ELECTRIC HEATING AND WELDING

ELECTRIC HEATING
• When current is passed through a conductor, the conductor becomes hot. When a magnetic material is brought in the vicinity of an alternating magnetic field, heat is produced in the magnetic material. Similarly it was found that when an electrically insulating material was subjected to electrical stresses, it too underwent a temperature rise (Dielectric heating).

There are various method of heating a material but electric heating is considered to be far superior for the following reasons: (i)Cleanliness: • Due to complete elemination of dust and ash, the charges to maintain cleanliness are minimum and the material to be heated does not get contaminated. (ii)Ease of control: • With the help of manual or automatic devices, it is possible to control and regulate the temperature of a furnace with great ease. (iii)Uniform heating: • Whereas in other forms of heating a temperature gradient is set up from the outer surface to the inner core. • The core being relatively cooler, in case of electric heating, the heat is uniformly distributed and hence the charge is uniformly heated. (iv)Low attention and maintenance cost: • Electric heating equipments normally do not require much attention and maintenance is also negligible. • Hence labour charges on these items are negligibly small as compared to alternative methods of heating.

Requirement of Heating Material
i) Low Temperature Coefficients of Resistance

Resistance of conducting element varies with the temperature, this variation should be small in case of an element. Otherwise when switched ON from room temperature to go upto say 1200˚C, the low resistance at initial stage will draw excessively high currents at the same operating voltage.

ii)Resistance coefficient Positive • • If temperature is negative the element will draw more current when hot. A higher current means more voltage, a higher temperature or a still lower resistance, which can instability of operation.

iii)High Melting Point • Its melting point should be sufficiently higher than its operating temperature. Otherwise a small rise in the operating voltage will destroy the element.

iv)High Specific Resistance • • The resistivity of the material used for making element should be high. This will require small lengths and shall give convenient size.

v)High Oxidizing Temperature • • Its oxidizing temperature should higher than its operating temperature. Otherwise oxidised layers from the surface will flake off changing the resistance of the filament and giving it a smaller life.

vi)Ductile • • To have convenient shapes and sizes, the material used should have high ductility and flexibility. It should not be brittle and fragile.

vii)Should with stand Vibration • • In most industrial process quite strong vibrations are produced. Some furnaces have to open or rock while hot. The element material should withstand the vibrations while hot and should not break open.

viii)Mechanical Strength • The material used should have sufficient mechanical strength of its own.

CLASSIFICATION OF METHODS OF ELECTRIC HEATING

(i)Power Frequency Method:
• Direct resistance heating, indirect resistance heating, direct arc heating, and indirect arc heating.

(ii) High Frequency Heating:

Induction heating and dielectric heating.

Resistance Heating:

This method is based upon the I2R loss. Whenever current is passed through a resistive material heat is produced because of I2 R loss.

There are two methods of resistance heating. They are i) Direct Resistance Heating ii) Indirect Resistance Heating

Direct Resistance Heating: • • • • •

In this method of heating the material or change to be heated is taken as a resistance and current is passed through it. The charge may be in the form of powder pieces or liquid. The two electrodes are immersed in the charge and connected to the supply. In case of D.C or single phase A.C two electrodes are required but there will be three electrodes in case of three phase supply. When metal pieces are to be heated a powder of high resistivity material is sprinkled over the surface of the charge to avoid direct short circuit. The current flows through the charge and heat is produced. This method has high efficiency since heat is produced. This method has high efficiency since heat is produced is charge itself. Though automatic temperature control is not possible in this method. But it gives uniform heat and high temperature. One of the major application of the process is salt bath furnaces having an operating temperature between 500˚C to 1400˚C. An immersed electrode type medium temperature salt bath furnace is shown in figure3.28. The bath makes use of supply voltage across two electrodes varying between 5 to 20 volts.


• •

For this purpose a special double wound transformer is required which makes use of 3Ф primary and single phase secondary. This speaks of an unbalanced load. The variation in the secondary voltage is done with the help of an off load tapping switch of the primary side. This is necessary for starting and regulating the bath load.

Advantages : •

High efficiency. It gives uniform heat and high temperature.

Application : • It is mainly used in salt bath furnace and water heaters.

Indirect resistance heating •

In this method the current is passed through a highly resistance element which is either placed above or below the over depending upon the nature of the job to be performed. The heat proportional to I2R losses produced in heating element delivered to the charge either by radiation or by convection. Sometimes in case of industrial heating the resistance is placed in a cylinder which is surrounded by the charge placed in the jackes as shown in figure3.29. The arrangement provides as uniform temperature. Automatic temperature control can be provided in this case. Both A.C and D.C supplies can be used for this purpose at full mains voltage depending upon the design of heating element.

• • • •

Application : • This method is used in room heater, in bimetallic strip used in starters, immersion water heaters and in various types of resistance ovens used in domestic and commercial cooking.

Arc Furnaces
• • There are two common types of arc furnaces: (1)Three-phase furnace and (2)Single phase furnace. Three phase furnaces are used in the production of alloy steels.

Generally graphite electrodes are used. . the furnace is made amenable for tilting. Although some furnaces up to 100 tonne are made. so that the process is carried out between 1500˚C and 2500˚C. which is acidic or basic in nature. when a current flows through it and produces intense heat. To have a through mixing. Three phase furnaces are used for power ratings from 250KVA. which results. and are placed in such a way as to be replaced easily or adjusted easily. The electrodes arc inserted from the top or sides of the chamber. 10. As they are subjected to volatilization.• • • • • Single phase furnaces are used for the manufacture of gray iron casting also. in high temperature. The chamber is lined inside with a refractory linning. The main components of a three phase furnace are: 1)Variable ratio power transformer 2)Reactors 3)Automatic current regulator 4)Control panel 5)Electric motor and tilting motor 6)Circuit breaker and connecting switches. they are to be replaced. The arc temperature is between 3000 and 3500˚C.000KVA and capacities upto 25 tonne. • • • The chamber in which arc is struck is placed on a metal frame work. generally furnaces up to 25 tonne are in general use. Direct arc furnace • • The arc is struck directly with the charge.

Melting of non-ferrous metals is mostly carried out in this type of furnace. large quantities of electrodes are used. The energy used is about 500-800kw/tone corresponding to maximum power input.87 and efficiency 70%. that the metal will cover the refactory lining and prevent it from reaching high temperatures. • • Demerits: • • It is very costlier. Also the capacity of the furnace is limited up to 100 tonne. Application: • The most common application of this type of furnace is to produce steel. Indirect arc furnace • • • • • • • Electrodes are inserted from the sides and the heat produced is transmitted by radiation to the charge. the furnace should be rocked. the power factor is 0. As there is no inherent stirring action. It produces purer products It is very simple and easy to control the composistion of the final product during refining process. . This furnace is used for only single phase supplies. When compared with cupola method.• Merits: Stirring action is automatic and gives a uniform product. In both the type of furnaces. It is used for alloy steel manufacture and gives a purer product. The furnace is rocked thoroughly to ensure. Eventhough it is used for both melting and refining but wherever electric energy is expensive it is economical to use cupola for melting and arc furnace for refining.

Core type and 2.Application: • The main application of this type furnace is melting of non-ferrous metals. The following are different types of induction furnaces 1. The coil is magnetically coupled with the metal to be heated which acts as secondary. Induction heating is based on the principle of transformers.c supply. It consist of an iron core. crucible and primary winding connected to an a. The charge is kept in the cruicible. Induction heating: • • • • Induction heating processes make use of currents induced by electromagnetic action in the material to be heated. An electric current is induced in this metal when the a.c current is passed.c current is passed through the primary coil. . which forms a single turn short circuited secondary circuit. Coreless type Core type is classified into three types. There is a primary winding through which an a. They are a) Direct core type b) Vertical core type and c) Indirect core type Direct core type: • • • The direct core type induction furnace is shown ion fig.

Hence the heating of the metal is interrupted. Hence leakage reactance is comparatively low and power factor is high. • • • • • • • The magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary is very weak.• • • The current in the charge is very high in the order of several thousand amperes. If current density exceeds about 5 amps/mm2 the electromagnetic force produced by this current density causes interruption of secondary current. The change is melted because of high current induced in it. • AJAX WYATT Vertical core type furnace: • • • It is modified type of core type induction furnace. To start the furnace molten metal is poured in the oven from the previous charge. It has a vertical channel for the charge. thus the crucible used is also vertical. • . Such furnace is not suitable for intermittent services. This type of furnace has the following drawbacks. The primary winding is placed on the central limb of the core. It must be closed. The furnace cannot function if the secondary circuit is open. Inside of the furnace is lined with refactory depending upon the charge. The principle of operation is that of a transformer in which the secondary turns are replaced by a closed loop of molten metal. no current will flow in the secondary. When there is no molten metal. It is called pinch effect. For starting the furnace either molten metal is poured into the crucible or sufficient molten metal is allowed to remain in the crucible from the previous operation. The crucible for the charge id of odd shape and inconvenient from the metallurgical point of view. The charge is magnetically coupled to the primary winding. This causes low power factor. The construction of ajax wyatt vertical furnace is shown in fig. therefore the leakage reactance is very high. Low frequency supply is necessary because normal frequency causes turbulence of the charge.

• The top of the furnace is covered with an insulated cover which can be removed for charging. Indirect core type induction furnace • • • • • Indirect core type induction furnace is shown in fig. I n this type of furnace induction principle has been used for heating metals. In this case secondary consists of a metal container forming the walls of the furnace. This heat is transmitted to the charge by radiation. Necessary arrangements are usually made for titling the furnace to take out the molten metal. It consists of an iron core linking with the primary winding and secondary. In such furnace an inductively heated element is made to transfer its heat to the change by radiation. zinc. copper etc. So heat is produced due to induced current. • • Advantages: • • • • High efficiency and low operating cost. Applications: • This furnaces is used for melting non ferrous metals like brass. bronze. When the primary winding is connected to the supply. its power factor is better. Since both primary and secondary are on the same central core. Chances of discontinuity of the secondary circuit is less. . Hence chances of discontinuity of the circuit is less.c supply. high current will be accumulated at the bottom and even a small amount of charge will keep the secondary completed. tin. hence it is useful for intermittent operations. When primary is connected to the a. current is induced in the secondary of the metal container. The furnace is operated from the normal supply frequency. The molten metal in the ‘V’ portion acts as a short circuited secondary.

• • . Thus the container forms a short circuited single turn secondary. Hence for compensating the low flux density. The container acts as secondary winding and the charge can have either conducting or non conducting properties. The bar AB is removable type and can be replaced by other. having different critical temperature. The special alloy will loose its magnetic properties at a particular temperature and the magnetic properties are regained when the alloy will cooled. The flux set up by the primary winding produces eddy currents in the charge. refactory linings are provided between primary and secondary windings. To prevent the primary winding from high temperature. • Coreless induction furnace: • • • • • • • Coreless induction furnace also operates on the principle of transformer. the current supplied to the primary should have sufficiently high frequency. Fig shows a coreless induction furnace in which container is made up of conduting material. Thus the temperature of the furnace can be controlled very effectively. This heat produced is transferred to the charge by convection. As soon as the furnace attains the critical temperature the reluctance of the magnetic circuit increases many times and the inductive effect correspondingly decreases thereby cutting off the heat supply. Fig shows a coreless induction furnace in which the container is made of ceramic material and the charge must necessarily have conducting properties.• • • The portion AB of the magnetic circuit is made up of a special alloy and is kept inside the chamber of the furnace. In this furnace there is no core and thus the flux density will be low. Coreless furnace may be having conducting or non conducting containers. Stirring of the metals takes place by the action of the electromagnetic forces. Hence heavy current induced in it and produce heat. The heating effect of the eddy currents melts the charge.

Absence of dirt. The equivalent circuit and vector diagram is also shown in fig. This current produces power loss in the dielectric of the capacitor. glass. Dielectric heating: • • Dielectric heating is also sometimes called as high frequency capacitance heating. smoke. their temperature will increase in temperature is due to the conversion of dielectric loss into heat. Therefore for obtaining high heating effect high voltage at high frequency is usually employed. ceramics etc are subjected to high voltage A. But at high frequencies. china clay. Any shape of crucible can be used. Stirring action in the metals takes place by the action of the electromagnetic forces. Advantages: • • • • • • Time taken to reach the melting temperature is less. with the result that there is a inphase component of the current (IR).• • The flux produced by the primary winding produces eddy currents in the charge. plastics.C current. The eddy currents in the charge results in automatic stirring. The metal to be heated is placed between two sheet type electrodes which forms a capacitor as shown in fig. etc. The angle between voltage and current is slightly less than 90˚. When A. If non metallic materials ie. Erection cost is less. insulators such as wood. the loss becomes large. noise. which is sufficient to heat the dielectric. the current drawn by it is leading the voltage exactly 90˚.C supply is connected across the two electrodes. • • • • • • . The heating effects of the eddy currents melt the charge. The dielectric loss is dependent upon the frequency and high voltage. At normal supply frequency the power loss may be small. Accurate power control is possible.

Types of electric welding 1. Non conducting materials are heated within a short period. Easy heat control. In some cases the pieces of metal to be joined are heated to plastic stage and are fused together. electric current is used to produce large heat. For electronic sewing. For drying purpose in textile industry. Resistance welding a) Butt welding b) Spot welding . For wood processing. The metal parts are heated to melting point. Running cost is low. Welding: • Welding is the process of joining two similar metals by heating.Advantages: • • • • Uniform heating is obtained. Applications: • • • • For food processing. required for joining two metal pieces. These are 1. Electric welding: • In electric welding process. Arc welding. There are two methods by which electric welding can be carried out. Resistance welding and 2.

R= Resistance in ohms. . I= Current in amperes. • • • The fundamental block diagram for resistance welding is shown in fig. The secondary voltage is in the order of 1 to 10 volts.c) Seam welding d) Projection welding e) Flash welding 2. Resistance welding: • • In resistance welding heavy current is passed through the metal pieces to be welded. The heat produced for welding is given by H=I2Rt Where. But the current may range from 50 to 1000 amperes. H= Heat developed at the contact area. Arc welding a) Carbon arc welding b) Metal arc welding c) Atomic hydrogen arc welding d) Inert gas metal arc welding e) Submerged arc welding. The welding transformer is a step down transformer. Heat will be developed by the resistance of the work piece to the flow of current. t= time of flow of current. The A.C supply is given to the primary winding of the transformer through a controlled contactor.

sufficient mechanical pressure is applied through the electrodes. The welding current and period of current flow depend on the thickness of the plates. The current continue to flow across the small gap and give intense heat.C is usually employed. In this type of welding the metal parts to be joined end to end as shown in fig. An electric arc is struck by short circuiting two electrodes and then with drawing them apart by small distance. The heat developed by the arc is also used for cutting of metal. Spot welding arrangement is shown in fig. the molten metal forced to produce a bulged joint. Carbon arc welding: • In this process D. The plates to be welded are placed overlapping each other between two electrodes. . ii) Spot welding: Spot welding is usually employed for joining or fabricating sheet metal structure.i) Butt welding: • • • • • In this process heat is generated by the contact resistance between two components. Arc welding: • • • • An electric arc is the flow of electric current through gases. This type of joint only provides mechanical strength and is not air or water tight. Due to the pressure applied. wires and rods. The welding current flows through electrodes tips producing a spot weld. Sufficient pressure is applied along the axial direction. This method is suitable for welding pipes. A heavy current is passed from the welding transformer which creates the necessary heat at the joint due to high resistance of the contact area.

The heat from the arc forms a molten pool and the extra metal required to make the weld is supplied by the filler rod. A little portion of the work and the tip of the electrode melts due to the heat generated by the arc. Metal arc welding: • • • • • • In metal arc welding a metal rod of same material as being welded is used as an electrode. This results in an arc between the job and the electrode.C can be used. When the electrode is removed the metal cools and solidifies giving a strong welded joint. For metal arc welding A. This type of welding is used for welding copper and its alloy. Electric supply is connected between electrode and work piece.C or D. The work piece is connected to positive wire as shown in fig. If the electrode is made positive then the carbon contents may flow into the weld and cause brittleness. The work piece is then suddenly touched by the electrode and then separated from it a little. Flux and filler are also used. -------------------------------------------------*****----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------**********************--------------------------------------- . The electrode also serves the purpose of filler.• • • • • • The electrode is made of carbon or graphite and is to be kept negative with respect of the work. Filler is made up of similar metal as that of metal to be welded.

• • • • Electric drive • • An electric drive is defined as a form of machine equipment designed to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and provide electrical control of this process. It is easy to maintain the voltage at consumer premises within the prescribed limits and it is possible to increase or decrease the voltage without appreciable loss of power. both A.C energy as industrial drive. Individual drive 2. It is classified into three types. steam or diesel engines as it is possible to control the performance of an electric motor is quite easy.C system is preferred.ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION • An electric motor is a better prime move for driving mechanical load than hydraulic. Inspite of the advantages of A.C system sometimes it becomes essential to use D.C and D. The utilization of electric energy is always advantageous as it is cheaper. Group drive and 3. However A.C motors are used. Multimotor drive Advantages of electric drives • It is simple in construction and has less maintenance cost. They are 1. For obtaining electric drives. .

It is neat. clean and free from any smoke or flue gases. if necessary and stop while not in use. It can be started immediately without any loss of time. . may form an integral part of the machine. It can be remotely controlled. which results in better appearance. It requires less space. Advantages: • • • • • The machines can be installed at any desired position. Efficiency of the system is high. It can be installed at any desired convenient place. Thus no load losses can be eliminated. It has comparatively longer life. It has high efficiency. Most of the industries use this type of drive.• • • • • • • • • Its speed control is easy and smooth. Individual drive • • • Individual drive consist of single motor is used to drive one individual machine. cleanliness and safety. In some cases the motor. He can vary its speed. Transmission of power from one place to other can be done with the help of cables in stead of long shaft etc. Continuity in the production of the industry is achieved. along with its control equipment. If there is a fault in one motor other machines will not be affected since they are working independently. Each operator has a complete control of his machine.

It has low power factor. It is not possible to install any machine at a distance place. Multimotor drive . The fig shows the group drive. which operates a number of machines. It requires little maintenance. In this drive all the operation can be stopped simultaneously. Only less space is required. Noise level in this drive is quite high. • • • • Its initial cost is less. The line shaft is fitted with multistepped pulleys and belts. Group drive • • • • • • A group drive consist of a single large motor. Disadvantages: • • • • • • When the motor fails all the operations will be stopped. Speed control of individual machine is not possible. It is also called line shaft drive. If most of the machines are idle the main motor will operate on load with less efficiency. Advantages: When compared with the individual drive. The motor is mechanically connected to a long shaft. The driven machines are connected to these pulleys and belts for their required speed.Disadvantages: • The initial cost is high.

Mechanical characteristics • • • • Types of enclosures Bearings Transmission of drive Noise level c. While selecting a motor. Fig shows a multimotor drive. long travel motion and cross travel motion.• • • • In multimotor drives separate motors are used for operating different parts of the same mechanism. Selection of motors • • An industrial process needs a particular electric drive for its successful and efficient operation which in turn calls for appropriate selection of the driving motor. the following factors must be taken into consideration: a. Electrical characteristics • • • • Running characteristics Starting characteristics Speed control Braking b. different motors are used for hoisting. Such drive is also essential in complicated metal-cutting machine tools. rolling mills. Size of motor and • • • Continuous rating Intermittent or variable load rating Over load capacity . Eg in case of an overhead crane. paper making machines.

It is essential that the motor characteristics match with those of the load for stable operation of the system.C motors only.• Pull out torque d. but in any commercial organization. Cost • • Capital cost Running cost • • The first three are the technical factors and the last one is the economic factor. the economic factor overpowers the technical factors as the correct choice of a motor is one which gives the required service at the minimum overall cost.torque or speedcurrent characteristics. • • Electrical characteristics Running characteristics • The running characteristics of a motor include the following speed. The magnetizing current and power factor are to be considered in case of A. Many a time. Since the load on a motor is an integral part of the drive system we study various types of loads. there are conflicts between the technical and economic factors. magnetizing current. efficiency and power factor at various loads. • Starting characteristics • The starting torque developed by a motor should be sufficient to start and accelerate the motor at its load to the rated speed in a reasonable time. . losses.

traction work etc. At the time of starting a motor. E.C motor is proportional to the product of field flux (Ф) and armature current (Ia). the field winding is connected in series with the armature. The torque of a D. Hence the field current. T α ФIa Where Ia= armature current Ф= field flux D. . armature current and load current is same (ie Ia=Ise=IL). • D. i.C motors • • The starting characteristics of D. two torques come into play.C shunt motor. • • The torque required to overcome the static friction and The torque necessary to accelerate the motor and its load to the desired speed. (T α Ia).g motors driving grinding mills or oil expellers. Фse= Фa. Fig shows the torque current characteristics of D.C shunt motor • • • In DC shunt motor. Therefore the field flux Ф also constant.C motor is the relation between the torque and the armature current. Hence the starting torque is directly proportional to the armature current i.. hence field flux and armature flux also same ie.• • Some motors may be have to start against full load torque. Starting characteristics of D.C Series motor • • In D..e.C series motor. the field current is constant from no load to full load.e.

the torque current characteristics is a straight line.• Since the series field flux is proportional to the armature current upto saturation point. Hence the total flux is lesser than that of the shunt motor as shown in fig. Starting characteristics of three phase induction motor Squirrel cage motor . Cumulative compound motor 2. In differential compound motor. Hence the torque is directly proportional to Ia (T α Ia). So the torque developed in this motor is more than that of shunt motor for the same armature current. the series field flux opposes the shunt field flux. the series field flux remains constant.C compound motor There are two types of compound motor namely. • • D. cranes. Differential compound motor • • • In cumulative compound motor the series field flux add with the shunt field flux. the torque current characteristics is in parabolic shape. ie T α ФIa upto saturation point. Hence the total flux is higher than that of the shunt motor. and the starting torque of D. lifts and hoists. Hence up to OA. hence after A. Since the starting torque is directly proportional to square of armature current. the torque produced is proportional to the square of the armature current up to saturation point. field flux Ф α Ia Hence T α Ia2 • • • After saturation. 1. So it can be used where large starting torque is required such as in electric trains.C series motor is very high.

the squirrel cage induction motor has low starting torque and take high starting current. • The following methods are used to provide the starting arrangement. the motor induced current is at the line frequency and hence inner cage has a high reactance(X2=2 f’L). . This gives a high efficiency of the motor. At the time of starting. Therefore. The condition for maximum starting torque is R2=X2. Fig shows the double cage rotor. extra resistance can be added in the rotor circuit during the starting period. • • Double cage rotor • • The starting torque of a cage motor is increased by providing double cages. In addition. It runs at synchronous speed. It is not possible to increase the rotor resistance on squirrel cage induction motor. During normal running the reactance of the inner cage decreases (since rotor current frequency f’ is decreased) and hence the rotor current flows through the low resistance inner cage. The outer cage is made of high resistance metal bars whereas inner cage is made of low resistance copper bar. Starting characteristics of synchronous motor • It has no self starting torque. During the starting period X2 is higher in compare to rotor resistance R2. Therefore if the rotor resistance R2 increases the starting torque also increases(since T α R2). The inductance of the inner bar is higher than that of outer. it also limits the starting current.• • During the starting period. the rotor current will flow through the outer cage. Hence a high starting torque is produced. • • • • • Slip ring Induction motor • • In slip ring induction motor. with the result that the starting torque is high (since T α R2).

Starting characteristics of single phase induction motor • • • • • • • • • • Single phase induction motor is not self starting. It requires some provision for starting. When the motor picks up the speed at 75% of synchronous speed. This type of motor is called split phase motor. efficiency and power factor at various loads. The starting winding is connected in series with the capacitor through centrifugal switch and connected across the single phase supply. DC motor coupled to synchronous motor. Running characteristics of D.M. The main winding is of high reactance and low resistance. They are connected across the supply. Pony motor(small I.) coupled to synchronous motor. The starting winding is of high resistance and low reactance.i. If a capacitor is used for spilt the phase at starting then it is called capacitor start motor . Such an arrangement gives a high starting torque. the main winding is connected directly across the line. Running characteristics of motors • • The running characteristics of a motor include the speed-torque or the speed-current characteristics. magnetizing currents. The magnetizing current and power factor are to be considered in case of A. a centrifugal switch is open and disconnects the starting winding. ii. Provide damper winding on rotor. This motor has a very low starting torque. losses.C motors .C motors only. iii. An extra winding known as starting winding is provided on the stator. In permanent capacitor motor the capacitor remains in the circuit during starting and running.

• • • • b) Speed-Torque characteristics • We know T α ФIa and N α (Eb / Ф). • In shunt motor field flux Ф= constant T α Ia Ia= KT N α Eb N α (V-IaRa) -------------------------. Hence the speed will increase.(1) . in DC shunt motor Ф is flux is constant. But due to armature reaction.C motor N α (Eb / Ф).C shunt motor decreases with increase in armature current due to loading. This increase in speed compensates the drop in speed due to Ia Ra drop. The percentage of speed change will be about 5% at full load due to armature resistance drop. When the supply voltage is constant. The variation of speed with armature current characteristics is drooping slightly as shown in fig. (N α (Eb / Ф)).D.(2) ----------------------------. the flux is weakened.C shunt motor a) speed current characteristics • In any D. N α Eb N α V-Ia Ra • • This indicates that speed of D. Therefore the shunt motor is considered as constant speed motor.

• • • • b) Speed. the speed of the motor will be inversely proportional to flux N α (1 / Ф).current characteristics • Consider the speed equation N α Eb/Ф N α (V. Hence the shape of the curve will be hyperbolic. the speed will be very high. each plotted against output power. the flux also increases.C series motor a) Speed. speed.(3) From equation (3) we know that..Torque characteristics • In any D.IaRa)/ Ф • When supply voltage V is kept constant. These curves are namely torque.• Put Ia value in equation (2) N α V-(KT)Ra ---------------------------. T α Ф Ia . speed decreases as shown in fig. For small value of flux Ф. Therefore the speed will be constant and low at heavy loads as shown in fig. after saturation the flux remains constant. when the torque increases. On the light loads the flux produced will be weak and therefore the speed will be dangerously high. current and efficiency.C motor N α (V-IaRa)/ Ф • If IaRa drop is negligible N α V/ Ф -------------------------.C shunt motor. When the load current increases.(1) • We know that. Performance curve • Fig shows the performance curves of D. D.

• . If the series field flux and shunt field flux add each other. Ф T α Ф2 Ф2 =T (since Ia α Ф) Ф2 = √T ------------------------. Hence cumulative compound motor has more flux than that of shunt motor. Hence series motor is suitable for operating cranes. Hence the characteristics curve is hyperbolic in shape. speed is inversely proportional to torque. If the series field flux opposes the shunt field flux. Compound motors are of two types. speed.C motor. In the cumulative compound motor.C series motor. trains etc. Performance curve • • Fig shows the perfoemance curve of a D.C compound motor Speed – current characteristics • • • • • A compound motor has both series field and shunt field. In D. as torque increases with decrease of speed. In any D. current and efficiency each plotted against output power. D.T α Ф. it is called differential compound motor.C series motor. lifts. the series field emf increases with increase in armature current. These curves are namely torque. This is shown in fig. it is called cumulative compound motor.(2) • Substitute the equation (2) in (1) N α V/√T • • • From the equation.

Hence the rotor reactance (X2= 2πf’L) is also very small. (since T α Ф Ia).f induced in the rotor R2 = rotor resistance X2 = rotor reactance • • • Under normal running condition the rotor frequency (f’=Sf) is small. The speed Vs armature current and speed torque characteristics of D. In the case of differential compounded motor the field flux decreases when the armature current increases.T α Ф Ia • • • Hence torque of cumulative compound motor is greater than the shunt motor. which reduces the torque.m. Since the speed is inversely proportional to flux N α (1 / Ф) cumulative compound motor has lower speed than the shunt motor. • • • Running characteristics of three phase induction motor • • Running characteristics of squirrel cage induction motor or speed torque characteristics In cage induction motor Torque (T) = KSE22 R2/ R22 +X22 Where k = constant S = slip E2 = e. . in comparison with the shunt motor.C compound motors are shown in fig. Hence the rotor reactance (X2) is neglected. But the speed increases with reduction flux ( since N α (1 / Ф)). Hence the speed is greater when compared to shunt motor.

The stable operating region of the motor lies for the slip values S=0 and that corresponds to maximum torque. Any further more increase in load on the motor results. Hence the running torque of the motor depends upon the rotor resistance. Hence at lower value of slip. Hence cage induction motor has good running torque. • • • • • • • Performance curve • Fig shows the performance curve of three phase squirrel cage induction motor namely slip. the rotor resistance is very low. From the above equation the running torque is inversely proportional to the rotor resistance R2. The operating region is hatched in fig.T α K1SE22 R2/ R22 i.. increasing the running torque the rotor resistance R2 should be very low. Then the slip value increases. the increased load on the motor will increase the slip and on the decrease the torque. For various values of R the family of speed torque characteristics shown in fig.e. After the rated load. power factor. E2 is also constant. when the load on the motor increases the rotor speed falls down. The torque will reach a maximum value at slip S=R2/X2. current. T α KSE22/ R2 • • • • Since the supply voltage Vis constant. The torque increases with increase in slip upto rated load. Running characteristics of slip ring induction motor • • The running characteristics of slip ring induction motor are same as squirrel cage induction motor. Running characteristics of double squirrel cage induction motor . the motor slowing down and it finally stops. the torque can be increased. efficiency and speed each plotted against power output. Since the cage motor rotor is short circuited. By introducing resistance in the rotor circuit at running.

Because the frequency of rotor current is very high.torque characteristics of double cage induction motor are shown in fig. The repulsion start and capacitor start motors are the most common types of single phase induction motors. • • • • Running characteristics of single phase induction motor • • • • • The speed torque characteristics is similar to three phase induction motor. the frequency of rotor current becomes very low. Therefore most of the current flows through the inner cage. Universal motors are used in vacuum cleaners. The speed. Hence at running.C or D. refrigerators. sewing machines. Inner cage has high inductance and low resistance whereas outer cage has high resistance and low inductance. . At the time of starting inner cage offers high reactance. Fig shows the speed torque characteristics. Separate arrangement is provided to make it self starting. It has no self starting torque.• • • The motor is designed to provide improved starting characteristics (i.C supply. Thus more starting torque is developed. copper losses are reduced and the efficiency of motor is increased. Running characteristics of universal motor. Its speed torque characteristics are same as series motor speed-torque characteristics.e. Hence most of the current flows through outer cage where resistance is high. Fig shows the speed torque characteristics of single phase induction motor. vacuum cleaners etc. portable drills and other small power drives. hence frequency of rotor current f’ increases. Single phase induction motors are used in domestic appliances like fans. (since at starting slip=1. • • • • Universal motor operates on either A. After the motor has picked up its full speed. since f’ = s f). high starting torque with low starting current).

C motor the speed can be controlled by following methods • • Armature control method Field control method In A.Speed control In D. It is done by braking. i) Mechanical braking ii) Electrical braking Mechanical characteristics of electric motor . The braking torque must be controllable. There are two types of braking.C motors. the speed can be controlled by following methods • • • • • • By changing the supply voltage By changing the supply frequency By changing the no of poles of motor By injecting emf in the rotor circuit By cascading of motors By injecting resistance in the rotor circuit Braking • • • • When the load is removed from an electric motor and supplied to it be disconnected it will continue to run for sometime due to inertia. To avoid danger to the worker or damage to the products manufactured quick stopping of motor is required. The braking system should be reliable and quick in action.

Therefore it is necessary to provide proper enclosures. b) Screen protected type • • • In this type of machines openings provided for ventilation are covered with wire mesh screen. insulation etc are to be protected from the surroundings contaminated air. Types of enclosures 2. This type of enclosures does not protect the motor against dirt and dust. Bearings 3. 1.• • While selecting a motor for a particular drive. But this type is rarely used since there is no protection to the motor parts. • • a) Open type • • • This type can only be used where the atmosphere and surroundings are free from all contaminations and surrounding air completely dry. dust inflammable fumes etc. Transmission of drive Types of enclosures • • All the major parts of the motors such as windings. The different types of enclosures are as follows. also accidents may occur to persons coming in contact with the moving parts. mist. dust. The following features determine the suitability of the motor. water. In an industry the air surrounding the motors may contain metal. the mechanical characteristics are also taken into account. Noise 4. oil. But larger bodies and big insects cannot enter into the machine. . bearings. The advantage of this type of motor is that the cost of cooling is very low.

f) Flame proof type • These enclosures do not communicate an internal fire to the external environment.c) Drip proof type • • • This motor has ventilating opening provided in such a way that drops of liquid or solid falling on it vertically are prevented to enter inside.g Pumpsets.g saw mills. where the risk of fire is more. the ventilation ducts are provided in such a way that drops of liquid or solid particles reaching the machine at any angle between vertical and 100˚ from it cannot enter the machine. d) Totally enclosed type • • • • This type of motors has solid frames and end shields but no opening for ventilation. . coal handling plants and stone crushing quarries. E. • • g) Pipe ventilated type • • Large sizes of totally enclosed motor employ pipe ventilation. They are cooled by surface radiation only. oil refineries etc. where clean air is available and forced to cool the motor. These machines are used for very dusty atmosphere. In this type machines no dirt or foreign matter can enter and block the air passage.. e) Splash proof type • In this type. Air is drawn through pipe from outside the building. Such motors are used in damp atmosphere. gas plants. This type of motor cannot be used where inflammable dust particles are present in the surrounding air. E. Hence these motors are used in coal mines.

It occupy less space. When the shaft rotates. Sleeve or brush bearing • • • Sleeve or brush bearings are normally made of bronze. belt and gear drives. It provides free rotation of the moving parts with minimum friction. . The outer race is attached to the housing(end cover) and the inner race is attached to the shaft. 1. The rotating shaft is supported by bearing component and is rigidly fixed to the frame of the machine. There are two types of bearings usually employed in motors. Sleeve or brush bearing Ball or Roller bearing • • • • • • • Ball or roller bearing consist of an inner and outer race and cage containing steel roller or balls. It is used for chain. It has self lubricating properties due to capillary action.Bearings • • • Bearings are the parts of machines which house and support the main shaft. It has a longer life and maintenance costs are low. It is used in three phase induction motor where smaller air gap is possible. Ball or Roller bearing 2. Hence the friction of the shaft is minimized. But the initial cost of ball and roller bearings is high. the steel ball also rotates.

Maximum power of 300 H. Belt drive • • • In belt drive. Gear drive Direct drive • • • • In direct drive. motor is coupled directly to the driven machine with the help of solid or flexible coupling. 1. Direct drive 2. It gives noiseless operation and their life is long.• • • • It is lubricated by a metal ring freely rotating on the shaft carrying oil to the bearings. Chain drive and 5. . It can be used where driven and driving machine speed are same. Flexible coupling protects the motor from jerks. Belt drive 3. Rope drive 4.P can be transmitted through this drive. It is more efficient and requires minimum space and it is the simplest method. It is mainly used in direct coupled drive such as fan and universal motor. Transmission of drives • Various methods employed for transmission of mechanical power are described below. this type of bearing is used in larger air gap induction motor. The mechanical power wasted due to slip is about 3 to 4 percentage. belt is used to transmit the power from motor to driven machine through pulley system. Because of larger wear of bearings.

A number of ropes run in V-grooves over pulleys. vibrations. It is noiseless. sliplesss and smooth in operation. The tendency of slipping especially under heavy loads is reduced because it will absorb a portion of the shock of suddenly applied loads. It is more efficient and transmits large amount of power. It should be kept as low as possible in the workshops. It can be used for high speed ratio (upto 6:1).Advantages • • • Greater flexibility in the original design of a plant is possible. It gives convenient speed ratio thereby high speed motors can be utilized. Gear drive is used when high speed motor is to drive a low speed machine. hospitals and other domestic purposes. Gear drive • • Noise • • • Noise is the another important features to be considered while making the selection of a motor. It is mainly used in lift and cranes. Chain drive • • • • Chain drive is very costly in comparison to belt and rope drive. magnetic pulsations and faulty foundations. The advantages of rope drive are negligible slip and ability of taking sudden loads. . Rope drive • • • • This method for transmission for power is used. The noise may be due to bearing. when it is not possible to employ belt drive. The coupling between the two is through a suitable ratio gear box.

Such motor is loaded for short period of time and is then put off for sometime.• • • To reduce noise. The rating of a motor is classified as follows. pumps. Intermittent rating or short time rating • • • This is an output that a motor can give for specified short time without exceeding the permissible temperature rise. Intermittent periodic duty in the starting. 4. 2. which operate continuously for long periods. Continuous rating • • This is the rating or the output of a motor which can be delivered continuously for long periods without exceeding the permissible temperature. Standard rating of motor • The rating of motor is the amount of power which it can deliver without becoming unduly hot. 1. 2. 3. During that period the motor cools off as in mixies. textile. This rating is applicable to drives like fans. Short time duty. Continuous rating. . 5. journal bearing may be used in place of ball bearings. The electrical connections should be made through flexible conduits. mills etc. Intermittent rating or short time rating. Continuous duty. 1. Classes of load duty cycles • As per IS 4722 – 1968 various load time variations are encountered the eight standard classes of duty. Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking. The motor should be mounted on a heavy concrete or cast iron block. Intermittent periodic duty.

Intermittent periodic duty • • • It denotes the operation of motor a sequence of indential duty cycle each of constant load and rest period. . Paper mill drives. The load time and the temperature time graph are shown in fig. Short time duty • • • • It denotes the operation of motor at constant load for short period followed by rest to cool down to the original starting temperature. heating of machine during starting and braking operation is negligible. Pressing. Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading. 30. 7. drives for household appliances. Selection of motors for different duty cycles Continuous duty • • Continuous duty denotes the motor operation at a constant load torque to reach steady state temperature. The load time and temperature time graph are shown in fig. a period of operation at a constant load and rest period. cutting and drilling machine drives are some examples of intermittent periodic duty. Thus it consists of a period of starting. sluice gate drives. conveyers. Intermittent periodic duty with starting • • • This is intermittent periodic duty where heat losses during starting cannot be neglected. The operating and rest periods are too short to attain the steady state temperature in one duty cycle. 60 and 90 minutes. Crane drivers. Fig shows the load time and temperature time graph.6. compressors. In this duty. centrifugal pumps and fans are some examples of continuous duty. 8. Continuous duty with starting and braking. Continuous duty with periodic speed changes. Short time duty timings are generally 10. valve drives and machine tool drives are some examples of short-time duty.

Continuous duty with periodic speed changes • Operation of the motor has a sequence of indentical duty cycle. mine hoist drives for lift trucks. There is no rest period. Pressing. Its characteristics are shown in fig. Some examples are metal cutting. Blooming mill is an example. This duty is distinguished from the intermittent periodic duty by a period of running at constant load is followed by a period of running at no load instead of rest. Thermal equilibrium is not reached in one duty cycle. shearing and drilling machine drives are the examples. and a rest period. in this duty heating of machine during braking is considered to be negligible. cutting. each cycle is having a period of running at one load and speed and followed by another period of running at different speed and load. The characteristics are shown in fig. Its characteristics is shown in fig Several machine tool drives. drives for electric suburban trains and mine hoist are some examples of this duty. each consisting of a period of operation and a period of operation on no load. Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading • • • • The operation of motor has a sequence of indentical duty cycle.• • Its characteristics are shown in fig. • . Braking is done electrically and is quick. Thus it consists of a period of starting. a period of operation with constant load. a braking period. drilling tool drives. Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking • • • • • This is the periodic duty where heat losses during starting and braking cannot be ignored. Continuous duty with starting and braking • • The operation of motor consists of period of starting. a period of operation at constant load a period of electric braking and there is no rest period. Thermal equilibrium is not reached in one duty cycle. Its characteristics are shown in fig.

The motors employed must have high starting torque with constant speed. It should have strong construction. Rolling mills or steel mills – separately excited DC motor • • • • Separately excited DC motor is mainly used in rolling mills.C motors or slip ring induction motors are used. 2. fan cooled.Drives for different industrial application 1. 4. Textile mills – Double cage induction motor • • • • In textile mills group drive is employed. . The motor required for these mills should have high starting torque about 2 to 2.Synchronous motor A paper mill requires a drive which must fulfill the following requirements • • • To manufacture different thickness of papers it is required to vary the speed of entire series of rolls. 3.5 times the rated torque. Relative speed of rolls should be constant otherwise the paper may be tearing. high torque double cage induction motors are used. The motors used must be totally enclosed and moisture proof to prevent entry of dust and moisture enter into machine. It is required to adjust the speed at any one group of rolls relative to other in order to draw the paper. Hence totally enclosed. Cement mills • Various types of loads available in a cement factory and the motor used for them are given below a) Hammer crusher – Three phase slip ring induction motor • The lime stones are broken into smaller sizes in the crushing mill. Paper mill. The ward leonard speed control of D.

Machine tools – D. • • 6.• For this purpose high starting torque motor is required. the raw materials grind in powder form synchronous motor are used for this process. Different speed operation is obtained by using two or three speed motor with suitable gear combination. b) Ball mills – Synchronous motor • In ball mills. totally enclosed motors are used to prevent metallic dust getting into it. D. Therefore 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor is used for machine tool application.C shunt motors are used for machine tool application like planners where rapid reversal.C shunt motor or 3Ф Squirrel cage induction motor • • • The starting torque required is less in most of the machine tools since they start up light. • Hence three phase slip ring induction motor is used because it has high starting torque. d) • Slurring pumps and agitators – Three phase Squirrel cage induction motor These are used in the wet process • Three phase Squirrel cage induction motors used for slurring pumps and agitators. In the case of grinders. c) Rotary driers – Slip ring induction motor • The cement slurry is dried by blowers and speed of blower is varied depending upon the amount of air required to blow. Lift and hoists – DC compound motor or 3Ф slip ring induction motor . and wide speed control are required. • Hence slip ring induction motor with pole changing speed control is employed. 5.

A three phase alternator gives the supply to the synchronous motor.• The essential requirements for a lift are high overload capacity.C 3 Ф slip ring induction motors provided with fly wheel are used.C cumulative compound motors and A. Belt conveyor – Double squirrel cage induction motor • • • • The conveyors are required to transport bulk materials like coal. 3Ф induction motors are used to drive compressors. Double squirrel cage induction motors are used in belt conveyors. Single phase induction motor is used for small air compressors. The prime mover used for the alternator is steam turbine by varying the voltage and frequency of alternator the speed of motor is controlled. 9. high smooth accelerating torque of 2 to 2. Punches and shears • • For punches and shears D. are sand on either flat belt or bucket system.5 times the full load torque at starting and maximum degree of silence. Ship – Synchronous motors • • • Three phase induction motors and synchronous motors are used for very big ships. 11. It requires a high starting torque so as to accelerate the load for transport. 8. Rotary printing • The rotary printing machinery requires variable speed motor. Repulsion motor is used for various industrial machinery air compressors.3 Ф Induction motor • • • Air compressors are used for pneumatic drill. . Air compressor . • 7. 10. D.C compound motor and three phase slip ring induction motor are used for lifts and hoists. Hence totally enclosed surface cooled motors are used.

The liquid handled by the pump does not enter the motor.C series motors are used for cranes because they have high starting torque. . At starting the torque required is less.C series motor • • The D.C supply is available. Hence 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used for centrifugal pump.C 3 Ф induction motors with rotor resistance control are used for printing machineries. A double cage induction motor is suitable for reciprocating pump. Ceiling fans • Single phase capacitor start and run motors are used for ceiling fan. The single phase split phase induction motor has shunt characteristics and so the operating speed is almost constant.C shunt motor is used where D. 14. Reciprocating pump • • A reciprocating pump requires two times the full load torque at starting. Hence totally enclosed motor is preferred. Because they have high starting torque. which helps the motor to reach the speed in a short time and also prevents the motor from stalling in case of heavy loads. • • 13.C compound motors or A. 15. Draught fan • • The single phase split phase induction motors are used for draught fan. 12. D. Cranes – D. 3 Ф slip ring induction motor is also used for this type of pump.• D. Pumps Centrifugal pump • • • • • The load torque varies as square of the speed in a centrifugal pump.

A 3 Ф slip ring induction motor with ward leonard speed control is used for winder. The winder consists of two cages and a rope for transporting material from bottom of the mine to the surface. Choice of drive • Choice of drive is governed by the following factors: (i) (ii) (iii) Speed of driving and driven machines Convenience Space available . conveyors. mixi. vacuum cleaner. Domestic appliances – Universal motor or Single phase induction motor • Small universal motor is used for various domestic appliances such as for domestic refrigerators. cloth washing machines etc. For starting and special adjustments proper graded rotor resistance is used with slip ring induction motor. Conveyors require a high starting torque. compressors and pumps.C 3 Ф slip ring inductions are also used for cranes. It requires high starting torque therefore a 3 Ф slip ring induction motor is used for pumps. 16. ventilating fans.. Ventilating fans are used for circulating fresh air. A 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used for ventilating fan if no speed control is not required. Acceleration and braking operations are repeated. Centrifugal pumps are used to pump out the water falling through the rock layers.• • A. • • • • • • 17. It requires shunt characteristics and so 3 Ф squirrel cage induction motor is used. Compressor is used to provide compressed air for pneumatic drills used for mining operations. Mines • The various loads in a mine are winders. shavers. so a double squirrel cage motor is used.

and η = Product of the efficiency of the driven equipment and that of transmitting device. T = Load torque.m.(iv) (v) • • Clutching arrangement required Cost The choice of motor speed is the most important factor as it not only affects the performance of motor but also overall cost. kg-m. Thus for a low-speed drive high speed motor using a reduction gear is usually found cheaper than a low-speed direct-coupled motor.. r. N = Speed. the rating of the motor required is given by. therefore. so for the some output kW the cost of a high speed motor is less than that of a slow speed motor. P = F x v/2 x 102 η kW -----------------------------------. The dimension and. • • Power requirement calculation 1. Continuous duty and constant load: • For most of the applications. the first cost of a motor for a given output are approximately inversely proportional to the speed. In case of induction motor.p. the rating can be determined from the equation given as under: P = TN/975η kW (1) Where. • ---------------------------------- In case of linear motion.(2) . the efficiency and power factor decreases with decrease in speed.

F = force caused by the load. η varies from 0.9 for reciprocating pumps and from 0. and h = Pressure in mm of water or kg/m2. P = Qh/102 η kW Where.8 for centrifugal pumps. m3/s. Kg. ρ = Density of liquid pumped. m. . • In case of pumps. it should be modified as follows: P = F x v/2 x 102 η kW The velocity of normal passenger lift cabins vary from 0.Where. Q = volume of air or any other gas. m/s. the rating can be determined from the following relation: P = ρQH/102 η kW Where. and v = velocity of motion of the load.4 to 0.5 to 1. Q = Delivery of pumps.8 to 0. It is also suitable for lifts or elevators. m3/s. kg/m3. • Equation (2) is directly applicable in case of hoisting mechanisms. • The rating of a fan motor is given by. and H = Gross head (static head + friction head).5 m/s.

For small power fans. the losses corresponding to the continuous duty of the machine when operated at its nominal rating. Method of average losses (Qav) • • The method consists of finding average losses Qav in the motor when it operates according to the given load diagram. These losses are then compared with Qnom. . kg. The rating of the electric motor can be found from method of successive approximations. • • • The loss diagram of the electric motor is shown. Qm = Qav / Aλ = Qnom/ Aλ. the efficiency η may be taken as 0. 2. Motor rating for variable load: The following are the commonly used methods for determination of motor rating for variable load drives (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Method of average losses Equivalent current method Equivalent torque method Equivalent power method. This method presupposes that when Qav = Qnom. In this case. v = Velocity of shearing. F = shearing force. the motor will operate without temperature rise going above the maximum permissible for the particular class of insulation.6 and for large power ones it may reach a value up to 0. P = F x v/ 102 x 60 η kW Where. • The rating of a motor used in metal shearing lathes can be found from the relation. and η = Mechanical efficiency of the lathe. m/min.8.

. In case the two losses are equal or differ by a small amount the motor is selected.65 to 2. Ieq = √(I12t1 + I22t2 + I32t3 + ……+ In2tn) / ( t1 + t2 + t3 + ……+ tn) • • The heating and cooling conditions in self ventilated machines depend upon its speed. This method is accurate and reliable for determining the average temperature rise of the motor during one work cycle.75 • • • . • • Equivalent current method • This method is based on the assumption that the actual variable current may be replaced by an equivalent current Ieq which produces the same losses in the motors as the actual current. The machine selected should also be checked for its overload capacity. However. another motor is selected and the calculations repeated till the motor having almost the same losses or the average losses is found. For D. + Qntn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……. The disadvantage of the method of equal losses is that it is tedious to work with and also many a times the efficiency curve is not readily available and the efficiency has to be calculated by means of empirical formulae which may not be accurate to work with.• The losses of the motor are calculated for each portion of the load diagram by referring to the efficiency curve of the motor. Imax/ Inom < 2 to 2. At low speed the cooling conditions are poorer than at normal speeds.C motors…………. The average losses are given by Qav = Q1t1 + Q2t2 + Q3t3 +……….+ tn -----------. The equivalent current as found from eqn should be compared with the rated current of the motor selected and the conditions Ieq < Inom should be met. in case the losses differ considerably.(1) • • • The average losses as found from eqn (1) are compared with losses of selected motor at rated frequency.5 For induction motors ……… Imax/ Inom < 1.

as power is directly proportional to the torque. the equivalent torque is: Teq = √ [T12t1 + T22t2 + T32t3 +…. At constant speed or where the changes in speed are small. • Equivalent torque and equivalent power methods • • • For the selection of suitable capacity of the motor it often becomes necessary to use torque or power load diagrams..+ tn] • The “equivalent current method” is the most accurate out of all the above methods discussed above. The current values obtained by this method are sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. the equivalent power is given by: Peq = √ [P12t1 + P22t2 + P32t3 +….• • In case the overload capacity of the motor selected is not sufficient it becomes necessary to select a motor of high power rating. therefore. the torque is directly proportional to current and. Assuming constant flux and constant power factor.. It may not be easy to calculate the equivalent current especially in cases where the current load diagram is irregular as shown in fig. + Tn2tn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +…….+ tn] • • The equation for equivalent power follows directly from above eqn. + Pn2tn/ t1 + t2 + t3 +……. The equivalent current in such cases is calculated from the following expression: • Ieq = √ [(1/1∑n ) t∫∑t i2 dt] • The value of the integral may be found with the help of integral. . The equivalent torque or power is found in the same manner as the equivalent current.

“Active component” consumes power in the circuit while “reactive component” is responsible for the field which lags or leads the main current from the voltage. especially when dealing with starting and braking conditions. and reactive component is I reactive = I sin Ф. In fig active component is I active = I cos Ф.m. I = √ [(I active) 2 + (I reactive) 2] (i) • Apparent power (S): It is given by the product of r.e. values of applied voltage and circuit resistance. The disadvantage of the “equivalent power method” is that it cannot be used for motors whose speed varies considerably under load.C series motors and for squirrel cage induction motors under starting and braking conditions. . The “equivalent torque method” cannot be used for cases where equivalent current method cannot be applied. the iron and mechanical losses. Active (True or Real) and Reactive power and Power Factor • Every circuit has two components (i) (ii) • • Active component and Reactive component.• This method may be used to determine the motor capacity for all uses except where it is necessary to take into account the changes in so ‘constant losses’ i.s. • • • Power factor improvement Apparent. It cannot be used for selection of motor rating for cases in which the field flux does not remain constant like D.

The power factor depends on the reactive power component. This power which flows back and forth(i. since in a half cycle what so ever power is received from the source by these components the same is returned to the source. the power factor becomes unity. kW(or kW) and kVAR (or MVAR) respectively.e. is given as: Q = I2XL = I2Zsin Ф = I. P = I2R = VI cos Ф watts. It may be noted that the current in phase with the voltage produces active or true or real power while the current 90º out of phase with the voltage contributes to reactive power. true and reactive power are kVA (or MVA). in both directions in the circuit) or reacts upon itself is called “reactive power”. If it is made equal to the active power component. • • . reactive power which is the power developed in the inductive reactance of the circuit. W and VR W = VA cos Ф VAR = VA sin Ф VA = W/ cos Ф VA = VAR/ sin Ф • • • • Power factor (p.. In a R-L circuit. (IZ) sin Ф = VI sin Ф volt-amperes-reactive (VAR) • • These three powers are shown in fig Relation between VA. (iii) • Reactive power (Q): A pure inductor and a pure capacitor do not consume any power.S = VI = (I x Z) .f) = W/VA = True power/ Apparent power The larger bigger units of apparent.I = I2Z volt-amperes (VA) (ii) Active or true or real power (P or W): • It is the power which is actually dissipated in the circuit resistance.

2) Use of synchronous condensers. are lamps operate at low power factor. 5) Improvement in power factor of the generators. 6) Reduction in kVA loading of the generators and circuits. which usually occurs during low load periods (such as lunch hours.) the magnetizing current of inductive reactances increases and power factor of the electrical plant as a whole decreases. Methods of power factor improvement • The various methods employed for power factor correction are: 1) Use of static capacitors. Due to improper maintenance and repairs of motors the power factor at which motors operate fall. Due to typical characteristics of the arc.Causes of low power factor (i) (ii) (iii) All A. 7) Reduction in kVA demand charges for large consumers. When there is increase in supply voltage. night hours etc. to raise the power factor results in one or more of the following effects and advantages: 1) Reduction in investment in the system facilities per kW of the load supplied.. 3) Reduction in copper losses in the system due to reduction in current. Arc and induction furnaces etc. 2) Reduction in circuit current. (iv) (v) Advantages of power factor improvement • The installation of power factor improvement device. .C motors (except overexcited synchronous motors and certain types of commutators motors) and transformers operate at lagging power factor. operate at a very low lagging power factor. 3) Use of phase advancers. 4) Increase in voltage level at load.

In view of reduced magnitude of quadrature component of current. The capacitors. Power factor of the system can be improved by placing static capacitors in series with the liner as shown in fig. • The above methods of power factor improvement are discussed below: Use of static capacitors: • • It is known that static capacitor/ condenser takes current which leads the voltage by nearly 90º. 7) Flexible in operation.5 percent) or higher efficiency (say 99. 3) Easy installation. p.f of the whole combination is improved from cos Ф1 to cos Ф2. Shunt capacitors are used in factories. 6) Greater reliability in service. • • • • • • Advantages of capacitors 1) Small losses (less than 0. are called “series capacitor”. when connected in series with the line. Capacitors connected in series with the line neutralize the line reactance. 4) Little maintenance. Thus if condenser is connected across an inductive load resultant quadrature component of the whole combination will be difference of leading component of condenser current (Ic) and lagging component of lead current (I sin Ф1) as shown in fig. 5) Long life. plants and also on transmission lines.4) Use of phase compensated motors.6). are called “shunt capacitors”. and when connected in parallel with the equipment. Series capacitors are used on long transmission lines as they provide automatic compensation with the variations in load. . 2) Low initial cost.

8) No restriction on the choice of site for capacitor and can be installed in relatively small banks located near the load. Besides p. transformers and transmission and distribution network. ФM = Angle of lead.excited synchronous motor running on no load is called the synchronous condenser or synchronous phase advancer. • Advantages . 4) To utilize fully the capacities of generators. Use of synchronous condenser: • • • An over. capacitors are employed to perform the following functions also: 1) To reduce losses. the capacitance reactance of which depends upon the motor excitation. IL = current taken by the industrial load.f improvement. 2) To reduce voltage regulation of the line. From the fig we observe that angle of lag(Ф) is much smaller than ФL . It behaves like a capacitor. ФL = Angle of lag. thus overall factor is improved from cos ФL to cos ФM by the use of synchronous condenser. Power factor can be improved by using synchronous condensers like shunt capacitors connected across the supply. IM = current drawn by the synchronous motor. I = Resultant current and Ф = angle lag • Synchronous condensers are usually built in large units and are employed where a large quantity of corrective kVAR is required. 3) To meet a demand for reactive power.

except in size above about 5000 kVAR. Such an excitor may be mounted on the same shaft as the main motor or may be suitably driven from it. Possibility of synchronous condensers falling out of synchronism causing interruption of supply. supply mains. During operation noise is produced. Increase of short-circuit currents when the fault occurs near the synchronous condenser.C. Use of phase advancer is not generally economical in connection with motors below 150 kW output but above this size. For starting synchronous condensers an auxiliary equipment is required. . exciter” or “phase advancer” which supplies this exciting current to the rotor at slip frequency. It may be improved by equipping the set with an “A. Possibility of overloading a synchronous condenser for short periods. phase advancers are frequently employed. Use of phase advancers: • • • • The p. due to losses in rotating parts and heat losses. Comparatively lower efficiency. • • • Disadvantages • • • • • • • The cost is higher than that of static capacitors of the same rating. because exciting current lags behind the voltage by 90º. Improvement in the system stability and reduction of the effect of sudden changes in load owing to inertia of synchronous condenser.C.f of an induction motor falls mainly due to its exciting current drawn from the A. Higher maintenance and operating costs comparatively. Inherent characteristics of synchronous condensers of stabilizing variations in the line voltage and thereby automatically aid in regulation.• A finer control can be obtained by varying the field excitation.

f than the additional expenses incurred on them. These motors are however very costly and require more maintenance than plain induction motors. the use of phase advancers may not be economical for induction motors below 150 kW output. Power factor improvement of the system is achieved by the use of phase compensated motors such as torda. Use of phase compensated motors: • • • • As mentioned earlier.• Shunt and series type of phase advancers are available according to whether the exciting winding of the advancer is connected in parallel or series with the rotor winding of the induction motor. As such these motors are chosen when we are sure that they will be loaded to rated output for most of the time and that they will effect more saving in the energy cost due to higher p. -----------------------------*********************------------------------------- . osnos and scharge motors.

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