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Companding Technique for PAPR Reduction in
OFDM Systems Based on An Exponential Function
Tao Jiang, Yang Yang, and YongHua Song
Abstract—In this paper, a new nonlinear companding tech
nique, called “exponential companding”, is proposed to reduce
the high PeaktoAverage Power Ratio (PAPR) of Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Unlike the µ
law companding scheme, which enlarges only small signals so that
increases the average power, the schemes based on exponential
companding technique adjust both large and small signals and
can keep the average power at the same level. By transforming
the original OFDM signals into uniformly distributed signals
(with a speciﬁc degree), the exponential companding schemes
can effectively reduce PAPR for different modulation formats
and subcarrier sizes. Moreover, many PAPR reduction schemes,
such as µlaw companding scheme, cause spectrum sidelobes
generation, but the exponential companding schemes cause less
spectrum sidelobes. Computer simulations, which consider a
baseband OFDM system with Additive White Gaussian Noise
(AWGN) channels and a Solid State Power Ampliﬁer (SSPA),
show that the proposed exponential companding schemes can
offer better PAPR reduction, Bit Error Rate (BER), and phase
error performance than the µlaw companding scheme.
Index Terms — Nonlinear Companding Transform, Orthogo
nal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), PeaktoAverage
Power Ratio (PAPR), Solid State Power Ampliﬁer (SSPA).
I. INTRODUCTION
As a multicarrier modulation technique, Orthogonal Fre
quency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has remarkable advan
tages [1], [2] and has been widely applied in many wireless
communication systems, such as Digital Audio Broadcast
ing (DAB), the ETSI HIPERLAN/2 standard and the IEEE
802.11a standard for Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN).
Original OFDM signals have a very high PeaktoAverage
Power Ratio (PAPR), which requires the use of sophisticated
and expensive radio transmitters having High Power Ampli
ﬁers (HPA) operating over a very large linear range. Otherwise,
nonlinear signal distortion occurs, which leads to high adja
cent channel interference and poor system performance [2].
Many PAPR reduction schemes based on different techniques,
such as clipping and ﬁltering [3], window shaping [4], block
coding [5], [6], partial transmit sequence (PTS) technique [7],
[8], and selective mapping (SLM) technique [9], [10], phase
optimization [11], tone reservation and injection [12], [13],
and nonlinear companding transform schemes [14], [15], have
been proposed in literature. Speciﬁcally, it is shown in [14]
that the µlaw companding scheme can reduce PAPR more
effectively than the clipping approach. However, comparing
Dr. T. Jiang and Prof. Y. H. Song are with School of Engineer
ing and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, U.K. (emails:
unique
−
jt@yahoo.co.uk, y.h.song@brunel.ac.uk). Dr. Y. Yang is with the
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College
London, London WC1E 7JE, U.K. (email: y.yang@ee.ucl.ac.uk).
to the original signals, the compressed signals have a larger
average power level and still exhibit nonuniform distributions
[15].
In this paper, we propose and analyse a new nonlinear
companding technique to reduce the PAPR of OFDM signals.
It can effectively transform the original Gaussiandistributed
OFDM signals into uniformdistributed (companded) signals
without changing the average power level. Unlike the µ
law companding scheme, which mainly focuses on enlarging
small signals, the new companding schemes adjust both small
and large signals without bias so that it is able to offer
better performance in terms of PAPR reduction, BitErrorRate
(BER) for OFDM systems.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II,
a typical OFDM system is given and the high PAPR problem
is formulated. Then, the new nonlinear companding technique
is proposed in Section III to reduce PAPR. In Section IV, the
performance of the proposed companding schemes are studied
and compared with the µlaw companding scheme through
computer simulations, followed by conclusions in Section V.
II. PROBLEM FORMULATION
QAM/PSK
Mapping
S/P IFFT
D/A and
HPA
Input Bit
Stream
P/S and
Companding
S/P and
Decompanding
P/S FFT
QAM/PSK
Demapping
.
.
.
.
.
.
k
S n
s
Output Bit
Stream
.
.
.
.
.
.
'
k
S
'
n
s
n
t
n
r
n
w
A/D
Fig. 1. OFDM system using nonlinear companding technique.
Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of a typical OFDM sys
tem using the nonlinear companding technique for PAPR
reduction. Let N denote the number of subcarriers used for
parallel information transmission and let S
k
(0 ≤ k ≤ N −1)
denote the k
th
complex modulated symbol in a block of N
information symbols. The outputs s
n
of the Npoint Inverse
Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) of S
k
are the OFDM signal
samples over one symbol interval, or mathematically
s
n
=
1
√
N
N−1
k=0
S
k
exp
_
j · 2πkn
N
_
. (1)
The input information symbols are assumed to be statisti
cally independent and identically distributed (i.i.d). So when
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N is large (e.g. N ≥ 64), the real and imaginary parts of
s
n
, denoted by Re{s
n
} and Im{s
n
}, are independent and
identically distributed Gaussian random variables with zero
mean and a common variance σ
2
= E
_
S
k

2
¸
/2, according
to the central limit theorem. The amplitude, or modulus, of
OFDM signal s
n
is given by
s
n
 =
_
Re
2
{s
n
} + Im
2
{s
n
} . (2)
The amplitude s
n
 has a Rayleigh distribution with the
Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) as follows.
F
sn
(x) = Prob{s
n
 ≤ x}
=
_
x
0
2y
σ
2
exp
_
−
y
2
σ
2
_
dy
= 1 − exp
_
−
x
2
σ
2
_
, x ≥ 0 .
(3)
The power of OFDM signal s
n
can be calculated as
s
n

2
=
1
N
N−1
m=0
N−1
k=0
S
m
S
k
exp
_
j · 2π(m−k)n
N
_
. (4)
The PAPR of OFDM signals in one symbol period is then
deﬁned as
PAPR = 10 log
10
Max{s
n

2
}
E [s
n

2
]
dB . (5)
The peak power occurs when N modulated symbols are
added with the same phase.
By using the nonlinear companding technique, the OFDM
signals s
n
are companded before they are converted into
analog waveforms and ampliﬁed by the HPAs. The companded
signal t
n
(0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1) is given by
t
n
= h(s
n
) . (6)
where h(·) is the companding function that changes only
the amplitudes of input signals. Then OFDM signals are
transmitted into the radio channel. Consider an Additive White
Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, the received signals r
n
after
the analogtodigital (A/D) conversion can be expressed as
r
n
= t
n
+w
n
= h(s
n
) +w
n
.
(7)
where w
n
are the samples of AWGN signal n(t). After the
decompanding operation, we obtain
s
n
= h
−1
(r
n
)
= s
n
+h
−1
(w
n
) .
(8)
where h
−1
(x) is the decompanding function, or the inverse
function of h(x).
III. EXPONENTIAL COMPANDING TECHNIQUE
We propose in this section a new nonlinear companding
technique, namely “exponential companding”, that can effec
tively reduce the PAPR of transmitted (companded) OFDM
signals by transforming the statistics of the amplitudes of these
signals into uniform distribution. The new scheme also has
the advantage of maintaining a constant average power level
in the nonlinear companding operation. The strict linearity
requirements on HPA can then be partially relieved.
Let t
n

d
, the d
th
power of the amplitude of companded
signal t
n
, have a uniform distribution in the interval [0, α].
The exponent d is called the degree of a speciﬁc exponential
companding scheme. The CDF of t
n

d
is simply
F
tn
d(x) =
x
α
, 0 ≤ x ≤ α . (9)
The amplitude t
n
 of companded signal has the following
CDF
F
tn
(x) = Prob{t
n
 ≤ x}
= Prob{t
n

d
≤ x
d
}
=
x
d
α
, 0 ≤ x ≤
d
√
α .
(10)
The inverse function of F
tn
(x) is therefore
F
−1
tn
(x) =
d
√
αx, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 . (11)
On the other hand, given that h(x) is a strictly monotonic
increasing function, we have
F
sn
(x) = Prob{s
n
 ≤ x}
= Prob{h(s
n
) ≤ h(x)}
= F
tn
(h(x)) , 0 ≤ x ≤ h
−1
_
d
√
α
_
.
(12)
Considering the phase of input signals, the companding
function h(x) is given by
h(x) = sgn(x) F
−1
tn
_
F
sn
(x)
_
= sgn(x)
d
_
α[1 − exp(−
x
2
σ
2
)] .
(13)
where sgn(x) is the sign function. The positive constant α
determines the average power of output signals. In order to
keep the input and output signals at the same average power
level, we let
α =
_
_
_
_
E
_
s
n

2
¸
E
_
d
_
[1 − exp(−
sn
2
σ
2
)]
2
_
_
_
_
_
d
2
. (14)
At the receiver side, the inverse function of h(x) is used in
the decompanding operation, i.e.
h
−1
(x) = sgn(x)
¸
−σ
2
log
e
_
1 −
x
d
α
_
. (15)
Fig. 2 shows the exponential companding function h(x)
with degree d as a parameter. Referring to (9), the companded
signals have uniformly distributed amplitudes and powers,
respectively, for the cases d = 1 and d = 2. When d ≥ 2, the
proposed function h(x) can compress large input signals and
expand small signals simultaneously. While the µlaw com
panding scheme can only enlarge small signals and does not
change the signal peaks, which leads to a higher average power
level of output signals [14], [15]. As seen, the differences
between exponential companding functions are ignorable when
d ≥ 8.
matter experts for publication in the IEEE GLOBECOM 2005 proceedings. This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject
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−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−2
−1.5
−1
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
x
h
(
x
)
µ−law companding
Exponential companding
(d=1)
Exponential companding
(d=8)
Exponential companding
(d=2)
Fig. 2. The exponential companding function h(x).
IV. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
In order to verify the performance of the exponential
companding scheme in the reduction of PAPR and the system
such as BER, we consider a baseband OFDM system as in
Fig. 1 with the number of subcarriers N = 64 throughout
the computer simulations. The oversampling factor is set to
be 4 so that 256point IFFT and FFT are used respectively at
the transmitter and the receiver in this section. The randomly
generated input data are modulated by Quadrature Phase Shift
Keying (QPSK).
0 100 200
−4
−2
0
2
4
(a) Original OFDM signals.
0 100 200
−4
−2
0
2
4
(b) µ−law companded signals.
0 100 200
−4
−2
0
2
4
(c) Exponential companded signals (d=1).
0 100 200
−4
−2
0
2
4
(d) Exponential companded signals (d=2).
Fig. 3. Waveforms of original OFDM signals and companded signals.
Fig. 3 compares the temporal waveforms of original OFDM
signals, µlaw companded signals, and exponential companded
signals with degrees d = 1 and d = 2. The results for the
cases d > 2 are found similar to that of d = 2 and therefore
not shown in the ﬁgure. As seen, the µlaw companding
scheme only expands the amplitudes of small signals. While
the exponential companding scheme with degree d = 2
expands the small signals and compresses the large signals
simultaneously. These waveforms match the results observed
in Fig. 2.
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
x (dB)
C
o
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
r
y
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
D
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
P
r
o
b
P
A
P
R
>
x
µ−law companded
signals
Exponential companded signals
(d=8)
Exponential companded signals
(d=2)
Exponential companded signals
(d=1)
Original signals
Fig. 4. The complementary cumulative distribution functions of
original OFDM signals and companded signals.
Fig. 4 shows respectively the Complementary Cumulative
Distribution Functions (CCDF) of PAPR for original OFDM
signals, µlaw companded signals, and exponential companded
signals with degrees d = 1, d = 2 and d = 8. The CCDF
curves for degrees larger than eight are almost the same as
that for d = 8. As seen, the original OFDM signals have
a Gaussian distribution. The µlaw companded signals still
exhibit some quasiGaussian nature. While the exponential
companded signals have more uniformalike distributions, and
therefore can offer much smaller PAPR.
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
Normalized Frequency (π rad/sample)
P
o
w
e
r
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
d
B
/
r
a
d
/
s
a
m
p
l
e
)
Exponential companded
signals (d=2)
µ−law companded
signals
Original signals
Fig. 5. The spectrums of original OFDM signals and companded
signals.
Due to the high PAPR, original OFDM signals have a
very sharp, rectangularlike power spectrum (see Fig. 5).
This good property will be affected by the PAPR reduction
schemes, e.g. slower spectrum rolloff, more spectrum side
lobes, and higher adjacent channel interference. Many PAPR
reduction schemes cause spectrum sidelobes generation, but
the exponential companding schemes cause less spectrum
sidelobes. As seen in Fig. 5, our exponential companding
matter experts for publication in the IEEE GLOBECOM 2005 proceedings. This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject
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scheme (with degree d = 2) has much less impact on the
original power spectrum comparing to the µlaw companding
scheme. It is the major reason that the exponential companding
scheme not only enlarges the small amplitude signals but also
compresses the large amplitude signals, while maintains the
average power unchanged by properly choosing α parameters,
which can increase the immunity of small amplitude signals
from noise. The proposed scheme maintains the same average
power level as that of original OFDM signals, but the µlaw
companding scheme increases the average power level and
therefore requires a larger linear operation region in HPA. The
power spectrums for other degree values (not shown) are found
similar to that of d = 2.
To evaluate the Bit Error Rate (BER) and phase error
performance of exponential companding schemes, we consider
to use AWGN channel with a Solid State Power Ampliﬁer
(SSPA). According to the model proposed in [16], [17], SSPA
produces no phase distortion and only the AM/AM conversion
can be expressed as following
y(t) =
x(t)
[1 +x
2p
(t)]
1/(2p)
. (16)
where x(t) and y(t) are input and output signals respectively.
The parameter p is a random positive integer and it has been
set to be the typical value 2 in this paper.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
Signal−to−Noise Ratio (dB)
B
i
t
E
r
r
o
r
R
a
t
e
µ−law companding
Performance bound
Exponential companding
(d=2)
Fig. 6. Bit error rate under different companding schemes.
Figs. 6 shows the performance of BER and phase error
versus SignaltoNoise Ratio (SNR) under different com
panding schemes. The performance bounds are obtained by
ignoring the effect of SSPA and directly transmitting the
original OFDM signals directly through the AWGN channels.
Comparing to the µlaw companding scheme, the exponential
companding scheme (with degree d = 2) can offer much
smaller BER and phase error, which are very close to the
performance bounds. Speciﬁcally, to achieve a BER of 10
−4
,
the minimum required SNR is 11.06 dB (performance bound).
The required SNRs under the exponential companding and
the µlaw companding schemes are 12.03 dB and 16.00 dB,
respectively. The performance curves for other degree values
are found similar to that of d = 2 and therefore omitted.
V. CONCLUSIONS
Nonlinear companding transform is an effective technique
in reducing the PAPR of OFDM signals. In addition, the
schemes based on companding technique have low imple
mentation complexity and no constraint on modulation format
and subcarrier size. In this paper, we have proposed and
evaluated a new nonlinear companding technique based on
an exponential function. It can adjust the amplitudes of both
large and small input signals, while maintain the average
power unchanged by properly choosing transform parameters,
so as to make the output signals have a uniform distribution
(with a speciﬁc degree). Simulation results have shown that
the proposed companding schemes could offer better system
performance in terms of PAPR reduction, power spectrum,
BER than the µlaw companding scheme.
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α]. α The amplitude tn  of companded signal has the following CDF Ftn  (x) = P rob{tn  ≤ x} dy x≥0 . according to the central limit theorem. denoted by Re{sn } and Im{sn }. The peak power occurs when N modulated symbols are added with the same phase. σ N −1 N −1 in the nonlinear companding operation. Referring to (9). The CDF of tn d is simply x 0≤x≤α . which leads to a higher average power level of output signals [14]. the inverse function of h(x) is used in the decompanding operation. the received signals rn after the analogtodigital (A/D) conversion can be expressed as rn = tn + wn = h(sn ) + wn . N ≥ 64). By using the nonlinear companding technique. Consider an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. (10) (11) . (14) where wn are the samples of AWGN signal n(t).00 © 2005 IEEE . The new scheme also has the advantage of maintaining a constant average power level Fig. While the µlaw companding scheme can only enlarge small signals and does not change the signal peaks.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE GLOBECOM 2005 proceedings. the proposed function h(x) can compress large input signals and expand small signals simultaneously. The positive constant α determines the average power of output signals. we let d 2 α= E sn 2 E d [1 − 2 n exp(− sσ2 )]2 . The exponent d is called the degree of a speciﬁc exponential companding scheme. The amplitude. (3) The power of OFDM signal sn can be calculated as 1 sn  = N 2 Sm Sk exp m=0 k=0 j · 2π(m − k)n N = P rob{tn d ≤ xd } √ xd = . i. σ2 (13) where h(·) is the companding function that changes only the amplitudes of input signals. III. (9) Ftn d (x) = .g. As seen. [15]. The strict linearity requirements on HPA can then be partially relieved. the companded signals have uniformly distributed amplitudes and powers. the OFDM signals sn are companded before they are converted into analog waveforms and ampliﬁed by the HPAs. After the decompanding operation. Fsn  (x) = P rob{sn  ≤ x} x 2y y2 = exp − 2 2 σ 0 σ x2 = 1 − exp − 2 . N is large (e. (4) On the other hand. α The inverse function of Ftn  (x) is therefore √ −1 Ftn  (x) = d α x . the real and imaginary parts of sn . are independent and identically distributed Gaussian random variables with zero mean and a common variance σ 2 = E Sk 2 /2. have a uniform distribution in the interval [0. The companded signal tn (0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1) is given by tn = h(sn ) . 0≤x≤ dα . the differences between exponential companding functions are ignorable when d ≥ 8. respectively. (2) The amplitude sn  has a Rayleigh distribution with the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) as follows. In order to keep the input and output signals at the same average power level. (7) where sgn(x) is the sign function. (15) (wn ) . Then OFDM signals are transmitted into the radio channel. for the cases d = 1 and d = 2. (6) Considering the phase of input signals. the companding function h(x) is given by −1 h(x) = sgn(x) Ftn  Fsn  (x) = sgn(x) d α [1 − exp(− x2 )] . 2 shows the exponential companding function h(x) with degree d as a parameter. 0≤x≤1 . 0 ≤ x ≤ h−1 √ d α The PAPR of OFDM signals in one symbol period is then deﬁned as P AP R = 10 log10 M ax{sn 2 } dB . the dth power of the amplitude of companded signal tn . namely “exponential companding”. we have Fsn  (x) = P rob{sn  ≤ x} = P rob{h(sn ) ≤ h(x)} = Ftn  (h(x)) . we obtain sn = h−1 (rn ) = sn + h −1 −1 At the receiver side. E XPONENTIAL C OMPANDING T ECHNIQUE We propose in this section a new nonlinear companding technique. Let tn d . that can effectively reduce the PAPR of transmitted (companded) OFDM signals by transforming the statistics of the amplitudes of these signals into uniform distribution. (8) where h (x) is the decompanding function. h−1 (x) = sgn(x) −σ 2 loge 1 − xd α . or modulus. E [sn 2 ] (5) (12) . IEEE Globecom 2005 2799 0780394151/05/$20.e. of OFDM signal sn is given by sn  = Re2 {sn } + Im2 {sn } . When d ≥ 2. given that h(x) is a strictly monotonic increasing function. or the inverse function of h(x).
1 0. original OFDM signals have a very sharp. The results for the cases d > 2 are found similar to that of d = 2 and therefore not shown in the ﬁgure. These waveforms match the results observed in Fig. 4 2 4 Fig. 1 with the number of subcarriers N = 64 throughout the computer simulations. µlaw companded signals. While the exponential companding scheme with degree d = 2 expands the small signals and compresses the large signals Due to the high PAPR.5 0 0. 3. our exponential companding IEEE Globecom 2005 2800 0780394151/05/$20.g. The oversampling factor is set to be 4 so that 256point IFFT and FFT are used respectively at the transmitter and the receiver in this section. 5). more spectrum sidelobes. −70 −80 0 0.2 0. the original OFDM signals have a Gaussian distribution. As seen.4 0. and therefore can offer much smaller PAPR. The exponential companding function h(x). Waveforms of original OFDM signals and companded signals. d = 2 and d = 8.7 Normalized Frequency (π rad/sample) 0. µlaw companded signals. 2 1.5 h(x) 0 −0. 5. 4.3 0.5 −1 −0. and higher adjacent channel interference. Fig.6 0. Fig.00 © 2005 IEEE . P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION In order to verify the performance of the exponential companding scheme in the reduction of PAPR and the system such as BER. rectangularlike power spectrum (see Fig. 2. The µlaw companded signals still exhibit some quasiGaussian nature. The randomly generated input data are modulated by Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). 5.5 −2 −2 simultaneously. The complementary cumulative distribution functions of original OFDM signals and companded signals. Many PAPR reduction schemes cause spectrum sidelobes generation. e.8 0. This good property will be affected by the PAPR reduction schemes.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE GLOBECOM 2005 proceedings. slower spectrum rolloff. −10 µ−law companded signals 2 0 Power Spectral Density (dB/ rad/sample) 0 −2 −4 0 4 2 −2 −20 100 200 (a) Original OFDM signals. As seen in Fig. −30 −40 2 −50 Exponential companded signals (d=2) Original signals 0 −2 −4 0 100 200 (c) Exponential companded signals (d=1). Exponential companding (d=8) 10 Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function Prob PAPR>x 0 µ−law companded signals Exponential companding (d=2) Exponential companding (d=1) 10 −1 Exponential companded signals (d=8) Exponential companded signals (d=2) Exponential companded signals (d=1) µ−law companding 10 −2 −1. −4 0 4 100 200 (b) µ−law companded signals.5 1 0. we consider a baseband OFDM system as in Fig. but the exponential companding schemes cause less spectrum sidelobes.9 1 Fig.5 −1 −1. the µlaw companding scheme only expands the amplitudes of small signals. As seen.5 2 x Original signals Fig. 3 compares the temporal waveforms of original OFDM signals. 2. and exponential companded signals with degrees d = 1 and d = 2.5 0. The CCDF curves for degrees larger than eight are almost the same as that for d = 8. The spectrums of original OFDM signals and companded signals. While the exponential companded signals have more uniformalike distributions. 10 −3 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 x (dB) 1 2 3 4 IV. and exponential companded signals with degrees d = 1. 0 −60 −2 −4 200 100 0 (d) Exponential companded signals (d=2). 4 shows respectively the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Functions (CCDF) of PAPR for original OFDM signals.5 1 1. Fig.
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Sept. 1996. 2001. we consider to use AWGN channel with a Solid State Power Ampliﬁer (SSPA). which can increase the immunity of small amplitude signals from noise. 335–341. pp. The performance bounds are obtained by ignoring the effect of SSPA and directly transmitting the original OFDM signals directly through the AWGN channels. H. R. Kim. IEEE Globecom 2005 2801 0780394151/05/$20. BER than the µlaw companding scheme. Wu and W. 45. 6 shows the performance of BER and phase error versus SignaltoNoise Ratio (SNR) under different companding schemes. while maintains the average power unchanged by properly choosing α parameters. [9] R. vol. [5] T. Figs. [1 + 1/(2p) x2p (t)] . pp. [10] S. 1. 49. Muller and J. G. Sept. C ONCLUSIONS Nonlinear companding transform is an effective technique in reducing the PAPR of OFDM signals. pp.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE GLOBECOM 2005 proceedings. 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SSPA produces no phase distortion and only the AM/AM conversion can be expressed as following y(t) = x(t) V.03 dB and 16. 10 0 10 −1 µ−law companding Bit Error Rate 10 −2 Performance bound 10 −3 Exponential companding (d=2) −4 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Signal−to−Noise Ratio (dB) Fig. B. H.” IEEE Transactions on Communications. [17] A. F. Sept. 6. 49. Speciﬁcally. “Peaktoaverage power ratio reduction for ofdm modems. we have proposed and evaluated a new nonlinear companding technique based on an exponential function. 2005. [4] S. pp. 33. K. vol. Peak to average ratio reduction for multicarrier modulation. power spectrum. 417–420. [8] S. 2004. which are very close to the performance bounds. pp. S.” IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting. B. “Optimum nyquist windowing in ofdm receivers. Akhtman. to achieve a BER of 10−4 . It can adjust the amplitudes of both large and small input signals. vol. 50.” IEE Electronics Letters. and S. W. H. scheme (with degree d = 2) has much less impact on the original power spectrum comparing to the µlaw companding scheme. Apr. S. 197–202. Weinfurtner. 37–39. The parameter p is a random positive integer and it has been set to be the typical value 2 in this paper. 2003. PhD thesis. Mar. Han and J. pp. University of Stanford. [13] B. [3] J. 1999.” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electron. J. The proposed scheme maintains the same average power level as that of original OFDM signals. “On the performance of cdma systems with nonlinear ampliﬁer and awgn. 2. pp. pp. Ng. Zou. 258–268. Lidsheim. Zhu. The power spectrums for other degree values (not shown) are found similar to that of d = 2. “Par reduction in ofdm via active constellation extension. 2–7. [16] E.