Rereading Anti-Poetry: Holub's "A Textbook on Dead Language

"
DEBAPRASAD BANDYOPADHYAY
"You could just as well choose a dead language or Theology" - Thus spake Galileo to Lduovico, who came to Galilee to learn science. - The Lifo of Galli eo Bertold Brecht

What happens, when our primary text books are written in a language, which we do not use in our day-to-day speech - neither in our domestic environment nor in our friendly setting? The poetry, or rather an anti-poetry, to be discussed here, written by Mirosalv Holub', is an anti -poetry on 'Textbook of Dead Language', i.e., text book written in a dead language, a language which no one uses in their day to day life. In translating this 'anti-poetry' in Bangla, Manabendranath Bandyopadhyay-, a well-known translator of various language-literture in Bangia, used highly ritualized Sadhu Bangia to meet certain purposes. In this paper, I will try to examine this anti-poetry in Bangia without any reference to original. Furthermore, Pratul Mukhopadhyay's' rendering this poetry to a song will also be discussed. The purpose is not only to understand the formal style of the anti-poetry as rendered by Bandyopadhyay or Mukhopadhyay, but also to understand the content of the anti-poetry. which describes in brief, the problem of mundane ritualized education that coercively destroys the docile body of the students. This type of manipulative technology of education is more vivid in Mukhopadhyay's song-rendering. At first, let us look into the body of the anti-poetry, as translated by Bandyopadhyay with literal

gloss.

sr-n

iHa ekTI balok This one-classifier-boy (This is a boy)
5

6 5t-J 2 ilia ekTi balika This one-classifier girl (This is a girl) balok Tir ekTi Kuknr ache. boy- classifier-pass one-classifier dog has [The boy has a dog.] ballika TiT ekTi biRaJ ache. girl-classifier-poss one-classifier cat has [The girl has a cat) Knkur'Iir gaYer rON ki? dog-classifier-poss body-poss COIOUT what. [What is the colour of the dog?] biRaiTiT gaYer tON ki? cat-classifier-puss body-poss colour what [What is the colour of the cat?] balok-balika boy-girl [Boy and girl] ekTi bOLloYia Khfilakoriteche, one-classifier ball take-in finitive play docontinuous. [are playing with a ball.] bOLTikonkhane goRaYajaitecche? ball-classifier ball wh -locative-classifier -Iocative roll-igo-continuous [where is tile ball rolling down?] balokTikekothaY SOmadhistho kOraHoylo? boy-classifier-dative wh -locative-classifier -locative roll-infinitive go-continuous [Where was the girl buried?) balikaTike kothaY SOmadhistho kOra Hoyo? airl-ctassifier -dative wh -Iocative-classifier-locative to grave-place do-infinitive be-past [Where was the girl buried"] PORo read-imp. [read] ar onubad kOro and translate do-imperative. [And translate} St-VI 14

7

St-IT3

St-V1I 15

Stoll 4

St-vn 16

Sob stObdholaY ar Sob bhaSaYI all silence-locative and all language-locative. [in all silences and in alllanguages!] lekho write-imp, (Write] tomra nijera kothaY

you-plural self-plural wh-locative
St-VIll 17
[Wbere have you yourselves] SOma.dbistho acho. grave-placed have [been buried]

SHTI 5

St-ID6

THE

FIRST SLOW-MOTJON READING

St-N7

si-rvs

St-\19

St-VIO

St-V 11

1St-VI

12

St-Vl13

St-I and st-Il give some information regarding a boy and a girl and their consecutive dog and cat. The statements in four lines declare these meagre facts. St-ill puts two quiz-like questions regarding the colour of that dog and cat. What is striking here is 110 information regarding their bodycolour is found In St-I and St-II. It is impossible to comprehend the colours of the dog and the cat that are possessed by the boy and the girl as those are not mentioned in the first two stanzas. This type of comprehension test does not help anyone to understand the given jnformation or to deduce anything from the given text. St-IV gives a new information regarding playing with the ball by the boy and the girl. St-IV is parallel to St-I & II in a sense all these three stanzas give declarative statements and information. However, m St-V apparently parallel to St-ill, three consecutive questions are put regarding (a) The rolling down of the ball and (b) burying down of the boy andthe girl. Again, we have no information within the text why and how such and such "Things' has rolled down and buried. St-IV advises to read and translate (to read or translate what ?) in silence and in all languages. The exclamatory sign in line 14 is also a noticeable feature as reading and translating in silences and languages are })erea matter of exclamation, St-VIl advises to "write" "you" the burial place of "yourselves". That is a_/cutious journey from boy-girl (+animate+intellect), dog-cat (+anirnate-intellect), ball (-animate-intellect) to burial place. We got information, quiz-like comprehensive questions and lastly some advises

8 to read, write and translate (which are antithetical to game played by boy and girl). What is/are the interlinking theme/s of this anti-poetry? Re-reading Anti-poetry The Bangla translation of Holub's anti-poetry has been rearranged by Pratul Mukhopadhyay in his rendering it as a song. Let us see the rearrangement. 1. 2. St~1I3. 4. 5. 6. SHV
7.

9

8.

10. ll.
12.

13.
14. 15.
16.

St~VII

17. 18.

ekTi balok (2) ekTi ballika (2) balokTir ekTi kukur ache (2) . balikaTirekTi biRal ache (2) KukurTir gaYer rONki ? (2) biRalTir gaYer JON ki ? (2) balik-balika ekTi bOL loya khEla koriteche, (4) sorn koThay gORayajayTeche? (4) kothaY(3) balokTike koThay sOmadhisthokOra HoYlo(2) balikaTike kothay sOmadishtho kOra HoYlo ? (2) lekbo pORo OnubadKOro SOb bhaSaY (2), SOb stObadhotY (2) tomra nijerakothaY I {repeated SOmadlllstho acho, I twice}

What is surprising here is tile repeated pronunciation of some lines or stanzas (number of repetitions are indicated in brackets) by PratuI MUkhopadhyay. Does it not create monotony? The obvious answer is 'yes' ! However the next question which arises in our mind is : Does not the text book, written in a dead language, instigate mcnotony ? This purposeful creation of monotony justifiably triggers the monotonous cramming of a dead text, where no information is available (or information is beyond tile grasp of the understanding of the reader! listener) to answer the comprehensive questions: (Cf questions in St-Ill line 5-6).

However, the monotony breaks, when Mukhopadhyay made the andience participate to pronounce the repeating lines. Audience pronounced the lines 1-9 just as if psalms pronounced by the guru 'preceptor' and imitated by the SiSSo 'disciple' (for better understanding of this relation see the Appendix). This creates one type of classroom situation, where discourse is repeated in such a way. Mukhopadhyay, at that 1ive programme, and at the first impression seemed to be an authoritarian guru, who bounded the audience to utter in this monotonous way. However, lines I o~ break such impression in a dramatic way. The 12 question of graveyard for burying the boy and girl, when pronounced by Mukhopadhyay, made an alienative effect on the audience, These questions (lines 1o~ initiate a searching for selves. 1-9 lines describe a 12) taking-it-for-granted situation of stimulus-response in classroom discourse. And lines 11-18 break this behavioural black-box like situation in the way of questioning to selves. This just half-way division of the poetry surprisingly represents the divided selves: one self is ready to surrender to the manipulative behaviour, and another self ready to nonconform this known situation of stimulus response, Therefore, 1mention Uris half-way as the beginning of alienative point, [rom where one cao search their souls to find out answers for such questions: "where is the boy!girl buried ?" (Lines 11~12 or line 10). The immediate association of' reading', 'writing' and 'translating' in all languages and in all silences makes the questions answerable quite contrary to the unanswerable questions in lines 5 and 6. The reference to translation, apart from reading and writing, makes a special effect as translation in classroom-situation is only found in colonial education system. And the shifting ofline 15 uf Bandyopadhyay's translation to 13 to bring out parallel association of reading, writing and translating made by Mukhopadhyay is worth noticing. Reading, writing and translating trigger the system of education and the consequence of such education system is described at the end of tire song. The replacement of 'Konkhane' by 'Kothay' by Mukhopadhyay also brings out three consecutive and parallel uses of'Kothay' in stanza V Reader may notice all through parallelism in this anti-poetry. This formal parallelism also initiates alienation similarto Brechtian Drama. (One may remember that Brecht himself was one ofthe initiators of anti -poetry) The above scrutiny reveals that these apparent parallelisms are antithetically composed and divided in l-? and 10-181ines.

10
However last two (17 -18) lines are more direct hit to the audience. As the searching continues from 10 to 16 lines, the responsibility of selves is unveiled in the last two lines. This transformation from passive participation. (1-9 lines) to non-conformist self-searching questioning lastly metamorphosed into the praxis of responsibility. This type of metamorphoses is only possible in active participation in the song. No passive hearer can attain such praxis. Therefore the technical 'is' statements in 1-9 lines has become 'ought' praxis in the last two lines.
ApPE.NDIX
CLASSROOM INTERACTION AND GURU-CONDALIDOS

11 students to follow and cope with the Whole scheme in a creative way. Its visible pedagogical and :fiSSpOUfOUS instructions through a regulative discourse should be followed without exception So the pupils is being taught (not learned) in a ritualistic way. Their own language has been jeopardized by the school grammar. In case of Bangia, pupil create a hybrid of Sadhu-colit, by which they transmit their knowledge in examination. This hybrid is banned by the examiners as it is a fault, gurucOnDali do."::guru (obviously a Brahmin by caste) is selcctionally restricted to OCCllI with cOnDa! (a low caste by birth), i.. . Sadhu can not e occur with coli t bhaSa. Thus the operation of Sadhu through a grammar book plays havoc in the minds of students, specially coming from the working class family background. The compound gurucOnDali shows the antithetical relationship between brammon and cOndal and that corresponds to the relation of code. The power of Brahmanical culture and ideology is reflected .in the code and ritualistic pattern of sacred discourse, which could not be disturbed by the students' consensual irrtervention in it. The systematic duality of Sadhu (High) and colit (Low) language had not only created a diglossic situation in colonial India, but also marked by the feature ofFESH (Formal Elaboration of Social Hieracby, "Involving the sharp codification of high/low distinction in language system.") Dasgupta (1993 :45), by this reologism, vividly bridged the formal education system and maintenance of H code. It is also interesting here to note that, in the context of standardization of Bangla, the man, Pramatha Choudhuri who is one of the initiator of negating the highly ritualized Sadhu-csxu: and propagated co!id-code, once mentioned, in Iris essay on "Reading books", the virtual psychic death of pupils in the process of coercive education system. He emphasized on this unnoticed and unquantified phenomenon as according to him these are not listed in tile registration book. (Choudhnri, 1952: 169). this psychic death may be referred to as "crippled creativity" !
NOTES

In the classroom interaction between teacher and taught, there are two contexts: regulative and instructional. In the regulative context, the imperative use of language is noticed instead of personal appeal. The pedagogy of the observed classroom interaction corresponds more closely to communication regulated by the restricted code. It is quite contrary to the view ofBemstein, as Edwards (1981, cited in Atkinson. 1985:79) and Cooper (1976, ibid) observed, the classroom interaction in regulative contexts is being realized largely through imperatives and through positional appeals in restricted code. Pupils are here 'stepping into" predetermined sets of instructional meanings and 'leave it relatively undistrubed'. The pupil is in a position analogous to that of religious novice or postulants. Marody (1981, ibid:80) proposed the existence of 'quasi elaborated code', which "joins the formal properties of elaborated code and cognitive properties of a restricted one." Young proposed (1980, ibid) a 'school-deficit' hypothesi 5 that suggests the pattern of classroom interactions equally ill adapted to the cognitive needs of middle class and working-class children. Though the students with middle-class background can decipher the meaning, the working class representatives do not match themselves with this code. This mismatch between workingclass and school's order of meaning is misread as an account of 'educability' and 'ability'. (Atkinson, 1985:52) Th.is reference to restricted cognitive properties of quasi-elaborated code is helpful for our understanding of Uris anti-poetry. The explicit rules and regulations oftbetextbook have become imperative and positonat in a classroom enounter due to the high level of ritualistic control. The poetry is written in Sadhu bhaSa, which is uot used in day to day interaction of the pupil. Thus the classroom t.ool is deviod of everyday or profane experience of the pupil and their family order. It is difficult for

1. 2.

Mirosalv Holub (born 1923) is a Chcczoslovakian Anti-poet and an immunologist by profession. Manabendanath Bandyopadhyay is a Professor of Comparative Literature in Jadavpur University. I-Ieis engaged in translating different literary texts (especially from Latin American Literature) from different world-languages to Bangla.

T

u
3.

I
....
;

4.

Pratul Mukhopadhyay, by profession a Statistician, had immense influence on the alternative cultural movement in Bengal. Through his songs (generally sung without any accompaniments), the message of alternative science, culture and society is spread without the help of electronic media. However, recently electronic media could not ignore his contribution and he is now almost regular participant ofT. V programmes. HMV also released one cassette of his songs. "St." is condensed form of "Stanza".
REFERENCES

J

Atkinson, P. 1985. Language, Structure and Reproduction: An Introduction to the Sociology ofBasil Bernstein. London: Methuen. Choudhuri, P. 1952_ proborulhoSONgroHo. 'Collection of Essays.' Calcutta: Visvabharati, Foucault, M. 1979. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Book. Freire, P. 1972. Pedagogy ofthe Oppressed. London: Penguin.

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