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• When current is passed through a conductor, the conductor becomes hot. When a magnetic material is brought in the vicinity of an alternating magnetic field, heat is produced in the magnetic material. Similarly it was found that when an electrically insulating material was subjected to electrical stresses, it too underwent a temperature rise (Dielectric heating).
There are various method of heating a material but electric heating is considered to be far superior for the following reasons: (i)Cleanliness: • Due to complete elemination of dust and ash, the charges to maintain cleanliness are minimum and the material to be heated does not get contaminated. (ii)Ease of control: • With the help of manual or automatic devices, it is possible to control and regulate the temperature of a furnace with great ease. (iii)Uniform heating: • Whereas in other forms of heating a temperature gradient is set up from the outer surface to the inner core. • The core being relatively cooler, in case of electric heating, the heat is uniformly distributed and hence the charge is uniformly heated. (iv)Low attention and maintenance cost: • Electric heating equipments normally do not require much attention and maintenance is also negligible. • Hence labour charges on these items are negligibly small as compared to alternative methods of heating.
Requirement of Heating Material
i) Low Temperature Coefficients of Resistance
Resistance of conducting element varies with the temperature, this variation should be small in case of an element. Otherwise when switched ON from room temperature to go upto say 1200˚C, the low resistance at initial stage will draw excessively high currents at the same operating voltage.
ii)Resistance coefficient Positive • • If temperature is negative the element will draw more current when hot. A higher current means more voltage, a higher temperature or a still lower resistance, which can instability of operation.
iii)High Melting Point • Its melting point should be sufficiently higher than its operating temperature. Otherwise a small rise in the operating voltage will destroy the element.
iv)High Specific Resistance • • The resistivity of the material used for making element should be high. This will require small lengths and shall give convenient size.
v)High Oxidizing Temperature • • Its oxidizing temperature should higher than its operating temperature. Otherwise oxidised layers from the surface will flake off changing the resistance of the filament and giving it a smaller life.
vi)Ductile • • To have convenient shapes and sizes, the material used should have high ductility and flexibility. It should not be brittle and fragile.
vii)Should with stand Vibration • • In most industrial process quite strong vibrations are produced. Some furnaces have to open or rock while hot. The element material should withstand the vibrations while hot and should not break open.
viii)Mechanical Strength • The material used should have sufficient mechanical strength of its own.
CLASSIFICATION OF METHODS OF ELECTRIC HEATING
(i)Power Frequency Method:
• Direct resistance heating, indirect resistance heating, direct arc heating, and indirect arc heating.
(ii) High Frequency Heating:
Induction heating and dielectric heating.
This method is based upon the I2R loss. Whenever current is passed through a resistive material heat is produced because of I2 R loss.
There are two methods of resistance heating. They are i) Direct Resistance Heating ii) Indirect Resistance Heating
Direct Resistance Heating: • • • • •
In this method of heating the material or change to be heated is taken as a resistance and current is passed through it. The charge may be in the form of powder pieces or liquid. The two electrodes are immersed in the charge and connected to the supply. In case of D.C or single phase A.C two electrodes are required but there will be three electrodes in case of three phase supply. When metal pieces are to be heated a powder of high resistivity material is sprinkled over the surface of the charge to avoid direct short circuit. The current flows through the charge and heat is produced. This method has high efficiency since heat is produced. This method has high efficiency since heat is produced is charge itself. Though automatic temperature control is not possible in this method. But it gives uniform heat and high temperature. One of the major application of the process is salt bath furnaces having an operating temperature between 500˚C to 1400˚C. An immersed electrode type medium temperature salt bath furnace is shown in figure3.28. The bath makes use of supply voltage across two electrodes varying between 5 to 20 volts.
For this purpose a special double wound transformer is required which makes use of 3Ф primary and single phase secondary. This speaks of an unbalanced load. The variation in the secondary voltage is done with the help of an off load tapping switch of the primary side. This is necessary for starting and regulating the bath load.
Advantages : •
High efficiency. It gives uniform heat and high temperature.
Application : • It is mainly used in salt bath furnace and water heaters.
Indirect resistance heating •
In this method the current is passed through a highly resistance element which is either placed above or below the over depending upon the nature of the job to be performed. The heat proportional to I2R losses produced in heating element delivered to the charge either by radiation or by convection. Sometimes in case of industrial heating the resistance is placed in a cylinder which is surrounded by the charge placed in the jackes as shown in figure3.29. The arrangement provides as uniform temperature. Automatic temperature control can be provided in this case. Both A.C and D.C supplies can be used for this purpose at full mains voltage depending upon the design of heating element.
• • • •
Application : • This method is used in room heater, in bimetallic strip used in starters, immersion water heaters and in various types of resistance ovens used in domestic and commercial cooking.
• • There are two common types of arc furnaces: (1)Three-phase furnace and (2)Single phase furnace. Three phase furnaces are used in the production of alloy steels.
The arc temperature is between 3000 and 3500˚C. Generally graphite electrodes are used. when a current flows through it and produces intense heat. The chamber is lined inside with a refractory linning. Three phase furnaces are used for power ratings from 250KVA.• • • • • Single phase furnaces are used for the manufacture of gray iron casting also.000KVA and capacities upto 25 tonne. • • • The chamber in which arc is struck is placed on a metal frame work. To have a through mixing. so that the process is carried out between 1500˚C and 2500˚C. The main components of a three phase furnace are: 1)Variable ratio power transformer 2)Reactors 3)Automatic current regulator 4)Control panel 5)Electric motor and tilting motor 6)Circuit breaker and connecting switches. and are placed in such a way as to be replaced easily or adjusted easily. 10. Direct arc furnace • • The arc is struck directly with the charge. they are to be replaced. the furnace is made amenable for tilting. which is acidic or basic in nature. in high temperature. As they are subjected to volatilization. Although some furnaces up to 100 tonne are made. which results. The electrodes arc inserted from the top or sides of the chamber. . generally furnaces up to 25 tonne are in general use.
Eventhough it is used for both melting and refining but wherever electric energy is expensive it is economical to use cupola for melting and arc furnace for refining.• Merits: Stirring action is automatic and gives a uniform product. large quantities of electrodes are used. • • Demerits: • • It is very costlier. It is used for alloy steel manufacture and gives a purer product. As there is no inherent stirring action. Also the capacity of the furnace is limited up to 100 tonne. that the metal will cover the refactory lining and prevent it from reaching high temperatures. Indirect arc furnace • • • • • • • Electrodes are inserted from the sides and the heat produced is transmitted by radiation to the charge. This furnace is used for only single phase supplies. the power factor is 0. Melting of non-ferrous metals is mostly carried out in this type of furnace. The energy used is about 500-800kw/tone corresponding to maximum power input. When compared with cupola method. the furnace should be rocked. The furnace is rocked thoroughly to ensure.87 and efficiency 70%. . It produces purer products It is very simple and easy to control the composistion of the final product during refining process. In both the type of furnaces. Application: • The most common application of this type of furnace is to produce steel.
crucible and primary winding connected to an a.Application: • The main application of this type furnace is melting of non-ferrous metals.c supply. They are a) Direct core type b) Vertical core type and c) Indirect core type Direct core type: • • • The direct core type induction furnace is shown ion fig. The charge is kept in the cruicible. Induction heating: • • • • Induction heating processes make use of currents induced by electromagnetic action in the material to be heated. The coil is magnetically coupled with the metal to be heated which acts as secondary. The following are different types of induction furnaces 1.c current is passed through the primary coil.c current is passed. which forms a single turn short circuited secondary circuit. Induction heating is based on the principle of transformers. Core type and 2. There is a primary winding through which an a. An electric current is induced in this metal when the a. Coreless type Core type is classified into three types. . It consist of an iron core.
Inside of the furnace is lined with refactory depending upon the charge. The furnace cannot function if the secondary circuit is open. The change is melted because of high current induced in it. If current density exceeds about 5 amps/mm2 the electromagnetic force produced by this current density causes interruption of secondary current. This causes low power factor. no current will flow in the secondary. It is called pinch effect. The primary winding is placed on the central limb of the core. The crucible for the charge id of odd shape and inconvenient from the metallurgical point of view. therefore the leakage reactance is very high. This type of furnace has the following drawbacks. • • • • • • • The magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary is very weak. • AJAX WYATT Vertical core type furnace: • • • It is modified type of core type induction furnace. Hence leakage reactance is comparatively low and power factor is high. The construction of ajax wyatt vertical furnace is shown in fig. Low frequency supply is necessary because normal frequency causes turbulence of the charge. It must be closed. For starting the furnace either molten metal is poured into the crucible or sufficient molten metal is allowed to remain in the crucible from the previous operation. The charge is magnetically coupled to the primary winding.• • • The current in the charge is very high in the order of several thousand amperes. • . Such furnace is not suitable for intermittent services. To start the furnace molten metal is poured in the oven from the previous charge. When there is no molten metal. The principle of operation is that of a transformer in which the secondary turns are replaced by a closed loop of molten metal. It has a vertical channel for the charge. Hence the heating of the metal is interrupted. thus the crucible used is also vertical.
bronze. In this case secondary consists of a metal container forming the walls of the furnace. I n this type of furnace induction principle has been used for heating metals. • • Advantages: • • • • High efficiency and low operating cost.• The top of the furnace is covered with an insulated cover which can be removed for charging. Chances of discontinuity of the secondary circuit is less. . The furnace is operated from the normal supply frequency. Hence chances of discontinuity of the circuit is less. copper etc. high current will be accumulated at the bottom and even a small amount of charge will keep the secondary completed. Necessary arrangements are usually made for titling the furnace to take out the molten metal. Indirect core type induction furnace • • • • • Indirect core type induction furnace is shown in fig. tin. In such furnace an inductively heated element is made to transfer its heat to the change by radiation. It consists of an iron core linking with the primary winding and secondary. zinc. When primary is connected to the a. hence it is useful for intermittent operations. Applications: • This furnaces is used for melting non ferrous metals like brass. current is induced in the secondary of the metal container. Since both primary and secondary are on the same central core. When the primary winding is connected to the supply. So heat is produced due to induced current.c supply. The molten metal in the ‘V’ portion acts as a short circuited secondary. This heat is transmitted to the charge by radiation. its power factor is better.
The bar AB is removable type and can be replaced by other. Hence heavy current induced in it and produce heat. The container acts as secondary winding and the charge can have either conducting or non conducting properties. having different critical temperature. Thus the container forms a short circuited single turn secondary. the current supplied to the primary should have sufficiently high frequency. Fig shows a coreless induction furnace in which the container is made of ceramic material and the charge must necessarily have conducting properties. In this furnace there is no core and thus the flux density will be low. The special alloy will loose its magnetic properties at a particular temperature and the magnetic properties are regained when the alloy will cooled. As soon as the furnace attains the critical temperature the reluctance of the magnetic circuit increases many times and the inductive effect correspondingly decreases thereby cutting off the heat supply. This heat produced is transferred to the charge by convection. The heating effect of the eddy currents melts the charge. Thus the temperature of the furnace can be controlled very effectively. Coreless furnace may be having conducting or non conducting containers. refactory linings are provided between primary and secondary windings.• • • The portion AB of the magnetic circuit is made up of a special alloy and is kept inside the chamber of the furnace. • Coreless induction furnace: • • • • • • • Coreless induction furnace also operates on the principle of transformer. The flux set up by the primary winding produces eddy currents in the charge. • • . Stirring of the metals takes place by the action of the electromagnetic forces. To prevent the primary winding from high temperature. Fig shows a coreless induction furnace in which container is made up of conduting material. Hence for compensating the low flux density.
If non metallic materials ie. Erection cost is less. which is sufficient to heat the dielectric. The metal to be heated is placed between two sheet type electrodes which forms a capacitor as shown in fig. Advantages: • • • • • • Time taken to reach the melting temperature is less. ceramics etc are subjected to high voltage A. Therefore for obtaining high heating effect high voltage at high frequency is usually employed. Absence of dirt. The equivalent circuit and vector diagram is also shown in fig. Dielectric heating: • • Dielectric heating is also sometimes called as high frequency capacitance heating. This current produces power loss in the dielectric of the capacitor. smoke. Accurate power control is possible. their temperature will increase in temperature is due to the conversion of dielectric loss into heat. etc.• • The flux produced by the primary winding produces eddy currents in the charge. The heating effects of the eddy currents melt the charge. the current drawn by it is leading the voltage exactly 90˚. china clay. plastics. The dielectric loss is dependent upon the frequency and high voltage. glass. But at high frequencies. The angle between voltage and current is slightly less than 90˚. noise. • • • • • • . Any shape of crucible can be used. At normal supply frequency the power loss may be small. insulators such as wood.C supply is connected across the two electrodes. the loss becomes large. with the result that there is a inphase component of the current (IR).C current. The eddy currents in the charge results in automatic stirring. Stirring action in the metals takes place by the action of the electromagnetic forces. When A.
These are 1. There are two methods by which electric welding can be carried out. electric current is used to produce large heat. Arc welding. Resistance welding a) Butt welding b) Spot welding . For wood processing. Welding: • Welding is the process of joining two similar metals by heating. Types of electric welding 1. Easy heat control. required for joining two metal pieces. Applications: • • • • For food processing. Running cost is low. For electronic sewing. The metal parts are heated to melting point.Advantages: • • • • Uniform heating is obtained. Non conducting materials are heated within a short period. For drying purpose in textile industry. Electric welding: • In electric welding process. Resistance welding and 2. In some cases the pieces of metal to be joined are heated to plastic stage and are fused together.
The A. t= time of flow of current. H= Heat developed at the contact area.C supply is given to the primary winding of the transformer through a controlled contactor.c) Seam welding d) Projection welding e) Flash welding 2. . • • • The fundamental block diagram for resistance welding is shown in fig. R= Resistance in ohms. Resistance welding: • • In resistance welding heavy current is passed through the metal pieces to be welded. I= Current in amperes. Arc welding a) Carbon arc welding b) Metal arc welding c) Atomic hydrogen arc welding d) Inert gas metal arc welding e) Submerged arc welding. The secondary voltage is in the order of 1 to 10 volts. The welding transformer is a step down transformer. Heat will be developed by the resistance of the work piece to the flow of current. The heat produced for welding is given by H=I2Rt Where. But the current may range from 50 to 1000 amperes.
In this type of welding the metal parts to be joined end to end as shown in fig. sufficient mechanical pressure is applied through the electrodes. the molten metal forced to produce a bulged joint. The plates to be welded are placed overlapping each other between two electrodes. . An electric arc is struck by short circuiting two electrodes and then with drawing them apart by small distance. The current continue to flow across the small gap and give intense heat. This method is suitable for welding pipes. Carbon arc welding: • In this process D. The heat developed by the arc is also used for cutting of metal. Arc welding: • • • • An electric arc is the flow of electric current through gases.C is usually employed. Sufficient pressure is applied along the axial direction.i) Butt welding: • • • • • In this process heat is generated by the contact resistance between two components. Due to the pressure applied. wires and rods. The welding current and period of current flow depend on the thickness of the plates. ii) Spot welding: Spot welding is usually employed for joining or fabricating sheet metal structure. This type of joint only provides mechanical strength and is not air or water tight. Spot welding arrangement is shown in fig. The welding current flows through electrodes tips producing a spot weld. A heavy current is passed from the welding transformer which creates the necessary heat at the joint due to high resistance of the contact area.
C can be used. -------------------------------------------------*****----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------**********************--------------------------------------- . A little portion of the work and the tip of the electrode melts due to the heat generated by the arc.• • • • • • The electrode is made of carbon or graphite and is to be kept negative with respect of the work. If the electrode is made positive then the carbon contents may flow into the weld and cause brittleness. The work piece is connected to positive wire as shown in fig. This type of welding is used for welding copper and its alloy. Filler is made up of similar metal as that of metal to be welded. This results in an arc between the job and the electrode. The work piece is then suddenly touched by the electrode and then separated from it a little.C or D. Electric supply is connected between electrode and work piece. The heat from the arc forms a molten pool and the extra metal required to make the weld is supplied by the filler rod. Flux and filler are also used. When the electrode is removed the metal cools and solidifies giving a strong welded joint. The electrode also serves the purpose of filler. Metal arc welding: • • • • • • In metal arc welding a metal rod of same material as being welded is used as an electrode. For metal arc welding A.
. Group drive and 3. Inspite of the advantages of A. It is classified into three types. both A. They are 1.C system is preferred. Multimotor drive Advantages of electric drives • It is simple in construction and has less maintenance cost. The utilization of electric energy is always advantageous as it is cheaper. It is easy to maintain the voltage at consumer premises within the prescribed limits and it is possible to increase or decrease the voltage without appreciable loss of power.C and D.C energy as industrial drive. • • • • Electric drive • • An electric drive is defined as a form of machine equipment designed to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and provide electrical control of this process. Individual drive 2. However A. For obtaining electric drives. steam or diesel engines as it is possible to control the performance of an electric motor is quite easy.C system sometimes it becomes essential to use D.ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION • An electric motor is a better prime move for driving mechanical load than hydraulic.C motors are used.
It has comparatively longer life. In some cases the motor. along with its control equipment. Continuity in the production of the industry is achieved. Most of the industries use this type of drive. . He can vary its speed.• • • • • • • • • Its speed control is easy and smooth. may form an integral part of the machine. Individual drive • • • Individual drive consist of single motor is used to drive one individual machine. Transmission of power from one place to other can be done with the help of cables in stead of long shaft etc. It can be installed at any desired convenient place. cleanliness and safety. If there is a fault in one motor other machines will not be affected since they are working independently. It is neat. It requires less space. Advantages: • • • • • The machines can be installed at any desired position. Each operator has a complete control of his machine. Thus no load losses can be eliminated. which results in better appearance. It has high efficiency. if necessary and stop while not in use. Efficiency of the system is high. clean and free from any smoke or flue gases. It can be remotely controlled. It can be started immediately without any loss of time.
Advantages: When compared with the individual drive. In this drive all the operation can be stopped simultaneously. If most of the machines are idle the main motor will operate on load with less efficiency. Disadvantages: • • • • • • When the motor fails all the operations will be stopped. It is not possible to install any machine at a distance place. Group drive • • • • • • A group drive consist of a single large motor.Disadvantages: • The initial cost is high. The motor is mechanically connected to a long shaft. Multimotor drive . The line shaft is fitted with multistepped pulleys and belts. Only less space is required. It is also called line shaft drive. The driven machines are connected to these pulleys and belts for their required speed. which operates a number of machines. • • • • Its initial cost is less. Noise level in this drive is quite high. Speed control of individual machine is not possible. It has low power factor. The fig shows the group drive. It requires little maintenance.
Mechanical characteristics • • • • Types of enclosures Bearings Transmission of drive Noise level c. While selecting a motor. the following factors must be taken into consideration: a. Fig shows a multimotor drive. Such drive is also essential in complicated metal-cutting machine tools. Electrical characteristics • • • • Running characteristics Starting characteristics Speed control Braking b. Selection of motors • • An industrial process needs a particular electric drive for its successful and efficient operation which in turn calls for appropriate selection of the driving motor. Eg in case of an overhead crane. paper making machines. Size of motor and • • • Continuous rating Intermittent or variable load rating Over load capacity . long travel motion and cross travel motion. rolling mills.• • • • In multimotor drives separate motors are used for operating different parts of the same mechanism. different motors are used for hoisting.
but in any commercial organization.torque or speedcurrent characteristics. Cost • • Capital cost Running cost • • The first three are the technical factors and the last one is the economic factor. there are conflicts between the technical and economic factors. Many a time.C motors only. Since the load on a motor is an integral part of the drive system we study various types of loads.• Pull out torque d. the economic factor overpowers the technical factors as the correct choice of a motor is one which gives the required service at the minimum overall cost. • • Electrical characteristics Running characteristics • The running characteristics of a motor include the following speed. The magnetizing current and power factor are to be considered in case of A. efficiency and power factor at various loads. • Starting characteristics • The starting torque developed by a motor should be sufficient to start and accelerate the motor at its load to the rated speed in a reasonable time. It is essential that the motor characteristics match with those of the load for stable operation of the system. magnetizing current. losses. .
traction work etc. the field current is constant from no load to full load. i. two torques come into play.C motors • • The starting characteristics of D.C motor is proportional to the product of field flux (Ф) and armature current (Ia). Hence the starting torque is directly proportional to the armature current i.. (T α Ia).C Series motor • • In D.g motors driving grinding mills or oil expellers. At the time of starting a motor. • D. hence field flux and armature flux also same ie.• • Some motors may be have to start against full load torque. Фse= Фa. . Fig shows the torque current characteristics of D.e.C shunt motor • • • In DC shunt motor. Therefore the field flux Ф also constant.C motor is the relation between the torque and the armature current. Hence the field current. armature current and load current is same (ie Ia=Ise=IL). • • The torque required to overcome the static friction and The torque necessary to accelerate the motor and its load to the desired speed. T α ФIa Where Ia= armature current Ф= field flux D. Starting characteristics of D. the field winding is connected in series with the armature..C shunt motor.e. The torque of a D.C series motor. E.
1. cranes. Starting characteristics of three phase induction motor Squirrel cage motor . So the torque developed in this motor is more than that of shunt motor for the same armature current. field flux Ф α Ia Hence T α Ia2 • • • After saturation. In differential compound motor. ie T α ФIa upto saturation point. the torque current characteristics is a straight line. Differential compound motor • • • In cumulative compound motor the series field flux add with the shunt field flux. Hence the total flux is lesser than that of the shunt motor as shown in fig. lifts and hoists.C series motor is very high. hence after A. the series field flux remains constant. Since the starting torque is directly proportional to square of armature current.C compound motor There are two types of compound motor namely. Hence up to OA. Hence the torque is directly proportional to Ia (T α Ia).• Since the series field flux is proportional to the armature current upto saturation point. Cumulative compound motor 2. the torque current characteristics is in parabolic shape. Hence the total flux is higher than that of the shunt motor. • • D. and the starting torque of D. the torque produced is proportional to the square of the armature current up to saturation point. So it can be used where large starting torque is required such as in electric trains. the series field flux opposes the shunt field flux.
In addition. During the starting period X2 is higher in compare to rotor resistance R2. Therefore if the rotor resistance R2 increases the starting torque also increases(since T α R2). Hence a high starting torque is produced. Therefore. the rotor current will flow through the outer cage. extra resistance can be added in the rotor circuit during the starting period. The condition for maximum starting torque is R2=X2. At the time of starting. The inductance of the inner bar is higher than that of outer. • • Double cage rotor • • The starting torque of a cage motor is increased by providing double cages. Starting characteristics of synchronous motor • It has no self starting torque. • The following methods are used to provide the starting arrangement. . The outer cage is made of high resistance metal bars whereas inner cage is made of low resistance copper bar. with the result that the starting torque is high (since T α R2). It runs at synchronous speed. • • • • • Slip ring Induction motor • • In slip ring induction motor. This gives a high efficiency of the motor. Fig shows the double cage rotor. During normal running the reactance of the inner cage decreases (since rotor current frequency f’ is decreased) and hence the rotor current flows through the low resistance inner cage. the squirrel cage induction motor has low starting torque and take high starting current. it also limits the starting current. It is not possible to increase the rotor resistance on squirrel cage induction motor.• • During the starting period. the motor induced current is at the line frequency and hence inner cage has a high reactance(X2=2 f’L).
DC motor coupled to synchronous motor. a centrifugal switch is open and disconnects the starting winding. Running characteristics of motors • • The running characteristics of a motor include the speed-torque or the speed-current characteristics. Starting characteristics of single phase induction motor • • • • • • • • • • Single phase induction motor is not self starting. Running characteristics of D. the main winding is connected directly across the line. It requires some provision for starting. When the motor picks up the speed at 75% of synchronous speed. The main winding is of high reactance and low resistance. If a capacitor is used for spilt the phase at starting then it is called capacitor start motor . The starting winding is connected in series with the capacitor through centrifugal switch and connected across the single phase supply. Pony motor(small I. ii. The magnetizing current and power factor are to be considered in case of A. losses. The starting winding is of high resistance and low reactance. This type of motor is called split phase motor. Provide damper winding on rotor. Such an arrangement gives a high starting torque. This motor has a very low starting torque.C motors . iii. An extra winding known as starting winding is provided on the stator.i. In permanent capacitor motor the capacitor remains in the circuit during starting and running. magnetizing currents.C motors only. efficiency and power factor at various loads.) coupled to synchronous motor.M. They are connected across the supply.
When the supply voltage is constant.C shunt motor a) speed current characteristics • In any D. the flux is weakened. Hence the speed will increase. • In shunt motor field flux Ф= constant T α Ia Ia= KT N α Eb N α (V-IaRa) -------------------------.(1) . But due to armature reaction.D. The percentage of speed change will be about 5% at full load due to armature resistance drop.C motor N α (Eb / Ф). Therefore the shunt motor is considered as constant speed motor. N α Eb N α V-Ia Ra • • This indicates that speed of D. • • • • b) Speed-Torque characteristics • We know T α ФIa and N α (Eb / Ф). The variation of speed with armature current characteristics is drooping slightly as shown in fig.C shunt motor decreases with increase in armature current due to loading. in DC shunt motor Ф is flux is constant.(2) ----------------------------. (N α (Eb / Ф)). This increase in speed compensates the drop in speed due to Ia Ra drop.
each plotted against output power. These curves are namely torque.C series motor a) Speed. speed.• Put Ia value in equation (2) N α V-(KT)Ra ---------------------------. Performance curve • Fig shows the performance curves of D.(3) From equation (3) we know that. the flux also increases. D.C motor N α (V-IaRa)/ Ф • If IaRa drop is negligible N α V/ Ф -------------------------. T α Ф Ia . When the load current increases.. For small value of flux Ф. On the light loads the flux produced will be weak and therefore the speed will be dangerously high.current characteristics • Consider the speed equation N α Eb/Ф N α (V. Therefore the speed will be constant and low at heavy loads as shown in fig. the speed of the motor will be inversely proportional to flux N α (1 / Ф). the speed will be very high.(1) • We know that. • • • • b) Speed.Torque characteristics • In any D. when the torque increases. current and efficiency. speed decreases as shown in fig. Hence the shape of the curve will be hyperbolic.IaRa)/ Ф • When supply voltage V is kept constant. after saturation the flux remains constant.C shunt motor.
• . Performance curve • • Fig shows the perfoemance curve of a D. as torque increases with decrease of speed. Hence cumulative compound motor has more flux than that of shunt motor. speed. the series field emf increases with increase in armature current. current and efficiency each plotted against output power. it is called differential compound motor. These curves are namely torque.C compound motor Speed – current characteristics • • • • • A compound motor has both series field and shunt field. If the series field flux and shunt field flux add each other.C motor. trains etc.(2) • Substitute the equation (2) in (1) N α V/√T • • • From the equation. D.C series motor. it is called cumulative compound motor.T α Ф. speed is inversely proportional to torque. If the series field flux opposes the shunt field flux. This is shown in fig. Compound motors are of two types. Hence the characteristics curve is hyperbolic in shape. Hence series motor is suitable for operating cranes. In any D. Ф T α Ф2 Ф2 =T (since Ia α Ф) Ф2 = √T ------------------------. In D. lifts.C series motor. In the cumulative compound motor.
. But the speed increases with reduction flux ( since N α (1 / Ф)).T α Ф Ia • • • Hence torque of cumulative compound motor is greater than the shunt motor. In the case of differential compounded motor the field flux decreases when the armature current increases. Since the speed is inversely proportional to flux N α (1 / Ф) cumulative compound motor has lower speed than the shunt motor. Hence the rotor reactance (X2= 2πf’L) is also very small. Hence the speed is greater when compared to shunt motor. The speed Vs armature current and speed torque characteristics of D.C compound motors are shown in fig. in comparison with the shunt motor. which reduces the torque. (since T α Ф Ia).m. • • • Running characteristics of three phase induction motor • • Running characteristics of squirrel cage induction motor or speed torque characteristics In cage induction motor Torque (T) = KSE22 R2/ R22 +X22 Where k = constant S = slip E2 = e.f induced in the rotor R2 = rotor resistance X2 = rotor reactance • • • Under normal running condition the rotor frequency (f’=Sf) is small. Hence the rotor reactance (X2) is neglected.
the motor slowing down and it finally stops. Any further more increase in load on the motor results. when the load on the motor increases the rotor speed falls down. The operating region is hatched in fig. The torque will reach a maximum value at slip S=R2/X2. increasing the running torque the rotor resistance R2 should be very low. For various values of R the family of speed torque characteristics shown in fig. Running characteristics of double squirrel cage induction motor .T α K1SE22 R2/ R22 i. Hence cage induction motor has good running torque. Hence at lower value of slip. After the rated load.. • • • • • • • Performance curve • Fig shows the performance curve of three phase squirrel cage induction motor namely slip. the torque can be increased. By introducing resistance in the rotor circuit at running. From the above equation the running torque is inversely proportional to the rotor resistance R2. the increased load on the motor will increase the slip and on the decrease the torque. efficiency and speed each plotted against power output. Running characteristics of slip ring induction motor • • The running characteristics of slip ring induction motor are same as squirrel cage induction motor. current. E2 is also constant. T α KSE22/ R2 • • • • Since the supply voltage Vis constant. Since the cage motor rotor is short circuited. power factor. Then the slip value increases. the rotor resistance is very low. The stable operating region of the motor lies for the slip values S=0 and that corresponds to maximum torque. The torque increases with increase in slip upto rated load. Hence the running torque of the motor depends upon the rotor resistance.e.
The repulsion start and capacitor start motors are the most common types of single phase induction motors. Hence at running. copper losses are reduced and the efficiency of motor is increased. Fig shows the speed torque characteristics. Single phase induction motors are used in domestic appliances like fans. .e. • • • • Universal motor operates on either A. since f’ = s f). At the time of starting inner cage offers high reactance.• • • The motor is designed to provide improved starting characteristics (i. It has no self starting torque.torque characteristics of double cage induction motor are shown in fig. After the motor has picked up its full speed. the frequency of rotor current becomes very low. • • • • Running characteristics of single phase induction motor • • • • • The speed torque characteristics is similar to three phase induction motor. Universal motors are used in vacuum cleaners. sewing machines. Running characteristics of universal motor. vacuum cleaners etc.C supply. Its speed torque characteristics are same as series motor speed-torque characteristics.C or D. Separate arrangement is provided to make it self starting. Therefore most of the current flows through the inner cage. The speed. refrigerators. Fig shows the speed torque characteristics of single phase induction motor. hence frequency of rotor current f’ increases. Because the frequency of rotor current is very high. Thus more starting torque is developed. Hence most of the current flows through outer cage where resistance is high. high starting torque with low starting current). portable drills and other small power drives. Inner cage has high inductance and low resistance whereas outer cage has high resistance and low inductance. (since at starting slip=1.
To avoid danger to the worker or damage to the products manufactured quick stopping of motor is required. the speed can be controlled by following methods • • • • • • By changing the supply voltage By changing the supply frequency By changing the no of poles of motor By injecting emf in the rotor circuit By cascading of motors By injecting resistance in the rotor circuit Braking • • • • When the load is removed from an electric motor and supplied to it be disconnected it will continue to run for sometime due to inertia.C motors. The braking torque must be controllable. i) Mechanical braking ii) Electrical braking Mechanical characteristics of electric motor . The braking system should be reliable and quick in action.Speed control In D. There are two types of braking. It is done by braking.C motor the speed can be controlled by following methods • • Armature control method Field control method In A.
This type of enclosures does not protect the motor against dirt and dust. bearings. But larger bodies and big insects cannot enter into the machine. insulation etc are to be protected from the surroundings contaminated air. the mechanical characteristics are also taken into account. Therefore it is necessary to provide proper enclosures. • • a) Open type • • • This type can only be used where the atmosphere and surroundings are free from all contaminations and surrounding air completely dry. Bearings 3. Transmission of drive Types of enclosures • • All the major parts of the motors such as windings. dust inflammable fumes etc. The different types of enclosures are as follows. water. The advantage of this type of motor is that the cost of cooling is very low. oil. Noise 4. also accidents may occur to persons coming in contact with the moving parts.• • While selecting a motor for a particular drive. 1. mist. dust. . The following features determine the suitability of the motor. b) Screen protected type • • • In this type of machines openings provided for ventilation are covered with wire mesh screen. In an industry the air surrounding the motors may contain metal. Types of enclosures 2. But this type is rarely used since there is no protection to the motor parts.
c) Drip proof type • • • This motor has ventilating opening provided in such a way that drops of liquid or solid falling on it vertically are prevented to enter inside. gas plants. In this type machines no dirt or foreign matter can enter and block the air passage. They are cooled by surface radiation only. These machines are used for very dusty atmosphere. the ventilation ducts are provided in such a way that drops of liquid or solid particles reaching the machine at any angle between vertical and 100˚ from it cannot enter the machine. oil refineries etc. • • g) Pipe ventilated type • • Large sizes of totally enclosed motor employ pipe ventilation. E. coal handling plants and stone crushing quarries. f) Flame proof type • These enclosures do not communicate an internal fire to the external environment. where the risk of fire is more. Air is drawn through pipe from outside the building.. This type of motor cannot be used where inflammable dust particles are present in the surrounding air. E.g Pumpsets. e) Splash proof type • In this type. where clean air is available and forced to cool the motor.g saw mills. Such motors are used in damp atmosphere. . d) Totally enclosed type • • • • This type of motors has solid frames and end shields but no opening for ventilation. Hence these motors are used in coal mines.
It is used in three phase induction motor where smaller air gap is possible. the steel ball also rotates. It provides free rotation of the moving parts with minimum friction. The rotating shaft is supported by bearing component and is rigidly fixed to the frame of the machine. Sleeve or brush bearing • • • Sleeve or brush bearings are normally made of bronze. It occupy less space. The outer race is attached to the housing(end cover) and the inner race is attached to the shaft. But the initial cost of ball and roller bearings is high. 1. It has self lubricating properties due to capillary action. It is used for chain. When the shaft rotates. . It has a longer life and maintenance costs are low. belt and gear drives. There are two types of bearings usually employed in motors.Bearings • • • Bearings are the parts of machines which house and support the main shaft. Sleeve or brush bearing Ball or Roller bearing • • • • • • • Ball or roller bearing consist of an inner and outer race and cage containing steel roller or balls. Hence the friction of the shaft is minimized. Ball or Roller bearing 2.
belt is used to transmit the power from motor to driven machine through pulley system. 1. motor is coupled directly to the driven machine with the help of solid or flexible coupling. Transmission of drives • Various methods employed for transmission of mechanical power are described below. Maximum power of 300 H. Belt drive • • • In belt drive. Flexible coupling protects the motor from jerks. this type of bearing is used in larger air gap induction motor. Direct drive 2.• • • • It is lubricated by a metal ring freely rotating on the shaft carrying oil to the bearings. Chain drive and 5. Because of larger wear of bearings. . It is mainly used in direct coupled drive such as fan and universal motor. It gives noiseless operation and their life is long. Gear drive Direct drive • • • • In direct drive. It is more efficient and requires minimum space and it is the simplest method. Rope drive 4. Belt drive 3. The mechanical power wasted due to slip is about 3 to 4 percentage.P can be transmitted through this drive. It can be used where driven and driving machine speed are same.
Chain drive • • • • Chain drive is very costly in comparison to belt and rope drive. It can be used for high speed ratio (upto 6:1). Gear drive is used when high speed motor is to drive a low speed machine. The tendency of slipping especially under heavy loads is reduced because it will absorb a portion of the shock of suddenly applied loads. Gear drive • • Noise • • • Noise is the another important features to be considered while making the selection of a motor. A number of ropes run in V-grooves over pulleys. It should be kept as low as possible in the workshops. It is noiseless. when it is not possible to employ belt drive. The coupling between the two is through a suitable ratio gear box. It is more efficient and transmits large amount of power. . magnetic pulsations and faulty foundations. Rope drive • • • • This method for transmission for power is used.Advantages • • • Greater flexibility in the original design of a plant is possible. vibrations. sliplesss and smooth in operation. The noise may be due to bearing. The advantages of rope drive are negligible slip and ability of taking sudden loads. hospitals and other domestic purposes. It is mainly used in lift and cranes. It gives convenient speed ratio thereby high speed motors can be utilized.
Continuous rating. Short time duty. textile. Intermittent periodic duty. Intermittent periodic duty in the starting. Intermittent rating or short time rating. Such motor is loaded for short period of time and is then put off for sometime. This rating is applicable to drives like fans. 4. pumps. The rating of a motor is classified as follows. which operate continuously for long periods. 3. Standard rating of motor • The rating of motor is the amount of power which it can deliver without becoming unduly hot. 1. 5. The motor should be mounted on a heavy concrete or cast iron block. 2. Continuous rating • • This is the rating or the output of a motor which can be delivered continuously for long periods without exceeding the permissible temperature. Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking.• • • To reduce noise. Intermittent rating or short time rating • • • This is an output that a motor can give for specified short time without exceeding the permissible temperature rise. 1. 2. mills etc. Continuous duty. During that period the motor cools off as in mixies. . The electrical connections should be made through flexible conduits. journal bearing may be used in place of ball bearings. Classes of load duty cycles • As per IS 4722 – 1968 various load time variations are encountered the eight standard classes of duty.
Crane drivers. 7. sluice gate drives. cutting and drilling machine drives are some examples of intermittent periodic duty. drives for household appliances. The load time and temperature time graph are shown in fig. Selection of motors for different duty cycles Continuous duty • • Continuous duty denotes the motor operation at a constant load torque to reach steady state temperature. 30. Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading. 60 and 90 minutes. Intermittent periodic duty • • • It denotes the operation of motor a sequence of indential duty cycle each of constant load and rest period. a period of operation at a constant load and rest period. heating of machine during starting and braking operation is negligible.6. Intermittent periodic duty with starting • • • This is intermittent periodic duty where heat losses during starting cannot be neglected. Thus it consists of a period of starting. . 8. valve drives and machine tool drives are some examples of short-time duty. Continuous duty with periodic speed changes. In this duty. Paper mill drives. Short time duty timings are generally 10. Continuous duty with starting and braking. centrifugal pumps and fans are some examples of continuous duty. Fig shows the load time and temperature time graph. compressors. Short time duty • • • • It denotes the operation of motor at constant load for short period followed by rest to cool down to the original starting temperature. The operating and rest periods are too short to attain the steady state temperature in one duty cycle. Pressing. The load time and the temperature time graph are shown in fig. conveyers.
Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading • • • • The operation of motor has a sequence of indentical duty cycle. Its characteristics is shown in fig Several machine tool drives.• • Its characteristics are shown in fig. Continuous duty with periodic speed changes • Operation of the motor has a sequence of indentical duty cycle. Continuous duty with starting and braking • • The operation of motor consists of period of starting. Its characteristics are shown in fig. each consisting of a period of operation and a period of operation on no load. a period of operation at constant load a period of electric braking and there is no rest period. a braking period. Braking is done electrically and is quick. Its characteristics are shown in fig. drives for electric suburban trains and mine hoist are some examples of this duty. Thus it consists of a period of starting. shearing and drilling machine drives are the examples. Blooming mill is an example. each cycle is having a period of running at one load and speed and followed by another period of running at different speed and load. Some examples are metal cutting. Thermal equilibrium is not reached in one duty cycle. Pressing. in this duty heating of machine during braking is considered to be negligible. mine hoist drives for lift trucks. There is no rest period. and a rest period. This duty is distinguished from the intermittent periodic duty by a period of running at constant load is followed by a period of running at no load instead of rest. a period of operation with constant load. Thermal equilibrium is not reached in one duty cycle. The characteristics are shown in fig. • . cutting. Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking • • • • • This is the periodic duty where heat losses during starting and braking cannot be ignored. drilling tool drives.
The motors used must be totally enclosed and moisture proof to prevent entry of dust and moisture enter into machine. Rolling mills or steel mills – separately excited DC motor • • • • Separately excited DC motor is mainly used in rolling mills. It should have strong construction.5 times the rated torque. Cement mills • Various types of loads available in a cement factory and the motor used for them are given below a) Hammer crusher – Three phase slip ring induction motor • The lime stones are broken into smaller sizes in the crushing mill. 4.Synchronous motor A paper mill requires a drive which must fulfill the following requirements • • • To manufacture different thickness of papers it is required to vary the speed of entire series of rolls.C motors or slip ring induction motors are used. The ward leonard speed control of D. 3. The motors employed must have high starting torque with constant speed. Paper mill. 2. Textile mills – Double cage induction motor • • • • In textile mills group drive is employed. . Relative speed of rolls should be constant otherwise the paper may be tearing. It is required to adjust the speed at any one group of rolls relative to other in order to draw the paper. Hence totally enclosed.Drives for different industrial application 1. high torque double cage induction motors are used. The motor required for these mills should have high starting torque about 2 to 2. fan cooled.
Therefore 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor is used for machine tool application. • • 6. and wide speed control are required. Machine tools – D.• For this purpose high starting torque motor is required. D. totally enclosed motors are used to prevent metallic dust getting into it. In the case of grinders. 5. • Hence slip ring induction motor with pole changing speed control is employed. b) Ball mills – Synchronous motor • In ball mills. Different speed operation is obtained by using two or three speed motor with suitable gear combination.C shunt motors are used for machine tool application like planners where rapid reversal. d) • Slurring pumps and agitators – Three phase Squirrel cage induction motor These are used in the wet process • Three phase Squirrel cage induction motors used for slurring pumps and agitators.C shunt motor or 3Ф Squirrel cage induction motor • • • The starting torque required is less in most of the machine tools since they start up light. the raw materials grind in powder form synchronous motor are used for this process. c) Rotary driers – Slip ring induction motor • The cement slurry is dried by blowers and speed of blower is varied depending upon the amount of air required to blow. • Hence three phase slip ring induction motor is used because it has high starting torque. Lift and hoists – DC compound motor or 3Ф slip ring induction motor .
are sand on either flat belt or bucket system. 8. Punches and shears • • For punches and shears D.C cumulative compound motors and A. Hence totally enclosed surface cooled motors are used. Air compressor .C 3 Ф slip ring induction motors provided with fly wheel are used.C compound motor and three phase slip ring induction motor are used for lifts and hoists.3 Ф Induction motor • • • Air compressors are used for pneumatic drill.5 times the full load torque at starting and maximum degree of silence. It requires a high starting torque so as to accelerate the load for transport. high smooth accelerating torque of 2 to 2. Single phase induction motor is used for small air compressors.• The essential requirements for a lift are high overload capacity. The prime mover used for the alternator is steam turbine by varying the voltage and frequency of alternator the speed of motor is controlled. • 7. 11. Rotary printing • The rotary printing machinery requires variable speed motor. A three phase alternator gives the supply to the synchronous motor. Repulsion motor is used for various industrial machinery air compressors. 9. 10. D. Double squirrel cage induction motors are used in belt conveyors. . 3Ф induction motors are used to drive compressors. Belt conveyor – Double squirrel cage induction motor • • • • The conveyors are required to transport bulk materials like coal. Ship – Synchronous motors • • • Three phase induction motors and synchronous motors are used for very big ships.
• • 13. Ceiling fans • Single phase capacitor start and run motors are used for ceiling fan. Pumps Centrifugal pump • • • • • The load torque varies as square of the speed in a centrifugal pump. 14.C supply is available. Hence 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used for centrifugal pump. D.C 3 Ф induction motors with rotor resistance control are used for printing machineries. The single phase split phase induction motor has shunt characteristics and so the operating speed is almost constant. . Draught fan • • The single phase split phase induction motors are used for draught fan. At starting the torque required is less.C compound motors or A.• D. Cranes – D. A double cage induction motor is suitable for reciprocating pump. The liquid handled by the pump does not enter the motor. 12. Hence totally enclosed motor is preferred. which helps the motor to reach the speed in a short time and also prevents the motor from stalling in case of heavy loads.C shunt motor is used where D.C series motors are used for cranes because they have high starting torque. 15.C series motor • • The D. 3 Ф slip ring induction motor is also used for this type of pump. Reciprocating pump • • A reciprocating pump requires two times the full load torque at starting. Because they have high starting torque.
• • • • • • 17. The winder consists of two cages and a rope for transporting material from bottom of the mine to the surface. cloth washing machines etc. so a double squirrel cage motor is used.C 3 Ф slip ring inductions are also used for cranes. Mines • The various loads in a mine are winders. Ventilating fans are used for circulating fresh air. Choice of drive • Choice of drive is governed by the following factors: (i) (ii) (iii) Speed of driving and driven machines Convenience Space available . ventilating fans.. mixi.• • A. Conveyors require a high starting torque. Domestic appliances – Universal motor or Single phase induction motor • Small universal motor is used for various domestic appliances such as for domestic refrigerators. conveyors. A 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used for ventilating fan if no speed control is not required. Acceleration and braking operations are repeated. Compressor is used to provide compressed air for pneumatic drills used for mining operations. A 3 Ф slip ring induction motor with ward leonard speed control is used for winder. 16. Centrifugal pumps are used to pump out the water falling through the rock layers. shavers. It requires high starting torque therefore a 3 Ф slip ring induction motor is used for pumps. vacuum cleaner. For starting and special adjustments proper graded rotor resistance is used with slip ring induction motor. compressors and pumps. It requires shunt characteristics and so 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used.
• • Power requirement calculation 1. Thus for a low-speed drive high speed motor using a reduction gear is usually found cheaper than a low-speed direct-coupled motor. • ---------------------------------- In case of linear motion. r. and η = Product of the efficiency of the driven equipment and that of transmitting device. the efficiency and power factor decreases with decrease in speed. the rating of the motor required is given by.p. T = Load torque. N = Speed. the first cost of a motor for a given output are approximately inversely proportional to the speed. The dimension and. kg-m.(2) .(iv) (v) • • Clutching arrangement required Cost The choice of motor speed is the most important factor as it not only affects the performance of motor but also overall cost. so for the some output kW the cost of a high speed motor is less than that of a slow speed motor. Continuous duty and constant load: • For most of the applications.. P = F x v/2 x 102 η kW -----------------------------------. In case of induction motor. therefore. the rating can be determined from the equation given as under: P = TN/975η kW (1) Where.m.
• The rating of a fan motor is given by.4 to 0. ρ = Density of liquid pumped. . F = force caused by the load. the rating can be determined from the following relation: P = ρQH/102 η kW Where. • Equation (2) is directly applicable in case of hoisting mechanisms. m3/s. m/s.5 m/s. m. η varies from 0. and h = Pressure in mm of water or kg/m2.Where.9 for reciprocating pumps and from 0.8 for centrifugal pumps. it should be modified as follows: P = F x v/2 x 102 η kW The velocity of normal passenger lift cabins vary from 0. It is also suitable for lifts or elevators. and v = velocity of motion of the load. Q = Delivery of pumps. P = Qh/102 η kW Where. and H = Gross head (static head + friction head). Kg. m3/s. Q = volume of air or any other gas.8 to 0.5 to 1. kg/m3. • In case of pumps.
8. . F = shearing force. Qm = Qav / Aλ = Qnom/ Aλ. the losses corresponding to the continuous duty of the machine when operated at its nominal rating. Method of average losses (Qav) • • The method consists of finding average losses Qav in the motor when it operates according to the given load diagram. m/min. • • • The loss diagram of the electric motor is shown. 2. the motor will operate without temperature rise going above the maximum permissible for the particular class of insulation.For small power fans. v = Velocity of shearing. P = F x v/ 102 x 60 η kW Where. kg. These losses are then compared with Qnom. the efficiency η may be taken as 0. Motor rating for variable load: The following are the commonly used methods for determination of motor rating for variable load drives (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Method of average losses Equivalent current method Equivalent torque method Equivalent power method.6 and for large power ones it may reach a value up to 0. The rating of the electric motor can be found from method of successive approximations. and η = Mechanical efficiency of the lathe. • The rating of a motor used in metal shearing lathes can be found from the relation. This method presupposes that when Qav = Qnom. In this case.
However. In case the two losses are equal or differ by a small amount the motor is selected. The equivalent current as found from eqn should be compared with the rated current of the motor selected and the conditions Ieq < Inom should be met. The machine selected should also be checked for its overload capacity.• The losses of the motor are calculated for each portion of the load diagram by referring to the efficiency curve of the motor. + Qntn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……. • • Equivalent current method • This method is based on the assumption that the actual variable current may be replaced by an equivalent current Ieq which produces the same losses in the motors as the actual current.(1) • • • The average losses as found from eqn (1) are compared with losses of selected motor at rated frequency.C motors…………. another motor is selected and the calculations repeated till the motor having almost the same losses or the average losses is found.+ tn -----------.75 • • • . This method is accurate and reliable for determining the average temperature rise of the motor during one work cycle. in case the losses differ considerably.5 For induction motors ……… Imax/ Inom < 1. The disadvantage of the method of equal losses is that it is tedious to work with and also many a times the efficiency curve is not readily available and the efficiency has to be calculated by means of empirical formulae which may not be accurate to work with. For D. At low speed the cooling conditions are poorer than at normal speeds. The average losses are given by Qav = Q1t1 + Q2t2 + Q3t3 +……….. Imax/ Inom < 2 to 2. Ieq = √(I12t1 + I22t2 + I32t3 + ……+ In2tn) / ( t1 + t2 + t3 + ……+ tn) • • The heating and cooling conditions in self ventilated machines depend upon its speed.65 to 2.
.• • In case the overload capacity of the motor selected is not sufficient it becomes necessary to select a motor of high power rating. + Tn2tn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……. At constant speed or where the changes in speed are small.+ tn] • • The equation for equivalent power follows directly from above eqn. + Pn2tn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……. as power is directly proportional to the torque. the torque is directly proportional to current and.. The current values obtained by this method are sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. the equivalent torque is: Teq = √ [T12t1 + T22t2 + T32t3 +…. It may not be easy to calculate the equivalent current especially in cases where the current load diagram is irregular as shown in fig. the equivalent power is given by: Peq = √ [P12t1 + P22t2 + P32t3 +…. • Equivalent torque and equivalent power methods • • • For the selection of suitable capacity of the motor it often becomes necessary to use torque or power load diagrams. The equivalent torque or power is found in the same manner as the equivalent current. therefore. Assuming constant flux and constant power factor..+ tn] • The “equivalent current method” is the most accurate out of all the above methods discussed above. The equivalent current in such cases is calculated from the following expression: • Ieq = √ [(1/1∑n ) t∫∑t i2 dt] • The value of the integral may be found with the help of integral.
In fig active component is I active = I cos Ф. It cannot be used for selection of motor rating for cases in which the field flux does not remain constant like D. I = √ [(I active) 2 + (I reactive) 2] (i) • Apparent power (S): It is given by the product of r.C series motors and for squirrel cage induction motors under starting and braking conditions. The “equivalent torque method” cannot be used for cases where equivalent current method cannot be applied.m. The disadvantage of the “equivalent power method” is that it cannot be used for motors whose speed varies considerably under load. the iron and mechanical losses. values of applied voltage and circuit resistance.e.• This method may be used to determine the motor capacity for all uses except where it is necessary to take into account the changes in so ‘constant losses’ i. “Active component” consumes power in the circuit while “reactive component” is responsible for the field which lags or leads the main current from the voltage. and reactive component is I reactive = I sin Ф. .s. • • • Power factor improvement Apparent. Active (True or Real) and Reactive power and Power Factor • Every circuit has two components (i) (ii) • • Active component and Reactive component. especially when dealing with starting and braking conditions.
I = I2Z volt-amperes (VA) (ii) Active or true or real power (P or W): • It is the power which is actually dissipated in the circuit resistance. kW(or kW) and kVAR (or MVAR) respectively. is given as: Q = I2XL = I2Zsin Ф = I. W and VR W = VA cos Ф VAR = VA sin Ф VA = W/ cos Ф VA = VAR/ sin Ф • • • • Power factor (p. in both directions in the circuit) or reacts upon itself is called “reactive power”. This power which flows back and forth(i.f) = W/VA = True power/ Apparent power The larger bigger units of apparent. • • . If it is made equal to the active power component. The power factor depends on the reactive power component. It may be noted that the current in phase with the voltage produces active or true or real power while the current 90º out of phase with the voltage contributes to reactive power. the power factor becomes unity.e. true and reactive power are kVA (or MVA).. (IZ) sin Ф = VI sin Ф volt-amperes-reactive (VAR) • • These three powers are shown in fig Relation between VA.S = VI = (I x Z) . reactive power which is the power developed in the inductive reactance of the circuit. since in a half cycle what so ever power is received from the source by these components the same is returned to the source. (iii) • Reactive power (Q): A pure inductor and a pure capacitor do not consume any power. In a R-L circuit. P = I2R = VI cos Ф watts.
C motors (except overexcited synchronous motors and certain types of commutators motors) and transformers operate at lagging power factor. 4) Increase in voltage level at load.) the magnetizing current of inductive reactances increases and power factor of the electrical plant as a whole decreases. 6) Reduction in kVA loading of the generators and circuits. 3) Reduction in copper losses in the system due to reduction in current. 2) Use of synchronous condensers. which usually occurs during low load periods (such as lunch hours. Due to improper maintenance and repairs of motors the power factor at which motors operate fall. Arc and induction furnaces etc. 5) Improvement in power factor of the generators. 3) Use of phase advancers. night hours etc. 2) Reduction in circuit current. (iv) (v) Advantages of power factor improvement • The installation of power factor improvement device.Causes of low power factor (i) (ii) (iii) All A.. . When there is increase in supply voltage. Methods of power factor improvement • The various methods employed for power factor correction are: 1) Use of static capacitors. operate at a very low lagging power factor. Due to typical characteristics of the arc. 7) Reduction in kVA demand charges for large consumers. are lamps operate at low power factor. to raise the power factor results in one or more of the following effects and advantages: 1) Reduction in investment in the system facilities per kW of the load supplied.
7) Flexible in operation.5 percent) or higher efficiency (say 99. • • • • • • Advantages of capacitors 1) Small losses (less than 0. Shunt capacitors are used in factories. . Power factor of the system can be improved by placing static capacitors in series with the liner as shown in fig.f of the whole combination is improved from cos Ф1 to cos Ф2. The capacitors. are called “series capacitor”.6). p. Capacitors connected in series with the line neutralize the line reactance. 4) Little maintenance. plants and also on transmission lines. are called “shunt capacitors”. In view of reduced magnitude of quadrature component of current. 3) Easy installation. and when connected in parallel with the equipment. • The above methods of power factor improvement are discussed below: Use of static capacitors: • • It is known that static capacitor/ condenser takes current which leads the voltage by nearly 90º. Thus if condenser is connected across an inductive load resultant quadrature component of the whole combination will be difference of leading component of condenser current (Ic) and lagging component of lead current (I sin Ф1) as shown in fig. Series capacitors are used on long transmission lines as they provide automatic compensation with the variations in load. 2) Low initial cost.4) Use of phase compensated motors. when connected in series with the line. 6) Greater reliability in service. 5) Long life.
ФL = Angle of lag. I = Resultant current and Ф = angle lag • Synchronous condensers are usually built in large units and are employed where a large quantity of corrective kVAR is required. Power factor can be improved by using synchronous condensers like shunt capacitors connected across the supply. Use of synchronous condenser: • • • An over. IL = current taken by the industrial load. capacitors are employed to perform the following functions also: 1) To reduce losses. thus overall factor is improved from cos ФL to cos ФM by the use of synchronous condenser. the capacitance reactance of which depends upon the motor excitation. • Advantages .excited synchronous motor running on no load is called the synchronous condenser or synchronous phase advancer. It behaves like a capacitor. 2) To reduce voltage regulation of the line. IM = current drawn by the synchronous motor. ФM = Angle of lead. 3) To meet a demand for reactive power. transformers and transmission and distribution network. From the fig we observe that angle of lag(Ф) is much smaller than ФL . 4) To utilize fully the capacities of generators.f improvement. Besides p.8) No restriction on the choice of site for capacitor and can be installed in relatively small banks located near the load.
Improvement in the system stability and reduction of the effect of sudden changes in load owing to inertia of synchronous condenser. except in size above about 5000 kVAR. It may be improved by equipping the set with an “A. Inherent characteristics of synchronous condensers of stabilizing variations in the line voltage and thereby automatically aid in regulation. During operation noise is produced.C. Increase of short-circuit currents when the fault occurs near the synchronous condenser. supply mains. exciter” or “phase advancer” which supplies this exciting current to the rotor at slip frequency. Use of phase advancers: • • • • The p. Possibility of overloading a synchronous condenser for short periods. For starting synchronous condensers an auxiliary equipment is required.C. Comparatively lower efficiency. Use of phase advancer is not generally economical in connection with motors below 150 kW output but above this size.• A finer control can be obtained by varying the field excitation. • • • Disadvantages • • • • • • • The cost is higher than that of static capacitors of the same rating. Possibility of synchronous condensers falling out of synchronism causing interruption of supply. due to losses in rotating parts and heat losses.f of an induction motor falls mainly due to its exciting current drawn from the A. . phase advancers are frequently employed. because exciting current lags behind the voltage by 90º. Higher maintenance and operating costs comparatively. Such an excitor may be mounted on the same shaft as the main motor or may be suitably driven from it.
the use of phase advancers may not be economical for induction motors below 150 kW output.• Shunt and series type of phase advancers are available according to whether the exciting winding of the advancer is connected in parallel or series with the rotor winding of the induction motor. -----------------------------*********************------------------------------- .f than the additional expenses incurred on them. Use of phase compensated motors: • • • • As mentioned earlier. These motors are however very costly and require more maintenance than plain induction motors. As such these motors are chosen when we are sure that they will be loaded to rated output for most of the time and that they will effect more saving in the energy cost due to higher p. Power factor improvement of the system is achieved by the use of phase compensated motors such as torda. osnos and scharge motors.
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