D e p a r t m e n t o f Electrical E n g i n e e r i n
Faculty o f Engineering
O S A K A City U n i v e r s i t y *
A1 1= -{RsLr /A + RrM'/LrA}* I
KEY WORDS: AC motor control: state observer; current A12=M/fl{Rr/Lr* I -w r-JI
source inverter; induction motor, A21=MRr/Lr+ I
A22=-Rr/Lr. I +or.J
Bi=Lr/A- I
*Address f o r correspondence:
3-138 SUGIMOTO 3 , SUMIYOSHI-KU
OSAKA 558 JAPAN
Phone 06-605-2586
IECON '88 I 4 7 2
The state equation ( 4 ) can be rewrite as follows. Te=(3/2)*(P/Z>*(Lr/M)
X(A areibs- A br*ias) (11)
hr=A22*hr+A21* i s (6) In the case of using the vector control in the
ir-All. is-Bl-Vs=A12*Ar (7) induction motor, the orthogonal currents i ds and
From eq.(6) of the state equation we can understand i qs are controlled independently. In this case,
that h r is the state vector, and that is i s the these currents should be converted to the primary
vector of the input signal and eq.(7) is the output current vector of i as and i bs.
equation in which (p. i s-All. i s-Bl.Vs) is the vector In this conversion, we should have the angle L h r
of the output signal. between an axis of the static coordinate and the rotor
Then, we can show the minimum order observer as the flux vector A r axis. In the vector control system,
equations (6) and ( 7 ) . the angle L A r is obtained by expecting the values
in this observer, the expected value.of the rotor of the rotor flux observer.
flux A r is obtained from eq.(6). and the error in
the flux between the command value and the estimated 3 . Design of the rotor flux observer.
one of eq.(7) is feedbacked to the system by the gain
G shown in the following equation. 3-1. Observer equation using the first-order hold.
h
When we calculate the equation of the rotor flux
h r=A22*x,r+A21* i s
+
G { i s-AllLi s-Bl-Vs-A12*T r > observer by using the micro-computer, the detected in-
=(A22-G.A12)Ar put signals i s(t) and Vs(t) should be converted to
+(A21-G*All) i s - G * B l * V s + G * i s (8) the discrete-time input signals of i s(k) and Vsfk).
In the eq.(8), we must detect the value of the And the observer equation has to be converted from
time-derivative of the primary current. Where, the differential equation of the continuous-time
introduce a new variable F and express the equation system to the difference equation of the discrete-time
of the A r as follows. system.
A As the poles of the observer equation can be
Ar=E+G.is (9)
determined arbitrarily by a designer, eigenvalues of
* =
E=fir-G*is the observer equation can be given in advance. The
=(A22- G eA12)Tr general solution of the observer equation can be ob-
+(A21-A11*G) i s - G*Bl*Vs
tained and the differential equation of the observer
In this manner, the lime derivative of i s can be converted easily to the difference equation.
ignored. The eq.(9) is the minimum order state equa- However, as for the input signals, they have
tion of the rotor flux observer. delay-time between continuous-time values and the dis-
The gain matrix G can be calculated as in the crete-time ones. We discussed the eliminating method
following eq.(lO) in order to make the pole of the of the delay-time of the observer signals, and we
*
flux observer - d j p . adopted the first-order hold instead of the ordinary
zero-order hold.
G=gl* I + g2.J (10) By adopting the first-order hold, the delay-time be-
tween the input signal of the motor f (t) and the
input signal of the observer g (t) can be eliminated.
At the sampling time KTs , the expected rotor flux
A w r *a -(Rr/Lr) p
g2=-
M (Rr/LrI2 + wr2 by using the first-order hold is shown as follows.
(12)
In the induction motor, the current component of
the torque o r the rotor flux is shown in the primary
current. And the torque equation can be shown in the
same way as in the direct current motor.
There, the reference flame is set on the rotor flux
A r axis, and the primary current is divided into two
components. One is the exciting current i ds, and the
other is the current o f the torque component i qs.
As well known, the generate torque of the induction
motor can be calculated by eq.(ll). In the above equations, conversion matrixes @ (Ts).
IECON '88 I 4 7 3
t7 (Ts) and U ( T s ) are not affected by the rotating real-axis. When the poles of the system are set
speed of the motor, and they are constant values. on these straight line, the flux observer is set
When the input signal in the observer is hold by in the critical damping condition. And the maximum
the first-order hold, the delay-time o f the expected driving frequency less than 1/2 of the
output slgnal can be cancelled. However, the sampling sampling frequency.
time Ts of the observer increases because of the When we adopt th
calculating time of the first-order hold in the ob- ment, i t Is desira t the poles of the rotor
server. In practice, the percentage of the cal- flux observer should be placed on the
culating time in the first-order hold is small In in the complex-plane.
comparison with the sampling time of the observer.
The construction of the above the observer system
pT
is shown in Fig.1.
Y dt) 1 t( t)
1s \ S t a t e Observer 1% \
..._.... ...~..~.[ .k .- -.
l l
... ........................................... ___..
Bd=-C.Bl
Cd=AZI-AII- G -A22.C + G * A OG larger according to the di n the pole po-
Fig.1. Farst-Oder Hold Flux Observer. sition - R r / L r 2 j o
the f l u x observer
3-2, Stabilization and pole-position o f the observer. rotor flux observ
In the equation o f an observer, the real-part o f
the pole -
a is related to the settling time of the damping conditi
observer output signals. When we make - a smaller, In that situation,
that is, the poles of the observer are placed on the
far left side on the complex-plane, the output signal
of the observer is settled i n the more short time.
On the other hand, the imaginary part P o f the the observer s y
pole affects the angular ncy of the pulsation of disturbances.
the output signal. I f the of P is made a larger To keep the ga nstant independent of the
one, the observer is put in an unstable condition. rotating speed, bserver must
However, the value of 0 is made too small, the step
-response of the observer becomes vague.
T o obtain the excellent output signals from t h e ob- should be placed i
server, i t is not perfect that the pole should be set tlon of the open-1
in the left side on the complex-plane. In the
closed loop system, the stable boundary of the pole
position i s limited the slant line shown in Fig.2. the observer mu
In our observer system, the pole position in the real axis
open-loop i s the point of -Rr / L r + j o r , then, the
real-part - a must be set smaller than -Rr / L r .
And the pole position of the stable system must be
the area In the inner one between 2 4 5 ' line to the rotor flux correspond to the fundamental component.
3-3. Error of the estimated flux. A 100 V. 4 poles, 0.4 KW three-phase induction
An induction motor is supplied by the primary motor is directly connected to the torque transducer,
current whose amplitude is Is and whose angular the loads of the eddy current brake and the Prony
frequency is o e . The voltage vector Vs of the -brake. A rotary-encoder, whose output signal is 1024
primary voltage vs and the flux vector A r of the PPR, was connected to the other end of the tested
secondary flux h r can be calculated as follows. motor shaft. And these output signals are converted
A r =(A21 ' I s)/( j we- A22') to the 4096 PPR signal by the multiplying circuit,
then we obtained 1 . 8 RPM/bit accurately.
V s = ( j o e * I s-All'* I s-A12'*Ar)/B1' (13)
(e) Zero-Order
is maintained to
I lagging in the
0 aos om 01 0 005 aro hold can improve
1 I.e( 38c) Tlr(JPI;)
0
1.0 - Rotat lng Assembly
I-..
When the command current of the torque is a posi- 8':
b.5°;
tive value, and the phase angle of the expected flux 20 30 40 50
9
is lagging from the current command, the value of the -1.0 - Time(SEC1