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ELFI S.A. Derrey-la-Cabuche CH-1756Onnens (FR) Switzerland
Unitrode Integrated Circuits 7 Continental Boulevard Merrimack, NH 03054-0399 USA.
Abstmd To improve the power factor and to comply with line-harmonics regulations, a power-factor-correction/liieharmonics-reduction circuit must be added to the cepadtively flltered bridge or voltagedoublerredirk. Paesiw mlutions (ii. cirruits using only inductors and capadtors) are *pie, reliable, and generate no EMI. In this paper we discuss single-phase rectifier drcuits employing an additional indudor and one or more additional capadtom for power-factor correction.
2. BRIDGE RECTIFIERS WITH U:POWER-
To improve the power factor and to comply with various
national and international line-harmonics regulations in lineoperated electronic equipment, an active or passive powerfactor-comtion/line-harmonics-reduction circuit must be added to the capacitively filtered bridge or voltage-doubler front-end rectifier. Although it is straightforward to obtain negligible distortion (i.e. less than 5%) and high power factor (more than 99%) with active circuits operating at high frequency (above 20 kHz), the additional circuitry can significantly reduce the reliability and increase the complexity, EMI, and Cost of the equipment. Passive solutions (circuits without controlled switches) offer an attractive trade-off between cost and performance: they are simple, reliable, robust, generate no EMI, and still provide compliance with the noms. In this paper we (1) review, evaluate and compare those bridge and voltage-doubler rectifier configurations that use a single inductor and a single capacitor for power-factor correction, (2) propose improvements to some of the reviewed circuits, and (3) present design considerations and experimental results. The improvements are achieved by splitting capacitors, adding one or more diodes, or using tapped or dual-winding inductors. All circuits reported in this paper have been simulated; four Circuits were also built and tested.
Cost and size considerations require that only one inductor be added to the redifier for power-factor correction. In a bridge rectifier there are two logical pasitions for that inductor, (1) in series with the line (i.e. at the ac side) o (2) in series with r the load (i.e. at the dc side). By placing the inductor at the ac side, the distortion in the line current can be reduced by increasing the inductance, but the output voltage, output power and power factor will be also reduced. By placing the inductor at the dc side, the maximum output power will be independent from the inductance but the distortion cannot be reduced below 4 . % As we shall see,one or two additional 83. capacitors help reducing the distortion and increasing the power factor in both cases.
As Fig. 1 shows, there are nine possible positions for an
additional capacitor in a bridge rectifier having an inductor at f the ac side, assuming we omit the parallel connection o the additional capacitor with the storage capacitor and the series connections with the line, load, or rectifier diodes,
Fig. 1. Possible capacitor positions in a bridge rectifier with the inductor at the I C side.
0-7803-2482-XB5 $4.000 1995 IEEE
Fig. 2. Bridge rectifiers wt LC power-factor correction; inductor is ih at the ac side.
Fig. 4. Bridge rectifiers with Lc power-factor correction; inductor is at the dc side
From thaw nine pasitions, positions 2 and 9 and also 5, 6, 7, and 8 are equivalent. This means that there are five different circuit configurations (Fig. 2).
Fig, 3 shows the nine positions for adding a capacitor to the bridge rectifier with an indudor at the dc side. From those nine positions, positions 5 and 6 and a s 3, 4, 8, and 9 are lo equivalent, yielding five different circuit configurations (Fig. 4)
Table I1 gives the following results of the simulation: power factor, total harmonic distortion of the line current, and input power.
TABLE 11. SIMULATION RESULTS OF BRIDGE RECTIFIERS: POWER FACTOR, TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION, INPUT
87.1 94.8 74.4 91.7
158 170 213 153 230 158 178
53.2 32.9 45.4 35.3'
Fig. 3. Possible capacitor positions in a bridge rectifier with the
inductor at the dc side.
87.1 86.7 84.8
B. Simulation Results
The ten circuits shown in Figs. 2 and 4 were simulated with the same component values and with a line voltage of 230 Vrms. L and C were selected to resonate at the third harmonic of the 50-Hz line, i.e. at 150 Hz. Table I gives the component values.
COMPONENT VALUES USED IN THE SIMULATION
'17.7% dc component and 16.5% even harmonic distortion
9.1% component and 8.8% even harmonic distortion dc
Storage capacitor Capacitor Inductor Load resistor
VALUE 100 uF
7.3 uF 150 m H 405 ohms
'Wirb the selected component values the same behavior a s circuit 2a
'26.7% dc component and 47.1% even harmonic distortion '43.6% dc component and 60.4% even harmonic distortion
Fig. 5 shows the linecurrent waveforms for all ten circuits.
Fig. 6. Symmetrical (split-capacitor) versions of circuits 2d, 2e, 4b, and 4e.
Table I11 shows the results of simulations for the splitcapacitor configurations.
TABLE 111. SIMULATION RESULTS OF BRIDGE RECTIFIERS WITH SPLIT CAPACITORS: POWER FACTOR, TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION, INPUT POWER
32.3 16.9 28.4 46.7
152 231 189
2d-s 2e-s 4b-s
The simulations confirm that the dc and even-harmonic components are completely eliminated; correspondingly the power factor has increased and the total harmonic distortion has decreased. Fig. 7 shows the line-current waveforms of the split-capacitor circuits.
Fig. 5. Line-current waveforms of the circuits in Figs. 2 and 4. Scales: 0.5 Ndiv., 4 msldiv.
C. Splitting Capacitors
The circuits 2d, 2e, 4b, and 4e are asymmetrical struaures, and generate dc and even-harmonic components in the line current. ?he circuit asymmetries can be eliminated by splitting the waveshaping capacitor in two capacitors of equal value and placing them in the circuits symmetrically, as shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 7. Line-current waveforms of the splittapacitor circuits in Fig 6. Scales: 0.5 Ndiv., 4 ms/div.
D. Extending the ConductionAngle with Diode
By inserting a diode in Series with the indudom of circuits 4c (Fig. 8a) and 4, a significant increase in the power factor
(+9% at circuit 4c) and decrease in the total harmonic distortion (-18% at circuit 4c) can be achieved. The improvement is due to the fact that the additional diode prevents the recharge of the capacitor through the inductor and thus leads to the extension of the amdudion angle of the bridge diodes. Fig. 8b shows the typical line-current waveform.
The circuits (a), (b), and (c) in Fig. 9 are close relatives of ) the circuits 2a, 2b, and 2c (in Fig. Z, respectively, and the linecurrent-waveforms are very similar. Here we present only the power factor, the total harmonic distortion and the input power values, obtained by simulation (Table IV). The simulation parametem are: input voltage = 115 Vrms, 50 Hz; inductance = 37.5 mH, storage capacitance = 2 x 200 uF; power-factor-correction capacitance = 29.2 uF; load = 405 ohms.
SIMULATION RESULTS OF VOLTAGE-WUBLER RECTIFIERS: POWER FACTOR, TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION, INPUT
P,,,Iwj 176 170 213
Fig. 8. Adding diode to extend the conduction angle (a); line-current waveform 0). Scales: 0.5 Ndiv., 4 ms/div.
86.7 93.7 70.9
52.1 31.8 42.7
3. VOLTAGEDOUBLER RECTIFIERS WITH POWER-FACTOR CORRECTION
A. Basic Topologies Fig. 9 shows the three voltage-doubler rectifiers, which are using a single inductor and single capacitor for power-factor correction. Although other topologies are also conceivable (e.g. placing the additional capacitor in parallel with a rectifier diode), those topologies do not have any advantage and are not considered in this paper.
Fig. 10 shows five variations that offer performance improvements over the circuits in Fig. 9. Circuit loa is the doubler version of circuit 2e, originally reported in [l]; circuits lob to 1Oe are novel circuits. The circuits in Fig. 10 were simulated using the parameters given in Section 3.A above. The coupling coefficient of the tapped inductor of circuit 1Oc and the two-winding inductor of circuit 1Od was 0.5. Due to the presence of the diodes in series with the inductor windings, circuit 1Oe is not sensitive to the value of the coupling coefficient, therefore in the simulation of that circuit we used a coefficient of unity. Table V gives the power factor, the total harmonic distortion, and the input power; Fig. 11 gives the line-current waveforms.
Fig. 9. Voltage-doubler rectifiers with LC power-factor-correction.
Fig. 10. Voltagedoubler rectifier variations.
TABLE V. SIMULATION RESULTS OF VOLTAGE-M)UBLER RECTIFIER VARIATIONS: POWER FACTOR, TOTAL, HARMONIC DISTORTION, INPUT POWER
shown in Section 2.C, it is easy to eliminate the asymmetry by splitting the power-factor-correcting capacitor. In several circuits (2b, 2d and 2d-s, 4b and 4b-s, 4c, 4d, 4e and 4es, 8a, 9b, lob, lod, lOe), the instantaneous line current shows a step change. The step cbange leads to large upper harmonics content. 'Ihe large upper harmonics might prevent the compliancewith the line-harmonics regulations, especially in electronic ballast applications.
B. Interaction with Line Inahctance
16.4 35.6 27.2 37.7 41.3
171 175 In the circuits, where the instantaneous line current shows a step change, that step change excites the resonant circuit formed by the line inductance and the power-factor-correcting capacitor. The result is an overshoot and ringing in the line current. The ringing causes excessive stress and also increases the higher-order harmonic currents.
C. Electromagnetic Interference and Susceptibility
The inductor in series with the line (in circuits 2c, 2e, 2e-s, SC, loa, and lOc) reduces the differential-mode EM generated by the load (e.g. a switching dddc converter). It also provides protection against the differential-mode mainsbome noise, including spikes and surges that could destroy the rectifier diodes. The inductor in series with the load (in circuits 4a, 4b, 4b-s, 4c, lod, and lOe) also provides protection in both directions against differential-mode noise, although it is not effective in protecting the rectifier diodes against voltage spikes and surges. By splitting the inductor winding in two and placing one winding in series with the line and the other winding in series with the line return, a common-mode inductor is created that reduces the common mode noise.
Fig. 11. Une-current waveforms of the circuits in Fig. 10. Sales: 1 Ndiv., 4 ms/div.
4. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
'Ihose circuits where the power-factor-correcting capacitor is connected between the line and the output (circuits 2b, 2d,2ds, 4d, 4e, 4e-s, 9b, lob) are especially sensitive to differentialmode noise.
D. Load Regulation
A. Harmonic Content
TABLE VI. LOAD REGULATION RATIO OF DC OUTPUT VOLTAGES AT 4.05 KOHMS AND AT 405 OHMS
2a 2b 2c 2d-s 2e-s 4a 4b-s 4c 4d
1.19 1.01 1.01 1.55 1.82 1.18 1.51 1.06
9a 9b 9c loa 1O b
1O d 1Oe
1.18 1.18 1.12 1.02 1.02 1.83 1.15 1.13 1.13 1.12
As the table shows, the circuits can be divided in two group.
In the first group, which includes circuits 2d-s, 2e-s, 4b-s, and loa, the output voltage increases more than 50% when the load resistance increases tenfold. In the second group (all other circuits), the output voltage increases less than 20% when the load resistance increases tenfold. The explanation for the sensitivity of the first group to load changes is that those circuits form a voltage-doubler (2d-s, 2e-s, 4b-s) or voltage quadrupler (loa) rectifier at light load when the voltage drop across the inductor becomes negligible. To reduce the increase of the output voltage in similar circuits, [ 13 proposes to disconnect the power-factor-correcting capacitor at light load. 5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Several circuits were built and tested using the part values in Table I, with the purpose of verifying the results obtained by simulation. Figs. 12a, 12b, 12c, and 12d show oscilloscope photographs of the line-current waveforms of circuits 2b, 2c, 2e-s, and 4b-s. As can be seen, the simulated and measured waveforms are in excellent agreement.
Fig. 12. Measured linecurrent waveforms of circuits 2b (I), 2c (c), and 4b-s (d). Scales: 1 Ndiv., 5 ms/div.
Power-factor-correction and the related line-harmonics reduction of bridge and voltage-doubler rectifiers can be achieved with passive means, by using only inductive and capacitive components. The passive solutions offer simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, and generate no EM. (In fact, in several circuits the additional components help filtering out the EMI generated by the load.) In this paper, we presented all practical circuits, which use a single inductor and a single capacitor. Some of those circuits produce dc and evenharmonic line-current components. We showed that by
REFERENCES, ADDlTIONAL READING the power-factororreding capacitors and the dc and even-hamonic rearrangingthem in the [I] N. fimiller, “Power factor correction circuit,’’ U S . Patent 4,855,890, line-current components can be completely eliminated. We Aug. 8, 1989. also discussed other improvements, including extending the is discussed by A. w. Kelley and w. F. Yadusky, in angle of me we cufcent by a& dg , a diode in  circuit h design for minimum line current harmonics and maximum “Rectifier series with the doside inductor, and using tapped or twopower factor,” Proceedings of APEC ’89, pp. 13-22 winding indudom. A l circuits were simulated; four circuits l Circuit 2b is discussed by A. . were also built and tested. “he obtained results indicate that  “A novel passive waveshapingR. Prasad, P. D Zogas and S. Manias, in method for single-phase diode rectifiers,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 31, no. 6, Dec. 1990, line-harmonics regulations can be met with low-cost passive power-factor cocrector circuits. pp. 521-530.
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