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Fasteners for Structural Steelwork

Bolts and Bolted Connections


Fasteners for Structural Steelwork
Fasteners for Structural Steelwork
Bolts and Bolted Connections
Bolts and Bolted Connections
Rupen Goswami
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Fasteners
Fasteners
Fasteners
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 3
Necessity of Connections
Larger size of structures
Limited length of members
Rolling & Transportation constraints
Join two or more members
Introduction Introduction
Introduction
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 4
Fasteners for Connections Fasteners for Connections
Fasteners for Connections
Fasteners
Rivets
Bolts
Welds
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 5
Fasteners
Rivets
Bolts
Rivet
Rivet
High Strength
Hexagonal Head Bolt
High Strength
Hexagonal Head Bolt
High Strength
Interference Body Bolt
High Strength
Interference Body Bolt
Early Days Early Days
Early Days
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 6
Early Days Early Days
Early Days

Rivets
Better than common hand-tightened black bolts
Initial Pre-stress
Due to heating and cooling in riveting process
No control on amount of axial tension
o Could not be accounted for in design
Difficult process
Hammering
Heating
Noise
Time consuming
Labour cost!!
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 7
Bolts
Fast construction
Good performance!
Early Days Early Days
Early Days

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 8
1960s 1960s
1960s
Welding
Neat!
Groove Weld
Groove Weld
Fillet Weld
Fillet Weld
Slot Weld
Slot Weld
Plug Weld
Plug Weld
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 9
Joints Joints
Joints
5 types
Butt Joint
Butt Joint
Lap Joint
Lap Joint
Edge Joint
Edge Joint
Tee Joint
Tee Joint
Corner Joint
Corner Joint
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 10
Unique Aspects of Steel Construction Unique Aspects of Steel Construction
Unique Aspects of Steel Construction
On & Off Site Fabrication
Fast field erection using bolts
Field connections are typically bolted
Welding better suited to shop fabrication under
controlled environment
Or where bolting is either impractical or undesirable!
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 11
Pure bolting
May not be possible in large steel structures
Beam
High Strength
Bolts
Full Penetration
Groove Weld
End Plate
Column
Courtesy:: UW
Unique Aspects of Steel Construction Unique Aspects of Steel Construction
Unique Aspects of Steel Construction

Basics of Bolting
Basics of Bolting
Basics of Bolting
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 13
Bolting Bolting
Bolting
Steps
Two bolts per connection
Basic stability
Remaining bolts to be installed and tightened after
the member is aligned / plumbed
Overall geometry
Systematic pattern of tightening
Avoid local stress
Uniform load distribution
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 14
Grade of Bolts Grade of Bolts
Grade of Bolts
Mild Steel Bolts (Turned & Fitted)
Class 4.6
Medium grade steel
Ductile
Light low-rise structures
High Strength Bolts
Class 8.8, 10.9
Alloy steel
Heat-treated
Low ductility
Extensively used in construction
Good under dynamic / fatigue loads
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 15
f
y
f
u
= 100X

f
y
/f
u
= .Y

Grade of Bolts Grade of Bolts


Grade of Bolts

Yield & Tensile Strength


Class X.Y (e.g., 4.6, 8.8, 10.9)
Tensile Strength = X 100 MPa
Examples
Grade 4.6:: f
u
= 400 MPa
Grade 8.8:: f
u
= 800 MPa

Yield Strength (Proof Stress) = 0.Y f
u
MPa
Examples
Grade 4.6:: f
y
= 0.6 400 = 240 MPa
Grade 8.8:: f
y
= 0.8 800 = 640 MPa

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 16
Force Transfer Mechanism Force Transfer Mechanism
Force Transfer Mechanism
Tension
Shear
Bearing
Of bolt shank
Of plate
Friction
Combination!
Two sub-types of High Strength Bolts
Bearing Type
Friction Type (Slip Critical)
As early as in early 1930s in the UK
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 17
Bearing Type
Snug-tight bolts
Enough tension to ensure that surfaces are in contact and
bear on each other
Usual application gravity load
Joint may slip
Load resistance by bearing and shear
Snug-tight
Snug-tight
Force Transfer Mechanism Force Transfer Mechanism
Force Transfer Mechanism

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 18
Bearing Type
Bolt shank in bearing
Bolt shank in shear
Bearing on Bolt
Bearing on Plate
Shear in Bolt
P
P
Force Transfer Mechanism Force Transfer Mechanism
Force Transfer Mechanism

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 19
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections Failure Modes of Bolted Connections
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 20
Shear Failure of Bolt
Single shear
Double shear
P
P
P
P/2
P/2
Bolt in Single Shear
Bolt in Single Shear
Bolt in Double Shear
Bolt in Double Shear
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections Failure Modes of Bolted Connections
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 21
Bearing Failure
Bolt on plate
Plate on bolt
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections Failure Modes of Bolted Connections
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections

Bearing failure of bolt


Bearing failure of bolt
Bearing failure of plate
Bearing failure of plate
General Requirements
General Requirements
General Requirements
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 23
Size Size
Size
Diameter
Nominal diameter D
Gross diameter at thread d
gross
Root diameter at thread d
root
d
gross
d
root D
Shank Thread
Bolt
Head
d
gross
d
root D
Shank Thread
Bolt
Head
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 24
Three types (Table 19, pp 73)
Standard clearance hole
Over size hole
Slotted hole
Short
Long
Standard
(STD)
Oversized
(OVS)
Short-slotted
(SSL)
Long-slotted
(LSL)
18 20
18
22 56
Different holes for 16mm (nominal) diameter bolt
Different holes for 16mm (nominal) diameter bolt
Bolt Holes Bolt Holes
Bolt Holes
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 25
Spacing Spacing
Spacing
Minimum Spacing
2.5D
To reduce interference
Maximum Spacing
Minimum of 32t or 300 mm
To minimize unconnected length
d
b
t
g
p
g
g
p p p
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 26
Maximum Pitch
Minimum of 16t or 200 mm
Tension members
Minimum of 12t or 200 mm
Compression members
To ensure participation
Reasonable connection
length
d
b
t
g
p
g
g
p p p
Spacing Spacing
Spacing

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 27
Minimum Edge and End Distance
1.7d
Sheared or hand-flame cut holes
1.5d
Rolled, machine-flame cut holes, sawn and planed edges
To prevent end rupture
End Distance e
End Distance e
d
b
t
g
p
g
g
p p p
Edge Distance
Edge Distance
Spacing Spacing
Spacing

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 28
Maximum Edge and End Distance
12t
To prevent local buckling / flapping of unstiffened part
End Distance
End Distance
d
b
t
g
p
g
g
p p p
Edge Distance
Edge Distance
Spacing Spacing
Spacing

Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 30
Design Philosophy Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
Design:: To ensure
Safety
Capacity > Demand
Economy
By how much?
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 31
Design Philosophy Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
Capacity > Demand
Capacity
Material
Geometry
Demand
Loads
Deformations
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 32
Design Philosophy Design Philosophy
Design Philosophy
Capacity > Demand
Factored Resistance > Factored Load
Limit State Design
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Capacity or Demand
Demand Capacity
Safety Margin
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Capacity or Demand
Design Strength:: Bearing Bolts
Design Strength::
Design Strength::
Bearing Bolts
Bearing Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 34
Two Types Two Types
Two Types
Bearing Type Bolts
Section 10.3
Friction Grip Type Bolts
Section 10.4
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 35
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts
Shank Area A
s
Net Tensile Stress Area A
n
Effective Area A
e
Depending on
location of shear plane
2
4
D A
s
t
=
2
4
root n
d A
t
=
s n e
A A A or =
d
gross
d
root D
Shank Thread
Bolt
Head
d
gross
d
root D
Shank Thread
Bolt
Head
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 36
Design Strength in
Tension
Shear
Combined Tension and Shear
Bearing
Bolts in Tension
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 37
Design Strength in Tension T
db
T
db
= T
nb
/
mb
(
mb
= 1.25)
T
nb
= Nominal Tensile Capacity of a bolt
T
nb
= 0.9 f
ub
A
n
< f
yb
A
s
(
mb /

m0
)
Tensile Rupture of threaded area
Tensile Rupture of threaded area
Yielding of shank area
Yielding of shank area
Nominal tensile capacity equal to
tensile rupture strength of threaded area
subjected to maximumof yield strength of shank area
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 38
Design Strength in Shear V
dsb
V
dsb
= V
nsb
/
mb
(
mb
= 1.25)
V
nsb
= Nominal Shear Capacity of a bolt
V
nsb
= (f
ub
/ 3) (n
n
A
nb
+ n
s
A
s
)
Note: Nominal shear capacity determined at f
ub
P
P/2
P/2
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 39
Design Strength in Shear V
dsb

lj

lg

pk
Connections often have multiple bolts
Contribution of each bolt
Overall contribution not equal to sum of the individual
capacities
Reductions due to
Long Joints (
lj
)
Large Grip Lengths (
lg
)
Packing Plates (
pk
)
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 40
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Design Strength in Shear V


dsb
Reduction due to
Long Joints
Non-uniform distribution of shear
Similar to shear lag effect
Farthest bolt NOT as effective as the nearest one
1 75 . 0 s | s
lj
D
l
j
lj
200
075 . 1 = |
P
P
Shear distribution in
Long Joints
Shear distribution in
Long Joints
l
j
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 41
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Design Strength in Shear V


dsb
Reduction due to
Large Grip Length
Long bolts in bending
Similar to slender versus deep beam behaviours
D l
g
lj
8
lg
s
| s |
g
lg
l D
D
+
= |
3
8
73 . 0 = |
lg
D l
g
8 for =
P/2
P
Bending of bolt in joint with
Large Grip Length
Bending of bolt in joint with
Large Grip Length
l
j
P/2
l
g
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 42
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Design Strength in Shear V


dsb
Reduction due to
Packing Plates
Increase joint thickness and length of bolts
Similar effect as for large grip length
80
1
pk
pk
t
= |
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 43
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Combined Tension and Shear


Based on von Mises yield criterion
2 2 2
3
y xy x
f = t + o
2
2
2
1
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
y
xy
y
x
f
f
1
3
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
y s
xy s
y t
x t
f A
A
f A
A
0 . 1
2 2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
dsb
sb
db
b
V
V
T
T
T
V
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 44
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Design Strength in Bearing V


dpb
V
dpb
= V
npb
/
mb
(
mb
= 1.25)
V
npb
= Nominal Bearing Strength of a bolt
V
npb
= 2.5 D t f
up
Note:
Nominal bearing strength determined at f
ub
t = Summation of thicknesses of plates
experiencing bearing in the same direction
P
P/2
P/2
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 45
Design Strength in Bearing V
dpb
Reduction due to
End failure (bursting)
Insufficient end distance
Bearing failure of thinner plate
V
npb
= 2.5 D t f
up
k
b
k
b
is smaller of
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

0 . 1 , , 25 . 0
3
,
3
hole hole up
ub
f
f
d
p
d
e

End Distance e
End Distance e
d
hole
t
p p p p
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 46
Bearing Type Bolts Bearing Type Bolts
Bearing Type Bolts

Design Strength in Bearing V


dpb
Additional Reduction due to
Oversize / Slotted Holes
In direction normal to slot
Also check for Block Shear
Case Multiplying
Factor
Oversize 0.7
Short-slotted 0.7
Long-slotted 0.5
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 48
P,
Slip in Common Bolts
Bearing &
Shear in Bolt
P,

P
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 49
Pinching
Common in bearing type bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Pi nchi ng
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 50
Pinching
Bolt holes elongate and cause more slip
Pi nchi ng
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 51
Pinching
Poor energy dissipation
Need to avoid pinching under working loads

P
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 52
Friction Type (Slip Critical)
Pre-tension
Usually large tensile stress in bolts ~ 0.7-0.8 f
u
Usual application dynamic / fatigue loads
Good for seismic applications
Joint slip only when critical shear is exceeded
Load resistance by friction before slip
Commonly called
High Strength Friction Grip
(HSFG) Bolts
Pre-torque
Pre-torque
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 53
Friction Type
Shank in tension only
Till slip occurs
Tension T in Bolt Critical Shear Force = T
P = T
P
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 54
Friction Type
Shank in tension only
Till slip occurs
Shank in tension,
bearing and shear
Post slip
Tension T in Bolt
Critical Shear Force = T
P = T
P
Overall Elongation
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Friction
Linear response
Bearing
Slip
Elastic Deformation
Linear response
Yielding of plate /
Fastener; tensile /
shear fracture
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

L
o
a
d

P
Shear in Bolt
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 55
Pre-torque
Pre-torque
Advantages of HSFG bolting
Up to pre-load
Enlarging of bolt holes not an issue up to critical friction
Bolt not subjected to
shear and bearing
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 56
Slip Critical Design Strength
At Working Load
Tension
Friction
Post Slip Design strength
Ultimate Load
Tension
Shear
Combined Tension and Shear
Bearing
Same as Bearing Type
o Pinching like common bearing type bolts but only at
ultimate load levels
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Why Friction Grip Bolts
Design Strength:: Friction Grip Bolts
Design Strength::
Design Strength::
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 58
Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf
V
dsb
= V
nsf
/
mf

mf
= 1.10 at service load
= 1.25 at ultimate load
V
nsf
= Nominal Shear Capacity of a bolt governed
by slip
V
nsf
=
f
n
e
K
h
F
0
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 59
Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf

f
factor
(Table 20)
0.10 Red lead painted surface
0.20 Untreated surface
0.48 Sand blasted surface
0.33 Clean mill surface

f
Surface Treatment
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 60
Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf
K
h
factor
0.7 LSL parallel loading
0.85 LSL perpendicular loading
0.85 Oversize, SSL
1.0 Clearance
K
h
Case
Standard
(STD)
Oversized
(OVS)
Short-slotted
(SSL)
Long-slotted
(LSL)
18 20
18
22 56
Di f f er ent hol es f or 16mm ( nomi nal ) di amet er bol t
Di f f er ent hol es f or 16mm ( nomi nal ) di amet er bol t
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 61
Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf
F
0
= minimum bolt load
= A
nb
f
0
= A
nb
0.7 f
ub
Pre-torque
Pre-torque
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 62
P
P
Shear di st r i but i on i n
Long Joi nt s
Shear di st r i but i on i n
Long Joi nt s
l
j
1 75 . 0 s | s
lj
D
l
j
lj
200
075 . 1 = |
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Design Strength in Slip Resistance V
dsf
Reduction due to
Long Joints
Non-uniform distribution of friction force
Similar to shear lag effect
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 63
Design Strength After Slipping
Shear & Bearing Capacity at Ultimate Load
Same procedure as for Bearing Type Bolt
V
dsf
= {(f
ub
/ 3) (n
n
A
n
+ n
s
A
s
)} /
mf
V
dpf
= (2.5 D t f
up
) /
mf
Also check for Block Shear
P
P/2
P/2
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 64
Design Strength in Tension T
df
T
df
= T
nf
/
mf

mf
= 1.10 at service load
= 1.25 at ultimate load
T
nf
= Nominal Tensile Capacity of a friction bolt
T
nf
= 0.9 f
ub
A
n
< f
yb
A
s
(
m1 /

mf
)
Tensile Rupture of threaded area
Tensile Rupture of threaded area
Yielding of shank area
Yielding of shank area
Nominal tensile capacity equal to
tensile rupture strength of threaded area
subjected to maximum of yield strength of shank area
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 65
Combined Tension and Shear
Based on von Mises yield criterion
2 2 2
3
y xy x
f = t + o
2
2
2
1
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
y
xy
y
x
f
f
1
3
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
y s
xy s
y t
x t
f A
A
f A
A
T
V
0 . 1
2 2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
dsb
sb
db
b
V
V
T
T
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 66
Tension in HSFG Bolt
Due to pre-torque ( 0.7f
u
)
Due to external load
Due to prying force
Friction Grip Bolts
Friction Grip Bolts
Prying
Prying
Prying
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 68
Bolts under Prying Effect
Bolts under Prying Effect
Tension due to Prying Force
End pl ane beam- col umn connect i on
End pl ane beam- col umn connect i on
Bolts in Tension
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 69
2T
F
bt
=0
Applied Load (2T)
F
bt
=T F
bt
=T F
bt
=0
T
e
n
s
i
o
n

i
n

B
o
l
t

(
F
b
t
)
2T
F
bt
=F
0
F
bt
=F
0
+T F
bt
=F
0
+T F
bt
=F
0
Proof Load F
0
HSFG Bol t i ng
HSFG Bol t i ng
Bear i ng Ty pe Bol t i ng
Bear i ng Ty pe Bol t i ng
Bolts under Prying Effect
Bolts under Prying Effect
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 70
Prying Force Q
= 1 for pre-tensioned bolt
= 2 for ordinary bolt
= 1.5 (LSM)
(

|q
=
2
4
0
27 2
v e
e
e
e
v
l l
t b f
T
l
l
Q
(
(

|
=
y
d e
f
f
t e l
0
1 . 1 , Min
l
v
l
e
2T
e
T
e
+ Q T
e
+ Q
Q Q
t
e
d
Bolts under Prying Effect
Bolts under Prying Effect
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 71
End Plate Thickness
e A
Ql M =
( ) ( )
e v e e v v e C
Ql l T l l Q l Q T M = + + =
req plate ,
2
p
v e
e
C A
M
l T
Ql
M M
= =
=
l
v
l
e
2T
e
T
e
+ Q T
e
+ Q
Q Q
t
e
d
B A C
Bolts under Prying Effect
Bolts under Prying Effect
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 72
End Plate Thickness
Minimum Thickness
Prying Force
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
10 . 1 4 4
2
0
2
plate ,
y
e
m
y
e
p
f
t b
f
t b
M
e y
p
b f
M
t
req plate ,
min
1 . 1 4
=
e
p
l
M
Q
plate ,
=
l
v
l
e
2T
e
T
e
+ Q T
e
+ Q
Q Q
t
e
d
B A C
Bolts under Prying Effect
Bolts under Prying Effect
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 73
Finally check
And
mf n ub df e
A f T Q T = s + / 9 . 0
25 . 1 / 9 . 0
n ub e
A f Q T s +
0 . 1
2 2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
dsf
sf
df
e
V
V
T
Q T
l
v
l
e
2T
e
T
e
+ Q T
e
+ Q
Q Q
t
e
d
B A C
Bolts under Prying Effect
Bolts under Prying Effect
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 74
IS 800: 2007
IS 800: 2007
Section 10 (page 73 )
10.1 General
10.2 Location Details of Fasteners
10.3 Bearing Type Bolts
10.4 Friction Grip Type Bolting
Bolting in Tapered Flange Sections
Bolting in Tapered Flange Sections
Bolting in Tapered Flange Sections
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 76
Indian Hot-Rolled Sections
Indian Hot-Rolled Sections
Bolting is poorly executed
Shank gets bent due to tapered flange
Bent bolt-shank
I - sect i on
Plain (flat) washers
Cover pl at e
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 77
Use taper washers
IS:5372 for ISMC
IS:5374 for ISMB
Bolt diameter: 10 39 mm
Straight
bolt-shank
Cover pl at e
I - sect i on
Taper washers
Indian Hot-Rolled Sections
Indian Hot-Rolled Sections
General Issues in Connection Design
General Issues in Connection Design
General Issues in Connection Design
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 79
Traditional Analysis
Traditional Analysis
Assumptions:
Connection elements are assumed to be rigid
compared to the connectors
Connector behaviour is assumed to be linearly elastic
Distribution of forces arrived at by assuming idealized
load paths
Provide stiffness according to the assumed behaviour
Ensure adequate ductility and rotation capacity
Provide adequate margin of safety
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 80
10.11 Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
10.11 Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
In-plane Loading:: The design force in a bolt/weld shall
be determined by
a) Considering the connection plates to be rigid and to rotate
relative to each other about a point known as the
instantaneous centre of rotation ICR of the group
b) In the case of a group subject to a pure couple only, the ICR
coincides with the group centroid. In the case of
in-plane shear force applied at the group centroid, the ICR is at
infinity and the design force is uniformly distributed
throughout the group.
In all other cases, either the results of independent analyses
for a pure couple alone and for an in-plane shear force applied
at the group centroid shall be superposed, or a recognized
method of analysis shall be used
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 81
10.11 Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
10.11 Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
In-plane Loading:: The design force in a bolt/weld shall
be determined by
c) The design force in a bolt or design force per unit length at
any point in the group shall be assumed to act at right angles
to the radius from that point to the instantaneous centre, and
shall be taken as proportional to that radius
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 82
10.11 Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
10.11 Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
Combined In-plane Shear and Moment
Bolt shear due to P
x
and P
y
R
xi
= P
x
/ N; R
yi
= P
y
/ N
M = P
x
y + P
y
x
R
mi
= k r
i
M
i
= k r
i
2
M= (k r
i
2
) = k r
i
2
Bolt shear due to M
R
mi
= Mr
i
/ r
i
2
Combined Shear
( ) ( ) | |
2 2
sin cos
i mi yi i mi xi i
R R R R R u u + + + =
Bol t gr oup
eccent r i cal l y l oaded i n shear
Bol t gr oup
eccent r i cal l y l oaded i n shear

(
(

+
+ +
(
(

+
+ =

2
2 2
2
2 2
) ( ) (
i i
i
y
i i
i x
i
y x
Mx
n
P
y x
My
n
P
R
r
i
P
x
y
R
mi
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 83
10.11 Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
10.11 Analysis of Bolt / Weld Group
Bolted Bracket
Determine P
x
and P
y
Identify the CG of bolt group, say (x
cg
, y
cg
)
Determine x and y from (x
cg
, y
cg
)
Calculate twisting moment M = P
x
y + P
y
x
Determine coordinates of ALL bolts (x
i
,y
i
) wrt (x
cg
, y
cg
)
Calculate
Identify the critical bolt (x
i
,y
i
)
Compute R
i
Ensure R
i
to be LESS THAN bolt value
Bol t gr oup
eccent r i cal l y l oaded i n shear
Bol t gr oup
eccent r i cal l y l oaded i n shear

(
(

+
+ +
(
(

+
+ =

2
2 2
2
2 2
) ( ) (
i i
i
y
i i
i x
i
y x
Mx
n
P
y x
My
n
P
R
( )

=
+
n
i
i i
y x
1
2 2
r
i
P
x
y
R
mi
Faculty Development Programme on Design of Steel Structures Anna University, Chennai 2 December 2010 84
84
Thank You