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Stream function-Vorticity Equation
 Incompressible 2-D flow
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
, ;
x y
t x x
t x y y
t x y
u v v u
y x
u uu vu p u
y
v uv vv p v
x
u v
ψ ψ
ω ψ
ρ µ
ρ µ
ω ω ω ν ω
∂ ∂
= = − = − = −∇
∂ ∂

− + + = − + ∇

+ + = − + ∇

+ + = ∇

:
:
Convection Diffusion
2
Stream function-Vorticity Method
 Governing Equations
 Equation for Stream function
 Vorticity Transport Equation
 Poisson Equation for Pressure
2
ψ ω ∇ = −
( )
2
2
2
;
2
x y
y x
xx yy xy
u v
u v
p S
S
ω ω ν ω
ψ ψ
ρ ψ ψ ψ
+ = ∇
= = −
∇ =
= −
Where
Where

Poisson Equation
( ) ( )
/ X-Mom.Eqn. / Y-Mom.Eqn. x y ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂
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Stream function-Vorticity Method:
Lid-Driven Cavity Flow
 Physical Description of the Problem and
Boundary Conditions
0, 0
0, ; 0
y x
xx
u v ψ ψ
ψ ω ψ ψ
= = = − =
= = − =
0, 0
0, ; 0
y x
xx
u v ψ ψ
ψ ω ψ ψ
= = = − =
= = − =
0, 0
0, ; 0
y x
yy
u v ψ ψ
ψ ω ψ ψ
= = = − =
= = − =
0
, 0
0, ; 0
y x
yy
u u v ψ ψ
ψ ω ψ ψ
= = = − =
= = − =
U
0
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Stream function-Vorticity Method:
Lid-Driven Cavity Flow
 Grid Generation
i
P
(i,j)
P
(i,j) (i+1,j) (i-1,j)
(i,j+1) (i-1,j+1)
(i,j-1) (i-1,j-1)
1 imax
1
jmax
j
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Stream function-Vorticity Method:
Lid-Driven Cavity Flow
 Finite Difference Equation
 Equation for Stream function and Velocity
( ) ( )
1, , 1, , 1 , , 1
,
2 2
2 2 2
, 1, 1, , 1 , 1 ,
2
, 1, 1, , 1 , 1 ,
2 2
2 1
/
1
1
4
i j i j i j i j i j i j
i j
i j i j i j i j i j i j
i j i j i j i j i j i j
x y
x
x y
x
u
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ
ω
β ψ ψ ψ β ψ ψ ω
β
β ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ω
+ − + −
+ − + −
+ − + −
− + − +
+ = −
∆ ∆
+ = + + + + ∆
= ∆ ∆
(
= ⇒ = + + + + ∆
¸ ¸
where
If
, 1 , 1 1, 1,
, ,
,
2 2
i j i j i j i j
i j i j
v
y x
ψ ψ ψ ψ
+ − + −
− −
= = −
∆ ∆

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Stream function-Vorticity Method:
Lid-Driven Cavity Flow
 Finite Difference Equation
 Vorticity Transport Equation
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1, 1, , 1 , 1
, ,
1, , 1, , 1 , , 1
2 2
2
, , 1, , 1,
, , 1
2 2
2 2
2 1 1 / 2 1 / 2
/ 2
i j i j i j i j
i j i j
i j i j i j i j i j i j
i j i j i j i j i j
i j i j
u v
x y
x y
u x u x
v x
ω ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω ω ω
ν
β ω ν ω ν ω
β β ν ω β β
+ − + −
+ − + −
+ −
+
− −
+
∆ ∆
| |
− + − +
= +
|
|
∆ ∆
\ .
+ = − ∆ + + ∆
+ − ∆ + +

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
, , 1
, , 1, , 1,
, , 1 , , 1
/ 2
1 4 1 / 2 1 / 2
1 / 2 1 / 2
i j i j
i j i j i j i j i j
i j i j i j i j
v x
u x u x
v x v x
ν ω
β ω ν ω ν ω
ν ω ν ω

+ −
+ −

= ⇒ = − ∆ + + ∆
+ − ∆ + + ∆
If

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Stream function-Vorticity Method:
Lid-Driven Cavity Flow
 Finite Difference Equation
 Boundary Condition
( )
1, max,
,1 , max
2 , 1, 0 ,
1,
2
2 , 0 ,
0 , 2 ,
,
2 , 1,
2 ,
1,
2 2
max,
0 0 1 max
0 0 1 max
2
0
2
2
2
1 max
2
j i j
i i j
j j j
j
j j
j j
i j
j j
j
j
i j
j j
i i
x
x x
j j
x x
ψ ψ
ψ ψ
ψ ψ ψ
ω
ψ ψ
ψ
ψ ψ
ψ ψ
ψ
ω
ω
= = ≤ ≤
= = ≤ ≤
| | − +
= −
|
|

\ .

|
= = ⇒ =
|
∂ ∆
.

∴ = − = − ≤ ≤
∆ ∆
== −
& for
& for
where
for
Similarly,
( )
max 1,
2
, 2
,1
2
, max 1 0
, max
2
max
2
1 max
2 2
1 max
i j
i
i
i j
i j
j j
x
i i
y
u y
i i
y
ψ
ψ
ω
ψ
ω

≤ ≤

= − ≤ ≤

+ ∆
= − ≤ ≤

for 2
for
for
Left Surface
Right Surface
Bottom Surface
Top Surface
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Stream function-Vorticity Method:
Lid-Driven Cavity Flow
 Stability Criteria for using Central
Difference Scheme in Convection Term
 Underrelaxation
( )
( )
, ,
1 *
, , , ,
1 *
, , , ,
2 and 2
i j i j
k k k
i j i j i j i j
k k k
i j i j i j i j
u x v y
R
R
ψ
ω
ν ν
ψ ψ ψ ψ
ω ω ω ω
+
+
∆ ∆
≤ ≤
= + −
= + −
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Stream function-Vorticity Method:
Lid-Driven Cavity Flow
 Solution Algorithm
1. Assume initial value of
2. Apply boundary condition for
3. Compute stream-function value at interior nodes
4. Compute vorticity values at the surfaces and at interior
nodes
5. Compute the velocities at interior nodes
6. For strongly nonlinear problems (high Reynolds number
flows), underrelaxation may be employed for
7. For each node, determine the difference in the values of
between two consecutive iterations.
Determine the maximum value (residue) among them.
If residue> (practically zero, may be 10
-3
), go to step
3 else stop.
and ψ ω
and ψ ω
, , and u v ψ ω
ε
, and u v ψ

) + ∂ / ∂y ( Y-Mom.Stream function-Vorticity Method Governing Equations Equation for Stream function ∇ ψ = −ω 2 Poisson Equation u ω x + vω y = ν ∇ 2ω W h ere u = ψ y .) ∇2p = S 2 W h e r e S = 2 ρ (ψ x xψ y y − ψ x y ) 2 Poisson Equation for Pressure v = −ψ x .Eqn.Eqn. Vorticity Transport Equation 2-D Steady Convection-Diffusion Equation ∂ / ∂x ( X-Mom.

ψ = 0 3 . v = −ψ x = 0 ψ = 0.ω = −ψ yy .ψ = 0 u = ψ y = 0.Stream function-Vorticity Method: Lid-Driven Cavity Flow Physical Description of the Problem and Boundary Conditions u = ψ y = u0 . v = −ψ x = 0 ψ = 0.ψ = 0 ψ = 0. ω = −ψ xx . ω = −ψ yy . v = −ψ x = 0 U0 u = ψ y = 0.ω = −ψ xx . v = −ψ x = 0 ψ = 0.ψ = 0 u = ψ y = 0.

Stream function-Vorticity Method: Lid-Driven Cavity Flow Grid Generation jmax (i-1.j+1) (i.j-1) 4 .j) (i-1.j) 1 1 i imax (i-1.j+1) P j P (i.j-1) (i.j) (i.j) (i+1.

j + ψ i . j −1 ψ i +1. j + β (ψ i . j ui . j +1 − 2ψ i . j −1 ) + ∆x ωi . j +1 + ψ i . j −1 + ∆x 2ωi . j   4 ψ i . j −1 + = −ωi . j 2 2 ∆x ∆y 2 2 2 2 (1 + β )ψ i . j = ψ i +1. j Equation for Stream function and Velocity − 2ψ i . j −ψ i −1. j + ψ i −1. j ψ i . j = ψ i +1. j = . j + ψ i . j +1 + ψ i .Stream function-Vorticity Method: Lid-Driven Cavity Flow Finite Difference Equation ψ i +1. j where β = ∆x / ∆y 1 If β = 1 ⇒ ψ i . vi . j + ψ i −1. j = − 5 2 ∆y 2 ∆x . j + ψ i −1. j +1 −ψ i .

j + (1+ ui. j ωi. j + (1− vi. j + ωi. j ∆x / 2ν ) ωi. j +1 + (1+ vi. j +1 − 2ωi. j −1 If β = 1 ⇒ 4ωi. j − 2ωi.Stream function-Vorticity Method: Lid-Driven Cavity Flow Finite Difference Equation Vorticity Transport Equation ωi+1. j −1 6 . j − ωi−1. j = (1− ui. j ∆x / 2ν ) ωi. j ∆x / 2ν ) ωi. j ∆x / 2ν ) ωi−1. j ∆x / 2ν ) ωi. j + ωi−1. j +1 + β ( β + vi. j +1 − ωi. j ωi. j −1 + vi. j ∆x / 2ν ) ωi+1. j 2∆x 2∆y  ωi+1. j = (1− ui. j ui. j + (1+ ui. j −1  =ν  +  2 2   ∆x ∆y   2 (1+ β 2 ) ωi. j + β ( β − vi. j ∆x / 2ν ) ωi−1. j ∆x / 2ν ) ωi+1.

j − ψ 0. j ) 2ψ 2 . j ∂ψ  = = 0 ⇒ ψ 0. ω i m ax . j = 0 & ψ i m ax .1 = − fo r 1 ≤ i ≤ i m ax 2 ∆y Left Surface Right Surface Bottom Surface Top Surface ω i .1 = 0 & ψ i . j m ax = 0 fo r 1 ≤ i ≤ i m ax ψ − 2ψ 1. j 2 (ψ 2 . j w h ere  2∆x ∂x i. 2 ω i . j ∴ ω 1. j = − = − fo r 1 ≤ j ≤ j m ax 2 2 ∆x ∆x 2ψ i m ax − 1. j m ax ( 2ψ = − i . j m ax − 1 + 2u0 ∆ y ) 2 ∆y fo r 1 ≤ i ≤ i m ax 7 . j  ω 1. j − ψ 1. j + ψ 0 . j = = − 2 ∆x 2ψ i .Stream function-Vorticity Method: Lid-Driven Cavity Flow Finite Difference Equation Boundary Condition ψ 1. j = ψ 2. j = 0 fo r 1 ≤ j ≤ j m ax ψ i . j  2   ∆x   ψ 2. j = −  2 . j fo r 2 ≤ j ≤ j m ax S im ila rly .

j + R ω (ω i*. j ) j 8 . j ∆ x ν ≤ 2 an d vi . + 1 = ω ik. j ∆ y ν ≤2 Underrelaxation ψ ik. j − ω ik.Stream function-Vorticity Method: Lid-Driven Cavity Flow Stability Criteria for using Central Difference Scheme in Convection Term ui. j + Rψ (ψ i*. + 1 = ψ ik. j ) j ω ik. j − ψ ik.

3. Solution Algorithm ε . v. Compute the velocities at interior nodes ψ and ω 6. 4. may be 10-3).Stream function-Vorticity Method: Lid-Driven Cavity Flow Assume initial value of ψ and ω Apply boundary condition for u. 9 1. 2. determine the difference in the values of u. v and ψ Compute stream-function value at interior nodes Compute vorticity values at the surfaces and at interior nodes 5. go to step 3 else stop. underrelaxation may be employed for 7. ψ and ω between two consecutive iterations. For strongly nonlinear problems (high Reynolds number flows). If residue> (practically zero. For each node. Determine the maximum value (residue) among them.