLen dlfflculLţ expenslveţ and LlmeŴconsumlngŦ Agencles ofLen
provlde deLalled explanaLlons Ǝ responses Lo publlc commenLs Lo elp wlLsLand llkely
courL callengesŦ
(3) ltmol kolemokl°–
(a) lormal rulemaklng occurs wen an agency's auLorlzlng sLaLuLe requlres LaL rules be made
ºon Le record" followlng a earlngŦ
(b)1e process ls slmllarţ buL before lssulng Le flnal ruleţ Le agency musL conducL a LrlalŴLype
earlng and provlde lnLeresLed persons an opporLunlLy Lo LesLlfyţ submlL evldenceţ and
crossŴexamlne adverse wlLnessesŦ
(4) íxempt kolemokl°–
14 | Þ a g e


(a) 1ese lnclude (a) lnLerpreLlve rulesţ (b) general pollcy sLaLemenLsţ (c) procedural rulesţ and
(d) wen lL ls lmpracLlcalţ unnecessaryţ eLcŦ
(b)1e dlfference ls LaL Le noLlce Ǝ commenL process ls bypassedŦ
(3) Ne–tloteJ kolemokl°–
(a) 1ls ls covered under Le negoLlaLed 8ulemaklng AcL of 1990Ŧ lederal agencles can conducL
negoLlaLlons among lnLeresLed parLles Lo develop regulaLory proposalsŦ
(b)1ls allows lnLeresL groups Lo ave greaLer conLrol of rule conLenL Ǝ glves agencles a more
accuraLe plcLure of Le cosLs and beneflLs of pollcy alLernaLlvesŦ lL also reduces Le
llkellood of Le ma[or players callenglng Le ruleŦ
(c) AfLer agreemenLţ Le appllcable noLlce Ǝ commenL process (or formal rulemaklng process lf
appllcable) sLlll musL be followed LooŦ
lll) Ad[ud|cat|on
(1) lnLro
(a) An agency also ad[udlcaLes lndlvldual casesţ decldes weLer a person's conducL complles
wlL Le laws and rules LaL Le agency admlnlsLersţ and lmposes sancLlons for vlolaLlonsŦ
(2) ltmol AJjoJlcotl°
(a) AÞA Ƈ 334(a) Ŷ Le sLandards for formal ad[udlcaLlon apply wen ad[udlcaLlon ls ºrequlred
by sLaLuLe Lo be deLermlned on Le record afLer opporLunlLy for an agency earlngŦ"
(b)1usţ lL requlres noLlce Ǝ opporLunlLy for Le submlsslon Ǝ conslderaLlon of facLs ln
addlLlon Lo a LrlalŴLype earlng Ǝ declslonŦ
(3) l°€tmol AJjoJlcotl°
(a) MosL agency declslons affecLlng Le envlronmenL are made by lnformal ad[udlcaLlonŦ
(b)1ese do noL need Lo be ºon Le recordŦ"
(c) 1e AÞA does noL expllclLly cover Lese Lypes of declslonsţ buL Le agencles ave developed
Lelr own procedures and Le courLs ave lmposed mlnlmum sLandards of due processţ
requlrlng an admlnlsLraLlve record and an explanaLlon for eac declslonŦ
(4) Ad[udlcaLlon aL LÞA (ºuas|Ŵ[ud|c|a|" sLrucLure)
(a) LÞA sLrucLureť
(l) 8eglns wlL Adm|n|strat|ve Law Iudges (ALIs)ţ wlc acL as Lrlal [udges maklng flndlngs
of facLţ drawlng concluslons of law and lssulng [udgmenLs ln Le form of declslonsŦ
1Ŧ Cne lmporLanL role for AL!s ls Lo rule ln enforcemenL acLlons on LÞA requesLs for
clvll penalLles agalnsL polluLers under varlous envlronmenLal sLaLuLesŦ
(ll) 1en appeals can be made Lo Le Lnv|ronmenta| Appea|s 8oard (LA8)ţ wlc conducLs
de novo revlewŦ
(lll)lurLer appeal Lo Le federal courLs depends on Le sLaLuLe lnvolvedŦ
c) Agency Þower Ǝ lLs LlmlLs
l) 1e nondelegaLlon uocLrlne
(1) ongress can delegaLe as long as Le leglslaLlon prescrlbes baslc pollcy and conLalns crlLerla LaL
are sufflclenLly clear Lo enable ongressţ Le courLsţ and Le publlc Lo ascerLaln weLer Le
agency as conformed wlL Lose sLandardsŦ
(2) ongress AnnC1 excesslvely delegaLe dlscreLlonary auLorlLy Lo agenclesţ LougŦ
(3) 1e docLrlne was mosL promlnenL [usL before Le new ueal Ǝ was used Lo lnvalldaLe a number
of new ueal sLaLuLesţ buL Len was baslcally dormanL unLll a 1980 8enqulsL declslonţ buL Len
Le broad vlew of delegaLlon was reafflrmed ln a 2001 Scalla oplnlonŦ
ll) ongresslonal Supervlslon of AdmlnlsLraLlve Agencles
1S | Þ a g e


(1) ongress can revlew and dlsprove of agency rules before Ley Lake effecLŦ ongress also as
oLer meansţ suc as lLs power over an agency's budgeLŦ
lll) LxecuLlve Supervlslon of AdmlnlsLraLlve Agencles
(1) ÞresldenL can lnfluence agency pollcy Lroug Le appolnLmenL of offlcersŦ Þrlnclpal offlcers
requlre advlce and consenL of Le SenaLeţ buL ÞC1uS can usually remove Lem aL wlllŦ
2) !udlclal 8evlew of Agency AcLlon
a) MusL demonsLraLe LaL Le courL as [urlsdlcLlon and LaL sLandlng and oLer [usLlclablllLy
requlremenLs are meLŦ
b) 8evlewablllLy Ǝ Scope of 8evlew
l) LxcerpLs from Le AdmlnlsLraLlve Þrocedure AcL
(1) 8aslcally Le AÞA provldes for [udlclal revlew of agency acLlon made revlewable by sLaLuLe and
flnal agency acLlon for wlc Lere ls no oLer adequaLe remedy ln courLŦ
(2) !udlclal revlew ls unavallable wen (1) Le sLaLuLe precludes lL and/or (2) were agency acLlon ls
commlLLed Lo agency dlscreLlon by lawŦ
ll) lLlzens Lo Þreserve CverLon Þarkţ lncŦ vŦ volpe (1971) pŦ 98
(1) 1ls case ls really abouL [udlclal revlew of agency acLlon Ŷ ºlnformal agency ad[udlcaLlonŦ"
8aslcallyţ Le sLandard ls abuse of dlscreLlon (arblLrary Ǝ caprlclous)Ŧ
(2) 1e ourL goes Lroug a 3ŴsLep analyslsť (1) dld Le secreLary acL w/ln ls auLorlLyţ (2) was
Le colce arblLrary or caprlclousţ and (3) were Le procedural requlremenLs saLlsfledŦ 1e
lssue ere was w/ Le procedural requlremenLs b/c Le secreLary ad noL made formal flndlngsŦ
Poweverţ Le ourL deLermlned LaL on remand Le admlnlsLraLlve record may provlde
supporLţ or Le SecreLary may be able Lo prepare formal flndlngs LaL provlde an adequaLe
explanaLlon for lLs acLlonţ and Lo Le exLenL LaL Ley wlll be ºposL ocţ" Ley wlll need Lo be
revlewed crlLlcally upon remandŦ
lll) evronţ uŦSŦAŦţ lncŦ vŦ naLural 8esources uefense ouncll (1984) pŦ 107
(1) 1ls case seLs forL a 2Ŵpronged analysls for [udlclal revlew of agency lnLerpreLaLlons of lawť
(a) uld ongress speak Lo Le maLLer? lf Le lnLenL of ongress ls clearţ Len LaL ends Le
analyslsŦ
(b)lf ongress ls sllenL on Le maLLerţ Len ls Le agency's lnLerpreLaLlon based upon a
permlsslble consLrucLlon of Le sLaLuLe?
(2) Þrovldes for deference Lo agency b/c lL ls usually besL equlpped Lo deal w/ Lecnlcal maLLersŦ
lv) noLes Ǝ Cs
(1) uS vŦ Mead Ŷ provlded for several levels of deferenceţ wlL evron belng Le lgesLŦ Lesser
deference ls someLlmes referred Lo as ºSkldmore respecLº and ls used wen Le regulaLory
sceme ls lgly deLalled and Le agency can brlng Le beneflL of speclallzed experlence Lo bear
on Le subLle quesLlonŦ
c) SLandlng
l) onsLlLuLlonal SLandlng
(1) Lu[an vŦ uefenders of Wlldllfe (1992) pŦ 113
(a) SLandlng requlres (1) ln[ury ln facLţ (2) causal connecLlonţ and (3) redressablllLyŦ
(b)Pereţ Le Þs dld noL ave sLandlng b/c Ley only ad a generallzed grlevance abouL maybe
never belng able Lo see a LreaLened specles LaL one of Lem ad never even seen beforeŦ
1ey ad no plans Lo go Lo Srl Lanka Lo see Le specles (Lls goes Lo Le ln[ury ln facL
elemenL)Ŧ
16 | Þ a g e


(c) 1e oplnlon conLlnues on ln a parL LaL ls noL Le oplnlon of Le ourLţ saylng LaL Le
blggesL lssue ls redressablllLy b/c Le agencles fundlng Le pro[ecLs were noL parLles Lo Le
caseŦ
(2) noLes Ǝ Cs
(a) Croups can sue for arm Lo Le groupŦ 1ey can also sue on bealf of Lelr members lf Ley
meeL Le 3ŴparL ºPunL" LesLť (1) lLs members would oLerwlse ave sLandlng Lo sue ln Lelr
own rlgLţ (2) Le lnLeresLs lL seeks Lo proLecL are germane Lo Le organlzaLlon's purposeţ
and (3) nelLer Le clalm asserLed nor Le rellef requesLed requlres Le parLlclpaLlon of
lndlvldual membersŦ
(3) MassacuseLLs vŦ LÞA (2007) pŦ 127
(a) Several sLaLes and oLer enLlLles sued Le LÞA saylng LaL lL abdlcaLed lLs responslblllLy
under Le AA Lo regulaLe varlous greenouse gasesţ suc as C2Ŧ
(b)1e ourL deLermlned LaL lL was noL a pollLlcal quesLlonţ an advlsory oplnlonţ or mooLŦ
1en lL clLes Le Lu[an caseţ noLlng LaL ln[urles musL be (1) concreLe Ǝ parLlcularţ (2)
acLual/lmmlnenLţ (3) falrly Lraceable (proxlmaLely caused)ţ and (4) redressableŦ 1e ourL
Len noLes LaL ongress can confer a procedural rlgL LaL loosens Le requlremenLs for
redressablllLyŦ 1e ourL also dlsLlngulses Lu[an ln LaL ere Le Þs are sLaLes sulng ln Lelr
capaclLy as quaslŴsoverelgnsŦ lL also noLes LaL Le sLaLes cannoL enforce Lls on Lelr own
b/c Ley surrendered Le power wen Ley [olned Le unlonţ so Ley musL rely on Le LÞA
Lo do soŦ
(c) 1e ourL goes Lroug Le analyslsŸln[uryţ causaLlonţ and remedyţ and lL concludes LaL
MassacuseLLs as sLandlng Lo callenge Le LÞA's denlal of Lelr rulemaklng peLlLlonŦ
(d)8oberLs' dlssenL says LaL Le sLandlng requlremenL sould be Le same for all parLlesţ
weLer sLaLes or noLŦ Pe also goes Lroug Le oLer elemenLs and generally dlsagrees
wlL Le concluslons of Le ma[orlLyŦ
ll) nonŴonsLlLuLlonal / ÞrudenLlal SLandlng
(1) Cenerally
(a) MusL fall w/ln Le ºzone of lnLeresLs" LaL Le sLaLuLe ls deslgned Lo proLecLţ buL cannoL sue
for generallzed grlevances and cannoL sue on bealf of a Llrd parLyŦ
(2) 8enneLL vŦ Spear (1997) pŦ 138
(a) llnds clalm ls w/ln zone of lnLeresLs of sLaLuLes wen callenglng a crlLlcal ablLaL llsLlng as
vlolaLlng Le requlremenLs of Le LSA and AÞAŦ
d) 8lpenessţ LxausLlonţ Ǝ MooLness
l) 8lpeness
ll) LxausLlon of AdmlnlsLraLlve 8emedles
lll) MooLness

Chapter 4 Ŷ Lnv|ronmenta| Iedera||sm
1) PlsLorlcal Ǝ 1eoreLlcal 8ackground
a) Cenerally
l) Cooperat|ve Iedera||sm Ŷ Le federal governmenL seLs Le sLandards buL allows Le sLaLes Lo
assume responslblllLy for lmplemenLlng Lem
b) 8lcard 8Ŧ SLewarLţ Þyramlds of Sacrlflce? Þroblems of lederallsm ln MandaLlng SLaLe lmplemenLaLlon
of naLlonal LnvlronmenLal Þollcy
l) ÞroŴcenLrallzaLlon of power Ŷ Lragedy of Le commonsţ economles of scaleţ compeLlLlve
dlsadvanLage Ǝ dlsparlLles ln represenLaLlon
17 | Þ a g e


2) ooperaLlve lederallsm Ŷ Le besL of boL worlds
a) 8oberL LŦ llscmanţ ooperaLlve lederallsm Ǝ naLural 8esources Law
l) uual lederallsm Ŷ sLaLes Ǝ federal governmenL operaLe lndependenLly
ll) ooperaLlve lederallsm Ŷ coordlnaLlon beLween sLaLe Ǝ federal efforLs
b) Alaska ueparLmenL of LnvlronmenLal onservaLlon vŦ uŦSŦ LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Agency (2004) pŦ
139
l) lssue ls waL role Le LÞA as ln a sLaLe agency's deLermlnaLlonŦ 1e sLaLe and LÞA are essenLlally
flgLlng over weLer Le LÞA can sLep ln and force compllance w/ Le WAŦ 1e ourL olds LaL
Le LÞA canţ buL lL's a 3Ŵ4 declslon w/ Le Scalla/1omas slde dlssenLlngŦ
3) Source of Ǝ LlmlLs on lederal Þower
a) Source of lederal Þower
l) 1e ommerce lause Ŷ new uealţ Lopezţ Morrlsonţ Ǝ 8alc
(1) 8anco vle[oţ LL vŦ norLon (uŦŦ lrŦ 2003) pŦ 173
(a) allenge Lo LÞA as vlolaLlon of Le commerce clause (seems llke Lopez/Morrlson mlgL
ave sparked Lls callengeţ Llnklng LaL maybe Le ourL was golng Lo conLlnue Lo pull
back on lLs expanslve readlng of Le commerce clause)
(b)4 Lopez facLorsť
(l) WeLer Le regulaLed acLlvlLy as anyLlng Lo do w/ commerce or any sorL of economlc
enLerprlse
(ll) WeLer Le sLaLuLe conLalns any express [urlsdlcLlonal elemenL
(lll)WeLer Lere are any express ongresslonal flndlngs
(lv)WeLer Le relaLlonslp beLween Le regulaLed acLlvlLy and lnLersLaLe commerce ls Loo
aLLenuaLed Lo be subsLanLlal
(c) 8uL Lere ls also a ºpresumpLlon of consLlLuLlonallLy" for congresslonal leglslaLlon
(d)ourL ulLlmaLely dlsLlngulses Lopez Ǝ Morrlson Ǝ flnds LaL Le LSA ls consLlLuLlonal
(2) 8anco vle[oţ LL vŦ norLon (uŦŦ lrŦ 2003 Ŷ Lls was nowŴclefŴ[usLlce 8oberLs' dlssenL from
denlal of reearlng en banc) pŦ 181
(a) º1e panel's oplnlon ln effecL asks weLer Le callenged 8LCuLA1lCn subsLanLlally
affecLs lnLersLaLe commerceţ raLer Lan weLer Le A1lvl1 belng regulaLed does soŦ"
(b)8oberLs noLes LaL under Lls loglcţ boL Lopez and Morrlson would ave come ouL Le
oLer wayŦ Moreoverţ Le 3
L
lrculL agreedŦ
(3) noLes Ǝ Cs
(a) AggregaLlon uocLrlne
(b)Slnce 1997 4 clrculLs ave examlned Le consLlLuLlonallLy of Le LSA Ǝ all ave upeld lLţ buL
for dlfferenL reasons
(c) MosL commenLaLors agree LaL weLlands proLecLlon ls Le oLer federal envlronmenLal
program mosL vulnerable under Le commerce clauseŦ
(d)1o daLeţ no federal courL as sLruck down any federal envlronmenLal law under Le
commerce clauseŦ
ll) CLer Sources of lederal Þower
(1) 1e 1reaLy Þower
(2) 1e ÞroperLy Þower
(3) 1e Spendlng Þower
b) LlmlLs of lederal Þower
l) new ork vŦ unlLed SLaLes (1992) pŦ 183
18 | Þ a g e


(1) ou already know Lls case from on law Ŷ Le federal governmenL can encourageţ buL noL
compelţ Le sLaLes Lo enforce federal lawsŦ
4) LlmlLs on SLaLe Þower
a) 1e uormanL ommerce lause
l) Ǝ A arboneţ lncŦ vŦ 1own of larksLonţ new ork (1994) pŦ 194
(1) unconsLlLuLlonal under Le dormanL commerce clause b/c ls local regulaLlon of lnLersLaLe
commerce (ordered Lown Lo dlspose of all wasLe ln Le new Lransfer sLaLlon Lo pay for Le cosL
of Le sLaLlon)Ŧ
ll) unlLed Paulers Ass'n vŦ CneldaŴPerklmer Solld WasLe ManagemenL AuLorlLy
(1) (dld noL ouLllne Le resL of Le capLer)
b) ÞreempLlon
l) lean Alr MarkeLs Croup vŦ ÞaLakl
ll) Lnglne ManufacLurers Ass'n vŦ SouL oasL Alr CuallLy ManagemenL ulsLrlcL

Chapter S Ŷ NLÞA Ǝ the Þower of Informat|on
1) lnLroducLlon Lo Le nLÞA
a) LxcerpLs from nLÞA
l) Þurpose ƹ (1) declare a naLlonal pollcyţ and (2) esLablls ouncll on LnvlronmenLal CuallLy
ll) 8road language abouL uslng ºall pracLlcable means and measuresţ" eac generaLlon belng a LrusLee
of Le envlronmenLţ eLcŦ
lll) uL1AlLLu S1A1LMLn1ť All federal agencles requlred Lo ºlnclude ln every recommendaLlon or
reporL on proposals for leglslaLlon and oLer ma[or federal acLlons slgnlflcanLly affecLlng Le quallLy
of Le uman envlronmenL a deLalled sLaLemenL" ouLllnlng (1) envlronmenLal lmpacLŦ (2) adverse
envlronmenL lmpacLs LaL cannoL be avoldedţ (3) alLernaLlvesţ (4) sorLŴLerm vŦ longŴLermţ and (3)
any lrreverslble commlLmenLs of resources
lv) MusL confer w/ relevanL slsLer agencles
v) 42 uS Ƈ 4332(2)() Ŷ any ºma[or federal acLlonżŽ slgnlflcanLly affecLlng Le quallLy of Le uman
envlronmenL" requlres an LlS
b) ulna 8ear ArLlcle
l) LC ƹ ouncll on LnvlronmenLal CuallLy Ŷ 3 Members LaL (1) provlde an annual reporLţ (2) advlse
Le presldenLţ and (3) documenL envlronmenLal Lrends
ll) nlxon ordered LC Lo develop guldellnes for preparlng LlSs
lll) arLer upped Le anLeţ orderlng LC Lo esLablls blndlng LlS regulaLlons (no longer [usL guldellnes)
lv) Poweverţ Le regs are generlc and eac agency musL prepare lLs own nLÞA procedures
v) A1LCC8lAL LxLuSlCnSť acLs w/ln predeslgnaLed caLegorles LaL do noL ave a slgnlflcanL effecL
on envlronmenL Ǝ requlre no documenLaLlonŦ
vl) Lnvl8CnMLn1AL ASSLSSMLn1Sť baslcally Lese are [usL brlef prellmlnary reporLs Lo deLermlne
weLer a full LlS ls neededŤ also as a few oLer purposesţ suc as aldlng an agency's compllance
w/ nLÞA wen no LlS ls neededŦ 8esulLs ln elLer LlS or lCnSlŦ LAs are publlc docsŦ
vll)Lnvl8CnMLn1 lMÞA1 S1A1LMLn1Sť used by federal offlclals Lo plan acLlons and make declslons
(1) SLep 1 Ŷ flle nCl ln federal reglsLer
(2) SLep 2 Ŷ ºscoplng" process Ŷ lnvolves lnLeresLed parLles and agencles and deLermlnes scope of
Le lssues relaLed Lo Le LlS
(3) SLep 3 Ŷ lnlLlal drafL of LlS
19 | Þ a g e


(a) 1e LlS ls prepared elLer by Le lead agency or by a conLracLorţ buL Le lead agency
ALWAS as Le duLy Lo lndependenLly evaluaLe any lnformaLlon recelved from Le varlous
parLlesŦ
(b)urafL clrculaLes for 43 days Ǝ relevanL agencles commenLŦ Agency musL respond Lo Le
commenLs ln Le flnal drafL of Le LlS Ǝ send a copy of Le flnal verslon Lo all parLles wo
commenLedŦ
(c) 1en comes a 30Ŵ90 day walLlng perlodŦ
(4) 1en a declslon ls madeţ wlc requlres a 8LC8u Cl uLlSlCn ldenLlfylng wlc alLernaLlves
were conslderedţ Le facLors conslderedţ eLcŦ
c) alverL llffs' oordlnaLlng ommlLLeeţ lncŦ vŦ uŦSŦ ALomlc omm'n (uŦŦ lrŦ 1971) pŦ 233
l) 1ls was Le 1
sL
lmporLanL [udlclal lnLerpreLaLlon of nLÞAŦ
ll) 8aslcally says LaL nLÞA ls flexlble w/ Le subsLanLlve resulLs LaL agencles reac so long as Le
sLrlcL procedural requlremenLs are followedŦ
lll) nLÞA mandaLes 8ALAnlnC of envlronmenLal conslderaLlons w/ oLer conslderaLlons ln agency
declslon maklng processesŦ
lv) !udlclal revlew ls llmlLed Lo arblLrary Ǝ caprlclous Ŷ agency musL noL ave consldered and balanced
Le envlronmenLal facLors ln good falLŦ
d) SLryker's 8ay nelgborood ouncllţ lncŦ vŦ karlen (1980) pŦ 233
l) 1ls was Le case abouL Le low lncome ouslng pro[ecL ln ManaLLanŤ a scool and nelgbors
were aLLempLlng Lo en[oln Puu's pro[ecLŦ
ll) SC1uS baslcally reaces a very slmllar resulL as Le uŦŦ lrculL ln Le above caseţ says more or
less LaL Le courL can only overLurn a declslon lf lL ls based on arblLrary procedureŤ Le courL does
noL revlew Le subsLanLlve aspecLs of Le declslonŦ
e) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
l) º8ecause nLÞA does noL conLaln a [udlclal revlew provlslonţ revlew ls conducLed under Le AÞA Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ
Ŧ SC1uS Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ as conslsLenLly refused Lo permlL subsLanLlve revlew of agency declslons under
nLÞAŦ"
ll) nLÞA merely prolblLs unlnformedţ LaL Lan unwlseţ agency acLlonŦ
2) 1e uuLy Lo Þrepare an LlS
a) º8ecommendaLlon or 8eporL on Þroposals"
l) LxcerpLs from ouncll on LnvlronmenLal CuallLy (LC) 8egulaLlons
(1) ºAn agency sall commence preparaLlon of an LlS as close as posslble Lo Le Llme Le agency ls
developlng or ls presenLed wlL a proposal so LaL preparaLlon can be compleLed ln Llme for Le
flnal sLaLemenL Lo be lncluded ln any recommendaLlon or reporL on Le proposalŦ"
(2) MusL be prepared early enoug Lo ºserve pracLlcally as an lmporLanL conLrlbuLlon Lo Le
declslonŴmaklng process and wlll noL be used Lo raLlonallze or [usLlfy declslons already madeŦ
(3) ºltp¾ol exlsLs aL LaL sLage ln Le developmenL of an acLlon wen żan agencyŽ as a goal and
ls acLlvely preparlng Lo make a declslon on one or more alLernaLlve means of accompllslng
LaL goal and Le effecLs can be meanlngfully evaluaLedŦ
ll) kleppe vŦ Slerra lub (1976) pŦ 239
(1) ourL of appeals ad creaLed a 4ŴparL balanclng LesL for deLermlnlng wen an agency musL
begln preparaLlon of an LlSŦ SC1uS says Le courL erred b/c nLÞA ls clear Ŷ Le agency musL
ave a flnal sLaLemenL ready wen lL makes a recommendaLlon or reporL on a proposal for
federal acLlonŦ
lll) MeLcalf vŦ ualey (9
L
lrŦ 2000) pŦ 242
20 | Þ a g e


(1) 1ls was Le Maka Lrlbe wallng caseŦ 1e lssue was LaL Le naLlonal Cceanlc and
ALmosperlc AdmlnlsLraLlon (nCAA) enLered lnLo an agreemenL wlL Le Lrlbe allowlng Le
Lrlbe Lo resume wallng before beglnnlng Le nLÞA processŦ An envlronmenLal group suedŦ
1e nCAA responded by lssulng an LA and lCnSl and enLerlng lnLo a new agreemenL wlL Le
MakaŦ 1e ourL baslcally sald LaL Lls was Loo laLe and LaL Le LA was llkely slanLed ln Lls
caseŦ
lv) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) 8emedy ln a nLÞA acLlon ls normally an ln[uncLlon pendlng preparaLlon of an adequaLe LA or
LlSŦ
(2) LxempLlons from nLÞAť
(a) SLaLuLory onfllcL (eŦgŦţ wen anoLer sLaLuLe lmposes a sLrlcL deadllne)
(b)SLaLuLory LxempLlons (mosL LÞA acLlons under Le AA Ǝ WA are exempLed)
(c) luncLlonal Lqulvalence Ŷ Lls really ls used [usL Lo allow Le LÞA Lo acL qulckly w/o glvlng
Le LÞA a blankeL exempLlon
(d)MlnlsLerlal AcLs Ŷ nLÞA does noL apply wen Le federal agency as no dlscreLlon Lo Lake
envlronmenLal effecLs lnLo accounL
(e) aLegorlcal Lxcluslons Ŷ an agency can go Lroug a formal procedure deLermlnlng LaL a
class of acLlons does noL ave a slgnlflcanL envlronmenLal effecLţ and no LA or LlS ls needed
for acLlons w/ln Lese classes
b) ºMa[or lederal AcLlons"
l) LxcerpLs from ouncll on LnvlronmenLal CuallLy 8egulaLlons

40 ŦlŦ8Ŧ Ƈ 1308Ŧ23 ScopeŦ
cpe conslsLs of Le range of acLlonsţ alLernaLlvesţ and lmpacLs Lo be consldered ln an envlronmenLal lmpacL
sLaLemenLŦ 1e scope of an lndlvldual sLaLemenL may depend on lLs relaLlonslps Lo oLer sLaLemenLs
(ƇƇ1302Ŧ20 and 1308Ŧ28)Ŧ 1o deLermlne Le scope of envlronmenLal lmpacL sLaLemenLsţ agencles sall
conslder 3 Lypes of acLlonsţ 3 Lypes of alLernaLlvesţ and 3 Lypes of lmpacLsŦ 1ey lncludeť
(a) Act|ons (oLer Lan unconnecLed slngle acLlons) wlc may beť
(1) onnecLed acLlonsţ wlc means LaL Ley are closely relaLed and Lerefore sould be
dlscussed ln Le same lmpacL sLaLemenLŦ AcLlons are connecLed lf Leyť
(l) AuLomaLlcally Lrlgger oLer acLlons wlc may requlre envlronmenLal lmpacL
sLaLemenLsŦ
(ll) annoL or wlll noL proceed unless oLer acLlons are Laken prevlously or
slmulLaneouslyŦ
(lll) Are lnLerdependenL parLs of a larger acLlon and depend on Le larger acLlon for Lelr
[usLlflcaLlonŦ
(2) umulaLlve acLlonsţ wlc wen vlewed wlL oLer proposed acLlons ave cumulaLlvely
slgnlflcanL lmpacLs and sould Lerefore be dlscussed ln Le same lmpacL sLaLemenLŦ
(3) Slmllar acLlonsţ wlc wen vlewed wlL oLer reasonably foreseeable or proposed agency
acLlonsţ ave slmllarlLles LaL provlde a basls for evaluaLlng Lelr envlronmenLal consequences
LogeLerţ suc as common Llmlng or geograpyŦ An agency may wls Lo analyze Lese acLlons ln
Le same lmpacL sLaLemenLŦ lL sould do so wen Le besL way Lo assess adequaLely Le
comblned lmpacLs of slmllar acLlons or reasonable alLernaLlves Lo suc acLlons ls Lo LreaL Lem
ln a slngle lmpacL sLaLemenLŦ
(b) A|ternat|vesţ wlc lncludeť
(1) no acLlon alLernaLlveŦ
21 | Þ a g e


(2) CLer reasonable courses of acLlonsŦ
(3) MlLlgaLlon measures (noL ln Le proposed acLlon)Ŧ
(c) Impactsţ wlc may beť (1) ulrecLŤ (2) lndlrecLŤ (3) cumulaLlveŦ

ll) SouL arollna ex relŦ ampbell vŦ C'Leary (4
L
lrŦ 1993) pŦ 234
(1) 1ls ls a scope caseŦ uS agreed Lo Lake uranlum from oLer counLrles Lo reduce llkellood of
belng used ln nuclear weaponsŦ lull amounL requlred consLrucLlon of a faclllLy Ǝ LlSţ and uS
wanLed Lo brlng a small amounL over lmmedlaLely under [usL an LAţ wlc would be sLored ln
an exlsLlng faclllLyŦ S sued Lo en[oln under nLÞAŦ
(2) 1e ourL asks weLer Le smaller slpmenL fell w/ln one of Le 40 l8 Ƈ 1308Ŧ23(a) seLs of
acLlons LaL would requlre boL Le small slpmenL and Le large slpmenL Lo be consldered
LogeLerŦ ourL goes Lroug eac one and flnds can be evaluaLed separaLely w/ [usL an LAť
(a) onnecLed AcLlons? noţ b/c Le smaller slpmenL ls ºlndependenL Ǝ separableŦ" Cnly
preserves opLlon Lo accepL larger slpmenLŦ
(b)umulaLlve AcLlons? noţ b/c Le larger slpmenL ls by lLself sufflclenLţ lŦeŦţ lL doesn'L Lake
boL slpmenLs LogeLer Lo creaLe Le slgnlflcanL lmpacLŦ
(c) Slmllar AcLlons? Cnly slmllarlLy ls LaL boL slpmenLs are of spenL nuclear fuelŦ 1lmlngţ
source locaLlonţ eLcŦ are all dlfferenLŦ
(3) ulssenL Llnks Lls clrcumvenLs Le purpose of nLÞAŦ
lll) ka Makanl 'C koala Cana lncŦ vŦ ounLy of Pawal'l uep'L of WaLer Supply (9
L
lrŦ 2002) pŦ 238
(1) 1ls was a ºma[or federal acLlon" caseŦ
(2) ongress allocaLed $300k for a Pawall waLer pro[ecL LaL would ave been exempL from nLÞAŦ
1e pro[ecL was puL on oldţ and Le money was Len slaLed Lo be used ln anoLer pro[ecL LaL
was noL exempLŦ 1e courL found LaL Le swlLc dld noL Lrlgger Le need for an LlS b/c lL was
noL a ma[or federal acLlon Ŷ Le LoLal cosL of Le lnlLlal pro[ecL was $80 mllllonţ and Le LoLal
amounL offered by Le federal governmenL was $1Ŧ3 mllllonţ only 2Ʒ of Le LoLal cosLŦ ln
addlLlonţ alLoug an agency played an advlsory roleţ lL was noL a declslonŴmaklng oneŦ 1usţ
Le federal fundlng conLrlbuLlon dld noL Lransform Le enLlre lnlLlal pro[ecL lnLo a ma[or federal
acLlonŦ
lv) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) SegmenLaLlon Ŷ Lls ls Le ldea of purposely spllLLlng a pro[ecL lnLo small parLs ln an aLLempL Lo
avold Lrlggerlng nLÞAŦ
(2) Small Pandles Ŷ Lls ls anoLer aspecL of segmenLaLlonţ klnd of llke Le Pawall case above Ŷ lf
federal fundlng ls sougL for only a parL of a nonŴfederal pro[ecLţ sould Le nLÞA requlremenLs
ºswallow" Le enLlre pro[ecL?
(3) Plgway onsLrucLlon Ŷ sLaLes generally are noL able Lo deLermlne lgway rouLes by bulldlng
nonŴfederal segmenLs before seeklng federal fundlngţ buL a porLlon of a larger pro[ecL can be
consldered ln lsolaLlon lf lL as lndependenL uLlllLy Ǝ loglcal LermlnlŦ
(4) Cenerally nLÞA does noL apply ouLslde Le uSŦ
c) ºSlgnlflcanLly AffecLlng Le CuallLy of Le Puman LnvlronmenL"
l) LxcerpLs from ouncll on LnvlronmenLal CuallLy 8egulaLlons
(1) 8aslcally says ave Lo conslder cumulaLlve lmpacLţ ave Lo conslder boL dlrecL and lndlrecL
effecLsţ and deflnes ºslgnlflcanLly" as conslderlng boL Le conLexL and lnLenslLyŦ
ll) uep'L of 1ransporLaLlon vŦ Þubllc lLlzen (2004) pŦ 264
(1) 1ls case ls abouL cause and effecLŦ
22 | Þ a g e


(2) noLes LaL sLandard of revlew for agency's declslon weLer Lo prepare an LlS ls arb|trary and
capr|c|ous Ŷ Le noLes say LaL Lls seLLled a clrculL spllL on Le sLandard of revlewŦ
(3) lederal MoLor arrler SafeLy AdmlnlsLraLlon (lMSA) prepared an LA preŴnAl1A Ǝ found
lCnSlŦ AfLer nAl1Aţ Þ1uS llfLed a moraLorlum and Mexlcan Lrucks were allowed ln Le uSţ
wlc Le LA ad noL accounLed forŦ 1e ourL baslcally ls saylng LaL Le lMSA ad no duLy
Lo prepare an LlS b/c lMSA ad no conLrol over weLer Le ban was lssued Ŷ Le cause was
ÞC1uS llfLlng Le moraLorlumţ noL lMSA's acLlonŦ
lll) Slerra lub vŦ Mars (1
sL
lrŦ 1983) pŦ 270
(1) 1ls case ls abouL lndlrecL effecLsŦ
(2) Malne wanLed Lo develop an lsland LaL ad some federal fundlng and requlred a permlL from
Le Army orps of LnglneersŦ 1ere was a loL of conLroversy and lssulng and revlslng of varlous
LAsţ buL ln Le end Lere was a flndlng of lCnSl and no LlS was preparedŦ 1e courL ls saylng
LaL Le agencles needed Lo conslder Le lndlrecL effecL LaL Le developmenL pro[ecL would
ave ln almosL guaranLeelng Le developmenL of Le resL of Le lsland (wlc would requlre an
LlS)ţ and Lerefore Le lCnSl was lnapproprlaLe and an LlS needed Lo be preparedŦ
lv) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) 1e Mexlcan Lrucks case follows an esLabllsed llne of cases LaL say LaL nLÞA does noL apply
Lo nonŴdlscreLlonary federal declslonsŦ
(2) nLÞA does noL esLablls a prlvaLe rlgL of acLlonţ wlc means LaL sulLs musL be brougL
under Le AÞAŦ 8/c ÞC1uS ls noL an agencyţ ls compllance cannoL be callenged dlrecLlyŦ
(3) 1e Mexlcan Lrucks case also lllusLraLes LaL Le agency's acLlon musL be Le Þ8CxlMA1L cause
of Le envlronmenLal lmpacLŸºbuL for" causaLlon alone ls noL enougŦ lL musL be reasonable
Lo blame Le agency for Le lmpacLŦ
3) onLenLs of Le LlS
a) LxcerpLs from ouncll on LnvlronmenLal CuallLy 8egulaLlons
l) 8aslcally Lls ls [usL saylng LaL Le LlS musL conslder al Le reasonable alLernaLlves (lncludlng no
acLlon aL all) and [usLlfy lLs declslonŦ
ll) Also says LaL Le LlS musL descrlbe Le envlronmenL of Le areas LaL eac alLernaLlve wlll affecLŦ
b) lLlzens AgalnsL 8urllngLonţ lncŦ vŦ 8usey (uŦŦ lrŦ 1991) pŦ 277 (lnLeresLlnglyţ Lls was a larence
1omas u lr oplnlon)
l) 1ls case ls abouL Le deflnlLlon of ºalLernaLlves" ln LlS reporLsŦ
ll) 8e careful because Le 7
L
lr more sLrlcLly lnLerpreLs Le nLÞA requlremenLs Lan Le u lr dld
ereŦ
lll) 8aslcally Le ourL sald LaL Le lAA dld noL ave Lo conslder Le alrporL's locaLlon opLlons as
alLernaLlves Ŷ Le agency as Lo conslder reasonable alLernaLlves Lo |ts own acLlonţ noL Le
appllcanL/Llrd parLy's alLernaLlvesŦ
c) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
l) nLÞA's requlremenL LaL a federal agency conslder alLernaLlves Lo lLs proposed acLlons ls
somewaL broader Lan Le LlS requlremenLŦ Pow far an agency as Lo go lsn'L easy Lo deflneŦ
ll) ln Le caseţ Le lAA ad found ln lLs LlS LaL approvlng an acLlon requlred less Lan lf lAA were
acLually orlglnaLlng an acLlon Ŷ was noL a oldlng of Le courL buL seems llke lL mlgL be relevanL Lo
ow far an agency as Lo go ln conslderlng alLernaLlvesŦ
4) LvaluaLlng nLÞA
a) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
3) 8eyond nLÞAť lnformaLlon Ǝ Le MarkeL
a) 8radley Ŧ karkkalnen ArLlcle
23 | Þ a g e


l) 18l ƹ 1oxlc 8elease lnvenLoryŤ ls baslcally were cerLaln lndusLrlal faclllLles ave Lo reporL Loxlc
releases
ll) 1e 18l program as ad an lmpacLţ buL good 18l numbers don'L mean LaL Le companles are
necessarlly acLlng ln an envlronmenLally frlendly manner b/c Le 18ls don'L cover everyLlngŦ
b) llfford 8ecLscaffen ArLlcle
c) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons

Chapter 6 Ŷ Þub||c Ǝ Çuas|ŴÞub||c kesources
1) 8lodlverslLy ÞroLecLlon
a) PlsLorlcal 8ackground
l) 1800s leglslaLlon Ŷ 1e Lacey AcL Ŷ made lL a federal crlme Lo LransporL wlldllfe across sLaLe llnes ln
vlolaLlon of sLaLe law
ll) 1913 Ŷ MlgraLory 8lrd AcL Ŷ lmposed federal resLrlcLlons on unLlng of mlgraLory blrdsŤ was
declared unconsLlLuLlonalţ buL Len Le uS enLered lnLo a mlgraLory blrd LreaLy and ongress reŴ
passed Le acL and lL was upeld under Le 1reaLy ÞowerŦ
lll) 1973 Ŷ Lndangered Specles AcL
lv) SLaLe law remalns lmporLanLŦ lL ls Le prlmary source of unLlng Ǝ flslng regsţ even on federal
landsŦ Many sLaLes ave sLaLuLes proLecLlng specles recognlzed as endangered or LreaLened w/ln
Le sLaLeŤ Lls ls lmporLanL especlally for planLs b/c Le LSA prolblLs Le Laklng of planLs ln
vlolaLlon of sLaLe lawŦ CLerwlseţ landowners can legally desLroy federally llsLed planLs on Lelr
properLy unless forbldden Lo do so by sLaLe lawŦ
b) !usLlflcaLlons for 8lodlverslLy ÞroLecLlon
l) uoremus ArLlcle Ŷ bases for preservlng blodlverslLy lnclude (1) uLlllLarlan (eŦgŦţ planLs provldlng
oxygen and weLlands prevenLlng floodlng)ţ (2) esLeLlcţ and (3) eLlcalŤ suggesLs LaL umans ave
a speclal responslblllLy b/c of our power and awareness
ll) ÞrecauLlonary Þrlnclple Ŷ ldea ls ºbeLLer safe Lan sorry" Ǝ aLLempLs Lo lnsure LaL sclenLlflc
uncerLalnLy does noL unduly sLall proLecLlve efforLs
(1) Pas been lncorporaLed lnLo several lnLernaLlonal agreemenLs
(2) ºWere Lere are LreaLs of serlous or lrreverslble damageţ lack of full sclenLlflc cerLalnLy sall
noL be used as a reason for posLponlng cosLŴeffecLlve measures Lo prevenL envlronmenLal
degradaLlonŦ"
c) 1e Lndangered Specles AcLť 1e llagslp 8lodlverslLy SLaLuLe
l) Cvervlew
(1) 1e lWS (parL of Le uep'L of Le lnLerlor) malnLalns a llsL of specles deLermlned by regulaLlon
Lo be endangered or LreaLenedţ lncludlng Le ºcrlLlcal ablLaL" of eac llsLed speclesŦ
(2) LSA Ƈ 7 Ŷ lmposes duLy on federal agencles Lo carry ouL programs for Le conservaLlon of llsLed
speclesţ requlres federal agencles Lo ensure LaL acLlons LaL Ley carry ouLţ auLorlzeţ or fund
are noL llkely Lo [eopardlze any llsLed specles or arm lLs crlLlcal ablLaL
(a) 1reeŴsLep processť
(l) llrsLţ Le agency asks Le approprlaLe servlce weLer Lere are any endangered specles
ln Le pro[ecL areaţ
(ll) 1en Le agency makes a ºblologlcal assessmenL" Lo deLermlne lf Le acLlon wlll affecL
any endangered speclesţ and
(lll)lf soţ lL consulLs w/ Le servlceţ wlc lssues a ºblologlcal oplnlonţ" and lf Lere ls
[eopardyţ Le servlce musL suggesL reasonable alLernaLlves LaL would allow Le pro[ecL
Lo proceed w/o armlng Le speclesŦ
24 | Þ a g e


(b)ln pracLlceţ Ƈ 7 consulLaLlon rarely alLs pro[ecLsŦ
(3) LSA Ƈ 9 Ŷ applles Lo everyone Ǝ addresses Le ºLaklng" of planLs and anlmals
(a) ÞLAn1S Ŷ prolblLs desLrucLlon/removal on Le lg seas and ln vlolaLlon of sLaLe lawţ
prolblLs slpmenL/recelpL ln lnLersLaLe commerce
(b)AnlMALS Ŷ prolblLs ºLaklng" of endangered anlmals wlLln Le uS or on Le lg seas
(4) ÞenalLles ƹ up Lo $30k per vlolaLlon and lmprlsonmenL for up Lo one yearŦ
(3) lLlzen sulLs are avallable and successful Þs can recover aLLorney's feesŦ
ll) lederal AcLlvlLles
(1) LxcerpLs from Le LSA Ŵ Ƈ 7ţ duLles on agencles
(2) 1vA vŦ Plll (1978) pŦ 308
(a) 1ls case seems Lo be ere prlmarlly b/c lL was an early lnLerpreLaLlon of Le LSAŦ
(b)1e 1elllco uam was already belng bullL wen Le LSA was passedŦ 1e SecreLary of Le
lnLerlor llsLed Le snall darLer ln 1973 and llsLed Le 1elllco uam area as lLs crlLlcal ablLaLŦ
1e argumenL was LaL (1) Le pro[ecL was already underwayţ and (2) LaL ongress ad
essenLlally exempLed Le pro[ecL by allocaLlng fundlng for Le pro[ecL afLer passlng Le LSAŦ
(c) 1e ourL dlsmlssed Le argumenL LaL Le pro[ecL was already underway by noLlng Le
prlorlLy LaL ongress ad placed on preservlng endangered speclesţ wlc Le courL found
made cosL/beneflL analysls lrrelevanLŸLe LSA LrumpedŦ
(d)1e ourL dlsmlssed Le fundlng argumenL by noLlng LaL lL lsLorlcally as noL favored
ºrepeals by lmpllcaLlonŦ"
(e) Þowell dlssenLedţ readlng Le LSA as applylng only Lo prospecLlve acLlonsŦ
(3) nAP8 vŦ uefenders of Wlldllfe (2007) pŦ 316
(a) 1ls modern AllLo oplnlon mlgL be ln ere Lo conLrasL Le 1vA case Ŷ Le 1vA case reaced
an exLreme resulLţ and ere SC1uS ls pulllng back a blLŦ
(b)lssue ls apparenL confllcL beLween WA Ǝ LSA regardlng auLorlLy Lo lssue permlLs under
Le nÞuLS (naLlonal ÞolluLlon ulscarge LllmlnaLlon SysLem)ţ wlc under Le WA seems
Lo mandaLe Lransfer from Le LÞA Lo a sLaLe lf Le sLaLe meeLs nlne crlLerlaţ buL wlc under
Le LSA seems Lo requlre an LÞA deLermlnaLlon LaL specles wlll noL be [eopardlzed lf
permlL auLorlLy ls Lransferred Lo Le sLaLeŦ
(c) 1e agencles ave goLLen around Lls by noL applylng Le LSA provlslonţ LaL ls by
lnLerpreLlng Le LSA's ºnoŴ[eopardy" mandaLe Lo apply only wen an agency as dlscreLlon
Lo do soţ buL noL wen Le agency ls forbldden from conslderlng exLrasLaLuLory facLors as ls
Le case wlL Le WA's ºsall Lransfer" language wlL Le nÞuLS programŦ
(d)SC1uS upolds Le agencles' lnLerpreLaLlonť ºln sorLţ we read Ƈ 402Ŧ03 Lo mean waL lL
saysť LaL Ƈ 7a2's noŴ[eopardy duLy covers only dlscreLlonary agency acLlons and does noL
aLLac Lo acLlons LaL an agency ls requlred by sLaLuLe Lo underLake Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ"
(4) noLes Ǝ Cs
(a) 1PL ºCCu SCuAu"ť ongress reacLed Lo Le 1vA declslon by creaLlng an excepLlon Lo Le
ºnoŴ[eopardy" provlslon of LSA Ƈ 7ţ a commlLLee of seven members LaL can granL an
exempLlon lf lL flnds by a superŴma[orlLy LaL Lere are no reasonable alLernaLlves Lo Le
proposed acLlonŦ
(l) Cf noLeţ Le Cod Squad refused Lo granL an exempLlon for Le 1elllco uamţ buL ongress
Len passed an approprlaLlons rlder exempLlng Le 1elllco uam from Le LSAŦ 1e dam
was Len compleLed and Le snall darLer was found elsewere anywayŦ
lll) 1e ÞrolblLlon on 1ake
(1) LxcerpLs from Le LSA
2S | Þ a g e


(a) LSA Ƈ 3 Ŷ ºLake" means Lo arassţ armţ pursueţ unLţ sooLţ woundţ klllţ Lrapţ capLureţ or
collecLţ C8 1C A11LMÞ1 Lo engage ln any suc conducL
(2) LxcerpLs from Le lls Ǝ Wlldllfe Servlce 8egs
(a) 30 l8 Ƈ 17Ŧ3 Ŷ ºarm" under Le LSA means an acL LaL acLually kllls or ln[ures wlldllfeţ
wlc may lnclude slgnlflcanL ablLaL modlflcaLlon or degradaLlon were lL acLually kllls or
ln[ures wlldllfe by slgnlflcanLly lmpalrlng essenLlal beavloral paLLernsţ lncludlng breedlngţ
feedlngţ or selLerlng
(3) 8abblLL vŦ SweeL Pome apLer of ommunlLles for a CreaL Cregon (1993) pŦ 328
(a) 8aslcally a group of loggers Lrled Lo argue LaL Le lWS lnLerpreLaLlon of ºarm" Lo lnclude
ablLaL modlflcaLlon was Loo broadŦ 1e ourL dlsagreedţ provldlng Lree reasons wy Le
lWS lnLerpreLaLlon ls reasonableť (1) Le plaln meanlng of ºarm" seems Lo lnclude ablLaL
modlflcaLlonŤ (2)Le purpose of Le LSA ls broadŤ and (3) ongress auLorlzed Le SecreLary
Lo lssue permlLs for lncldenLal Laklngsţ wlc suggesLs LaL ongress undersLood Le LSA
provlslon Lo prolblL dlrecL as well as lndlrecL LaklngsŦ
(b)LeglslaLlve lsLory also supporLs Lls readlng of Le LSAŦ
(4) uefenders of Wlldllfe vŦ 8ernal (9
L
lrŦ 2000) pŦ 334
(a) 1ls ls a case abouL weLer consLrucLlon of a scool wlll consLlLuLe a ºLaklng" of Le pygmy
owl under Le LSAŦ
(b)1e courL noLes LaL ablLaL modlflcaLlon does noL consLlLuLe arm unless lL acLually kllls or
ln[ures wlldllfeţ quoLlng from Le 8abblLL SC1uS case aboveŦ
(c) Muc of Le case glves deference Lo Le dlsLrlcL courL's oplnlon (flndlng LaL Lere was noL a
Laklng b/c lL lncluded speclflc measures suc as reLalnlng 1/3 of Le properLy as
undevelopedţ eLcŦ)ţ wlc Lls courL says was noL clearly erroneousţ and Lerefore Lere
was no LaklngŦ
(3) noLes Ǝ Cs
(a) 8lologlcal oplnlons under LSA Ƈ 7 lnclude ºlncldenLal Lake sLaLemenLs" speclfylng Le
amounL of lncldenLal Laklng LaL wlll resulL from Le acLlonţ and llsLlng reasonable measures
LaL can be Laken Lo mlnlmlze Le lmpacL of Le LaklngŦ AcLlons Laken ln accordance wlL an
lncldenLal Lake sLaLemenL do noL vlolaLe Ƈ 9Ŧ
lv) ÞermlLLlng 1akeť PablLaL onservaLlon Þlans
(1) LxcerpLs from Le LSA
(a) ÞrolblLs lncldenLal Laklngs buL allows for permlLs lf an appllcanL provldes a conservaLlon
plan LaL meeLs Le crlLerla of Le sLaLuLeŦ
(2) 1ornLon ArLlcle
(a) 1ls wole arLlcle ls abouL ow Le LSA amendmenL auLorlzlng ºlncldenLal Lake" permlLs
came lnLo belngŦ 8aslcallyţ Lere was a model conservaLlon plan (nCÞ Ŷ nab|tat
Conservat|on Þ|an) LaL lnvolved an endangered buLLerfly and Le San 8runo MounLalnŦ
1e plan was even approved by envlronmenLal groups b/c made ad[usLmenLs for Le
buLLerflyţ buL Le lWS dld noL ave auLorlzaLlon Lo lssue Le permlLţ so lL peLlLloned
ongress and goL an amendmenL ln 1982 auLorlzlng Le permlLsŦ
(b)1e slgnlflcanL elemenLs of Le plan (we wenL over Lese ln class!!!) lnclude Le followlngť
(l) ÞroLecLlon of Cpen Space (80Ʒ of mounLaln preservedŤ all buL 2Ŧ7Ʒ ln lLs undlsLurbed
condlLlon)
(ll) ulverslLy of PablLaL ÞroLecLed
(lll)lundlng of Þlan AcLlvlLles (permanenLly fund vla land covenanLs)
(lv)Cngolng ManagemenL of Þubllc Ǝ ÞrlvaLe PablLaL (provlded for ongolng manager)
26 | Þ a g e


(v) Assurances Lo ÞrlvaLe SecLor (LaL no furLer mlLlgaLlon wlll be requlred)
(3) naLlonal Wlldllfe lederaLlon vŦ 8abblLL (LŦuŦ alŦ 2000) pŦ 344
(a) Pere Le courL upolds Le lWS's flndlngs ln lssulng a permlL for an lncldenLal planţ buL lL
re[ecLs parL of Le plan LaL ls Le lLy's permlLŦ
(b)1e courL noLes LaL Le LSA does noL requlre Lan Le plan lnclude ºpreclse quanLlLaLlve
measures of LakeŦ"
(c) 8aslcallyţ Le lLy's parL of Le plan as some problems wlL a few of Le elemenLs llsLed ln
Le 1ornLon arLlcle aboveŸlL falled Lo adequaLely provlde ongolng fundlng Ǝ lL falled Lo
explaln ow lL would avold [eopardlzlng conLlnued survlval of Le LreaLened speclesŦ
(4) noLes Ǝ Cs
(a) PÞs were slow Lo Lake offţ buL Ley ave slnce done soţ wlL 337 avlng been approved by
uecember 2007Ŧ
(b)Local governmenLs are ofLen Le permlL olders for large reglonal PÞsŦ
(c) 8eneflL of Lese plans ls LaL Ley are more llkely Lo produce largeţ conLlguous reservesţ
wlc pleceŴmeal lndlvldual pro[ecLs fall Lo doŦ
(d)ºno Surprlses" 8ule Ŷ permlLLees do noL ave Lo provlde addlLlonal fundlng for subsequenL
addlLlonal measures as long as Ley are ln compllance w/ Le plan
(e) ºÞermlL 8evocaLlon" 8ule Ŷ (Lls ls so poorly wrlLLen LaL l can'L qulLe make sense of lLŤ
seems Lo be LaL Le permlL can'L be revoked for nonŴcompllance unless conLlnuaLlon of Le
permlL wlll [eopardlze Le specles)
d) CLer 8lodlverslLy Þrovlslons
l) Subsldles Lo farmers wo manage Lelr lands for wlldllfeŧ
ll) LlsL of oLer sLaLe and federal sLaLuLes LaL proLecL wlldllfeŧ
lll) lnLernaLlonal agreemenLsŧ
2) WeLlands ÞroLecLlon
a) lnLroducLlon
l) 1934 Ŷ uuck SLamp Þrogram (lmposed a Lax on mlgraLory blrd unLlng Lo supporL acqulslLlon of
waLerfowl ablLaL)
ll) 1972 Ŷ WA Ŵ Ƈ 404 ls Le ºcenLerplece" of currenL federal weLlands pollcy
b) Scope of lederal WeLlands AuLorlLy
l) LxcerpLs from Le WA Ŵ Ƈ 404 Ŷ ÞermlLs for uredged or llll MaLerlal
(1) 8aslcally auLorlzes Le Army orps of Lnglneers Lo lssue permlLs for dlscarglng dredged or flll
maLerlals lnLo navlgable waLers and requlres Le LÞA Lo develop guldellnes for Le appllcaLlon
processŦ
(2) Any dlscarge deslgned Lo cange Le use of navlgable waLers requlres a permlLŦ
ll) LxcerpLs from Le orps of Lnglneers 8egs Ŷ glves a 88CAu deflnlLlon Lo ºwaLers of Le unlLed
SLaLes"
(1) ºWaLers of Le unlLed SLaLes" Ŷ refers Le reader Lo Le WA capLer
(2) ldenLlfylng WeLlands Ŷ Army orps of Lnglneers publlsed a ºWeLlands uellneaLlon Manual" ln
1987 LaL ls used Lo ldenLlfy weLlands
(3) 8egulaLed AcLlvlLles
(a) 3
L
lrculL as eld LaL pumplng waLer ouL of weLlands ls noL prolblLed under Ƈ 404
(b)MosL dralnlng ls done by dredg|ng dra|nage d|tches (wlc produce ºlncldenLal fallback"
lnLo Le waLer)ţ wlc may lnclude s|decast|ng (plllng removed soll alongslde Le dlLc)Ŧ
(4) 8orden 8anc ÞarLnerslp vŦ orps of Lnglneers (9
L
lrŦ 2001) pŦ 360
27 | Þ a g e


(a) lssue ls ºdeep rlpplngţ" wlc rlps Lroug Le clay pan Lo allow Le deep rooL sysLems of
vlneyards and orcards Lo growŦ
(b)Already as gone back Ǝ forL w/ LÞA Ǝ orpsţ generally noL geLLlng Le permlLs and
vlolaLlng Le ones e does geLŦ
(c) Argues LaL Le dlrL lsn'L a polluLanL b/c lL was already Lereţ buL Le courL dlsagrees b/c
Lere ls precedenL on polnL LaL says redeposlLs of maLerlals can consLlLuLe an ºaddlLlon of
a polluLanL" under Le WAŦ
(d)Argues LaL Lere ls a farmlng excepLlonţ buL Le courL re[ecLs Lls argumenL b/c Le
farmlng excepLlon secLlon of Le WA as a ºrecapLure provlslon" LaL speclflcally dlscusses
Le WA applylng Lo any dlscarge lnLended Lo cange Le navlgable waLers area lnLo a
dlfferenL use (see above)Ŧ
(3) noLes Ǝ Cs
(a) 1e orps Ǝ LÞA ave long malnLalned LaL sldecasLlng ls regulaLed under Ƈ 404 buL ave
waffled on ºlncldenLal fallbackŦ"
(l) 1986 Ŷ rule exempLed de mlnlmls fallback durlng normal dredglng
(ll) 1993 Ŷ º1ulloc 8ule" reversed course and sald applles Lo any fallbackţ buL exempLed
acLlvlLles LaL dld noL degrade or desLroy Le waLers
(lll)1998 Ŷ u lrculL lnvalldaLed Le 1ulloc 8ule (baslcally b/c lL lsn'L an ºaddlLlon" Ŷ needs
Lo draw a llne somewere beLween lncldenLal fallbackţ wlc cannoL be regulaLedţ and
regulable redeposlLsţ and Len would be enLlLled Lo deference)
(lv)2001 Ŷ LÞA lssues new regulaLlon ln response
(v) 2007 Ŷ u lrculL lnvalldaLes new regulaLlon as well
c) WeLlands ÞermlL ueclslons Ŷ LÞA and orps sare $ 404 lmplemenLaLlon powerţ buL Le LÞA as veLo
power over orps permlL lssulng
l) LxcerpLs from LÞA 8egs
(1) 8aslcally dlscusses wen permlLs can be lssuedŸmusL mlnlmlze negaLlve lmpacLţ eLcŦ
ll) naLlonal Wlldllfe lederaLlon vŦ WlsLler (8
L
lrŦ 1994) pŦ 370
(1) 1ls ls baslcally a callenge Lo Le orps lssulng a permlL Lo open an old rlver cannel Lo glve a
communlLy boaL access Lo a rlverŦ Argues LaL Le orps sould ave consldered a boaL ramp
as an alLernaLlveŦ 1e courL noLes LaL Lere ls a sLrong presumpLlon agalnsL lssulng permlLs
wen Lere are pracLlcable alLernaLlvesţ buL Le orps dld conslder and re[ecL Le boaL dock as
lnadequaLeŦ 8ecause Le sLandard of revlew ls abuse of dlscreLlonţ Le orps' declslon sLands
because lL was noL arblLrary or caprlclousŦ
lll) 8ersanl vŦ 8oblcaud (2
nd
lrŦ 1988) pŦ 373
(1) 1ls ls a case ln wlc Le orps lssued a permlL and Le LÞA veLoed lLŦ
(2) AL lssue ere ls Le facL LaL Lere was orlglnally a pracLlcable alLernaLlve (anoLer parcel) LaL
ad slnce been bougL upŦ 1e dlspuLe Lurns on weLer Le slLe searc commenced before or
afLer Le alLernaLlve dlsappearedŦ
(a) LÞA says ºmarkeL enLry" approac ls properţ and afLer some argumenL over weLer Le
sLaLuLe was meanL Lo be read ln presenL or pasL Lenseţ Le courL ends up agreelng w/ Le
LÞAŦ
(3) 1e courL refuses Lo deflne speclflcally wen markeL enLry occursţ noLlng LaL lL wlll vary from
case Lo caseţ buL ln Le presenL case Le LÞA was correcL and lL upolds Le LÞA's veLoŦ (noLes
LaL Ley sLlll could ave aLLempLed Lo purcase Le properLy from Le new ownerţ LooŦ)
28 | Þ a g e


(4) ulssenL makes a greaL polnL Ŷ lf developer A enLers aL x Llme wlL glven alLernaLlves and
developer 8 enLers laLer afLer Lose alLernaLlves ad dlsappearedţ Len 8 would be enLlLled Lo a
permlL for developlng Le same slLe LaL A could noL!
lv) noLes Ǝ Cs
(1) 1e orps sLlll doesn'L use Le markeL enLry approacţ lnsLead evaluaLlng Le alLernaLlves
avallable aL Le Llme LaL Le permlL appllcaLlon ls processedŦ
(2) 1e orps can lssue ºgenera| perm|tsţ" for caLegorles of acLlvlLlesţ buL lL musL provlde for noLlce
and commenL ad Le permlLs musL be reŴlssued every 3 yearsŦ
(3) ÞenalLles for vlolaLlon lnclude $23k / day flnes as well as crlmlnal penalLlesŦ 1e crlmlnal
penalLles are conLroverslalţ and Le governmenL generally does noL lssue Lem unless Le
defendanLs ave been noLlfled of a vlolaLlon and perslsLedŦ
(4) MounLalnLop 8emoval Mlnlng
(a) 2000 Ŷ orps lssued a permlL under Ƈ 404 auLorlzlng burylng of 6Ŧ3 mlles of sLreamsŦ
LnvlronmenLal group callengedţ argulng LaL Le permlL ad Lo come from WA Ƈ 402
(nÞuLS)ţ noL Ƈ 404Ŧ 1e dlsLrlcL courL eld LaL Ƈ 404 precludes Le lssuance of permlLs for
Le purpose of wasLe dlsposalţ and Le 4
L
lrculL reversedţ oldlng LaL Le orps could
reasonably lnLerpreL Ƈ 404 Lo govern Le dlsposal of mlnlng overburdenŦ ln sorLţ Le
mlners wonŦ
(3) Ƈ 401 of Le WA allows sLaLes Lo veLo or lmpose condlLlons on federallyŴpermlLLed acLlvlLles
lnvolvlng dlscarges Lo Le waLers of Le uS LaL are lnconslsLenL w/ sLaLe waLer quallLy
sLandardsŦ ln 21 sLaLesţ Ƈ 401 ls Le only nonŴfederal mecanlsm for proLecLlng weLlandsŦ
CLers ave Lelr own sLaLe or local permlLLlng programsŦ
d) MlLlgaLlon Ŷ Ƈ 404 only allows dlscarges of flll lf pracLlcable mlLlgaLlon sLeps ave been Lakenţ buL Le
guldellnes are noL clear as Lo waL exLenL mlLlgaLlon can be used as a [usLlflcaLlon for approvlng a
permlL LaL would oLerwlse noL be granLedŦ
l) LÞA/orps Memorandum 8egardlng MlLlgaLlon Ǝ Le WA
(1) 1ree Lypesť (1) avoldanceţ (2) mlnlmlzaLlonţ and (3) compensaLoryŦ
(2) an use mlLlgaLlon banklng as an accepLable form of compensaLory mlLlgaLlonţ buL slmply
purcaslng or preservlng exlsLlng weLlands ls generally noL enougŦ (As of 2003ţ nearly 13Ʒ of
compensaLory weLlands mlLlgaLlon requlremenLs naLlonwlde were saLlsfled by preservaLlon
measuresŦ)
(3) MonlLorlng ls an lmporLanL aspecL of mlLlgaLlonŦ
ll) LÞA/orps Culdellnes for MlLlgaLlon 8anks
(1) ºMlLlgaLlon banklng means Le resLoraLlonţ creaLlonţ enancemenLţ andţ ln excepLlonal
clrcumsLancesţ preservaLlon of weLlands and/or oLer aquaLlc resources expressly for Le
purpose of provldlng compensaLory mlLlgaLlon ln advance of auLorlzed lmpacLs Lo slmllar
resourcesŦ"
(2) MlLlgaLlon banks ave some beneflLsţ suc as consolldaLlng resources and flnanclngţ reduclng
permlL processlng Llmesţ and conLrlbuLlng Loward Le goal of no overall neL loss of Le naLlon's
weLlandsŦ
lll) noLes Ǝ Cs
(1) MlLlgaLlon banklng produces largerţ more blologlcally valuable mlLlgaLlon slLes and offers
economles of scaleţ lncreaslng Le exLenL of pracLlcable mlLlgaLlonŦ lL as also become a
proflLable buslness enLerprlseŦ
(2) lndlvldual mlLlgaLlon ls sLlll Le mosL common meLodţ accounLlng for 60Ʒ of compensaLory
mlLlgaLlonŦ
29 | Þ a g e



Chapter 10 Ŷ A|r Þo||ut|on Contro|
1) lnLroducLlon and Cvervlew
a) WA focuses prlmarlly on nÞuLS and permlLLlngţ AA focuses prlmarlly on aclevlng naLlonal alr
quallLy sLandards (nAACS)Ŧ
b) PlsLorlcal 8ackground
c) Cvervlew of Le lean Alr AcL
l) 8aslcally Le LÞA lus polluLanLs and seLs sLandards for Lemţ nAACSs Ŷ naLlonal AmblenL Alr
CuallLy SLandardsŦ
ll) SLaLes ave Le prlmary responslblllLy for lmplemenLlng Le AAŦ
lll) allfornla ad lLs own moblle source (carsţ eLcŦ) regulaLlons before AA was passedţ so sLaLes can
coose Lo follow Le federal program or allfornla'sţ buL Ley cannoL come up wlL Lelr own
programŦ
lv) SLaLlonary source regulaLlons only apply Lo new sourcesţ wlc encourages Le use of old planLs
pasL Lelr oLerwlse useful llfeŦ
v) AA provldes for Le LÞA Lo creaLe LecnologyŴbased regulaLlonsŦ
vl) 1990 Ŷ esLabllsed a sysLem of Lradeable permlLs for sulfur dloxlde (acld raln cause)Ŧ
2) naLlonal AmblenL Alr CuallLy SLandards
a) SeLLlng naLlonal AmblenL Alr CuallLy SLandards
l) LxcerpLs from Le AA
(1) 1e LÞA musL esLablls and publls a llsL of ºcrlLerla" polluLanLsŦ WlLln a year of publlcaLlonţ lL
musL Len lssue alr quallLy sLandards (boL prlmary and secondary) for eac new polluLanLŦ
(1ls llsL asn'L canged muc slnce lL was flrsL lssued ln 1971Ŧ)
(a) Þrlmary ƹ necessary Lo proLecL Le publlc ealLŤ Secondary ƹ necessary Lo proLecL agalnsL
known or anLlclpaLed adverse effecLs
(2) 1e LÞA appolnLs a commlLLee LaL revlews Lese sLandards every flve yearsŦ
ll) WlLman vŦ Amerlcan 1rucklng Ass'ns (2001) pŦ 619 Ŷ Scalla
(1) 1e polnL of Le case ls LaL Le AA precludes Le LÞA from conslderlng cosLs ln developlng
nAACSsŦ ongress already consldered Le cosL wen lL passed Le AAŤ plusţ Lere are some
excepLlons suc as a walver provlslon for exLreme clrcumsLancesŦ
(2) Cn remandţ Le u lrculL ºexpressly re[ecLed Le noLlon LaL Le żLÞAŽ musL esLablls a
measure of Le rlsk of safeLy lL conslders adequaLe Lo proLecL publlc ealL every Llme lL
esLabllses a nAACSŦ" Ŷ Le ldea ere ls LaL Le LÞA doesn'L ave Lo walL Lo llsL a polluLanL
unLll lL as a compleLe undersLandlng of Le polluLanL's effecLsŤ prlnclple of Le AA ls Lo err on
Le slde of cauLlon (wlL respecL Lo Le envlronmenL
(3) 1e u lrculL analyzed Le LÞA's canges and upeld Lem as reasonableŦ
lll) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) LÞA seLs nA1lCnAL sLandardsŦ
(2) MassŦ vŦ LÞA case Ŷ SC1uS ruled LaL C2 ls a polluLanL sub[ecL Lo AA regulaLlonŦ
(3) LÞA sLlll as Lo prepare cosL beneflL analyses b/c nAACS are ma[or rulesţ buL cannoL use Lem
ln creaLlng Le nAACSŦ
b) lmplemenLlng Le nAACSť SLaLe lmplemenLaLlon Þlans
l) Cenerally
(1) 1e AA dlrecLs sLaLes Lo lssue ºsLaLe lmplemenLaLlon plans" (SlÞs) Lo acleve nAACS w/ln Lelr
bordersŦ
30 | Þ a g e


(2) SLaLes musL geL Lelr SlÞs approved by Le LÞAţ and Ley are enforceable under boL sLaLe and
federal lawŦ
ll) LxcerpLs from Le AA Ŵ Ƈ 110
(1) SLaLes ave 3 years from lssuance of nAACS Lo creaLe SlÞŦ
(2) SlÞs ave Lo lnclude a number of Llngsţ suc as enforceable emlsslons llmlLaLlons and oLer
conLrol measuresţ prolblLlng emlsslons LaL conLrlbuLe slgnlflcanLly Lo nonŴaLLalnmenL or
lnLerfere w/ oLer sLaLes' plansţ and provldlng fundlngţ eLcŦ
(3) LÞA can sLep ln lf Le sLaLe plan ls noL compllanLŦ
lll) !ames llne ArLlcle
lv) unlon LlecLrlc oŦ vŦ LÞA (1976) pŦ 643
(1) 1ls case seems Lo really be ere [usL Lo lllusLraLe Le relaLlonslp beLween Le sLaLes
lmplemenLlng SlÞs and Le LÞAŦ 1e maln role ls on Le sLaLesţ buL Ley ave sLrlcL compllance
requlremenLsŸas long as Lese 8 requlremenLs are saLlsfledţ Le sLaLuLe requlres LaL Le LÞA
sha|| approve Le plan and cannoL conslder any oLer facLorsŦ
(2) Pereţ Le power company aLLempLed Lo aLLack Le sLaLe plan by saylng LaL lL was Loo sLrlcL
(Lecnologlcally lnfeaslble)Ŧ Poweverţ Le courL sald LaL Le AA seLs a floorţ noL boL a floor
Anu a celllng beLween wlc Le sLaLe SlÞ musL fallŦ ln oLer wordsţ Le sLaLes can lmpose
furLer requlremenLs lf Ley so cooseŦ
(3) 1e ourL speclflcally sald LaL lL agreed ºLaL ongress lnLended clalms of economlc and
Lecnologlcal lnfeaslblllLy Lo be wolly forelgn Lo żLe LÞA'sŽ conslderaLlon of sLaLe żSlÞsŽŦ"
(4) 1e ourL also noLes LaL lL accords greaL deference Lo Le LÞA's consLrucLlon of Le AAŦ
(3) ulLlmaLely upolds Le sLaLe SlÞŦ
v) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) 1e sLaLe enforcemenL sLrucLure of Le AA ls very slmllar Lo Le WAŤ seems Lo allow Lallorlng
Lo eac sLaLe's needsŦ
(2) 1e LÞA musL approve sLaLe SlÞs LaL meeL Le requlremenLs of AA Ƈ 110Ŧ 1e unlon LlecLrlc
declslon precludes Le LÞA from revlewlng Le economlc or Lecnologlcal feaslblllLy of SlÞ
measuresŦ
(3) SlÞs are creaLures of boL sLaLe and federal lawŦ 1e 9
L
lrculL as eld LaL once Ley are
approvedţ Ley are federal lawţ so Le sLaLe's lnLerpreLaLlon of Le SlÞţ ºeven lf blndlng as a
maLLer of sLaLe lawţ ls noL dlrecLly dlsposlLlve of Le meanlng of Le SlÞŦ"
(4) keeplng Lrack of an SlÞ ls almosL lmposslbleţ and almosL no one knows waL a sLaLe's enLlre SlÞ
conLalns!
c) 1e Þroblem of nonŴALLalnmenL
l) 1omas McCarlLy ArLlcle
(1) ongress keeps exLendlng Le compllance deadllnes for Le sLaLes (slnce 1977!)ţ and Le new
deadllnes keep belng mlssedŦ
(2) 1990 amendmenLs requlred Le LÞA Lo esLablls guldellnes Lo elp creaLe unlformlLy and gave
Le LÞA addlLlonal sancLlonlng powerŦ
(3) 8aslcally concludes LaL Le LÞA as noL Laken Le mllesLone program serlouslyŦ
ll) 8A Appeal Croup vŦ uŦSŦ LÞA (3
L
lrŦ 2003) pŦ 660
(1) SlÞ ls belng callenged on boL sldesŸone slde says Loo sLrlcLţ oLer slde says noL sLrlcL enougŦ
lL used an LÞAŴapproved meLodţ Lougţ and LÞA ad consldered Le poLenLlal deflclencles aL
lssue and concluded LaL Le meLod was neverLeless sufflclenLŦ
(2) 8evlew of Le LÞA declslon ls sub[ecL Lo an arblLrary Ǝ caprlclous sLandardţ and Le LÞA's
lnLerpreLaLlon of Le AA musL be upeld lf lL ls reasonableŦ
31 | Þ a g e


(3) lacLors LaL Le LÞA conslders ln evaluaLlng SlÞsť
(a) WeLer Le commlLmenL addresses a llmlLed porLlon of Le sLaLuLorllyŴrequlred
lmplemenLaLlon planŤ (?)
(b)WeLer Le sLaLe ls capable of fulfllllng lLs commlLmenLŤ and
(c) WeLer Le commlLmenL ls for a reasonable and approprlaLe perlod of LlmeŦ
(4) LÞA applled Lese facLors and deLermlned LaL Le SlÞ was approprlaLeţ eLcŦ Ŷ Lereforeţ courL
elecLs Lo defer Lo LÞAŦ
lll) noLes Ǝ CuesLlons
(1) 1e aLLalnmenL sLaLus of an area ls lmporLanL b/c lL resulLs ln sLrlngenL SlÞ requlremenLs and
growL resLrlcLlonsŦ 1e courLs glve Le LÞA greaL deference ereţ and for an area Lo be reŴ
classlfled Le sLaLe as Lo provlde a plan LaL demonsLraLes LaL Le area wlll remaln ln
aLLalnmenL for aL leasL 10 yearsŦ
(2) 1ere ls a 3Ŵyear deadllne for aLLalnmenL of nAACS ln nonŴaLLalnmenL areasţ buL Le LÞA ls
allowed Lo exLend Le daLe an addlLlonal 3 yearsŦ 1e 1990 amendmenLs provlded a graduaLed
serles of compllance deadllnesŦ
(a) 1e ozone program ls Le mosL deLalled and as flve dlfference deslgnaLlons for areasŦ
Areas newly deslgnaLed as ozone nonŴaLLalnmenL are glven 3 Lo 20 years Lo reac Le
nAACS levelţ dependlng on Le degree of nonŴaLLalnmenLŦ
(3) nonŴaLLalnmenL Area SlÞ requlremenLsť
(a) Þrovlslons for ºall reasonably avallable conLrol measures" lncludlng Le appllcaLlon of
ºreasonably avallable conLrol Lecnology" (8A1)Ŧ
(l) LÞA provldes deLalled 8A1 guldellnes from wlc sLaLes can deparL only lf lL can be
[usLlfledŦ
(b)Þrovlslons LaL wlll ensure furLer reasonable progressŦ
(c) Am expllclL quanLlLaLlve budgeL for Le emlsslons wlc wlll be permlLLed from new or
modlfled sLaLlonary sources and a permlL requlremenL for consLrucLlon and operaLlon of
suc sourcesŦ
(4) Lven wlL Lallplpe conLrolsţ may SlÞs musL slgnlflcanLly reduce velcle emlsslons ln order Lo
acleve Le nAACSţ and Le SlÞs may lnclude provlslons focused on reduclng emlsslons per
mlle Lraveled (eŦgŦţ malnLenance sLandards) and Lo reduce Le LoLal mlles Lraveled (eŦgŦţ Lollsţ
Laxesţ and lncenLlves for acLlvlLles suc as carpoollng)Ŧ
(3) ln order Lo asslsL Le sLaLes ln conLrolllng velcle emlsslonsţ Le AA prolblLs federal agencles
from supporLlng or approvlng any acLlvlLy LaL does noL conform Lo an approved SlÞŦ
(6) LÞA as Le power Lo lmpose sancLlons on sLaLes LaL ave deflclenL SlÞs or fall Lo correcL
deflclencles w/ln 18 monLsŦ 1e LÞA can elLer (1) prolblL uC1 fundlng w/ln Le nonŴ
aLLalnmenL area (wlc makes sense b/c LaL would seem Lo go Lo Le Lallplpe emlsslons
cause)ţ or (2) lncrease Le offseL raLlo for new sources Lo aL leasL 2 Lo 1Ŧ lf anoLer 6 monLs
pass and Le deflclency sLlll remalnsţ Le LÞA musL lmpose boLŦ Slnce 1990ţ Lougţ only Lwo
areas ave ad lgway sancLlons lmposedŦ
3) AuLomoblle Lmlsslons Ǝ 1ecnology lorclng
a) Cenerally
l) 1e AA deals w/ auLo emlsslons muc dlfferenLly Lan sLaLlonary sources Ŷ as focused on Lallplpe
emlsslons aL assemblyŦ 1e federal regulaLlon ls Le mosL aggresslve example of an expllclLly
LecnologyŴforclng sLraLegy and as been lncredlbly successfulŦ Poweverţ people are drlvlng moreţ
wlc offseLs Le galns from lower emlsslons per mlleŦ 1e LecnologyŴforclng sLraLegy ls a radlcal
32 | Þ a g e


deparLure from Le convenLlonal approac of requlrlng Le use of ºfeaslble" or ºavallable"
LecnologyŦ
ll) A as lLs ownţ sLrlcLer sLraLegy LaL as been allowed Lo conLlnue b/c lL predaLes Le federal
program (1939)Ŧ
b) 1e PlsLory of lederal onLrols
c) naLural 8esources uefense ouncll vŦ uŦSŦ LÞA
(ŧsLopped ere Ǝ dld noL flnls capLerŧ)
4) new Source 8evlew Ǝ Le Þroblem of CrandfaLerlng
3) 1radeable Lmlsslon ÞermlLsť uslng Le Þower of Le MarkeL


Chapter 11 Ŷ Water Þo||ut|on Contro|
1) lnLroducLlon Ǝ Cvervlew
a) WA focuses prlmarlly on nÞuLS and permlLLlngţ AA focuses prlmarlly on aclevlng naLlonal alr
quallLy sLandards (nAACS)Ŧ
b) 1e uevelopmenL of WaLer ÞolluLlon Law
l) 1899 Ŷ 8lvers Ǝ Parbors AcL
ll) lu8 veLoed 1930s blll
lll) 1948 AcL was lneffecLlve
lv) 1963 AmendmenLs Ŷ Llngs began Lo slfL
v) 1972 Ŷ lean WaLer AcL Ŷ was veLoed by nlxon buL ongress overrode ls veLo
c) 1e Modern WaLer ÞolluLlon Þroblem
l) Andreen ArLlcle
(1) ulscusses varlous Lypes of polluLanLs
(2) AgrlculLure ls a blg culprlL of modern waLer polluLlon Ŷ lndusLrlal polluLlon as been
dramaLlcally curbed
ll) An Cvervlew of Le lean WaLer AcL
(1) Coal ƹ Lo resLore and malnLaln Le cemlcalţ pyslcalţ and blologlcal lnLegrlLy of Le naLlon's
waLers
(2) enLerplece of Le WA ls Le nÞuLS permlL sysLem (naLlonal polluLanL dlscarge ellmlnaLlon
sysLem)
(a) ÞrolblLs Le dlscarge of any polluLanL from a polnL source Lo Le waLers of Le uS w/o a
permlL
(b)ÞermlLs are lssued by Le LÞA or by sLaLe agencles under delegaLed auLorlLy
(c) ÞermlLs musL be renewed every 3 yearsţ buL backlogs ave creaLed delaysŸas long as Le
appllcaLlon for renewal ls Llmely flledţ Le permlLs generally conLlnue under Le same Lerms
pendlng revlew
(3) onvenLlonal polluLanLs are sub[ecL Lo Le mosL relaxed sLandardsţ Loxlc polluLanLs Lo Le mosL
sLrlngenL
(4) 1e WA dlrecLs sLaLes Lo develop waLer quallLy sLandards for all Le waLers w/ln Lelr borders
(3) SLaLes musL also lu ºlmpalred waLersţ" for wlc Ley musL develop 1MuLs (LoLal maxlmum
dally loads)ţ ldenLlfylng Le amounL of polluLlon LaL Le waLers can LoleraLe wlle sLlll meeLlng
waLer quallLy sLandards and Len allocaLlng LaL load among conLrlbuLlng sourcesŦ
(6) nonpolnL source polluLlon ls almosL enLlrely conLrolled by Le sLaLesţ and lL as remalned
largely unconLrolledŦ
33 | Þ a g e


(7) 1e WA conLalns speclal provlslons for ÞC1Ws (publlcly owned LreaLmenL works) b/c Ley
presenL speclal problemsŸlmproperly LreaLed wasLewaLer as been a ma[or conLrlbuLor Lo Le
naLlon's waLer problem slnce Le colonlal perlodŦ Alsoţ Ley can'L be suL down w/o maklng
Le problem worseţ and Le money Lo upgrade Lem as Lo come from local voLers lf lL ls noL
provlded by Le federal governmenLŦ
(8) WA Ƈ 404 Ŷ Le LÞA Ǝ orps [olnLly lmplemenL a program of permlLs for Le dlscarge of
dredged or flll maLerlal Lo navlgable waLersŦ
2) onLrol of ÞolnLŴSource ÞolluLlonť 1e nÞuLS Þrogram
a) LxcerpLs from Le WA
l) Ƈ 402 Ŷ AdmlnlsLraLor can lssue permlLs for dlscarge of polluLanLs
ll) Ƈ 302
(1) ÞolluLanL ƹ dredged spollţ solld wasLeţ lnclneraLor resldueţ sewageţ garbageţ sewage sludgeţ
munlLlonsţ cemlcal wasLesţ blologlcal maLerlalsţ radloacLlve maLerlalsţ earţ wrecked or
dlscarded equlpmenLţ rockţ sandţ cellar dlrL and lndusLrlalţ munlclpalţ and agrlculLural wasLe
dlscarged lnLo waLerŦ (uoes noL lnclude sewage dlscarged from vessels or maLerlal ln[ecLed
lnLo an oll or gas well lf sLaLeŴapprovedŦ)
(2) navlgable WaLers ƹ Le waLers of Le unlLed SLaLesţ lncludlng Le LerrlLorlal seas
(3) (Also deflnes ºdlscarge" and ºpolnL sourceŦ")
b) overed WaLers
l) uS vŦ 8lverslde 8ayvlew Pomes (1983) pŦ 742
(1) 8road deflnlLlon of navlgable waLers Ŷ lncludes ºaL leasL some waLers LaL would noL be
deemed 'navlgable' under Le classlcal undersLandlng of LaL LermŦ"
ll) Solld WasLe Agency vŦ Army orps (2001) pŦ 743
(1) 8aslcally ls [usL saylng LaL ºnavlgable waLers" under Le WA musL aL leasL be ad[acenL Lo
acLual navlgable waLersŦ
(2) ulscusses 8lverslde case aboveţ noLlng LaL Lere was a ºnexus" beLween Le navlgable waLers
and Le ad[acenL weLlands LereŦ
(3) 8efuses Lo exLend 8lverslde furLerţ for exampleţ Lo ºlsolaLed" pondsŦ navlgable wasţ aL
mlnlmumţ a reference Lo Le auLorlLy for Le sLaLuLe under Le commerce clause (dlscusses
Morrlson Ǝ Lopez cases Ǝ Le ommerce lause)Ŧ
(4) noLe LaL SLevensţ 8reyerţ SouLerţ Ǝ Clnsburg dlssenLed Ǝ would ave exLended 8lversldeŦ
lll) 8apanos vŦ uS (2006) pŦ 747 (SALlA Ŷ Lls was [usL a plurallLy oplnlon LaL kennedy concurred
w/ţ so be careful)
(1) 1ls case relgns ln Le broad deflnlLlon of navlgable waLers a blLŦ
(2) Scalla baslcally wanLs a more brlgL llne rule LaL lncludes Le Solld WasLe case's ad[acency
requlremenL buL also llmlLs lL Lo waLers LaL ave a conLlnuous surface connecLlon Lo acLual
waLers of Le uŦSŦ ln oLer wordsţ e would exclude ºcannels conLalnlng merely lnLermlLLenL
or epemeral flow" and ºLranslLory puddlesŦ"
(3) kennedy would use Le nexus LesLţ wlc could be esLabllsed by ad[acency buL noL CnL by
ad[acencyŦ Pe Llnks Scalla ls readlng nonŴexlsLenL requlremenLs lnLo Le WA and Le dlssenL
ls readlng ºnavlgable" ouLŦ
(4) ulssenL ls baslcally Le same as Solld WasLeŦ
(3) (uoes Marks vŦ uS from rlm Þro apply ere? ºWen a fragmenLed ourL decldes a case and no
slngle raLlonale explalnlng Le resulL en[oys Le assenL of flve !usLlcesţ Le oldlng of Le ourL
may be vlewed as LaL poslLlon Laken by Lose Members wo concurred ln Le [udgmenLs on
Le narrowesL groundsŦ") (es Ŷ Le noLes acLually speclflcally dlscuss Lls caseŦ 1ls means
34 | Þ a g e


LaL Le nexus LesL may be Le besL readlng of Le ourL's oldlngŦ 1e resulL as been a clrculL
spllLŦ)
lv) noLes Ǝ Cs
c) overed AcLlvlLles
l) SŦ llorlda WaLer ManagemenL vŦ Mlccosukee 1rlbe (2004) pŦ 737
(1) 1ls case ls abouL Le meanlng of ºdlscarge of a polluLanLŦ" LssenLlally Le lssue ls LaL a
pump sLaLlon ls movlng waLer collecLed from runoff LaL conLalns polluLanLs lnLo anoLer areaŦ
1ere are Lree maln argumenLsť
(a) 1e pump does noL orlglnaLe Le polluLanL and ls noL a polnL sourceŦ 1e ourL re[ecLs Lls
b/c Le WA lncludes ºconveyances" w/ln Le deflnlLlon of polnL sourceŦ
(b)unlLary WaLers ArgumenL Ŷ baslcally argues LaL all Le navlgable waLers of Le uS are all
Le sameţ LaL Le orlglnal dlscarge lnLo Le waLers ls Le ºdlscarge" w/ln Le meanlng of
Le WAţ and LaL all Ley are dolng ere ls movlng Le orlglnal dlscarge from one
navlgable waLer Lo anoLerŦ 1e ourL doesn'L address Lls argumenL b/c lL was never
ralsed by Le respondenLsţ only Le amlclŦ
(c) ÞracLlcal onsequences Ŷ baslcally Lls ls [usL a pollcy argumenL saylng LaL lL would ralse
cosLs prolblLlvely
(l) (My personal oplnlon ls LaL Le ourL wanLed Le resulL for Lese reasons and [usL
came up w/ Le [usLlflcaLlon below Lo reac Lls resulLŦ CLerwlseţ Le enLlre llorlda
levee/canal sysLem would ave Lo be reŴLougLŦ)
(2) 1e ourL ends up golng wlL an odd sorL of local unlLary waLers argumenL Ŷ LaL Le Lwo
bodles of waLer were orlglnally Le sameţ and Lerefore Lere was no conveyance b/c Lese are
essenLlally Le same bodlesŦ
ll) noLes Ǝ Cs
(1) WA focuses prlmarlly on nÞuLS and permlLLlngţ AA focuses prlmarlly on aclevlng naLlonal
alr quallLy sLandards (nAACS)Ŧ
(2) nÞuLS permlL requlremenL applles Lo ºany addlLlon of any polluLanL Lo navlgable waLers from
any polnL sourceŦ"
(3) ÞolluLanL ls broadly deflned ln Le sLaLuLeţ and courLs ave eld LaL lL ls ºmeanL Lo leave ouL
very llLLleŦ"
(4) ÞolnL Source ls generally also read broadlyţ buL Le lssue as been frequenLly llLlgaLedŦ
Cenerally lL bolls down Lo a ºmanŴlnduced gaLerlng mecanlsmŦ" ln oLer wordsţ uman
efforL as Lo be lnvolvedŦ
(a) nonpolnL source polluLlon ls generally runoff (and accounLs for more Lan alf of waLer
polluLlon)Ŧ
(b)ÞolnL sources lnclude anlmal feedlng operaLlons and sLormwaLer dlscargesţ lncludlng from
consLrucLlon slLesŦ
(3) 1e courLs are dlvlded on weLer Le WA applles Lo dlscarges lnLo groundwaLerŦ
d) LffluenL SLandards for ÞolnL Sources
l) LxcerpLs from Le WA
(1) Ƈ 301 Ŷ deflnes ºeffluenL llmlLaLlons" for polnL sources Ŷ baslcally ave Lo use 8Þ1 (besL
pracLlcable conLrol Lecnology)
(2) Also dlscusses Le AdmlnlsLraLor publlslng guldellnesţ eLcŦ
ll) Cvervlew of ÞolnL Source onLrols
(1) 1972 AcL deflned Lwo levels of polluLlon conLrolť
(a) 8Þ1 Ŷ 8esL ÞracLlcable onLrol 1ecnology (Lo be acleved by 1977)
3S | Þ a g e


(b)8A1 Ŷ 8esL Avallable onLrol 1ecnology (Lo be acleved by 1983)
(2) 1977 AmendmenLs creaLed a more complex scemeť
(a) 81 Ŷ 8esL onvenLlonal onLrol 1ecnologyŤ used for ºconvenLlonal" polluLanLs (eŦgŦţ
blologlcal oxygen demandţ suspended solldsţ fecal collformţ pP)
(b)8A1 Ŷ 8esL Avallable onLrol 1ecnologyŤ used for Le followlngť
(l) 1oxlc ÞolluLanLs
(ll) nonconvenLlonal ÞolluLanLs (eŦgŦţ ammonlaţ clorldesţ nlLraLesţ lronţ and color)
(lll)PeaL
(c) 8u1 Ŷ 8esL Avallable uemonsLraLed 1ecnologyŤ used for new sourcesţ requlres Le greaLesL
degree of reducLlon aclevable
(d)Speclal 8ules for ÞC1Ws (publlcly owned LreaLmenL works)
(l) 8equlres Lwo sLepsť
1Ŧ Þrlmary 1reaLmenL Ŷ floaLlng maLerlals sklmmed off and eavy maLerlals seLLled ouL
2Ŧ Secondary 1reaLmenL Ŷ adds blologlcal sLep ln wlc bacLerla consume organlc
maLerlalsţ reduclng Le blologlcal oxygen demand ln Le wasLewaLer
(ll) 1erLlary LreaLmenLţ wlc can remove nuLrlenLsţ ls generally noL requlred (Lls would be
a flnal sLage and mlgL lnclude fllLraLlonţ lagoonlngţ nuLrlenL removalţ and/or nlLrogen
and posporus removal)
(lll)Also requlres 8A1ŴequlvalenL preLreaLmenL before wasLewaLers can be released lnLo Le
publlc sewer sysLem
(3) WA effluenL sLandards Lyplcally esLablls Le maxlmum quanLlLy of polluLanLs LaL may be
dlscarged for eac unlL of producLlonŦ lssue ereţ Lougţ ls LaL Lese could Lecnlcally be
complled w/ by slmply dlluLlng Le wasLewaLerŦ
lll) LÞAţ LffluenL Culdellnes Þlan Ŷ ow Le LÞA goes abouL rulemaklng
(1) ueflne Le lndusLry caLegory
(2) ueLermlne Le slze of Le caLegory Ŷ can lL be broken down lnLo subcaLegorlesţ eLcŦ?
(3) CaLer daLe Ŷ quesLlonnalres and waLer sampllng
(4) onsLrucL guldellnes and revlew Lem lnLernally
(3) Þubllc commenL Ǝ revlslon perlod
(6) ÞreparaLlon of flnal rulemaklng package and Le rulemaklng record
lv) Amerlcan ÞeLroleum lnsLlLuLe vŦ LÞA (3
L
lrŦ 1988) pŦ 781
(1) 1ls ls a dlspuLe over waL Lecnology Le oll company as Lo use ln ºpllls" wlle drllllng Ŷ lL
wanLs Lo use dleselţ and Le LÞA ls requlrlng lL Lo use mlneral oll (or Lo use dlesel and dlspose of
lL on land)Ŧ 1e courL defers Lo Le LÞAţ concludlng LaL lL ls noL necessary for a Lecnology Lo
be wldely used ln Le lndusLry for lL Lo be consldered as an approprlaLe subsLlLuLeŤ lL [usL as Lo
be ºLecnologlcally and economlcally aclevableŦ" ln facLţ Le Lecnology doesn'L even ave Lo
be ln acLual use aL all b/c ongress was Lrylng Lo pus Lecnology forwardŦ
(2) 1e courL also noLed LaL Le WA applles regardless of weLer Lere ls a dlscernable lmpacLŦ
v) noLes Ǝ Cs
(1) ln seLLlng 8Þ1 and 81 sLandardsţ Le LÞA musL conslder Le relaLlonslp beLween cosLs and
beneflLsŦ
(2) 8A1ţ oweverţ can be seL aL a level LaL requlres some planLs Lo closeŦ
3) nonpolnL Source ÞolluLlon Ŷ ma[or currenL conLrlbuLor and so far efforLs Lo address ave noL really worked
a) 8ellly ArLlcle
l) nonpolnL source polluLlon ls runoff from ralnwaLer and snow melL Lan plcks up sollţ anlmal
wasLesţ ferLlllzersţ pesLlcldesţ used ollţ Loxlc subsLancesţ and sLreeL debrls along Le wayŦ
36 | Þ a g e


ll) Addresslng lL ls golng Lo requlre canges ln our ablLsţ wlc may requlre land use plannlng
conLrolsţ and Le cosL may be largeŦ
b) Pouck ArLlcle
c) noLes Ǝ Cs
4) WaLer CuallLy SLandards
a) Cenerally
l) WA requlres sLaLes Lo seL WCS (waLer quallLy sLandards) for Lelr waLers and Lo lu waLers LaL are
noL meeLlng Lese sLandards and develop 1MuLs (LoLal maxlmum dally loads)Ŧ
ll) 1e WA also allows sLaLes Lo veLo federal acLlvlLles LaL would lnLerfere w/ aclevemenL of Le
WCSŦ
b) LxcerpLs from Le WA
l) 8aslcally requlres Le sLaLes Lo adopL WCS and allows Le LÞA Lo sLep ln wlL Le sLaLes fall Lo seL Ǝ
enforce LemŦ
c) SeLLlng WaLer CuallLy SLandards
l) 8aslcally beglns w/ ºwaLer zonlngţ" or seLLlng classlflcaLlons of useŦ All exlsLlng uses musL be
lncludedţ and no waLers may be deslgnaLed for Le asslmllaLlon of wasLe or for wasLe LransporLŦ
ll) 1en Le WCS are developed based on Le level requlred Lo proLecL Le deslgnaLed useŦ
lll) lndlan Lrlbes are LreaLed as sLaLes under Le WAŦ
d) 1e Slgnlflcance of WaLer CuallLy SLandards
l) MosL of Lls as already been coveredţ buL noLe LaL appllcanLs for a federal llcense or permlL for
dlscarge musL also geL sLaLe approvalŦ
e) 1oLal Maxlmum ually Loads
l) Cenerally
(1) lmporLanLť 1MuLs apply weLer Le source of polluLlon ls polnL source or nonŴpolnL source!!!
ll) Þronsollno vŦ nasLrl (9
L
lrŦ 2002) pŦ 797
(1) 1e courL upolds Le LÞA's readlng of Le WA as applylng 1MuLs Lo boL polnL and nonŴpolnL
sourcesŦ
lll) lrlends of ÞlnLo reek vŦ LÞA (9
L
lrŦ 2007) pŦ 801
(1) 1ls ls a new dlscarger caseŦ 8aslcally a new dlscarger wanLed Lo offseL lLs polluLlon by
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