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• When current is passed through a conductor, the conductor becomes hot. When a magnetic material is brought in the vicinity of an alternating magnetic field, heat is produced in the magnetic material. Similarly it was found that when an electrically insulating material was subjected to electrical stresses, it too underwent a temperature rise (Dielectric heating).
There are various method of heating a material but electric heating is considered to be far superior for the following reasons: (i)Cleanliness: • Due to complete elemination of dust and ash, the charges to maintain cleanliness are minimum and the material to be heated does not get contaminated. (ii)Ease of control: • With the help of manual or automatic devices, it is possible to control and regulate the temperature of a furnace with great ease. (iii)Uniform heating: • Whereas in other forms of heating a temperature gradient is set up from the outer surface to the inner core. • The core being relatively cooler, in case of electric heating, the heat is uniformly distributed and hence the charge is uniformly heated. (iv)Low attention and maintenance cost: • Electric heating equipments normally do not require much attention and maintenance is also negligible. • Hence labour charges on these items are negligibly small as compared to alternative methods of heating.
Requirement of Heating Material
i) Low Temperature Coefficients of Resistance
Resistance of conducting element varies with the temperature, this variation should be small in case of an element. Otherwise when switched ON from room temperature to go upto say 1200˚C, the low resistance at initial stage will draw excessively high currents at the same operating voltage.
ii)Resistance coefficient Positive • • If temperature is negative the element will draw more current when hot. A higher current means more voltage, a higher temperature or a still lower resistance, which can instability of operation.
iii)High Melting Point • Its melting point should be sufficiently higher than its operating temperature. Otherwise a small rise in the operating voltage will destroy the element.
iv)High Specific Resistance • • The resistivity of the material used for making element should be high. This will require small lengths and shall give convenient size.
v)High Oxidizing Temperature • • Its oxidizing temperature should higher than its operating temperature. Otherwise oxidised layers from the surface will flake off changing the resistance of the filament and giving it a smaller life.
vi)Ductile • • To have convenient shapes and sizes, the material used should have high ductility and flexibility. It should not be brittle and fragile.
vii)Should with stand Vibration • • In most industrial process quite strong vibrations are produced. Some furnaces have to open or rock while hot. The element material should withstand the vibrations while hot and should not break open.
viii)Mechanical Strength • The material used should have sufficient mechanical strength of its own.
CLASSIFICATION OF METHODS OF ELECTRIC HEATING
(i)Power Frequency Method:
• Direct resistance heating, indirect resistance heating, direct arc heating, and indirect arc heating.
(ii) High Frequency Heating:
Induction heating and dielectric heating.
This method is based upon the I2R loss. Whenever current is passed through a resistive material heat is produced because of I2 R loss.
There are two methods of resistance heating. They are i) Direct Resistance Heating ii) Indirect Resistance Heating
Direct Resistance Heating: • • • • •
In this method of heating the material or change to be heated is taken as a resistance and current is passed through it. The charge may be in the form of powder pieces or liquid. The two electrodes are immersed in the charge and connected to the supply. In case of D.C or single phase A.C two electrodes are required but there will be three electrodes in case of three phase supply. When metal pieces are to be heated a powder of high resistivity material is sprinkled over the surface of the charge to avoid direct short circuit. The current flows through the charge and heat is produced. This method has high efficiency since heat is produced. This method has high efficiency since heat is produced is charge itself. Though automatic temperature control is not possible in this method. But it gives uniform heat and high temperature. One of the major application of the process is salt bath furnaces having an operating temperature between 500˚C to 1400˚C. An immersed electrode type medium temperature salt bath furnace is shown in figure3.28. The bath makes use of supply voltage across two electrodes varying between 5 to 20 volts.
For this purpose a special double wound transformer is required which makes use of 3Ф primary and single phase secondary. This speaks of an unbalanced load. The variation in the secondary voltage is done with the help of an off load tapping switch of the primary side. This is necessary for starting and regulating the bath load.
Advantages : •
High efficiency. It gives uniform heat and high temperature.
Application : • It is mainly used in salt bath furnace and water heaters.
Indirect resistance heating •
In this method the current is passed through a highly resistance element which is either placed above or below the over depending upon the nature of the job to be performed. The heat proportional to I2R losses produced in heating element delivered to the charge either by radiation or by convection. Sometimes in case of industrial heating the resistance is placed in a cylinder which is surrounded by the charge placed in the jackes as shown in figure3.29. The arrangement provides as uniform temperature. Automatic temperature control can be provided in this case. Both A.C and D.C supplies can be used for this purpose at full mains voltage depending upon the design of heating element.
• • • •
Application : • This method is used in room heater, in bimetallic strip used in starters, immersion water heaters and in various types of resistance ovens used in domestic and commercial cooking.
• • There are two common types of arc furnaces: (1)Three-phase furnace and (2)Single phase furnace. Three phase furnaces are used in the production of alloy steels.
the furnace is made amenable for tilting. The chamber is lined inside with a refractory linning. • • • The chamber in which arc is struck is placed on a metal frame work. which results. Direct arc furnace • • The arc is struck directly with the charge. which is acidic or basic in nature. so that the process is carried out between 1500˚C and 2500˚C. and are placed in such a way as to be replaced easily or adjusted easily. when a current flows through it and produces intense heat. in high temperature.• • • • • Single phase furnaces are used for the manufacture of gray iron casting also. they are to be replaced.000KVA and capacities upto 25 tonne. The main components of a three phase furnace are: 1)Variable ratio power transformer 2)Reactors 3)Automatic current regulator 4)Control panel 5)Electric motor and tilting motor 6)Circuit breaker and connecting switches. 10. To have a through mixing. . Although some furnaces up to 100 tonne are made. The electrodes arc inserted from the top or sides of the chamber. generally furnaces up to 25 tonne are in general use. The arc temperature is between 3000 and 3500˚C. Generally graphite electrodes are used. Three phase furnaces are used for power ratings from 250KVA. As they are subjected to volatilization.
This furnace is used for only single phase supplies. Also the capacity of the furnace is limited up to 100 tonne. Melting of non-ferrous metals is mostly carried out in this type of furnace. the furnace should be rocked. Eventhough it is used for both melting and refining but wherever electric energy is expensive it is economical to use cupola for melting and arc furnace for refining. The energy used is about 500-800kw/tone corresponding to maximum power input. As there is no inherent stirring action. It produces purer products It is very simple and easy to control the composistion of the final product during refining process. the power factor is 0. The furnace is rocked thoroughly to ensure. Indirect arc furnace • • • • • • • Electrodes are inserted from the sides and the heat produced is transmitted by radiation to the charge.87 and efficiency 70%.• Merits: Stirring action is automatic and gives a uniform product. . large quantities of electrodes are used. When compared with cupola method. In both the type of furnaces. • • Demerits: • • It is very costlier. It is used for alloy steel manufacture and gives a purer product. that the metal will cover the refactory lining and prevent it from reaching high temperatures. Application: • The most common application of this type of furnace is to produce steel.
Core type and 2. They are a) Direct core type b) Vertical core type and c) Indirect core type Direct core type: • • • The direct core type induction furnace is shown ion fig.Application: • The main application of this type furnace is melting of non-ferrous metals.c supply. crucible and primary winding connected to an a. The charge is kept in the cruicible. . Induction heating: • • • • Induction heating processes make use of currents induced by electromagnetic action in the material to be heated. It consist of an iron core. An electric current is induced in this metal when the a. The following are different types of induction furnaces 1. which forms a single turn short circuited secondary circuit. Coreless type Core type is classified into three types. The coil is magnetically coupled with the metal to be heated which acts as secondary. Induction heating is based on the principle of transformers.c current is passed. There is a primary winding through which an a.c current is passed through the primary coil.
The charge is magnetically coupled to the primary winding. It has a vertical channel for the charge. It must be closed. The furnace cannot function if the secondary circuit is open. therefore the leakage reactance is very high. Hence leakage reactance is comparatively low and power factor is high. The principle of operation is that of a transformer in which the secondary turns are replaced by a closed loop of molten metal. • AJAX WYATT Vertical core type furnace: • • • It is modified type of core type induction furnace. Low frequency supply is necessary because normal frequency causes turbulence of the charge. This causes low power factor. To start the furnace molten metal is poured in the oven from the previous charge. thus the crucible used is also vertical. no current will flow in the secondary. When there is no molten metal. This type of furnace has the following drawbacks. It is called pinch effect. Such furnace is not suitable for intermittent services. For starting the furnace either molten metal is poured into the crucible or sufficient molten metal is allowed to remain in the crucible from the previous operation. The change is melted because of high current induced in it. • • • • • • • The magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary is very weak. • . Inside of the furnace is lined with refactory depending upon the charge.• • • The current in the charge is very high in the order of several thousand amperes. The crucible for the charge id of odd shape and inconvenient from the metallurgical point of view. The primary winding is placed on the central limb of the core. If current density exceeds about 5 amps/mm2 the electromagnetic force produced by this current density causes interruption of secondary current. The construction of ajax wyatt vertical furnace is shown in fig. Hence the heating of the metal is interrupted.
So heat is produced due to induced current. Applications: • This furnaces is used for melting non ferrous metals like brass. zinc. Hence chances of discontinuity of the circuit is less. Chances of discontinuity of the secondary circuit is less.c supply. high current will be accumulated at the bottom and even a small amount of charge will keep the secondary completed. its power factor is better. hence it is useful for intermittent operations. • • Advantages: • • • • High efficiency and low operating cost.• The top of the furnace is covered with an insulated cover which can be removed for charging. In such furnace an inductively heated element is made to transfer its heat to the change by radiation. The molten metal in the ‘V’ portion acts as a short circuited secondary. I n this type of furnace induction principle has been used for heating metals. current is induced in the secondary of the metal container. The furnace is operated from the normal supply frequency. Indirect core type induction furnace • • • • • Indirect core type induction furnace is shown in fig. bronze. tin. copper etc. When the primary winding is connected to the supply. This heat is transmitted to the charge by radiation. Necessary arrangements are usually made for titling the furnace to take out the molten metal. . It consists of an iron core linking with the primary winding and secondary. Since both primary and secondary are on the same central core. In this case secondary consists of a metal container forming the walls of the furnace. When primary is connected to the a.
Fig shows a coreless induction furnace in which container is made up of conduting material. Fig shows a coreless induction furnace in which the container is made of ceramic material and the charge must necessarily have conducting properties. refactory linings are provided between primary and secondary windings. having different critical temperature. Hence for compensating the low flux density.• • • The portion AB of the magnetic circuit is made up of a special alloy and is kept inside the chamber of the furnace. Hence heavy current induced in it and produce heat. The bar AB is removable type and can be replaced by other. • Coreless induction furnace: • • • • • • • Coreless induction furnace also operates on the principle of transformer. The flux set up by the primary winding produces eddy currents in the charge. In this furnace there is no core and thus the flux density will be low. To prevent the primary winding from high temperature. The special alloy will loose its magnetic properties at a particular temperature and the magnetic properties are regained when the alloy will cooled. Thus the temperature of the furnace can be controlled very effectively. This heat produced is transferred to the charge by convection. As soon as the furnace attains the critical temperature the reluctance of the magnetic circuit increases many times and the inductive effect correspondingly decreases thereby cutting off the heat supply. Stirring of the metals takes place by the action of the electromagnetic forces. the current supplied to the primary should have sufficiently high frequency. Coreless furnace may be having conducting or non conducting containers. • • . The container acts as secondary winding and the charge can have either conducting or non conducting properties. Thus the container forms a short circuited single turn secondary. The heating effect of the eddy currents melts the charge.
When A. smoke. The eddy currents in the charge results in automatic stirring. Accurate power control is possible. ceramics etc are subjected to high voltage A. The angle between voltage and current is slightly less than 90˚. At normal supply frequency the power loss may be small. The equivalent circuit and vector diagram is also shown in fig. china clay. But at high frequencies.C current. The heating effects of the eddy currents melt the charge. plastics. The dielectric loss is dependent upon the frequency and high voltage. Absence of dirt. etc. Dielectric heating: • • Dielectric heating is also sometimes called as high frequency capacitance heating. the loss becomes large. Stirring action in the metals takes place by the action of the electromagnetic forces. with the result that there is a inphase component of the current (IR). This current produces power loss in the dielectric of the capacitor. which is sufficient to heat the dielectric. The metal to be heated is placed between two sheet type electrodes which forms a capacitor as shown in fig. the current drawn by it is leading the voltage exactly 90˚. If non metallic materials ie. Erection cost is less. their temperature will increase in temperature is due to the conversion of dielectric loss into heat.• • The flux produced by the primary winding produces eddy currents in the charge. • • • • • • . noise. Therefore for obtaining high heating effect high voltage at high frequency is usually employed. insulators such as wood. Any shape of crucible can be used. Advantages: • • • • • • Time taken to reach the melting temperature is less.C supply is connected across the two electrodes. glass.
Welding: • Welding is the process of joining two similar metals by heating. For electronic sewing.Advantages: • • • • Uniform heating is obtained. For wood processing. Arc welding. Non conducting materials are heated within a short period. There are two methods by which electric welding can be carried out. These are 1. The metal parts are heated to melting point. For drying purpose in textile industry. Resistance welding and 2. Types of electric welding 1. required for joining two metal pieces. Electric welding: • In electric welding process. Applications: • • • • For food processing. electric current is used to produce large heat. In some cases the pieces of metal to be joined are heated to plastic stage and are fused together. Easy heat control. Resistance welding a) Butt welding b) Spot welding . Running cost is low.
The heat produced for welding is given by H=I2Rt Where. Heat will be developed by the resistance of the work piece to the flow of current. Arc welding a) Carbon arc welding b) Metal arc welding c) Atomic hydrogen arc welding d) Inert gas metal arc welding e) Submerged arc welding. The A. The welding transformer is a step down transformer. I= Current in amperes. The secondary voltage is in the order of 1 to 10 volts. .C supply is given to the primary winding of the transformer through a controlled contactor. H= Heat developed at the contact area.c) Seam welding d) Projection welding e) Flash welding 2. Resistance welding: • • In resistance welding heavy current is passed through the metal pieces to be welded. R= Resistance in ohms. • • • The fundamental block diagram for resistance welding is shown in fig. But the current may range from 50 to 1000 amperes. t= time of flow of current.
The welding current flows through electrodes tips producing a spot weld. Sufficient pressure is applied along the axial direction. The heat developed by the arc is also used for cutting of metal. Due to the pressure applied. . wires and rods. The current continue to flow across the small gap and give intense heat. In this type of welding the metal parts to be joined end to end as shown in fig.C is usually employed. the molten metal forced to produce a bulged joint. The welding current and period of current flow depend on the thickness of the plates. Arc welding: • • • • An electric arc is the flow of electric current through gases. A heavy current is passed from the welding transformer which creates the necessary heat at the joint due to high resistance of the contact area. An electric arc is struck by short circuiting two electrodes and then with drawing them apart by small distance. Spot welding arrangement is shown in fig. sufficient mechanical pressure is applied through the electrodes. This type of joint only provides mechanical strength and is not air or water tight.i) Butt welding: • • • • • In this process heat is generated by the contact resistance between two components. The plates to be welded are placed overlapping each other between two electrodes. ii) Spot welding: Spot welding is usually employed for joining or fabricating sheet metal structure. Carbon arc welding: • In this process D. This method is suitable for welding pipes.
C or D. The electrode also serves the purpose of filler.• • • • • • The electrode is made of carbon or graphite and is to be kept negative with respect of the work. For metal arc welding A.C can be used. If the electrode is made positive then the carbon contents may flow into the weld and cause brittleness. Electric supply is connected between electrode and work piece. The work piece is then suddenly touched by the electrode and then separated from it a little. -------------------------------------------------*****----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------**********************--------------------------------------- . This results in an arc between the job and the electrode. Flux and filler are also used. This type of welding is used for welding copper and its alloy. Metal arc welding: • • • • • • In metal arc welding a metal rod of same material as being welded is used as an electrode. The work piece is connected to positive wire as shown in fig. A little portion of the work and the tip of the electrode melts due to the heat generated by the arc. Filler is made up of similar metal as that of metal to be welded. The heat from the arc forms a molten pool and the extra metal required to make the weld is supplied by the filler rod. When the electrode is removed the metal cools and solidifies giving a strong welded joint.
Multimotor drive Advantages of electric drives • It is simple in construction and has less maintenance cost. It is classified into three types. The utilization of electric energy is always advantageous as it is cheaper.C and D. steam or diesel engines as it is possible to control the performance of an electric motor is quite easy. both A. Group drive and 3.C motors are used.C energy as industrial drive. However A. • • • • Electric drive • • An electric drive is defined as a form of machine equipment designed to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and provide electrical control of this process. They are 1. It is easy to maintain the voltage at consumer premises within the prescribed limits and it is possible to increase or decrease the voltage without appreciable loss of power.ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION • An electric motor is a better prime move for driving mechanical load than hydraulic. Inspite of the advantages of A.C system is preferred.C system sometimes it becomes essential to use D. For obtaining electric drives. . Individual drive 2.
In some cases the motor. If there is a fault in one motor other machines will not be affected since they are working independently.• • • • • • • • • Its speed control is easy and smooth. It can be remotely controlled. Advantages: • • • • • The machines can be installed at any desired position. Each operator has a complete control of his machine. Individual drive • • • Individual drive consist of single motor is used to drive one individual machine. It can be installed at any desired convenient place. Continuity in the production of the industry is achieved. . It has comparatively longer life. if necessary and stop while not in use. Transmission of power from one place to other can be done with the help of cables in stead of long shaft etc. which results in better appearance. clean and free from any smoke or flue gases. It has high efficiency. It can be started immediately without any loss of time. He can vary its speed. Most of the industries use this type of drive. cleanliness and safety. Efficiency of the system is high. may form an integral part of the machine. It requires less space. along with its control equipment. It is neat. Thus no load losses can be eliminated.
It requires little maintenance. It is not possible to install any machine at a distance place. Advantages: When compared with the individual drive. The line shaft is fitted with multistepped pulleys and belts. It has low power factor. which operates a number of machines. • • • • Its initial cost is less. The fig shows the group drive. Disadvantages: • • • • • • When the motor fails all the operations will be stopped. Speed control of individual machine is not possible. It is also called line shaft drive. Noise level in this drive is quite high. If most of the machines are idle the main motor will operate on load with less efficiency. Multimotor drive . Only less space is required.Disadvantages: • The initial cost is high. Group drive • • • • • • A group drive consist of a single large motor. The driven machines are connected to these pulleys and belts for their required speed. In this drive all the operation can be stopped simultaneously. The motor is mechanically connected to a long shaft.
rolling mills. Electrical characteristics • • • • Running characteristics Starting characteristics Speed control Braking b. Selection of motors • • An industrial process needs a particular electric drive for its successful and efficient operation which in turn calls for appropriate selection of the driving motor. the following factors must be taken into consideration: a. different motors are used for hoisting. Size of motor and • • • Continuous rating Intermittent or variable load rating Over load capacity . paper making machines. Fig shows a multimotor drive.• • • • In multimotor drives separate motors are used for operating different parts of the same mechanism. Mechanical characteristics • • • • Types of enclosures Bearings Transmission of drive Noise level c. While selecting a motor. long travel motion and cross travel motion. Such drive is also essential in complicated metal-cutting machine tools. Eg in case of an overhead crane.
• • Electrical characteristics Running characteristics • The running characteristics of a motor include the following speed. but in any commercial organization. The magnetizing current and power factor are to be considered in case of A. Cost • • Capital cost Running cost • • The first three are the technical factors and the last one is the economic factor.C motors only. magnetizing current. Many a time. there are conflicts between the technical and economic factors. .torque or speedcurrent characteristics. • Starting characteristics • The starting torque developed by a motor should be sufficient to start and accelerate the motor at its load to the rated speed in a reasonable time. losses. the economic factor overpowers the technical factors as the correct choice of a motor is one which gives the required service at the minimum overall cost. efficiency and power factor at various loads. It is essential that the motor characteristics match with those of the load for stable operation of the system.• Pull out torque d. Since the load on a motor is an integral part of the drive system we study various types of loads.
C motor is proportional to the product of field flux (Ф) and armature current (Ia).. T α ФIa Where Ia= armature current Ф= field flux D. At the time of starting a motor.C Series motor • • In D. traction work etc.g motors driving grinding mills or oil expellers. • D. Hence the field current.e..e. • • The torque required to overcome the static friction and The torque necessary to accelerate the motor and its load to the desired speed.C motor is the relation between the torque and the armature current. armature current and load current is same (ie Ia=Ise=IL). the field current is constant from no load to full load. E. two torques come into play. Therefore the field flux Ф also constant. (T α Ia).C shunt motor.C shunt motor • • • In DC shunt motor.C series motor. Фse= Фa. Fig shows the torque current characteristics of D. hence field flux and armature flux also same ie. The torque of a D. Starting characteristics of D. i. the field winding is connected in series with the armature.• • Some motors may be have to start against full load torque.C motors • • The starting characteristics of D. Hence the starting torque is directly proportional to the armature current i. .
Hence the torque is directly proportional to Ia (T α Ia).• Since the series field flux is proportional to the armature current upto saturation point. • • D. Starting characteristics of three phase induction motor Squirrel cage motor . Hence up to OA. field flux Ф α Ia Hence T α Ia2 • • • After saturation. Cumulative compound motor 2. Hence the total flux is higher than that of the shunt motor. So the torque developed in this motor is more than that of shunt motor for the same armature current. ie T α ФIa upto saturation point. the series field flux remains constant. cranes. Since the starting torque is directly proportional to square of armature current. Differential compound motor • • • In cumulative compound motor the series field flux add with the shunt field flux. 1. and the starting torque of D. Hence the total flux is lesser than that of the shunt motor as shown in fig. the torque current characteristics is a straight line. hence after A. the torque current characteristics is in parabolic shape.C compound motor There are two types of compound motor namely. So it can be used where large starting torque is required such as in electric trains. In differential compound motor. the series field flux opposes the shunt field flux.C series motor is very high. lifts and hoists. the torque produced is proportional to the square of the armature current up to saturation point.
It is not possible to increase the rotor resistance on squirrel cage induction motor. • The following methods are used to provide the starting arrangement.• • During the starting period. Therefore if the rotor resistance R2 increases the starting torque also increases(since T α R2). Starting characteristics of synchronous motor • It has no self starting torque. the squirrel cage induction motor has low starting torque and take high starting current. . Fig shows the double cage rotor. extra resistance can be added in the rotor circuit during the starting period. The inductance of the inner bar is higher than that of outer. it also limits the starting current. the rotor current will flow through the outer cage. the motor induced current is at the line frequency and hence inner cage has a high reactance(X2=2 f’L). During the starting period X2 is higher in compare to rotor resistance R2. Therefore. It runs at synchronous speed. • • Double cage rotor • • The starting torque of a cage motor is increased by providing double cages. In addition. The outer cage is made of high resistance metal bars whereas inner cage is made of low resistance copper bar. • • • • • Slip ring Induction motor • • In slip ring induction motor. During normal running the reactance of the inner cage decreases (since rotor current frequency f’ is decreased) and hence the rotor current flows through the low resistance inner cage. Hence a high starting torque is produced. At the time of starting. This gives a high efficiency of the motor. The condition for maximum starting torque is R2=X2. with the result that the starting torque is high (since T α R2).
They are connected across the supply.M. Running characteristics of motors • • The running characteristics of a motor include the speed-torque or the speed-current characteristics. When the motor picks up the speed at 75% of synchronous speed. An extra winding known as starting winding is provided on the stator. The starting winding is connected in series with the capacitor through centrifugal switch and connected across the single phase supply. In permanent capacitor motor the capacitor remains in the circuit during starting and running. It requires some provision for starting. Provide damper winding on rotor. If a capacitor is used for spilt the phase at starting then it is called capacitor start motor .C motors . ii. Such an arrangement gives a high starting torque. The main winding is of high reactance and low resistance. a centrifugal switch is open and disconnects the starting winding. This type of motor is called split phase motor. The magnetizing current and power factor are to be considered in case of A. the main winding is connected directly across the line. iii. The starting winding is of high resistance and low reactance.) coupled to synchronous motor.i. losses.C motors only. magnetizing currents. DC motor coupled to synchronous motor. Starting characteristics of single phase induction motor • • • • • • • • • • Single phase induction motor is not self starting. Running characteristics of D. Pony motor(small I. efficiency and power factor at various loads. This motor has a very low starting torque.
C motor N α (Eb / Ф). in DC shunt motor Ф is flux is constant. This increase in speed compensates the drop in speed due to Ia Ra drop.(2) ----------------------------.C shunt motor decreases with increase in armature current due to loading.D. Hence the speed will increase.(1) . When the supply voltage is constant. the flux is weakened. The percentage of speed change will be about 5% at full load due to armature resistance drop. (N α (Eb / Ф)). Therefore the shunt motor is considered as constant speed motor. N α Eb N α V-Ia Ra • • This indicates that speed of D. But due to armature reaction.C shunt motor a) speed current characteristics • In any D. • • • • b) Speed-Torque characteristics • We know T α ФIa and N α (Eb / Ф). The variation of speed with armature current characteristics is drooping slightly as shown in fig. • In shunt motor field flux Ф= constant T α Ia Ia= KT N α Eb N α (V-IaRa) -------------------------.
Hence the shape of the curve will be hyperbolic.IaRa)/ Ф • When supply voltage V is kept constant.• Put Ia value in equation (2) N α V-(KT)Ra ---------------------------. speed.Torque characteristics • In any D. current and efficiency.C motor N α (V-IaRa)/ Ф • If IaRa drop is negligible N α V/ Ф -------------------------. • • • • b) Speed. On the light loads the flux produced will be weak and therefore the speed will be dangerously high. the speed will be very high.C series motor a) Speed.C shunt motor. the speed of the motor will be inversely proportional to flux N α (1 / Ф). T α Ф Ia . For small value of flux Ф.current characteristics • Consider the speed equation N α Eb/Ф N α (V. Performance curve • Fig shows the performance curves of D. the flux also increases. each plotted against output power.(1) • We know that. Therefore the speed will be constant and low at heavy loads as shown in fig. These curves are namely torque. after saturation the flux remains constant. D. speed decreases as shown in fig.(3) From equation (3) we know that. when the torque increases.. When the load current increases.
speed is inversely proportional to torque.C compound motor Speed – current characteristics • • • • • A compound motor has both series field and shunt field. Performance curve • • Fig shows the perfoemance curve of a D. Compound motors are of two types.C series motor.(2) • Substitute the equation (2) in (1) N α V/√T • • • From the equation. it is called cumulative compound motor. This is shown in fig. Hence series motor is suitable for operating cranes. In D. These curves are namely torque. In any D. it is called differential compound motor.C series motor. lifts. If the series field flux opposes the shunt field flux. If the series field flux and shunt field flux add each other.T α Ф. Ф T α Ф2 Ф2 =T (since Ia α Ф) Ф2 = √T ------------------------. the series field emf increases with increase in armature current. • . current and efficiency each plotted against output power. In the cumulative compound motor. as torque increases with decrease of speed. Hence the characteristics curve is hyperbolic in shape. speed. Hence cumulative compound motor has more flux than that of shunt motor.C motor. D. trains etc.
m. The speed Vs armature current and speed torque characteristics of D. • • • Running characteristics of three phase induction motor • • Running characteristics of squirrel cage induction motor or speed torque characteristics In cage induction motor Torque (T) = KSE22 R2/ R22 +X22 Where k = constant S = slip E2 = e. Hence the rotor reactance (X2= 2πf’L) is also very small. In the case of differential compounded motor the field flux decreases when the armature current increases. Hence the speed is greater when compared to shunt motor. Since the speed is inversely proportional to flux N α (1 / Ф) cumulative compound motor has lower speed than the shunt motor.f induced in the rotor R2 = rotor resistance X2 = rotor reactance • • • Under normal running condition the rotor frequency (f’=Sf) is small. which reduces the torque.T α Ф Ia • • • Hence torque of cumulative compound motor is greater than the shunt motor. . (since T α Ф Ia). in comparison with the shunt motor. But the speed increases with reduction flux ( since N α (1 / Ф)). Hence the rotor reactance (X2) is neglected.C compound motors are shown in fig.
• • • • • • • Performance curve • Fig shows the performance curve of three phase squirrel cage induction motor namely slip. For various values of R the family of speed torque characteristics shown in fig. From the above equation the running torque is inversely proportional to the rotor resistance R2. Running characteristics of double squirrel cage induction motor . T α KSE22/ R2 • • • • Since the supply voltage Vis constant. The torque will reach a maximum value at slip S=R2/X2. efficiency and speed each plotted against power output. After the rated load.. when the load on the motor increases the rotor speed falls down. By introducing resistance in the rotor circuit at running. The torque increases with increase in slip upto rated load.T α K1SE22 R2/ R22 i. Hence at lower value of slip. the motor slowing down and it finally stops. Any further more increase in load on the motor results. The stable operating region of the motor lies for the slip values S=0 and that corresponds to maximum torque.e. the increased load on the motor will increase the slip and on the decrease the torque. Hence the running torque of the motor depends upon the rotor resistance. power factor. current. the rotor resistance is very low. Since the cage motor rotor is short circuited. the torque can be increased. increasing the running torque the rotor resistance R2 should be very low. Hence cage induction motor has good running torque. The operating region is hatched in fig. E2 is also constant. Then the slip value increases. Running characteristics of slip ring induction motor • • The running characteristics of slip ring induction motor are same as squirrel cage induction motor.
sewing machines. At the time of starting inner cage offers high reactance. After the motor has picked up its full speed. the frequency of rotor current becomes very low. hence frequency of rotor current f’ increases. Hence at running.e. Fig shows the speed torque characteristics of single phase induction motor. Running characteristics of universal motor. • • • • Running characteristics of single phase induction motor • • • • • The speed torque characteristics is similar to three phase induction motor. Its speed torque characteristics are same as series motor speed-torque characteristics. Single phase induction motors are used in domestic appliances like fans. It has no self starting torque. since f’ = s f).C supply. The speed. . Hence most of the current flows through outer cage where resistance is high. Separate arrangement is provided to make it self starting. copper losses are reduced and the efficiency of motor is increased. Inner cage has high inductance and low resistance whereas outer cage has high resistance and low inductance. portable drills and other small power drives.torque characteristics of double cage induction motor are shown in fig. refrigerators. vacuum cleaners etc. The repulsion start and capacitor start motors are the most common types of single phase induction motors.C or D. (since at starting slip=1. Therefore most of the current flows through the inner cage. Thus more starting torque is developed. Universal motors are used in vacuum cleaners. • • • • Universal motor operates on either A.• • • The motor is designed to provide improved starting characteristics (i. Because the frequency of rotor current is very high. Fig shows the speed torque characteristics. high starting torque with low starting current).
the speed can be controlled by following methods • • • • • • By changing the supply voltage By changing the supply frequency By changing the no of poles of motor By injecting emf in the rotor circuit By cascading of motors By injecting resistance in the rotor circuit Braking • • • • When the load is removed from an electric motor and supplied to it be disconnected it will continue to run for sometime due to inertia. To avoid danger to the worker or damage to the products manufactured quick stopping of motor is required. i) Mechanical braking ii) Electrical braking Mechanical characteristics of electric motor .Speed control In D. The braking torque must be controllable. There are two types of braking.C motor the speed can be controlled by following methods • • Armature control method Field control method In A. The braking system should be reliable and quick in action. It is done by braking.C motors.
the mechanical characteristics are also taken into account. Therefore it is necessary to provide proper enclosures. Noise 4.• • While selecting a motor for a particular drive. water. This type of enclosures does not protect the motor against dirt and dust. The different types of enclosures are as follows. oil. dust inflammable fumes etc. Transmission of drive Types of enclosures • • All the major parts of the motors such as windings. bearings. But larger bodies and big insects cannot enter into the machine. 1. also accidents may occur to persons coming in contact with the moving parts. Bearings 3. b) Screen protected type • • • In this type of machines openings provided for ventilation are covered with wire mesh screen. . The advantage of this type of motor is that the cost of cooling is very low. insulation etc are to be protected from the surroundings contaminated air. In an industry the air surrounding the motors may contain metal. • • a) Open type • • • This type can only be used where the atmosphere and surroundings are free from all contaminations and surrounding air completely dry. Types of enclosures 2. mist. The following features determine the suitability of the motor. But this type is rarely used since there is no protection to the motor parts. dust.
E. gas plants. d) Totally enclosed type • • • • This type of motors has solid frames and end shields but no opening for ventilation. • • g) Pipe ventilated type • • Large sizes of totally enclosed motor employ pipe ventilation. f) Flame proof type • These enclosures do not communicate an internal fire to the external environment. oil refineries etc. the ventilation ducts are provided in such a way that drops of liquid or solid particles reaching the machine at any angle between vertical and 100˚ from it cannot enter the machine. coal handling plants and stone crushing quarries. They are cooled by surface radiation only. E.. where clean air is available and forced to cool the motor. These machines are used for very dusty atmosphere. where the risk of fire is more. Hence these motors are used in coal mines. .c) Drip proof type • • • This motor has ventilating opening provided in such a way that drops of liquid or solid falling on it vertically are prevented to enter inside. Such motors are used in damp atmosphere. e) Splash proof type • In this type.g saw mills. Air is drawn through pipe from outside the building.g Pumpsets. This type of motor cannot be used where inflammable dust particles are present in the surrounding air. In this type machines no dirt or foreign matter can enter and block the air passage.
. It is used for chain. It occupy less space. Sleeve or brush bearing • • • Sleeve or brush bearings are normally made of bronze. The outer race is attached to the housing(end cover) and the inner race is attached to the shaft. Ball or Roller bearing 2. It is used in three phase induction motor where smaller air gap is possible.Bearings • • • Bearings are the parts of machines which house and support the main shaft. It has self lubricating properties due to capillary action. 1. It has a longer life and maintenance costs are low. the steel ball also rotates. When the shaft rotates. Sleeve or brush bearing Ball or Roller bearing • • • • • • • Ball or roller bearing consist of an inner and outer race and cage containing steel roller or balls. The rotating shaft is supported by bearing component and is rigidly fixed to the frame of the machine. There are two types of bearings usually employed in motors. It provides free rotation of the moving parts with minimum friction. But the initial cost of ball and roller bearings is high. Hence the friction of the shaft is minimized. belt and gear drives.
It can be used where driven and driving machine speed are same. It gives noiseless operation and their life is long. Flexible coupling protects the motor from jerks. The mechanical power wasted due to slip is about 3 to 4 percentage. It is mainly used in direct coupled drive such as fan and universal motor. Belt drive • • • In belt drive. Rope drive 4. Belt drive 3. It is more efficient and requires minimum space and it is the simplest method. Chain drive and 5. motor is coupled directly to the driven machine with the help of solid or flexible coupling.P can be transmitted through this drive. Gear drive Direct drive • • • • In direct drive. 1. Maximum power of 300 H. Direct drive 2.• • • • It is lubricated by a metal ring freely rotating on the shaft carrying oil to the bearings. belt is used to transmit the power from motor to driven machine through pulley system. this type of bearing is used in larger air gap induction motor. . Transmission of drives • Various methods employed for transmission of mechanical power are described below. Because of larger wear of bearings.
Chain drive • • • • Chain drive is very costly in comparison to belt and rope drive. It gives convenient speed ratio thereby high speed motors can be utilized. It is noiseless. Rope drive • • • • This method for transmission for power is used. magnetic pulsations and faulty foundations. vibrations. hospitals and other domestic purposes. Gear drive is used when high speed motor is to drive a low speed machine. The noise may be due to bearing. It is mainly used in lift and cranes. The advantages of rope drive are negligible slip and ability of taking sudden loads.Advantages • • • Greater flexibility in the original design of a plant is possible. It is more efficient and transmits large amount of power. It should be kept as low as possible in the workshops. sliplesss and smooth in operation. It can be used for high speed ratio (upto 6:1). A number of ropes run in V-grooves over pulleys. when it is not possible to employ belt drive. The coupling between the two is through a suitable ratio gear box. Gear drive • • Noise • • • Noise is the another important features to be considered while making the selection of a motor. The tendency of slipping especially under heavy loads is reduced because it will absorb a portion of the shock of suddenly applied loads. .
Intermittent periodic duty. . Continuous rating • • This is the rating or the output of a motor which can be delivered continuously for long periods without exceeding the permissible temperature.• • • To reduce noise. textile. 1. mills etc. Standard rating of motor • The rating of motor is the amount of power which it can deliver without becoming unduly hot. Such motor is loaded for short period of time and is then put off for sometime. which operate continuously for long periods. Short time duty. 2. Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking. Continuous duty. 3. 5. During that period the motor cools off as in mixies. Intermittent rating or short time rating. Continuous rating. This rating is applicable to drives like fans. Intermittent rating or short time rating • • • This is an output that a motor can give for specified short time without exceeding the permissible temperature rise. The rating of a motor is classified as follows. 1. The electrical connections should be made through flexible conduits. Intermittent periodic duty in the starting. 2. The motor should be mounted on a heavy concrete or cast iron block. journal bearing may be used in place of ball bearings. pumps. 4. Classes of load duty cycles • As per IS 4722 – 1968 various load time variations are encountered the eight standard classes of duty.
8. Intermittent periodic duty • • • It denotes the operation of motor a sequence of indential duty cycle each of constant load and rest period. Intermittent periodic duty with starting • • • This is intermittent periodic duty where heat losses during starting cannot be neglected.6. Fig shows the load time and temperature time graph. Pressing. sluice gate drives. Thus it consists of a period of starting. drives for household appliances. Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading. 30. Paper mill drives. centrifugal pumps and fans are some examples of continuous duty. valve drives and machine tool drives are some examples of short-time duty. The load time and temperature time graph are shown in fig. Crane drivers. a period of operation at a constant load and rest period. Selection of motors for different duty cycles Continuous duty • • Continuous duty denotes the motor operation at a constant load torque to reach steady state temperature. Short time duty • • • • It denotes the operation of motor at constant load for short period followed by rest to cool down to the original starting temperature. compressors. heating of machine during starting and braking operation is negligible. Continuous duty with starting and braking. In this duty. The load time and the temperature time graph are shown in fig. Continuous duty with periodic speed changes. Short time duty timings are generally 10. 60 and 90 minutes. . 7. The operating and rest periods are too short to attain the steady state temperature in one duty cycle. cutting and drilling machine drives are some examples of intermittent periodic duty. conveyers.
• . each cycle is having a period of running at one load and speed and followed by another period of running at different speed and load. Pressing. a period of operation with constant load. and a rest period. drives for electric suburban trains and mine hoist are some examples of this duty. a period of operation at constant load a period of electric braking and there is no rest period. each consisting of a period of operation and a period of operation on no load. Thus it consists of a period of starting. Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading • • • • The operation of motor has a sequence of indentical duty cycle. mine hoist drives for lift trucks. cutting. The characteristics are shown in fig. Thermal equilibrium is not reached in one duty cycle. in this duty heating of machine during braking is considered to be negligible. shearing and drilling machine drives are the examples. Blooming mill is an example. Its characteristics are shown in fig. drilling tool drives. a braking period.• • Its characteristics are shown in fig. This duty is distinguished from the intermittent periodic duty by a period of running at constant load is followed by a period of running at no load instead of rest. There is no rest period. Some examples are metal cutting. Braking is done electrically and is quick. Thermal equilibrium is not reached in one duty cycle. Its characteristics are shown in fig. Its characteristics is shown in fig Several machine tool drives. Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking • • • • • This is the periodic duty where heat losses during starting and braking cannot be ignored. Continuous duty with starting and braking • • The operation of motor consists of period of starting. Continuous duty with periodic speed changes • Operation of the motor has a sequence of indentical duty cycle.
The motors employed must have high starting torque with constant speed. Cement mills • Various types of loads available in a cement factory and the motor used for them are given below a) Hammer crusher – Three phase slip ring induction motor • The lime stones are broken into smaller sizes in the crushing mill. high torque double cage induction motors are used. Relative speed of rolls should be constant otherwise the paper may be tearing. 3. Hence totally enclosed.C motors or slip ring induction motors are used. It is required to adjust the speed at any one group of rolls relative to other in order to draw the paper.5 times the rated torque. . 2.Drives for different industrial application 1. The motor required for these mills should have high starting torque about 2 to 2. 4. fan cooled. It should have strong construction. Textile mills – Double cage induction motor • • • • In textile mills group drive is employed. Rolling mills or steel mills – separately excited DC motor • • • • Separately excited DC motor is mainly used in rolling mills.Synchronous motor A paper mill requires a drive which must fulfill the following requirements • • • To manufacture different thickness of papers it is required to vary the speed of entire series of rolls. The ward leonard speed control of D. The motors used must be totally enclosed and moisture proof to prevent entry of dust and moisture enter into machine. Paper mill.
Different speed operation is obtained by using two or three speed motor with suitable gear combination. Lift and hoists – DC compound motor or 3Ф slip ring induction motor . c) Rotary driers – Slip ring induction motor • The cement slurry is dried by blowers and speed of blower is varied depending upon the amount of air required to blow. D. 5. totally enclosed motors are used to prevent metallic dust getting into it.C shunt motor or 3Ф Squirrel cage induction motor • • • The starting torque required is less in most of the machine tools since they start up light. Machine tools – D. b) Ball mills – Synchronous motor • In ball mills. d) • Slurring pumps and agitators – Three phase Squirrel cage induction motor These are used in the wet process • Three phase Squirrel cage induction motors used for slurring pumps and agitators. • Hence slip ring induction motor with pole changing speed control is employed. • Hence three phase slip ring induction motor is used because it has high starting torque.• For this purpose high starting torque motor is required. • • 6. Therefore 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor is used for machine tool application. In the case of grinders. the raw materials grind in powder form synchronous motor are used for this process.C shunt motors are used for machine tool application like planners where rapid reversal. and wide speed control are required.
8. 9. Single phase induction motor is used for small air compressors. • 7. Punches and shears • • For punches and shears D.3 Ф Induction motor • • • Air compressors are used for pneumatic drill.• The essential requirements for a lift are high overload capacity. Double squirrel cage induction motors are used in belt conveyors. A three phase alternator gives the supply to the synchronous motor.5 times the full load torque at starting and maximum degree of silence. .C compound motor and three phase slip ring induction motor are used for lifts and hoists. are sand on either flat belt or bucket system.C 3 Ф slip ring induction motors provided with fly wheel are used. 10. Air compressor . It requires a high starting torque so as to accelerate the load for transport. 3Ф induction motors are used to drive compressors.C cumulative compound motors and A. D. Repulsion motor is used for various industrial machinery air compressors. Hence totally enclosed surface cooled motors are used. 11. Belt conveyor – Double squirrel cage induction motor • • • • The conveyors are required to transport bulk materials like coal. Rotary printing • The rotary printing machinery requires variable speed motor. Ship – Synchronous motors • • • Three phase induction motors and synchronous motors are used for very big ships. The prime mover used for the alternator is steam turbine by varying the voltage and frequency of alternator the speed of motor is controlled. high smooth accelerating torque of 2 to 2.
which helps the motor to reach the speed in a short time and also prevents the motor from stalling in case of heavy loads.C 3 Ф induction motors with rotor resistance control are used for printing machineries. 12.C series motors are used for cranes because they have high starting torque. The liquid handled by the pump does not enter the motor. Draught fan • • The single phase split phase induction motors are used for draught fan. Cranes – D. A double cage induction motor is suitable for reciprocating pump. Reciprocating pump • • A reciprocating pump requires two times the full load torque at starting. Pumps Centrifugal pump • • • • • The load torque varies as square of the speed in a centrifugal pump. Because they have high starting torque.C compound motors or A.C supply is available. 14. 15.• D. • • 13. 3 Ф slip ring induction motor is also used for this type of pump.C shunt motor is used where D. Ceiling fans • Single phase capacitor start and run motors are used for ceiling fan. Hence totally enclosed motor is preferred. At starting the torque required is less. The single phase split phase induction motor has shunt characteristics and so the operating speed is almost constant.C series motor • • The D. . D. Hence 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used for centrifugal pump.
shavers. so a double squirrel cage motor is used. It requires shunt characteristics and so 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used.C 3 Ф slip ring inductions are also used for cranes. Mines • The various loads in a mine are winders. For starting and special adjustments proper graded rotor resistance is used with slip ring induction motor. A 3 Ф slip ring induction motor with ward leonard speed control is used for winder.• • A. Choice of drive • Choice of drive is governed by the following factors: (i) (ii) (iii) Speed of driving and driven machines Convenience Space available . conveyors. cloth washing machines etc. Compressor is used to provide compressed air for pneumatic drills used for mining operations. ventilating fans. compressors and pumps. 16. Conveyors require a high starting torque. Acceleration and braking operations are repeated. Ventilating fans are used for circulating fresh air. Centrifugal pumps are used to pump out the water falling through the rock layers. Domestic appliances – Universal motor or Single phase induction motor • Small universal motor is used for various domestic appliances such as for domestic refrigerators.. vacuum cleaner. • • • • • • 17. It requires high starting torque therefore a 3 Ф slip ring induction motor is used for pumps. A 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used for ventilating fan if no speed control is not required. The winder consists of two cages and a rope for transporting material from bottom of the mine to the surface. mixi.
P = F x v/2 x 102 η kW -----------------------------------. r. so for the some output kW the cost of a high speed motor is less than that of a slow speed motor..m. kg-m. the first cost of a motor for a given output are approximately inversely proportional to the speed. T = Load torque. • • Power requirement calculation 1. Thus for a low-speed drive high speed motor using a reduction gear is usually found cheaper than a low-speed direct-coupled motor.(iv) (v) • • Clutching arrangement required Cost The choice of motor speed is the most important factor as it not only affects the performance of motor but also overall cost. N = Speed. the efficiency and power factor decreases with decrease in speed. In case of induction motor. Continuous duty and constant load: • For most of the applications. therefore. and η = Product of the efficiency of the driven equipment and that of transmitting device. the rating of the motor required is given by.(2) . the rating can be determined from the equation given as under: P = TN/975η kW (1) Where. • ---------------------------------- In case of linear motion. The dimension and.p.
and v = velocity of motion of the load. m/s.9 for reciprocating pumps and from 0. it should be modified as follows: P = F x v/2 x 102 η kW The velocity of normal passenger lift cabins vary from 0. Q = Delivery of pumps. F = force caused by the load. and h = Pressure in mm of water or kg/m2. and H = Gross head (static head + friction head). ρ = Density of liquid pumped.5 m/s.5 to 1. the rating can be determined from the following relation: P = ρQH/102 η kW Where. • In case of pumps. m. .4 to 0. Q = volume of air or any other gas. It is also suitable for lifts or elevators. m3/s. • The rating of a fan motor is given by. m3/s. • Equation (2) is directly applicable in case of hoisting mechanisms.Where. P = Qh/102 η kW Where.8 for centrifugal pumps.8 to 0. η varies from 0. kg/m3. Kg.
kg. • • • The loss diagram of the electric motor is shown. the motor will operate without temperature rise going above the maximum permissible for the particular class of insulation. the losses corresponding to the continuous duty of the machine when operated at its nominal rating. These losses are then compared with Qnom. m/min. • The rating of a motor used in metal shearing lathes can be found from the relation. F = shearing force.6 and for large power ones it may reach a value up to 0.For small power fans. 2. and η = Mechanical efficiency of the lathe. The rating of the electric motor can be found from method of successive approximations. P = F x v/ 102 x 60 η kW Where. Qm = Qav / Aλ = Qnom/ Aλ. Method of average losses (Qav) • • The method consists of finding average losses Qav in the motor when it operates according to the given load diagram. Motor rating for variable load: The following are the commonly used methods for determination of motor rating for variable load drives (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Method of average losses Equivalent current method Equivalent torque method Equivalent power method. . This method presupposes that when Qav = Qnom.8. the efficiency η may be taken as 0. v = Velocity of shearing. In this case.
• The losses of the motor are calculated for each portion of the load diagram by referring to the efficiency curve of the motor. in case the losses differ considerably. The disadvantage of the method of equal losses is that it is tedious to work with and also many a times the efficiency curve is not readily available and the efficiency has to be calculated by means of empirical formulae which may not be accurate to work with.5 For induction motors ……… Imax/ Inom < 1.. For D.C motors…………. another motor is selected and the calculations repeated till the motor having almost the same losses or the average losses is found.75 • • • . Ieq = √(I12t1 + I22t2 + I32t3 + ……+ In2tn) / ( t1 + t2 + t3 + ……+ tn) • • The heating and cooling conditions in self ventilated machines depend upon its speed.+ tn -----------. This method is accurate and reliable for determining the average temperature rise of the motor during one work cycle. At low speed the cooling conditions are poorer than at normal speeds. + Qntn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……. The average losses are given by Qav = Q1t1 + Q2t2 + Q3t3 +……….(1) • • • The average losses as found from eqn (1) are compared with losses of selected motor at rated frequency. Imax/ Inom < 2 to 2. The equivalent current as found from eqn should be compared with the rated current of the motor selected and the conditions Ieq < Inom should be met. In case the two losses are equal or differ by a small amount the motor is selected. However. • • Equivalent current method • This method is based on the assumption that the actual variable current may be replaced by an equivalent current Ieq which produces the same losses in the motors as the actual current. The machine selected should also be checked for its overload capacity.65 to 2.
It may not be easy to calculate the equivalent current especially in cases where the current load diagram is irregular as shown in fig. The equivalent current in such cases is calculated from the following expression: • Ieq = √ [(1/1∑n ) t∫∑t i2 dt] • The value of the integral may be found with the help of integral. Assuming constant flux and constant power factor. • Equivalent torque and equivalent power methods • • • For the selection of suitable capacity of the motor it often becomes necessary to use torque or power load diagrams..• • In case the overload capacity of the motor selected is not sufficient it becomes necessary to select a motor of high power rating. + Tn2tn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +…….. therefore. the torque is directly proportional to current and. the equivalent power is given by: Peq = √ [P12t1 + P22t2 + P32t3 +….+ tn] • The “equivalent current method” is the most accurate out of all the above methods discussed above. . At constant speed or where the changes in speed are small. the equivalent torque is: Teq = √ [T12t1 + T22t2 + T32t3 +…. The current values obtained by this method are sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. The equivalent torque or power is found in the same manner as the equivalent current. + Pn2tn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……. as power is directly proportional to the torque.+ tn] • • The equation for equivalent power follows directly from above eqn.
Active (True or Real) and Reactive power and Power Factor • Every circuit has two components (i) (ii) • • Active component and Reactive component. In fig active component is I active = I cos Ф. values of applied voltage and circuit resistance. • • • Power factor improvement Apparent. . The disadvantage of the “equivalent power method” is that it cannot be used for motors whose speed varies considerably under load. the iron and mechanical losses. I = √ [(I active) 2 + (I reactive) 2] (i) • Apparent power (S): It is given by the product of r. especially when dealing with starting and braking conditions. The “equivalent torque method” cannot be used for cases where equivalent current method cannot be applied.e.s. “Active component” consumes power in the circuit while “reactive component” is responsible for the field which lags or leads the main current from the voltage.m.• This method may be used to determine the motor capacity for all uses except where it is necessary to take into account the changes in so ‘constant losses’ i.C series motors and for squirrel cage induction motors under starting and braking conditions. It cannot be used for selection of motor rating for cases in which the field flux does not remain constant like D. and reactive component is I reactive = I sin Ф.
In a R-L circuit. The power factor depends on the reactive power component. reactive power which is the power developed in the inductive reactance of the circuit. the power factor becomes unity.e. is given as: Q = I2XL = I2Zsin Ф = I. This power which flows back and forth(i.I = I2Z volt-amperes (VA) (ii) Active or true or real power (P or W): • It is the power which is actually dissipated in the circuit resistance.S = VI = (I x Z) . It may be noted that the current in phase with the voltage produces active or true or real power while the current 90º out of phase with the voltage contributes to reactive power. W and VR W = VA cos Ф VAR = VA sin Ф VA = W/ cos Ф VA = VAR/ sin Ф • • • • Power factor (p. If it is made equal to the active power component. true and reactive power are kVA (or MVA). (IZ) sin Ф = VI sin Ф volt-amperes-reactive (VAR) • • These three powers are shown in fig Relation between VA. kW(or kW) and kVAR (or MVAR) respectively. (iii) • Reactive power (Q): A pure inductor and a pure capacitor do not consume any power. in both directions in the circuit) or reacts upon itself is called “reactive power”.f) = W/VA = True power/ Apparent power The larger bigger units of apparent. P = I2R = VI cos Ф watts.. • • . since in a half cycle what so ever power is received from the source by these components the same is returned to the source.
Due to typical characteristics of the arc.Causes of low power factor (i) (ii) (iii) All A.. 3) Use of phase advancers. 4) Increase in voltage level at load.C motors (except overexcited synchronous motors and certain types of commutators motors) and transformers operate at lagging power factor. to raise the power factor results in one or more of the following effects and advantages: 1) Reduction in investment in the system facilities per kW of the load supplied. operate at a very low lagging power factor. which usually occurs during low load periods (such as lunch hours. When there is increase in supply voltage.) the magnetizing current of inductive reactances increases and power factor of the electrical plant as a whole decreases. 2) Reduction in circuit current. Due to improper maintenance and repairs of motors the power factor at which motors operate fall. night hours etc. 2) Use of synchronous condensers. 5) Improvement in power factor of the generators. are lamps operate at low power factor. 6) Reduction in kVA loading of the generators and circuits. 3) Reduction in copper losses in the system due to reduction in current. (iv) (v) Advantages of power factor improvement • The installation of power factor improvement device. 7) Reduction in kVA demand charges for large consumers. Arc and induction furnaces etc. Methods of power factor improvement • The various methods employed for power factor correction are: 1) Use of static capacitors. .
3) Easy installation. • • • • • • Advantages of capacitors 1) Small losses (less than 0. • The above methods of power factor improvement are discussed below: Use of static capacitors: • • It is known that static capacitor/ condenser takes current which leads the voltage by nearly 90º. 5) Long life.4) Use of phase compensated motors. 7) Flexible in operation. 6) Greater reliability in service. when connected in series with the line. Capacitors connected in series with the line neutralize the line reactance. are called “series capacitor”. are called “shunt capacitors”. 2) Low initial cost.6). and when connected in parallel with the equipment. Shunt capacitors are used in factories. p.f of the whole combination is improved from cos Ф1 to cos Ф2. The capacitors. 4) Little maintenance. .5 percent) or higher efficiency (say 99. plants and also on transmission lines. Power factor of the system can be improved by placing static capacitors in series with the liner as shown in fig. Thus if condenser is connected across an inductive load resultant quadrature component of the whole combination will be difference of leading component of condenser current (Ic) and lagging component of lead current (I sin Ф1) as shown in fig. Series capacitors are used on long transmission lines as they provide automatic compensation with the variations in load. In view of reduced magnitude of quadrature component of current.
IL = current taken by the industrial load. I = Resultant current and Ф = angle lag • Synchronous condensers are usually built in large units and are employed where a large quantity of corrective kVAR is required. IM = current drawn by the synchronous motor.f improvement. capacitors are employed to perform the following functions also: 1) To reduce losses. ФL = Angle of lag. It behaves like a capacitor.8) No restriction on the choice of site for capacitor and can be installed in relatively small banks located near the load.excited synchronous motor running on no load is called the synchronous condenser or synchronous phase advancer. Power factor can be improved by using synchronous condensers like shunt capacitors connected across the supply. Besides p. ФM = Angle of lead. From the fig we observe that angle of lag(Ф) is much smaller than ФL . the capacitance reactance of which depends upon the motor excitation. transformers and transmission and distribution network. 2) To reduce voltage regulation of the line. Use of synchronous condenser: • • • An over. 3) To meet a demand for reactive power. 4) To utilize fully the capacities of generators. thus overall factor is improved from cos ФL to cos ФM by the use of synchronous condenser. • Advantages .
due to losses in rotating parts and heat losses. During operation noise is produced. because exciting current lags behind the voltage by 90º.• A finer control can be obtained by varying the field excitation. Use of phase advancer is not generally economical in connection with motors below 150 kW output but above this size. supply mains. Inherent characteristics of synchronous condensers of stabilizing variations in the line voltage and thereby automatically aid in regulation. For starting synchronous condensers an auxiliary equipment is required.f of an induction motor falls mainly due to its exciting current drawn from the A. . Increase of short-circuit currents when the fault occurs near the synchronous condenser.C. phase advancers are frequently employed.C. Improvement in the system stability and reduction of the effect of sudden changes in load owing to inertia of synchronous condenser. Possibility of synchronous condensers falling out of synchronism causing interruption of supply. Comparatively lower efficiency. exciter” or “phase advancer” which supplies this exciting current to the rotor at slip frequency. Possibility of overloading a synchronous condenser for short periods. It may be improved by equipping the set with an “A. Use of phase advancers: • • • • The p. Higher maintenance and operating costs comparatively. • • • Disadvantages • • • • • • • The cost is higher than that of static capacitors of the same rating. Such an excitor may be mounted on the same shaft as the main motor or may be suitably driven from it. except in size above about 5000 kVAR.
-----------------------------*********************------------------------------- . As such these motors are chosen when we are sure that they will be loaded to rated output for most of the time and that they will effect more saving in the energy cost due to higher p. Power factor improvement of the system is achieved by the use of phase compensated motors such as torda.• Shunt and series type of phase advancers are available according to whether the exciting winding of the advancer is connected in parallel or series with the rotor winding of the induction motor.f than the additional expenses incurred on them. osnos and scharge motors. Use of phase compensated motors: • • • • As mentioned earlier. the use of phase advancers may not be economical for induction motors below 150 kW output. These motors are however very costly and require more maintenance than plain induction motors.