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G.Franceschini, A.Piazzi, C.Tassoni
Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universitii de& Studi di Panna,Italy
ABSTRQCT In this paper we present a new approach to the design of robust flux observer for induction servo motors. The novelty lies in adopting a genetic algorithms to synthesise a flux observer which I robust against very large perturbations s of machine model parameters and different operatiom1 conditions. By means of a suitable object function associated to any flux observer it is possible to compare the performances of a population of observers. The genetic algorithm, by means of the mechanism of ~ t u r a selection apd natural genetics drives l the evolution of the observer population until an optimd robust flux observer is emerged.

dependq on speed value, in such a way parameter sensitivity is minimised maintaining a good error dynamic.
1 INTRODUCTION
Field oriented control of induction motor drives is always one of ot the m s investigated subjects, with the goal of improving the control robustness. Classical control schemes involve a reference M e which is synchronouswith the rotor flux position. As a consequence,if flux sensors are not present, a rotor flux vector estimation on the basis of available measurements is needed. The more often used flux estimation schemes are simple real time simulations of the dynamic equation governing rotor flux. Owing to the induction motor equation structure, rotor flux c be m simulated using the stator or rotor equations as well. Both simulations can be interpreted as openloop observers which have the drawback of an errorrate convergence fixed respectively by the stator or rotor dynamics. Therefore, in some o p t i o n condition,the enor rate can be very poor, or even it can become unstable because of incorrect model parameters and " e n t errors. Specifically the openloop stator observer alone is not suitable for low speed operation, when t e back e.mX is negligible. On the other hand, the open loop h rotor observer (usually employed in the feedforward field oriented control scheme) is highly sensitive to the rotor resistance variation, at high torque values. A more complete approach involves the use of both stator and rotor equations. One of these equations is used to feedback the other one, in order to realise a closed loop observer structure. In other words a linear combinations of stator and rotor equations is adopted and an observer gain is introduced to achieve suitable characteristics El]. The authors dealt with this argument in [2,3]. The influence of an the observer g i on the error dynamics and on the sensitivity to parmeter variation had been outlined. A tradeoffwas found between these features and the observer gain had been designed

% defined algorithm was implemented on a DSP to control a specific drive obtairung quite good results in comparison with other control strateges, but the control robustness obtained in such a way is only guaranteed for local or small perhubation of the para". In this paper we pursue a global approach regarrlmg the observer robustness i.e. the observer has to be also robust in case of very large perhnbation of the p "and of a variety of Mesent a i operational conditions. To this am a genetic algorithm, one of the most up todate product of Artificial Intelligence techniques, is applied [4 ,SI. This algorithm is a search procedure based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics. In order to apply this design approach it is necessary to construct an objective function to evaluate the global robustness of a given flux observer. This objective function related to the actual observer gain function is built up by a suitable inkgal of the flux estimation error evaluated with simulation of the observer over different system conditions. About the dependence of the observer gain on speed, the same function of the speed value defined in [2] is still used and the genetic algorithm tunes the function coefficients which loose their cmrespn&na with the physical parameters of the machine. The genetic algorithm searches in the coefficient space by means of the classical mechanism of reprcductia crossover and mutation, in order to minimise the objective function. The drive operating conditions to which the search is applied are suitably chosen to include areas of presumable large discrepancies between nomirial machine parameters and actual ones. To simulate the physical behaviour of the motor flux saturation has been considered and different values of stator and rotor resistances have been used to put into account variable t h d conditions. The preliminary results obtained by simulation show a clear perfimnance improvement in the design of robust flux observers. The implementation of the designed observer on a Motorola 96002 DSP is in progress.
2  MACHINE MODEL
For a correct introduction of the new observer design methodology the classic induction machine model is rewritten to exhibit a well defined system orientation of a l l involved variables. The rotor flux components (ha, A are the state variables, the rotor $ , velocity (%) and stator current components (ia, io) are the system inputs and the stator voltage c m o e t (vW vB) are umsidered as opnns
0780313283/94$03.0001994 IEEE
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output variables. So the system machine model can be Written in A, d = 1 A,  ami8 + the f m : dt dm dP2 d 1 dp,
, .
dp,? +
 G,)
 ~ , ( v , 6) ,
A,
dt
=um~, 
+ x, ie + k,(v,  G)  ~,(v,  G,) ,
d2 P d2 P
i,
d + (1 dp,dp,)dfidp,%l, .
d + (1 dp3dp,)dp,dfixi,
A,
dt
d
=
U , ,
A,+
7,
1
Ie
M .
7,
Stationaq reference frsune is used and the symbol meaning is the following: are the stator and r t r resistances oo are the stator and rotor inductances is the mutual inductance ie are the stator and rotor t m constants are the stator and rotor coupling coefficients is the global leakage coefficient
where kaand kgaretheobserver gains. Their function on angular
$5
0=lk&
speed w r chosen and noted in [2,3] t g off t e parameter ee " h variation sensibility and the observer dynamic behaviour. In the previous approach [2,3] observer design parameters @I, ..5 w r chosen to be a priori f d in relation to nominal .* e e macbme parameters. Hr their are considered design parameters ee belonging to a design parameter space centred in relation to nominal machine parameters.
If the machine model is used in a control scheme, which requires simple models, the equation parameters are usually considered as umstants. But since the model equations has to be used in a new approach,which can afford high nonlinearity i the system model, n it is convenient to adopt a more realistic machine model. As phenomena which can not be neglected the main flux saturation and the resistance variations consequent to temperature variations are here considered. Therefore the complete machine model to be used in this work is a well defined uncertain non l n a model of the ier induction machine. The main flux saturation is i t o u e in the machine model nrdcd through the rotor magnetization curve, that l n sthe rotor flux in a ik synchmnous reference h e to the cOrreSpOnding current component. Therefore the intmduction of the magnetizationclwe requires the transformation of stator current h m stationary to synchronous reference M e with the a m to c0fIY)ute the actual i value of M. The leakage inductance coefficient are "idered constant. As regard temperature variation, the parameters % md R, will vary in a quite large range bounded by "cold " machine resistance values to the resistance values c " p o n w to the a l w d loe maximum t e m p e " . The variation of these t o parameters are w correlated Following the consideration reported in [2,3], it is reasonable to assume that the two resistances exhibit quite similar variation, at least in steady state conditions. "efbre a constrain will be. intmduced: the ratio between resistance values is allowed only in a little variation range. Coming back to the m a c h e umtrol, the direct field oriented control, based on estimation of rotor flux, achieves high quality only if both, stator and rotor equations, are used, " ga "closed loop" reduced order observer. The difference between stator
voltage vector
3 TEE OBSERVER DESIGN As A GIAIBAL MMJMIZATIONPROBLEM The actual chosen flux o b m e r depends on the five design p a r a m e dp1, dp2, dp3, d ~ 4 , dp5: The robust obsend s pexformance is measured by the followng index J

which is build up with m simulations of the flux observer over m different w h i n e parameter sets. Each simulation describes a suitable transient over a time interval [O,ts] of the machine fllblect to a given duty cycle. The flux mockrlus estimation error and the flux phase estimation error are given respectively by
e,,(t) := a r g ~ ( targi(t) )
The coefficient ai 4 and Ci are all non negative w t ui + pi = 2 ih for i=1,2,...m. In the definition of performance index J these coefficientscan give different weights to both machine parameter sets and the relative importauce of versus The &nxluction of the index J permits to a t h e opbmally d u s t observer design problem as a global b o u n d a " d optimization problem:
min J ~ PAP,.dp, . d h .dp, ) , subject to:
dP, s dPi 5 
,G, estimated 6am equation (2.1) and its measured
(3.2~1) (3.2b)
values v,,v, are used as prediction error so the flux observer takes the f m :
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dp,
This optimizatiOn problem is hard to be solved with traditional nonlinear p r o m since ~(dp,,dp,,dp,,dp,,dp,) not a is closed form. I s e d it has been successfully solved by the genetic algorithm nta presented in the next section.
4 THE GENETIC ALGORITHM

The evolutionist approach in solving a variety of problems in
search, optimization and machine leaming, was spurred by the fi"entaI work of H. Holland [6] whose subject was the mechanisms of adaptation. In the subsequent years, following these studies many researchers have devised genetic algorithms to
solve general function Optimisation [7,4,8,9]. The fmt step in solving optimization problem (3.2) by m a s of a en genetic algorithm lies in ob a "fitness" function F limn the "objective' function 3. This can be simply be done by defining F : = J,,
 J where Jconst is a sufficiently high constant. From an Optirmzation point of view we have transformed the
" k i t i o n problem (3.2) into an equivalent Illludmizaton problem. In t e following we succinctly describe, in our problem contest, a h simple genetic algorithm composed with the fundamental operator: Reproduction  Crossover Mutation (See,for a general deiailed description [4] and [5]). At the start the GA (Genetic Algorithm) generates randomly a population of n individuals, in our umtest the observers. Each individual is characterised by a string of zeroes and ones which describes, under a suitable discretization dependmg on the string length I, one instance o€ the five design parameters dpi i=1,..5
The next operator to be applied is the genetic crossover. First all the strings of the new population are paired randomly dekmmhg n/2 couples (n is chosen even). Then, a " to a prefixed c g probability of crossover Pc, each couple undergoes actual crossing of the String bits. It is randomly chosen with uniform probabilities an integer k between 1 and 11. Hence a new couple is wmposed by swapping all the bits of the two stnngs between position 1 and position k and leaving untouched the remaining bits between position k+l and 1. The final act is ensured by a mutation process which determines over all the bits of all the strings, with probability Pm. a possible alteration. This means that bit "one' is altered into bit "zero" and vice versa. Al the individuals of the new population ~IC then evaluated. l Now the genetic operators of reproduction, crossover and mutation can again be applied d e the iterated evolution of the GA along a sequence of population generations. As it has been shown with both theoretical investigation and computational experience (to cite only a few [6, 9 ,lo, 111) the GA permits to determme, over a SUfficientSy Illgh number of . generations, the best individual of the last population as a good solution of the underlying global optimization problem. The GA used to solve o p M o n problem (3.2) is sm"hA as follows.
I) 2)

3)
4)
belonging to intervals [dp,,dp,]. Hence, each stnng is composed
5) 6) 7)
IniziaIizethe structure po~ulation composed of n observers. Evaluate all the observers of pomlation by means of computer simulations. Ifthe average fitness is within Ct % of the best fitness then the program tenninates. The optimal robust observer is chosen to be the individual o population with best fitness. f Using a linear rescaling of the fitness value and "roulette wheel selection" determine newmulation. Operate crossover and mutation over newmpulation. Assign newwpdatian to poDdation. Goto2).
by five concatenated substnngs of length $
with a linear mapping to dpi. The subsequent step is the evaluation of all the individuals in the population by means of the fitness function F. At this stage the GA applies the reproduction process in order to construct a new population of n individuals. Individuals of the old population are selected to be put in the new one a " to a probabilistic rule c g which favours those wt higher fitness. Among many selection ih rules it has been adopted, for simplicity and efficiency, the so called "roulette wheel selection" [4] with probability Pi of an individual to be selected. This probability value is given by: P, =F;' I
(2) 1
I =I
associated
Remark. At point 3) we have denoted with Ct the convergence threshold which gives the stopping rule of the GA.
5 COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS

The praposed genetic algorithm approach for the flux observer design is applied to an induction m v ~ m o t o r with the following charactaistics: h t e d torque Rated voltage Rated current Rotor resistance Stator resistance Leakage rotor inductance Leakage stator inductance Rated * e inductance Inertia momentum 2" 2 220v 6.5A 0.80 8=90°C 0.80 fH0"C 0.01H 0.01H 0.25H 0.07Kgm2
is the scaled fitness calculated with linear interpolation such that
2
F,' where the F,'
the average scaled fitness F> is equal to the average fitness F , and
i =U
maxF,' = C,F,
(4.1).
If relation (4.1) determines a negative value of the scaled fitness
than it will be substituted by:
1
mile = O
=La
The d i n g coefficient C , reproduction phases of GA.
has to be f x d a priori for all the ie
Acwrdmg to the consideration developed in Section 2, the magnetizing linkage coefficient is substituted by the machine " g curve. In such a way the motor model is able to take into account te saturation p h e n o " usually neglected d e n a h simplified observer design approach is followed. Obviously, in this way, the motor model looses its bilinearity. Accurdmg to operating conditions, the stator and rotor resistances It was have large variations owing to t e m p t u r e variation. observed, in Section 2, that a COITelatioll can be stated between the stator and rotor temperatures and coIlsequenty between resistance
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values. Therefore a range of rotor resistance is consideredtogether with a range of variation of the ratio between stator and rotor resisteances. In particular a range of *25% on the rotor resistance value is fixed. A relative variation between stator and rotor resistances of f l W ? is assumed Obviously these inevitable variations of machine parameters, hard to be described analytically, give to the machine model the characteristics of uncertain model. The variation ranges of these two parameters have been discretized. In particular five rotor resistance values and three ratio values have been considered, giving rise to m=15 parameter sets. A suitable duty cycle to test the observer population has been built with s r o m t r opera conditiolls particularly harsh. In evoos sequence, the rated flux is then the motor is driven to high speedlight torque conditions and finally to a low speedhightorque condition. Fig. 1 shows the speed setpoint and the shape of the load torque adopted.
speed setpoint
Fig. 2. shows the shape of the average fitness and the sbpe of the best fitness over the iterated generations. Average Fitness
10
4
2
0
2
10
20
30
40
50
Number of generations
@ Loadtorque
Fig. 2 Shape of average and best fitness evolution Tab. 1 reports the designed parameters of the optimal robust flux observer and the parameters designed with the standard method [3] together with the associated performanceindexes.
5 t 01 0
'I
0.2
0.4
Table 1
I .
I
dpl GA Design StandardDesign 1.19 1
dp.,
2.88 0.325
dP7
dPA
dPS 0.216 3.8 5.4
0.6
0.8
1
t Fig. 1 Motor dutycycle for observer design. The parameters ai, ai, Ci of relationship (3.1) are set to one while the value ofJcpmt (see fitness definition ) is set to 50. The GA described m the previous section has been fixed with the following parameters [SI: Population Size t h h g C&lkient Crossover Robability Mutation Probability C~nvergen~e Threshold n=30 Cmul~l .6 Pc=0.9 Pm=O.O1 Ct=l%
0.%9
0.94
0.961
0.961 0.25
As it c8n be seen the improvement in the performance index a d o m the GA design approach is about 29% with respect to the performance of the standard design observer.
6  CONCLUSIONS
A new approach to the design of rotor flux observers for the field
oriented control of induction drives has been presented.
The design parameters space is given by the intends:
lapz.d.ll =[0.25,0.4];
[dp,,dp,l =[0.94,0.98];
[dp, 
To this am a simple genetic algorithm based on the mechanism i d of natural selection and n a t ~ genetics was applied. The Genetic Algorithm minimizes a properly chosen performance index, defined with reference to a machine duty cycle with harsh operaconditions of the semomotor. Considerations about uncertainties of the drive model led to the selection of a design parameter space of the observer: in t i space hs the Genetic Algorithm converges to a parameter set which ensures robustness in presence of very large parameter variation and on a variety of operating condifioI1s. The comparison between the performances of the new designed observer and the more traditional one shows clearly a possible improvement in the overall robustness of the field oriented control.
,&]=[0.2,0.26].
REFERENCES:
One point of this parameter space is discretjzed d e h q a string of length 1=24, subdivided into five subslnngs of length Z1=6,12=6, 1 3 d , 144, 1 5 4 corresponrespectively to design parameters dpi=l,..,5. The implementation of the GA has been done with propmmkg language C on a personal computer 486DX2 at 66MHz, the compufingtime has been 9 hours.
[lJG. C. Verghese and S. R: sanders. "OBSERVERS FOR FASTER FLUX ESTIMATION IN INDUCTION MACHINES",
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IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, ~01.35,n"l Feb. 1988,
~p.8594.
International, University Microfilms, Michigan, 41(9), 3503B,
1975. [8] J.J G r e f m : OPTIMIZATION OF CONTROL PARAMETERS FOR GENETIC ALGORlTHMS, IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybanetics, Vol. 16, No 1,1986, pp. 122128. [9] J. D. Scha€fa: MULTIPLE OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION WITH VECTOR EVALUATEDGENETIC ALGOIUTHM Genetic Algorithms and their applications: ProCeeQngs of the First ' Tntematid Conference on Genetic Algorithms, Morgan K a y " , San Mateo, 1985, pp. 93100. [IO] Z. Michalewm and C. Janichow GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR NUMERICAL OPTIMIZATION, STATISTICS AND COMPUTING, Vol. 1, No 1,1991. 1111 De Jong, K. A. (1980b). A GENETIC BASED GLOBAL FUNCTION OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE (Technical Report N" 802). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, Deparhnent of Computer Science
[2]G. Franceschini, C. TassOni, A. Vagati: "FLUXESlTMATION FOR TNDUCTION SERVO MOTORS", Cod. Rec. IPEC, Tokyo, Japan 1990, pp.12271234. [3]G. Franceschini, C. Tassoni et. al.: "ABOUT THE GAIN CHOICE OF FLUX OBSERVER IN INDUCTION SERVOMOTORS", Conf. Rec. of IEEE IAS '90, Seattle 1990 pp. 601606. [4]P. E. Goldberg: "GENETIC ALGORUHM IN SEARCH OPTIMIZATION AND MACHINE LEARNING", AddisonWesley (New Y r )1989. ok [5]Z. Michalewicz: "GENETIC ALGORlTHMS + DATA STRUCTURES = EVOLUTION PROGRAMS", Springer Verlag. (New York) 1992. [6] J. H. Holland: ADAPTATION IN NATURAL AND ARTXFICIAL SYSTEMS. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press 1975. [7] K.A De Jong: AN ANALYSIS OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF GENETIC ADAP'IFE SYSTEMS, Dissertation Abstrad
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