Fasteners for Structural Steelwork

Bolts and Bolted Connections
Fasteners for Structural Steelwork
Fasteners for Structural Steelwork
Bolts and Bolted Connections
Bolts and Bolted Connections
Rupen Goswami
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Fasteners
Fasteners
Fasteners
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 3
 Necessity of Connections
 Larger size of structures
• Limited length of members
 Rolling & Transportation constraints
 Join two or more members
Introduction Introduction
Introduction
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 4
Fasteners for Connections Fasteners for Connections
Fasteners for Connections
 Fasteners
 Rivets
 Bolts
 Welds
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 5
 Fasteners
 Rivets
 Bolts
Rivet
Rivet
High Strength
Hexagonal Head Bolt
High Strength
Hexagonal Head Bolt
High Strength
Interference Body Bolt
High Strength
Interference Body Bolt
Early Days Early Days
Early Days
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 6
Early Days… Early Days
Early Days


 Rivets
 Better than common hand-tightened black bolts
• Initial Pre-stress
 Due to heating and cooling in riveting process
 No control on amount of axial tension
o Could not be accounted for in design
 Difficult process
• Hammering
• Heating
• Noise
• Time consuming
 Labour cost!!
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 7
 Bolts
 Fast construction
• Good performance!
Early Days… Early Days
Early Days


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 8
1960s 1960s
1960s
 Welding
 Neat!
Groove Weld
Groove Weld
Fillet Weld
Fillet Weld
Slot Weld
Slot Weld
Plug Weld
Plug Weld
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 9
Joints Joints
Joints
 5 types
Butt Joint
Butt Joint
Lap Joint
Lap Joint
Edge Joint
Edge Joint
Tee Joint
Tee Joint
Corner Joint
Corner Joint
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 10
Unique Aspects of Steel Construction Unique Aspects of Steel Construction
Unique Aspects of Steel Construction
 On & Off Site Fabrication
 Fast field erection using bolts
• Field connections are typically bolted
 Welding better suited to shop fabrication under
controlled environment
• Or where bolting is either impractical or undesirable!
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 11
 Pure bolting
 May not be possible in large steel structures
Beam
High Strength
Bolts
Full Penetration
Groove Weld
End Plate
Column
Courtesy:: UW
Unique Aspects of Steel Construction… Unique Aspects of Steel Construction
Unique Aspects of Steel Construction


Basics of Bolting
Basics of Bolting
Basics of Bolting
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 13
Bolting Bolting
Bolting
 Steps
 Two bolts per connection
• Basic stability
 Remaining bolts to be installed and tightened after
the member is aligned / plumbed
• Overall geometry
 Systematic pattern of tightening
• Avoid local stress
• Uniform load distribution
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 14
Grade of Bolts Grade of Bolts
Grade of Bolts
 Mild Steel Bolts (Turned & Fitted)
 Class 4.6
• Medium grade steel
• Ductile
• Light low-rise structures
 High Strength Bolts
 Class 8.8, 10.9
• Alloy steel
• Heat-treated
• Low ductility
• Extensively used in construction
 Good under dynamic / fatigue loads
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 15
f
y
f
u
= 100X
σ
f
y
/f
u
= .Y
ε
Grade of Bolts… Grade of Bolts
Grade of Bolts


 Yield & Tensile Strength
 Class X.Y (e.g., 4.6, 8.8, 10.9…)
 Tensile Strength = X × 100 MPa
• Examples
 Grade 4.6:: f
u
= 400 MPa
 Grade 8.8:: f
u
= 800 MPa
 …
 Yield Strength (Proof Stress) = 0.Y × f
u
MPa
• Examples
 Grade 4.6:: f
y
= 0.6 × 400 = 240 MPa
 Grade 8.8:: f
y
= 0.8 × 800 = 640 MPa
 …
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 16
Force Transfer Mechanism Force Transfer Mechanism
Force Transfer Mechanism
 Tension
 Shear
 Bearing
• Of bolt shank
• Of plate
 Friction
 Combination!
 Two sub-types of High Strength Bolts
• Bearing Type
• Friction Type (Slip Critical)
 As early as in early 1930s in the UK
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 17
 Bearing Type
 Snug-tight bolts
• Enough tension to ensure that surfaces are in contact and
bear on each other
 Usual application – gravity load
 Joint may slip
• Load resistance by bearing and shear
Snug-tight
Snug-tight
Force Transfer Mechanism… Force Transfer Mechanism
Force Transfer Mechanism


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 18
 Bearing Type
• Bolt shank in bearing
• Bolt shank in shear
Bearing on Bolt
Bearing on Plate
Shear in Bolt
P
P
Force Transfer Mechanism… Force Transfer Mechanism
Force Transfer Mechanism


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 19
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections Failure Modes of Bolted Connections
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 20
 Shear Failure of Bolt
 Single shear
 Double shear
P
P
P
P/2
P/2
Bolt in Single Shear
Bolt in Single Shear
Bolt in Double Shear
Bolt in Double Shear
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections… Failure Modes of Bolted Connections
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 21
 Bearing Failure
 Bolt on plate
 Plate on bolt
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections… Failure Modes of Bolted Connections
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections


Bearing failure of bolt
Bearing failure of bolt
Bearing failure of plate
Bearing failure of plate
General Requirements
General Requirements
General Requirements
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 23
Size Size
Size
 Diameter
 Nominal diameter D
 Gross diameter at thread d
gross
 Root diameter at thread d
root
d
gross
d
root D
Shank Thread
Bolt
Head
d
gross
d
root D
Shank Thread
Bolt
Head
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 24
 Three types (Table 19, pp 73)
 Standard clearance hole
 Over size hole
 Slotted hole
• Short
• Long
Standard
(STD)
Oversized
(OVS)
Short-slotted
(SSL)
Long-slotted
(LSL)
18 20
18
22 56
Different holes for 16mm (nominal) diameter bolt
Different holes for 16mm (nominal) diameter bolt
Bolt Holes Bolt Holes
Bolt Holes
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 25
Spacing Spacing
Spacing
 Minimum Spacing
 2.5D
 To reduce interference
 Maximum Spacing
 Minimum of 32t or 300 mm
 To minimize unconnected length
d
b
t
g
p
g
g
p p p
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 26
 Maximum Pitch
 Minimum of 16t or 200 mm
• Tension members
 Minimum of 12t or 200 mm
• Compression members
 To ensure participation
 Reasonable connection
length
d
b
t
g
p
g
g
p p p
Spacing… Spacing
Spacing


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 27
 Minimum Edge and End Distance
 1.7d
• Sheared or hand-flame cut holes
 1.5d
• Rolled, machine-flame cut holes, sawn and planed edges
 To prevent end rupture
End Distance e
End Distance e
d
b
t
g
p
g
g
p p p
Edge Distance
Edge Distance
Spacing… Spacing
Spacing


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 28
 Maximum Edge and End Distance
 12tε
 To prevent local buckling / flapping of unstiffened part
End Distance
End Distance
d
b
t
g
p
g
g
p p p
Edge Distance
Edge Distance
Spacing… Spacing
Spacing


Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 30
Design Philosophy Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
 Design:: To ensure
 Safety
• Capacity > Demand
 Economy
• By how much?
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 31
Design Philosophy Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
 Capacity > Demand
 Capacity
• Material
• Geometry
 Demand
• Loads
• Deformations
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 32
Design Philosophy Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
 Capacity > Demand
 Factored Resistance > Factored Load
• Limit State Design
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Capacity or Demand
Demand Capacity
Safety Margin
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Capacity or Demand
Design Strength:: Bearing Bolts
Design Strength::
Design Strength::
Bearing Bolts
Bearing Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 34
Two Types Two Types
Two Types
 Bearing Type Bolts
 Section 10.3
 Friction Grip Type Bolts
 Section 10.4
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 35
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts
 Shank Area A
s
 Net Tensile Stress Area A
n
 Effective Area A
e
• Depending on
location of shear plane
2
4
D A
s
t
=
2
4
root n
d A
t
=
s n e
A A A or =
d
gross
d
root D
Shank Thread
Bolt
Head
d
gross
d
root D
Shank Thread
Bolt
Head
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 36
 Design Strength in
 Tension
 Shear
 Combined Tension and Shear
 Bearing
Bolts in Tension
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 37
 Design Strength in Tension T
db
T
db
= T
nb
/ ¸
mb

mb
= 1.25)
T
nb
= Nominal Tensile Capacity of a bolt
T
nb
= 0.9 × f
ub
× A
n
< f
yb
× A
s
× (¸
mb /
¸
m0
)
Tensile Rupture of threaded area
Tensile Rupture of threaded area
Yielding of shank area
Yielding of shank area
Nominal tensile capacity equal to
tensile rupture strength of threaded area
subjected to maximumof yield strength of shank area
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 38
 Design Strength in Shear V
dsb
V
dsb
= V
nsb
/ ¸
mb

mb
= 1.25)
V
nsb
= Nominal Shear Capacity of a bolt
V
nsb
= (f
ub
/ √3) × (n
n
× A
nb
+ n
s
× A
s
)
Note: Nominal shear capacity determined at f
ub
P
P/2
P/2
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 39
 Design Strength in Shear V
dsb
× β
lj
× β
lg
× β
pk
 Connections often have multiple bolts
• Contribution of each bolt
• Overall contribution not equal to sum of the individual
capacities
 Reductions due to
• Long Joints (β
lj
)
• Large Grip Lengths (β
lg
)
• Packing Plates (β
pk
)
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 40
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


 Design Strength in Shear V
dsb
 Reduction due to
• Long Joints
 Non-uniform distribution of shear
 Similar to shear lag effect
 Farthest bolt NOT as effective as the nearest one
1 75 . 0 s | s
lj
D
l
j
lj
200
075 . 1 ÷ = |
P
P
Shear distribution in
Long Joints
Shear distribution in
Long Joints
l
j
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 41
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


 Design Strength in Shear V
dsb
 Reduction due to
• Large Grip Length
 Long bolts in bending
 Similar to slender versus deep beam behaviours
D l
g
lj
8
lg
s
| s |
g
lg
l D
D
+
= |
3
8
73 . 0 = |
lg
D l
g
8 for =
P/2
P
Bending of bolt in joint with
Large Grip Length
Bending of bolt in joint with
Large Grip Length
l
j
P/2
l
g
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 42
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


 Design Strength in Shear V
dsb
 Reduction due to
• Packing Plates
 Increase joint thickness and length of bolts
 Similar effect as for large grip length
80
1
pk
pk
t
÷ = |
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 43
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


 Combined Tension and Shear
• Based on von Mises yield criterion
2 2 2
3
y xy x
f = t + o
2
2
2
1
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
y
xy
y
x
f
f
1
3
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
y s
xy s
y t
x t
f A
A
f A
A
0 . 1
2 2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
dsb
sb
db
b
V
V
T
T
T
V
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 44
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


 Design Strength in Bearing V
dpb
V
dpb
= V
npb
/ ¸
mb

mb
= 1.25)
V
npb
= Nominal Bearing Strength of a bolt
V
npb
= 2.5 × D × t × f
up
Note:
Nominal bearing strength determined at f
ub
t = Summation of thicknesses of plates
experiencing bearing in the same direction
P
P/2
P/2
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 45
 Design Strength in Bearing V
dpb
 Reduction due to
• End failure (bursting)
 Insufficient end distance
• Bearing failure of thinner plate
V
npb
= 2.5 × D × t × f
up
× k
b
k
b
is smaller of
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


0 . 1 , , 25 . 0
3
,
3
hole hole up
ub
f
f
d
p
d
e
÷
End Distance e
End Distance e
d
hole
t
p p p p
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 46
Bearing Type Bolts… Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts


 Design Strength in Bearing V
dpb
 Additional Reduction due to
• Oversize / Slotted Holes
 In direction normal to slot
 Also check for Block Shear
Case Multiplying
Factor
Oversize 0.7
Short-slotted 0.7
Long-slotted 0.5
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 48
P,Δ
 Slip in Common Bolts
Bearing &
Shear in Bolt
P,Δ
Δ
P
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 49
 Pinching
 Common in bearing type bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Pi nchi ng
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 50
 Pinching
 Bolt holes elongate and cause more slip
Pi nchi ng
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 51
 Pinching
 Poor energy dissipation
• Need to avoid pinching under working loads
Δ
P
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 52
 Friction Type (Slip Critical)
 Pre-tension
• Usually large tensile stress in bolts ~ 0.7-0.8 f
u
 Usual application – dynamic / fatigue loads
• Good for seismic applications
 Joint slip only when critical shear is exceeded
• Load resistance by friction before slip
 Commonly called
High Strength Friction Grip
(HSFG) Bolts
Pre-torque
Pre-torque
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 53
 Friction Type
 Shank in tension only
• Till slip occurs
Tension T in Bolt Critical Shear Force = μT
P = μT
P
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 54
 Friction Type
 Shank in tension only
• Till slip occurs
 Shank in tension,
bearing and shear
• Post slip
Tension T in Bolt
Critical Shear Force = μT
P = μT
P
Overall Elongation
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Friction
Linear response
Bearing
Slip
Elastic Deformation
Linear response
Yielding of plate /
Fastener; tensile /
shear fracture
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

L
o
a
d

P
Shear in Bolt
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 55
Pre-torque
Pre-torque
 Advantages of HSFG bolting
 Up to pre-load
• Enlarging of bolt holes not an issue up to critical friction
• Bolt not subjected to
shear and bearing
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 56
 Slip Critical Design Strength
• At Working Load
 Tension
 Friction
 Post Slip Design strength
• Ultimate Load
 Tension
 Shear
 Combined Tension and Shear
 Bearing
 Same as Bearing Type
o Pinching like common bearing type bolts but only at
ultimate load levels
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Why Friction Grip Bolts…
Design Strength:: Friction Grip Bolts
Design Strength::
Design Strength::
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 58
 Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf
V
dsb
= V
nsf
/ ¸
mf
¸
mf
= 1.10 at service load
= 1.25 at ultimate load
V
nsf
= Nominal Shear Capacity of a bolt governed
by slip
V
nsf
= μ
f
× n
e
× K
h
× F
0
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 59
 Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf
μ
f
factor
(Table 20)
0.10 Red lead painted surface
0.20 Untreated surface
0.48 Sand blasted surface
0.33 Clean mill surface
μ
f
Surface Treatment
Friction Grip Bolts…
Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 60
 Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf
K
h
factor
0.7 LSL – parallel loading
0.85 LSL – perpendicular loading
0.85 Oversize, SSL
1.0 Clearance
K
h
Case
Standard
(STD)
Oversized
(OVS)
Short-slotted
(SSL)
Long-slotted
(LSL)
18 20
18
22 56
Di f f er ent hol es f or 16mm ( nomi nal ) di amet er bol t
Di f f er ent hol es f or 16mm ( nomi nal ) di amet er bol t
Friction Grip Bolts…
Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 61
 Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf
F
0
= minimum bolt load
= A
nb
× f
0
= A
nb
× 0.7 × f
ub
Pre-torque
Pre-torque
Friction Grip Bolts…
Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 62
P
P
Shear di st r i but i on i n
Long Joi nt s
Shear di st r i but i on i n
Long Joi nt s
l
j
1 75 . 0 s | s
lj
D
l
j
lj
200
075 . 1 ÷ = |
Friction Grip Bolts…
Friction Grip Bolts…
 Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf
 Reduction due to
• Long Joints
 Non-uniform distribution of friction force
 Similar to shear lag effect
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 63
 Design Strength After Slipping
 Shear & Bearing Capacity at Ultimate Load
• Same procedure as for Bearing Type Bolt
V
dsf
= {(f
ub
/ √3) × (n
n
× A
n
+ n
s
× A
s
)} / ¸
mf
V
dpf
= (2.5 × D × t × f
up
) / ¸
mf
 Also check for Block Shear
P
P/2
P/2
Friction Grip Bolts…
Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 64
 Design Strength in Tension T
df
T
df
= T
nf
/ ¸
mf
¸
mf
= 1.10 at service load
= 1.25 at ultimate load
T
nf
= Nominal Tensile Capacity of a friction bolt
T
nf
= 0.9 × f
ub
× A
n
< f
yb
× A
s
× (¸
m1 /
¸
mf
)
Tensile Rupture of threaded area
Tensile Rupture of threaded area
Yielding of shank area
Yielding of shank area
Nominal tensile capacity equal to
tensile rupture strength of threaded area
subjected to maximum of yield strength of shank area
Friction Grip Bolts…
Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 65
 Combined Tension and Shear
• Based on von Mises yield criterion
2 2 2
3
y xy x
f = t + o
2
2
2
1
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
y
xy
y
x
f
f
1
3
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
y s
xy s
y t
x t
f A
A
f A
A
T
V
0 . 1
2 2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
dsb
sb
db
b
V
V
T
T
Friction Grip Bolts…
Friction Grip Bolts…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 66
 Tension in HSFG Bolt
 Due to pre-torque ( 0.7f
u
)
 Due to external load
 Due to prying force
Friction Grip Bolts…
Friction Grip Bolts…
Prying
Prying
Prying
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 68
Bolts under Prying Effect
Bolts under Prying Effect
 Tension due to Prying Force
End pl ane beam- col umn connect i on
End pl ane beam- col umn connect i on
Bolts in Tension
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 69
2T
F
bt
=0
Applied Load (2T)
F
bt
=T F
bt
=T F
bt
=0
T
e
n
s
i
o
n

i
n

B
o
l
t

(
F
b
t
)
2T
F
bt
=F
0
F
bt
=F
0
+ΔT F
bt
=F
0
+ΔT F
bt
=F
0
Proof Load F
0
HSFG Bol t i ng
HSFG Bol t i ng
Bear i ng Ty pe Bol t i ng
Bear i ng Ty pe Bol t i ng
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 70
 Prying Force Q
 β = 1 for pre-tensioned bolt
= 2 for ordinary bolt
η = 1.5 (LSM)
(
¸
(

¸

|q
÷ =
2
4
0
27 2
v e
e
e
e
v
l l
t b f
T
l
l
Q
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
=
y
d e
f
f
t e l
0
1 . 1 , Min
l
v
l
e
2T
e
T
e
+ Q T
e
+ Q
Q Q
t
e
d
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 71
 End Plate Thickness
e A
Ql M =
( ) ( )
e v e e v v e C
Ql l T l l Q l Q T M ÷ = + ÷ + =
req plate ,
2
p
v e
e
C A
M
l T
Ql
M M
= =
=
l
v
l
e
2T
e
T
e
+ Q T
e
+ Q
Q Q
t
e
d
B A C
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 72
 End Plate Thickness
 Minimum Thickness
 Prying Force
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
¸
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
10 . 1 4 4
2
0
2
plate ,
y
e
m
y
e
p
f
t b
f
t b
M
e y
p
b f
M
t
req plate ,
min
1 . 1 4 × ×
=
e
p
l
M
Q
plate ,
=
l
v
l
e
2T
e
T
e
+ Q T
e
+ Q
Q Q
t
e
d
B A C
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 73
 Finally check
And
mf n ub df e
A f T Q T ¸ = s + / 9 . 0
25 . 1 / 9 . 0
n ub e
A f Q T s +
0 . 1
2 2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
dsf
sf
df
e
V
V
T
Q T
l
v
l
e
2T
e
T
e
+ Q T
e
+ Q
Q Q
t
e
d
B A C
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Bolts under Prying Effect…
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 74
IS 800: 2007
IS 800: 2007
 Section 10 (page 73 …)
• 10.1 General
• 10.2 Location Details of Fasteners
• 10.3 Bearing Type Bolts
• 10.4 Friction Grip Type Bolting
Bolting in Tapered Flange Sections
Bolting in Tapered Flange Sections
Bolting in Tapered Flange Sections
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 76
Indian Hot-Rolled Sections
Indian Hot-Rolled Sections
 Bolting is poorly executed
 Shank gets bent due to tapered flange
Bent bolt-shank
I - sect i on
Plain (flat) washers
Cover pl at e
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 77
 Use taper washers
 IS:5372 for ISMC
 IS:5374 for ISMB
• Bolt diameter: 10 – 39 mm
Straight
bolt-shank
Cover pl at e
I - sect i on
Taper washers
Indian Hot-Rolled Sections…
Indian Hot-Rolled Sections…
General Issues in Connection Design
General Issues in Connection Design
General Issues in Connection Design
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 79
Traditional Analysis
Traditional Analysis
 Assumptions:
 Connection elements are assumed to be rigid
compared to the connectors
 Connector behaviour is assumed to be linearly elastic
 Distribution of forces arrived at by assuming idealized
load paths
 Provide stiffness according to the assumed behaviour
 Ensure adequate ductility and rotation capacity
 Provide adequate margin of safety
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 80
10.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
10.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
 In-plane Loading:: The design force in a bolt/weld shall
be determined by
 a) Considering the connection plates to be rigid and to rotate
relative to each other about a point known as the
instantaneous centre of rotation ICR of the group
 b) In the case of a group subject to a pure couple only, the ICR
coincides with the group centroid. In the case of
in-plane shear force applied at the group centroid, the ICR is at
infinity and the design force is uniformly distributed
throughout the group.
In all other cases, either the results of independent analyses
for a pure couple alone and for an in-plane shear force applied
at the group centroid shall be superposed, or a recognized
method of analysis shall be used
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 81
10.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
10.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
 In-plane Loading:: The design force in a bolt/weld shall
be determined by
 c) The design force in a bolt or design force per unit length at
any point in the group shall be assumed to act at right angles
to the radius from that point to the instantaneous centre, and
shall be taken as proportional to that radius
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 82
10.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group…
10.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group…
 Combined In-plane Shear and Moment
 Bolt shear due to P
x
and P
y
• R
xi
= P
x
/ N; R
yi
= P
y
/ N
 M = P
x
× y’ + P
y
× x’
• R
mi
= k × r
i
• M
i
= k × r
i
2
• M= Σ(k × r
i
2
) = k Σr
i
2
 Bolt shear due to M
R
mi
= Mr
i
/ Σr
i
2
 Combined Shear
( ) ( ) | |
2 2
sin cos
i mi yi i mi xi i
R R R R R u u + + + =
Bol t gr oup
eccent r i cal l y l oaded i n shear
Bol t gr oup
eccent r i cal l y l oaded i n shear
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ +
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ =
¿ ¿
2
2 2
2
2 2
) ( ) (
i i
i
y
i i
i x
i
y x
Mx
n
P
y x
My
n
P
R
r
i
P
x’
y’
R
mi
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 83
10.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group…
10.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group…
 Bolted Bracket
 Determine P
x
and P
y
 Identify the CG of bolt group, say (x
cg
, y
cg
)
 Determine x’ and y’ from (x
cg
, y
cg
)
 Calculate twisting moment M = P
x
y’ + P
y
x’
 Determine coordinates of ALL bolts (x
i
,y
i
) wrt (x
cg
, y
cg
)
 Calculate
 Identify the critical bolt (x
i
,y
i
)
 Compute R
i
 Ensure R
i
to be LESS THAN bolt value
Bol t gr oup
eccent r i cal l y l oaded i n shear
Bol t gr oup
eccent r i cal l y l oaded i n shear
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ +
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ =
¿ ¿
2
2 2
2
2 2
) ( ) (
i i
i
y
i i
i x
i
y x
Mx
n
P
y x
My
n
P
R
( )
¿
=
+
n
i
i i
y x
1
2 2
r
i
P
x’
y’
R
mi
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010 84
84
Thank You

Fasteners Fasteners

Introduction
 Necessity of Connections
 Larger size of structures

• Limited length of members

Rolling & Transportation constraints

 Join two or more members

3

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010

Fasteners for Connections
 Fasteners
 Rivets  Bolts  Welds

4

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Early Days  Fasteners  Rivets  Bolts Rivet 5 High Strength Hexagonal Head Bolt High Strength Interference Body Bolt Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Early Days… Days…  Rivets  Better than common hand-tightened black bolts • Initial Pre-stress   Due to heating and cooling in riveting process No control on amount of axial tension o Could not be accounted for in design  Difficult process • Hammering • Heating • Noise • Time consuming  Labour cost!! Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 6 .

Early Days… Days…  Bolts  Fast construction • Good performance! 7 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .1960s  Welding  Neat! Slot Weld Slot Weld Groove Weld Groove Weld Plug Weld Plug Weld Fillet Weld Fillet Weld 8 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Joints  5 types Butt Joint Butt Joint Lap Joint Lap Joint Corner Joint Corner Joint 9 Tee Joint Tee Joint Edge Joint Edge Joint Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Unique Aspects of Steel Construction  On & Off Site Fabrication  Fast field erection using bolts • Field connections are typically bolted  Welding better suited to shop fabrication under controlled environment • Or where bolting is either impractical or undesirable! 10 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Unique Aspects of Steel Construction… Construction…  Pure bolting  May not be possible in large steel structures End Plate Full Penetration Groove Weld High Strength Bolts Beam Column Courtesy:: UW 11 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Basics of Bolting Basics of Bolting .

Bolting  Steps  Two bolts per connection • Basic stability  Remaining bolts to be installed and tightened after the member is aligned / plumbed • Overall geometry  Systematic pattern of tightening • Avoid local stress • Uniform load distribution 13 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .8.9 • Alloy steel • Heat-treated • Low ductility • Extensively used in construction  14 Good under dynamic / fatigue loads Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.6 • Medium grade steel • Ductile • Light low-rise structures  High Strength Bolts  Class 8. 10.Grade of Bolts  Mild Steel Bolts (Turned & Fitted)  Class 4.

8:: fy = 0.g. 8.8:: fu = 800 MPa … ε  Yield Strength (Proof Stress) = 0.9…)  Tensile Strength = X × 100 MPa σ fu = 100X fy fy/fu = .Y • Examples    Grade 4.6 × 400 = 240 MPa Grade 8.6:: fu = 400 MPa Grade 8.8.6. 4.Y × fu MPa • Examples    Grade 4.Grade of Bolts… Bolts…  Yield & Tensile Strength  Class X.6:: fy = 0. 10.Y (e. Chennai – 2 December 2010 15 .8 × 800 = 640 MPa … Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University..

Force Transfer Mechanism  Tension  Shear  Bearing • Of bolt shank • Of plate  Friction  Combination!  Two sub-types of High Strength Bolts • Bearing Type • Friction Type (Slip Critical)  16 As early as in early 1930s in the UK Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Force Transfer Mechanism… Mechanism…  Bearing Type  Snug-tight bolts • Enough tension to ensure that surfaces are in contact and bear on each other  Usual application – gravity load  Joint may slip • Load resistance by bearing and shear Snug-tight 17 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Force Transfer Mechanism… Mechanism…  Bearing Type • Bolt shank in bearing • Bolt shank in shear Bearing on Bolt Bearing on Plate P Shear in Bolt P 18 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Failure Modes of Bolted Connections 19 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Failure Modes of Bolted Connections… Connections…  Shear Failure of Bolt  Single shear  Double shear P P/2 P P P/2 Bolt in Single Shear Bolt in Single Shear 20 Bolt in Double Shear Bolt in Double Shear Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Failure Modes of Bolted Connections… Connections…  Bearing Failure  Bolt on plate  Plate on bolt Bearing failure of bolt Bearing failure of bolt 21 Bearing failure of plate Bearing failure of plate Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

General Requirements General Requirements .

Size  Diameter  Nominal diameter D  Gross diameter at thread dgross  Root diameter at thread droot Bolt Head Shank Thread D d root d gross 23 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 . pp 73)  Standard clearance hole  Over size hole  Slotted hole • Short • Long 18 18 20 22 56 Standard (STD) Oversized (OVS) Short-slotted (SSL) Long-slotted (LSL) Different holes for 16mm (nominal) diameter bolt Different holes for 16mm (nominal) diameter bolt 24 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.Bolt Holes  Three types (Table 19.

Spacing  Minimum Spacing  2.5D  To reduce interference  Maximum Spacing  Minimum of 32t or 300 mm  To minimize unconnected length t d g g g p p p p b 25 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Spacing… Spacing…  Maximum Pitch  Minimum of 16t or 200 mm • Tension members  Minimum of 12t or 200 mm • Compression members   To ensure participation Reasonable connection length t d g g g p p p p b 26 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

5d • Rolled.7d • Sheared or hand-flame cut holes  1. sawn and planed edges  To prevent end rupture t d End Distance e g g g p p p p b Edge Distance 27 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.Spacing… Spacing…  Minimum Edge and End Distance  1. Chennai – 2 December 2010 . machine-flame cut holes.

Spacing… Spacing…  Maximum Edge and End Distance  12tε  To prevent local buckling / flapping of unstiffened part t d End Distance g g g p p p p b Edge Distance 28 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Design Philosophy Design Philosophy .

Design Philosophy  Design:: To ensure  Safety • Capacity > Demand  Economy • By how much? 30 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Design Philosophy  Capacity > Demand  Capacity • Material • Geometry  Demand • Loads • Deformations 31 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Design Philosophy  Capacity > Demand  Factored Resistance > Factored Load • Limit State Design Demand Frequency Capacity Capacity or Demand Safety Margin Frequency 32 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 Capacity or Demand .

Design Strength:: Bearing Bolts Design Strength:: Bearing Bolts .

Two Types  Bearing Type Bolts  Section 10.3  Friction Grip Type Bolts  Section 10.4 34 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Bearing Type Bolts  Shank Area As  2 As  D 4  Net Tensile Stress Area An  2 An  droot 4  Effective Area Ae Ae  An or As Bolt Head Shank Thread • Depending on location of shear plane 35 D d root d gross Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in  Tension  Shear  Combined Tension and Shear  Bearing Bolts in Tension 36 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in Tension Tdb Tdb = Tnb / mb (mb = 1.9 × fub × An < fyb × As × (mb / m0) Tensile Rupture of threaded area Yielding of shank area Nominal tensile capacity equal to tensile rupture strength of threaded area subjected to maximum of yield strength of shank area 37 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .25) Tnb = Nominal Tensile Capacity of a bolt Tnb = 0.

Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in Shear Vdsb Vdsb = Vnsb / mb (mb = 1. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .25) Vnsb = Nominal Shear Capacity of a bolt Vnsb = (fub / √3) × (nn × Anb + ns × As) P/2 Note: Nominal shear capacity determined at fub P/2 P 38 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in Shear Vdsb × βlj × βlg × βpk  Connections often have multiple bolts • Contribution of each bolt • Overall contribution not equal to sum of the individual capacities  Reductions due to • Long Joints (βlj) • Large Grip Lengths (βlg) • Packing Plates (βpk) 39 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in Shear Vdsb  Reduction due to • Long Joints   P  Non-uniform distribution of shear Similar to shear lag effect Farthest bolt NOT as effective as the nearest one lj  1.075  lj lj 200D 0. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .75  lj  1 P 40 Shear distribution in Shear distribution in Long Joints Long Joints Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in Shear Vdsb  Reduction due to • Large Grip Length  P  Long bolts in bending Similar to slender versus deep beam behaviours 8D lg  3D  l g lg  lj lj l g  8D lg  0. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .73 for l g  8D lg P/2 41 P/2 Bending of bolt in joint with Bending of bolt in joint with Large Grip Length Large Grip Length Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in Shear Vdsb  Reduction due to • Packing Plates   Increase joint thickness and length of bolts Similar effect as for large grip length  pk  1  t pk 80 42 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Combined Tension and Shear • Based on von Mises yield criterion 2  32  fy2 x xy  x  f  y     2 2   xy     1       f     y 3 2  At  x   Af  t y  As  xy    1    Af 3   s y  2 2 2 2 V  Tb   Vsb       T    V   1.0  db   dsb  T 43 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .5 × D × t × fup P/2 Note: Nominal bearing strength determined at fub t = Summation of thicknesses of plates experiencing bearing in the same direction 44 P P/2 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in Bearing Vdpb Vdpb = Vnpb / mb (mb = 1.25) Vnpb = Nominal Bearing Strength of a bolt Vnpb = 2.

1. 3dhole 3dhole fup p p p p 45 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.5 × D × t × fup × kb t End Distance e kb is smaller of dhole fub e p . Chennai – 2 December 2010 .0  0. .25.Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in Bearing Vdpb  Reduction due to • End failure (bursting)  Insufficient end distance • Bearing failure of thinner plate Vnpb = 2.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .7 0.7 0.Bearing Type Bolts… Bolts…  Design Strength in Bearing Vdpb  Additional Reduction due to • Oversize / Slotted Holes  In direction normal to slot Case Oversize Short-slotted Long-slotted Multiplying Factor 0.5  Also check for Block Shear 46 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Friction Grip Bolts Friction Grip Bolts

Why Friction Grip Bolts
 Slip in Common Bolts
Bearing & Shear in Bolt P,Δ

P,Δ

P

Δ

48

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010

Why Friction Grip Bolts…
 Pinching
 Common in bearing type bolts

Pinching
49 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010

Why Friction Grip Bolts…
 Pinching
 Bolt holes elongate and cause more slip

Pinching
50 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University, Chennai – 2 December 2010

Why Friction Grip Bolts…  Pinching  Poor energy dissipation • Need to avoid pinching under working loads P Δ 51 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

8 fu  Usual application – dynamic / fatigue loads • Good for seismic applications  Joint slip only when critical shear is exceeded • Load resistance by friction before slip  Commonly called High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) Bolts 52 Pre-torque Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.Why Friction Grip Bolts…  Friction Type (Slip Critical)  Pre-tension • Usually large tensile stress in bolts ~ 0.7-0. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Why Friction Grip Bolts…  Friction Type  Shank in tension only • Till slip occurs P Critical Shear Force = μT Tension T in Bolt P = μT 53 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Yielding of plate / Fastener.Why Friction Grip Bolts…  Friction Type  Shank in tension only Applied Load P • Till slip occurs  Shank in tension. tensile / shear fracture Elastic Deformation Linear response Bearing Slip Friction Linear response Stage 4 bearing and shear • Post slip P Critical Shear Force = μT Tension T in Bolt Stage 3 Stage 2 Stage 1 Overall Elongation Shear in Bolt P = μT 54 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Why Friction Grip Bolts…  Advantages of HSFG bolting  Up to pre-load • Enlarging of bolt holes not an issue up to critical friction • Bolt not subjected to shear and bearing Pre-torque 55 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 56 .Why Friction Grip Bolts…  Slip Critical Design Strength • At Working Load  Tension  Friction  Post Slip Design strength • Ultimate Load  Tension  Shear  Combined Tension and Shear  Bearing  Same as Bearing Type o Pinching like common bearing type bolts but only at ultimate load levels Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Design Strength:: Friction Grip Bolts Design Strength:: Friction Grip Bolts .

25 at ultimate load Vnsf = Nominal Shear Capacity of a bolt governed by slip Vnsf = μf × ne × Kh × F0 58 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.10 at service load = 1.Friction Grip Bolts  Design Strength in Slip Resistance Vdsf Vdsb = Vnsf / mf mf = 1. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

10 59 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.48 0.20 0.33 0.Friction Grip Bolts…  Design Strength in Slip Resistance Vdsf μf factor (Table 20) Surface Treatment Clean mill surface Sand blasted surface Untreated surface Red lead painted surface μf 0. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

0 0. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Friction Grip Bolts…  Design Strength in Slip Resistance Vdsf Kh factor Case Clearance Oversize. SSL LSL – perpendicular loading LSL – parallel loading Kh 1.85 0.85 0.7 18 18 20 22 56 Standard (STD) Oversized (OVS) Short-slotted (SSL) Long-slotted (LSL) Different holes for 16mm (nominal) diameter bolt Different holes for 16mm (nominal) diameter bolt 60 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Friction Grip Bolts…  Design Strength in Slip Resistance Vdsf F0 = minimum bolt load = Anb × f0 = Anb × 0.7 × fub Pre-torque 61 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

75  lj  1 P 62 Shear distribution in Shear distribution in Long Joints Long Joints Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .075  lj lj 200D 0.Friction Grip Bolts…  Design Strength in Slip Resistance Vdsf  Reduction due to • Long Joints  P  Non-uniform distribution of friction force Similar to shear lag effect lj  1.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .5 × D × t × fup) / mf P/2 P  Also check for Block Shear 63 P/2 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.Friction Grip Bolts…  Design Strength After Slipping  Shear & Bearing Capacity at Ultimate Load • Same procedure as for Bearing Type Bolt Vdsf = {(fub / √3) × (nn × An + ns × As)} / mf Vdpf = (2.

Friction Grip Bolts…  Design Strength in Tension Tdf Tdf = Tnf / mf mf = 1.9 × fub × An < fyb × As × (m1 / mf) Tensile Rupture of threaded area Yielding of shank area Nominal tensile capacity equal to tensile rupture strength of threaded area subjected to maximum of yield strength of shank area 64 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.25 at ultimate load Tnf = Nominal Tensile Capacity of a friction bolt Tnf = 0. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .10 at service load = 1.

0  db   dsb  T 65 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Friction Grip Bolts…  Combined Tension and Shear • Based on von Mises yield criterion 2  32  fy2 x xy  x  f  y     2 2   xy    1         f    y 3 2  At  x   Af  t y  As  xy    1    Af 3   s y  2 2 2 2 V  Tb   Vsb       T    V   1.

7fu)  Due to external load  Due to prying force 66 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.Friction Grip Bolts…  Tension in HSFG Bolt  Due to pre-torque ( 0. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

Prying Prying .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Bolts under Prying Effect  Tension due to Prying Force Bolts in Tension End plane beam-column connection End plane beam-column connection 68 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Bolts under Prying Effect… 2T Fbt=0 Fbt=0 Fbt=T Fbt=T Tension in Bolt (Fbt) Bearing Type Bolting Bearing Type Bolting 2T Proof Load F0 Fbt=F0 69 Fbt=F0 Fbt=F0+ΔT Fbt=F0+ΔT Applied Load (2T) HSFG Bolting HSFG Bolting Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

5 (LSM) 70 t Q Te + Q Q Te + Q Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.Bolts under Prying Effect…  Prying Force Q lv Q 2le   f0bet 4  Te  2  27le lv     f0  le  Min ed . 1. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .1t  fy      β = 1 for pre-tensioned bolt 2Te ed lv le = 2 for ordinary bolt η = 1.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Bolts under Prying Effect…  End Plate Thickness M A  Qle MC  Te  Q lv  Qlv  le   Te lv  Qle M A  MC Te lv Qle   M p.plate req 2 B t 2Te ed C lv A le Q Te + Q 71 Q Te + Q Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

10     m0     Minimum Thickness tmin  4  1.plate  bet 2  fy   bet 2  fy         4      4  1.Bolts under Prying Effect…  End Plate Thickness M p. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .1  M p.plate le Q Te + Q 72 Q Te + Q Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.plate req fy be B t C lv 2Te ed A le  Prying Force Q M p.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .9fub An / 1.9fub An /  mf Te  Q  0.0   B t 2Te ed C lv A le Q Te + Q 73 Q Te + Q Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.Bolts under Prying Effect…  Finally check Te  Q  Tdf  0.25 2 2 And  T   Vsf  Q   V  T   dsf  df  e    1.

1 General • 10. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .3 Bearing Type Bolts • 10.2 Location Details of Fasteners • 10.4 Friction Grip Type Bolting 74 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.IS 800: 2007  Section 10 (page 73 …) • 10.

Bolting in Tapered Flange Sections Bolting in Tapered Flange Sections .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Indian Hot-Rolled Sections  Bolting is poorly executed  Shank gets bent due to tapered flange Cover plate I-section Plain (flat) washers Bent bolt-shank 76 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Indian Hot-Rolled Sections…  Use taper washers  IS:5372 for ISMC  IS:5374 for ISMB • Bolt diameter: 10 – 39 mm Cover plate I-section Taper washers Straight bolt-shank 77 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

General Issues in Connection Design General Issues in Connection Design .

Chennai – 2 December 2010 .Traditional Analysis  Assumptions:  Connection elements are assumed to be rigid compared to the connectors  Connector behaviour is assumed to be linearly elastic  Distribution of forces arrived at by assuming idealized load paths  Provide stiffness according to the assumed behaviour  Ensure adequate ductility and rotation capacity  Provide adequate margin of safety 79 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University.

either the results of independent analyses for a pure couple alone and for an in-plane shear force applied at the group centroid shall be superposed.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group  In-plane Loading:: The design force in a bolt/weld shall be determined by  a) Considering the connection plates to be rigid and to rotate relative to each other about a point known as the instantaneous centre of rotation ICR of the group b) In the case of a group subject to a pure couple only. or a recognized method of analysis shall be used  80 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. the ICR coincides with the group centroid. In all other cases.10. Chennai – 2 December 2010 . the ICR is at infinity and the design force is uniformly distributed throughout the group. In the case of in-plane shear force applied at the group centroid.

and shall be taken as proportional to that radius 81 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .10.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group  In-plane Loading:: The design force in a bolt/weld shall be determined by  c) The design force in a bolt or design force per unit length at any point in the group shall be assumed to act at right angles to the radius from that point to the instantaneous centre.

10. Chennai – 2 December 2010  ( i  of )   eccentrically loaded in shear i  Development n     eccentrically loaded in shear .11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group…  Combined In-plane Shear and Moment  Bolt shear due to Px and Py • Rxi = Px / N. Ryi = Py / N  M = Px × y’ + Py × x’ • Rmi = k × ri • Mi = k × ri2 • M = Σ(k × ri2) = k Σri2 x’ ri y’  Bolt shear due to M Rmi= Mri / Σri2 Combined Shear xi Rmi P  Ri  Ri  82 R  Rmi cos  i 2  R yi  Rmi sin  i 2 2  2  P  x    n    Py   My i Mx i  Bolt group Bolt group      2 2 2 2  (xFacultyy i )   Programme onxDesigny i Steel Structures – Anna University.

yi) wrt (xcg. ycg) x’ Calculate  xi2  yi2  i 1 Rmi Identify the critical bolt (xi. ycg) Calculate twisting moment M = Px y’ + Py x’ Determinencoordinates of ALL bolts (xi.11 – Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group…  Bolted Bracket          Determine Px and Py Identify the CG of bolt group. ycg) Determine x’ and y’ from (xcg. say (xcg.10. Chennai – 2 December 2010  ( i  of )   eccentrically loaded in shear i  Development n     eccentrically loaded in shear 2 2 .yi) ri Compute Ri Ensure Ri to be LESS THAN bolt value P y’ Ri  83  P  x    n    Py   My i Mx i  Bolt group Bolt group      2 2 2 2  (xFacultyy i )   Programme onxDesigny i Steel Structures – Anna University.

Thank You 84 84 Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures – Anna University. Chennai – 2 December 2010 .

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