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Discovery of Cloud-RAN

Hao Guan, Troels Kolding, Peter Merz Nokia Siemens Networks April 23rd / 2010

Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN Workshop 2010.04.23


Trends & Challenges

Cloud RAN & Benefit


Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN Workshop 2010.04.23

Traffic Trends & Challenges Traffic explodes and is non-homogeneous

Mobile Internet Traffic is exploding Traffic distribution depends heavily on
terminal profile: Laptop => residential areas Smartphones => urban areas total traffic Voice
Mobile Internet Traffic [ExaByte/year]
25 20 15 10 5
Mobile Handheld Mobile Laptop

15~20% of the sites carry ~50% of the Data traffic is more Flat over 24h than
Traffic Share (%)







Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) for the Distribution of Traffic over ~10k NB
100 90 80

capacity driven

coverage driven

Operators need to further denisfy the

70 60 50 40 30 20
Approximation: Measurement Exponential Distribution Tc = (1 ln (Nc)) Nc

macro layer but face the challenge of getting new sites and/or upgarding existing sites mobile broadband in dense areas

In most networks ~15-20% of cells carry 50% of traffic

Small(er) cells needed to cope with

10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50
Percentile of NB
Note: Based on measured operator network traffic






Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN /2010.04.23

Technology Trends & Challenges BS moves up and backhaul is decisive

Distributed BTS Active Antenna (AA)

Base Station moves up the mast:

Small cell solutions like Micro/Pico 6 sector solutions, Remote Radio
Heads, Active Antenna Systems, smart antennas (e.g. TD-SCDMA)
Conventional Conventional Modular Modular
Antenna Antenna
Fiber Fiber

Antenna integrated Antenna integrated

Fiber Fiber RF RF

Antenna Antenna

Antenna Antenna
Fiber Fiber


Tower/ Tower/ mast mast System module System module BB BB

RF RF Rooftop Rooftop

Tower/ Tower/ mast mast System module System module BB BB


Base Station sites:

Multi-technology (e.g. GSM+TD-SCDMA
soon TD-LTE ) Multi-operator (e.g. site sharing) Legacy interfaces (CPRI, OBSAI, Ir)

Antenna Antenna
Feeder Feeder


System module System module Tower/ Tower/ mast mast



RF moving towards antenna

Backhaul becomes mission critical

Availability (e.g. fiber) Migration/unification to IP/Ethernet

RAN TCO is dominated mainly by

OPEX and less by BS CAPEX

Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN /2010.04.23

Site Trends & Challenges Site is a lot more boxes than just the BTS
Legacy site
GSM900 site grid opt. for voice opt. Reusing site, outlook unchanged Trend Multi-Standard upgrades => Single
RAN Refarming SON-features
Wide area sites Majority of sites today Medium area sites
> 300 m > 5 W output power

Share of sites growing

100-300 m 1-5 W output power

Local area

Special cases
10-100 m < 500 mW

Site cost
BS minor part of a typical new macro
site! Construction works, Power
Antenna system
incl. feeders + MHAs

wireline, fiber, mwr

Breakdown of BTS site OPEX vary a

lot depending on the market type: In mature markets: rental and backhaul In developing/emerging markets (e.g.
India): Power consumption
Cabinet or shelter


Power system
w/ batteries

Antenna/BTS supporting stucture


Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN /2010.04.23


Trends & Challenges

Cloud RAN & Benefit


Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN Workshop 2010.04.23

Cloud-RAN Legacy Systems needs to be taken into account

How to support legacy systems?
2G(GSM), 3G(TDSCDMA) Variety of site internal interfaces
e.g. Ir
Dedicated dark fiber or evolved FTTx bundled solution. Ring topology or point to point BTS Cloud, single- or multi-RAN. Multi-cell resource optimization

Backhaul vs. Fronthaul?

How to take advantage of dark fiber IQ vs. IP requirements e.g. Latency,
Throughput, Synchronization, Smart antenna requirements


SITE/RRH 1 SITE/RRH 3 SITE/RRH 2 Single- or multi-RAN/RRH.

Whats right scenario?

Outdoor or Indoor Site sharing Power consumption PA: 60%~70%

Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN /2010.04.23

Cloud-RAN CAPEX/OPEX Savings "TCO saving potential but many screws to tune"
CAPEX (40% of TCO)
Assume 25% cost reduction via C-RAN since battery backup and RRU is needed at each macro site Assume 25% cost reduction via C-RAN due to load sharing also considering processing needs for radio-over-fiber. Assume that cost of fiber front-haul is the same as fiber backhaul cost and copper is not used. For some operators/markets this provides negative C-RAN business case.

C-RAN offers 2-5% CAPEX saving

OPEX (60% of TCO)

Assume negligible saving over integrated multi-radio BTS solution requiring power backup. Increased fiber capacity need (and potentially cost) for C-RAN is not considered which may be essential in some markets. Assume 25% reduction of electricity cost (60% of power comes from PA, battery cooling also remains at site). Assume 50% reduction of O&M costs assuming RRU is robust and upgrades to RF parts (multi-band, multi-radio) are very small compared to BBU.

Calculations depend very much on assumptions and legacy installations. Additional C-RAN savings via multi-operator site sharing not considered.
8 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Cloud-RAN /2010.04.23

C-RAN offer an OPEX saving up to 10-20%.

Cloud-RAN Capacity Improvements "Approaching Shannon limit, major breakthroughs unlikely"

C-RAN offers opportunity to reduce X2 delay to allow real-time ICIC and CoMP
Real-time ICIC (centralized processing) Multi-cell RRM gain: ~10-30%

Realtime CoMP (centralized processing) Joint processing gain: ~10-15% Possible in LTE 3GPP Release 11/12

Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN /2010.04.23


Trends & Challenges

Cloud RAN & Benefit



Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN Workshop 2010.04.23

Working together for a net positive impact to the industry and environment
Reducing power consumption by up to 70%



Lifecycle Own Recycling operations

Over 90% of Flexi BTS recyclable

Use of renewable energy sources

ICT can help to save nearly 600 billion in 2020, i.e. 7.8 billion tons CO2
Source: GeSI

and more


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Cloud-RAN /2010.04.23

There are plenty of challenges and opportunities which need to be assessed taking specific operator and deployment constraints into account. Cloud-RAN is a good new fresh idea which needs further study!
Compact FlexiBTS already enables plenty of deployment options
Stacked on floor or shelf Separated radio units On wall or pole Hidden sites BTS or 19 cabinets At base of mast or tower On top of mast or tower


Nokia Siemens Networks

Cloud-RAN /2010.04.23

Thank you GuoHua Plaza, 3 DongZhimen South Street Dong Cheng District, 100007 Beijing, China

Radio Systems Mobile +86 13801299832 Phone +86 10 84359270 Fax +86 10 84798772
13 Nokia Siemens Networks Cloud-RAN /2010.04.23