City District Government Karachi

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program

Initial Environmental Examination Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Document Stage: Final Report Document Date: March 07, 2008

The initial environmental examination is a document of the borrower. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature.

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

CONTENTS

I. 

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 6 
A  B  C  D  E  Overview .........................................................................................................6  Environmental Regulatory Compliance .......................................................6  Environmental Category of the Subproject .................................................7  Objectives and Scope of IEE ........................................................................7  Report Structure ............................................................................................7 

II. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ..................................................... 8 
A  B  C  Background ....................................................................................................8  Existing Road .................................................................................................9  Proposed Development Plan ........................................................................9 

III.  DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT ................................................. 12 
A  Environmental Profile of Karachi ...............................................................12  Physical Environment ....................................................................................12  Biological Environment ..................................................................................13  Social and Cultural Environment ....................................................................14  Environmental Conditions of the Existing Road.......................................15 

IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES ...... 19 
A  B  C  D  Design Related Impacts and Design Concept ...........................................19  Sensitive Receptors .....................................................................................19  Preparing the Contractor(s) to Install Mitigation ......................................19  Construction Related Impacts ....................................................................21  Traffic Management .......................................................................................21  Public Safety ..................................................................................................21  Land Productivity and Resource Use .............................................................21  Soil Erosion ....................................................................................................22  Soil Contamination .........................................................................................23  Material Management ....................................................................................23  Water Resources ...........................................................................................24  Noise and Dust ..............................................................................................25  Sanitation and Disease Vectors .....................................................................26  Traffic Management .......................................................................................26  Enhancements ...............................................................................................26  Operational Impacts ....................................................................................27  Noise .............................................................................................................27  Gaseous Emissions .......................................................................................27  Particle Emissions..........................................................................................27 
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Hazardous Driving Conditions .......................................................................28  Soil Erosion ....................................................................................................28  Community Safety..........................................................................................28 

V.  PUBLIC CONSULTATION ................................................................ 30 
A  B  Identification of Stakeholders .....................................................................30  Consultation with Stakeholders .................................................................30 

VI.  INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ...................................................................... 33 
A  B  C  D  Institutional Requirements ..........................................................................33  Environmental Assessment of Follow-Up Subprojects ...........................36  Environmental Management Plan ..............................................................36  Environmental Monitoring ..........................................................................37 

VII.  FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................... 41  VIII.  CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................. 42  Appendix A:  Selected Photographs..................................................... 43  Appendix B:  Environmental Management Plan .................................. 48 

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FIGURES
Figure 1: Location of the Link Road in Karachi ..........................................................11  Figure 2: Satellite Image of Northern Section of the Existing Road .........................17  Figure 3: Satellite Image of Southern Section of the Existing Road ........................18 

TABLES
Table 1: Ambient Air Quality in Karachi (µg/m3) .........................................................13  Table 2: Population of Karachi .....................................................................................15  Table 3: Summary of Public Consultation...................................................................31  Table 4: Environmental Monitoring Plan for Link Road Subproject .........................39  Table 5: Summary of Estimated Costs for EMP Implementation for Link Road ......40 

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ADB CDGK CSC DCO DDC DOE EARF EDO EIA EMP EPA GER GoP IEE KMCSDP MFF MMP NEQS NOX NWFP Pak-EPA REA RoW RRP SEPA SO2 SR TA TCD Asian Development Bank City District Government Karachi Construction Supervisory Consultant District Coordination Officer Detailed Design Consultants District Officer Environment Environmental Assessment and Review Framework Executive District Officer Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Management Plan Environmental Protection Agency Gross Enrolment Rate Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Initial Environmental Examination Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program Multi-tranche Financing Facility Materials Management Plan National Environmental Quality Standards Oxides of Nitrogen Northwest Frontier Province Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Environmental Assessment Right-of-Way Report and Recommendations to the President Sindh Environmental Protection Agency Sulphur Dioxide Sensitive Receiver Technical Assistance Transport and Communication Department

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
dB(A) ft km km/h m m3 m2 s Decibel (A-weighted) Feet/Foot kilometre kilometre per hour meter cubic meter square meter seconds

LAWS AND REGULATIONS
IEE-EIA Regulations 2000 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental impact Assessment Regulations 2000 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 Sindh Local Government Ordinance 2001

PEPA 1997 SLGO 2001

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I.

INTRODUCTION

1. Government of Pakistan (GoP) has requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to provide a multi-tranche financing facility (MFF) to facilitate investments to support the proposed Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program (KMCSDP, the Program). The KMCSDP will implement a number of subprojects within seven components including: support to institutional reform and development; water supply and wastewater management; urban roads; traffic and transportation; improvement of katchi abadi (squatter settlements) and assistance in housing for the poor; public awareness and outreach; investment program management and engineering support. 2. This Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) presents the environmental assessments of the road link between Super Highway (M-9) and the National Highway (N-5), a component of the traffic and transportation sector in Tranche 1 of the MFF. This IEE has been carried out to ensure that the potential adverse environmental impacts are appropriately addressed in line with Environment Policy (2002) and ADB Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003). This IEE has also been prepared to meet the requirements of the GoP for environmental assessment. 3. This IEE is submitted to ADB by the City District Government Karachi (CDGK) and this report will be submitted for review and approval by the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) if required by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 (PEPA 1997) and its subservient rules and regulations. A Overview

4. The MFF will substantially support improvements to transport sector in Karachi. The transport component in Tranche 1 of the KMCSDP MFF includes urgently needed widening and rehabilitation of Link Road between Super Highway (M-9) and National Highway (N-5). This link road between two important highways connecting Karachi with the rest of the country caters for over 5,500 vehicles per day. More than 80% of this traffic consists of heavy vehicles, trucks, trailers and tankers. With the new developments planned along the road the traffic on this road is likely to increase significantly. B Environmental Regulatory Compliance

5. Section 12(1) of the PEPA 1997 requires that “No proponent of a project1 shall commence construction or operation unless he has filed with the Federal Agency2 an initial environmental examination or, where the project is likely to cause an adverse environmental effect, an environmental impact assessment, and has obtained from the Federal Agency approval in respect thereof.”

1

Defined as “any activity, plan, scheme, proposal or undertaking involving any change in the environment nd includes-(a) construction or use of buildings or other works; (b) construction or use of roads or other transport systems; (c) construction or operation of factories or other installations; (d) mineral prospecting, mining, quarrying, stone-crushing, drilling and the like; (e) any change of land use or transit/transportuse; and (f) alteration, expansion, repair, decommissioning or abandonment of existing buildings or other work roads or other transport systems, factories or other installations. The Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan has delegated the power of the Federal Agency for EIA and IEE reviews for projects falling in different provinces to the environmental protection agencies of the respective provinces. Federal Agency in this case is the sindh Environmental Protection Agency. Page 6 of 62

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6. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental impact Assessment Regulations 2000 (IEE-EIA Regulations 2000) provide the necessary details on the preparation, submission, and review of the IEE and the environmental impact assessment (EIA). The regulation categorizes the projects on the basis of anticipated degree of environmental impact. Project types that are likely to have significant adverse impact are listed in Schedule II of the regulations and require an EIA. Projects that are not likely to have significant adverse impacts are listed in Schedule I and require an IEE to be conducted, rather than an EIA, provided that the project is not located in an environmentally sensitive area. Provincial Highways or major roads (except maintenance or rebuilding or reconstruction) costing more than Rs 50 million require EIA (Schedule II) and those costing less require IEE. . 7. According to this schedule there is no requirement to submit an IEE or EIA to the SEPA for this road. However the IEE-EIA Regulations 2000 also allow the environmental protection agencies (EPAs) to direct the proponent of a project whether or not listed in Schedule I or Schedule II to file an IEE or EIA for reasons recorded in such a direction. Such a direction would need to be issued after recommendation in writing from the Environmental Assessment Advisory Committee to be constituted under the IEE-EIA Regulations 2000. C Environmental Category of the Subproject

8. Under ADB’s Environmental Policy (2002) and Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003) the Tranche 1 subprojects are Category “B” and require IEE. D • • • Objectives and Scope of IEE

9. The objectives of this IEE were to: Assess the existing environmental conditions in the project area including the identification of environmentally sensitive areas; Assess the proposed planning and development activities to identify their potential impacts, evaluate the impacts, and determine their significance; and Propose appropriate mitigation measures that can be incorporated into the proposed activities to minimize any adverse impacts, ensure that residual impacts are acceptable and propose monitoring and planning of future projects in this sector in Karachi.

10. This IEE is based mainly on secondary sources of information, field reconnaissance surveys and public consultation undertaken specifically for this study was also undertaken. E Report Structure

11. Following this introduction this report contains seven more sections including (ii) description of subproject; (iii) description of the environment; (iv) environmental impacts and mitigation; (v) public consultation; (vi) institutional requirements and environmental management plan; (vii) findings and recommendations; and (viii) conclusions. 12. Photographs of the project area are presented in Appendix A and the environmental management plan is presented in Appendix B.

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II. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
A Background

14. The population of Karachi is increasing at more than 4% annually. Correspondingly, the city is growing both laterally and vertically. A consequence of the vertical expansion is increased traffic on the existing roads. The recurring traffic congestions on the city roads suggest that traffic on most of these roads have exceeded their carrying capacities. Recent improvement of the inner road network has eased the situation to certain extent however, in the absence of mass transit system any further vertical expansion of the city is likely to be slowed down due to lack of road capacities. Under the circumstances, considerable horizontal expansion is taking place. As the city is bounded on the south by the sea and to the west by Hub River and Balochistan, the expansion is more towards the east and north. 15. The expansion to the east is more rapid. The factors that contribute towards making the eastward direction preferable for expansion are a) the terrain in this direction is flat and generally alluvial making it more suitable for development, unlike the north where it is more rocky, b) two major roads in the east, the National Highway (N-5) and the Super Highway (M-9), provide easy access to the area whereas in the north the only road is the recently developed northern bypass, c) lastly, proximity to industrial zones such as Korangi, Landhi, Port Qasim Industrial Zone and Gharo (further east of Port Qasim). 16. In addition to the industrial development taking place in Gharo Industrial Area, Bin Qasim and both sides of National Highway (N-5), development are also taking place along the link road. These include Education City, some industrial units, and many housing schemes. 17. Karachi is connected to the rest of the country by three major highways (see Figure 1). The RCD Highway to the west connects the city to Hub, Quetta and rest of the Balochistan, whereas the Super Highway (M-9) and the National Highway (N-5), to the east connect the Karachi rest of the country. The National Highway (N-5) has been recently converted to dual lane highway whereas the Super Highway (M-9) is being converted to limited access motorway. A major part of the traffic on these highways consists of trucks carrying goods imported at Port Qasim and Karachi Port or designated for export from these ports. Another source of truck traffic on these highways are the industrial areas of Karachi. Karachi, being the industrial center of the country also generates traffic on these highways in the form of finished goods designated for north or raw material from received from the north. 18. The expansion of the city to the east in the form of new housing schemes, development of new education institutions, and industrial units has put an added load on the existing link road between the National Highway (N-5) and the Super Highway (M-9). The road is an important link that will: i) Bring upcountry traffic on the Super Highway (M-9) to the Port Qasim, Korangi, Landhi and Gharo industrial zones

ii) Bring upcountry traffic on Super Highway (M-9) to the Port Qasim and to some extent to Karachi Port iii) Bring upcountry traffic on RCD Highway to the Port Qasim, Korangi, Landhi and Gharo industrial zones iv) Bring upcountry traffic on RCD Highway to the Port Qasim

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v) Connect Bin Qasim and Gharo industrial areas to residential sectors in the northeast. 19. To meet the increasing traffic demand with the pace and shape of development of the city in near future, rehabilitation and widening of this link road is imperative not only to accommodate the increasing traffic needs but to provide relief to the existing facilities. 20. The feasibility study of the link road suggests that this route has enough potential to meet the increasing traffic demands associated with the development of Karachi city. It is envisaged that with the expansion of this road, a viable route would be established with the potential to serve the growing traffic demand and to reduce the congestion on the other nearby routes. B Existing Road

21. The existing Link Road is two lane single carriageway starting from National Highway (N-5), Karachi-Thatta-Hyderabad section at about 8 km from Pakistan Steel Mills and terminating at Super Highway (M-9) at Km 24, near Kathore Village. The length of the Link Road is 18.1 km between the two highways. About 85% of traffic on link road comprises heavy trailers and trucks. The existing link road is connected with the Super Highway (M-9) with a single loop interchange, whereas the National Highway (N-5) between Karachi and Thatta is connected with an at-grade intersection. 22. The existing road condition is rated from poor at most places and fair at some locations. The earthen shoulders are also in bad shapes. The deep rutting on the left lane owing to movement of heavy loaded vehicles and no maintenance. The deck slabs of the bridges have wide holes which are repaired improperly from time to time. The culverts are in good shape and do not need any major repair. Only minor repair may be needed. 23. The existing link road is toll facility. There exists one toll plaza on National Highway (N-5) side whereas only a temporary cabin is erected on the Super Highway (M-9) side to collect toll. 24. Traffic survey on the road was undertaken in 2001. According to this survey, the total annual average daily traffic on the road in 2001 was 4,102. This is projected to increase to over 5,500. The traffic survey also showed that more than 80% of the traffic consisted of buses, trucks, trailers, and tankers. C Proposed Development Plan

25. Under the proposed project, the existing two lane single carriageway will be widened and rehabilitated and converted to dual carriageway, 4-lane road (2 lanes on each side) and separated with 3-m wide median. The travel width on each side will be 7.3 m. A 1 m wide internal shoulder and 3 m wide external shoulder will be constructed on each side. 26. The works also include provision of two bridges and repair and rehabilitation of the two bridges and provision of other allied works like signage, road marking, and guardrails. 27. Following is the design criteria for the road: i) Height of embankment: Between 0.60 to 1.50 m ii) Pavement Life: 10 years iii) Speed: 90 km per hour iv) Lane Width Dual carriageway with 2 Lanes for

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28. The road will be constructed according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design codes.

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Figure 1: Location of the Link Road in Karachi

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III. DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT
A Environmental Profile of Karachi

Physical Environment 29. Topographically ridges, plains, and the coastal belt are the dominant topographic features of the Karachi. The main features include ridge and runnel upland in Sindh Kohistan, piedmont colluvial fans and peneplains, north of Karachi, moidan and Gadap Plains, plains and Plateau of Malir-Lyari Interflous, plains and Hills of the Coastal Belt. 30. Pakistan has 15 seismo-tectonic regions.3 The proposed project is located in the seismo-tectonic region of the Southern Kirthar Ranges, where a moderate level of activity is believed to exist, but large magnitude earthquakes are rare. The Building Code of Pakistan4 places Karachi in Zone 2 corresponding approximately to Intensity VII of the Modified Mercalli Scale of 1931.5 The peak ground acceleration values in the Zone 2 according to the Building Code of Pakistan ranges from 0.08 to 0.16 g. Thus every construction in this zone should be designed to withstand the load corresponding to ground acceleration value of about 0.2 g. 31. There are no significant natural freshwater sources in Karachi. Almost the entire freshwater needs are met by surface waste sources located outside Karachi, i.e. the Indus River (about 120 km to the east of the city) and the Hub River (a perennial stream that originates in Balochistan) that marks the boundary between Karachi and Balochistan. 32. The Lyari and Malir Rivers that pass through the city do not have any natural flow, except during the monsoons. Lyari River that passes through the western Karachi, rises in the northeastern part of the Karachi district and is joined by smaller natural drains within the city limits. The Malir River rises in the northeast of the city and flows through the eastern part of the city. Outside the monsoon season flows in these rivers are more or less completely formed by municipal sewage and industrial effluent discharges that flow into the rivers and tributaries as they traverse the city. 33. Groundwater resources in the Karachi area are limited. The aquifers close to the coastal belt are mostly saline and unusable for domestic purposes. The aquifers near the Hub River bed, estimated to lie at depths of 50-100 m, are well developed and are source of water for agriculture and other domestic purposes. The main potential sources of groundwater pollution in Karachi are the unlined drains carrying contaminated waste from the industries. Similarly, the drains and the domestic and industrial waste in the Malir and Lyari rivers can also potentially seep through the river beds and reach the groundwater aquifers.

3 4

Quittmeyer, R. C. 1979. The Seismicity of Pakistan and Its Relation to Surface Faults in Geodynamics of Pakistan. Quetta: Geological Survey of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan. 1986. Building Code of Pakistan. Islamabad: Ministry of Housing and Works, Environment and Urban Affairs Division. A revised version of this document is under development and is likely to be available soon, however, a draft could not be reviewed at the time of writing of this report. Unlike earthquake magnitude, which indicates the energy a quake expends, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931 is designed to describe the effects of an earthquake, at a given place, on natural features, on installations and on human beings. It has 12 divisions, using Roman numerals from I to XII. I is the mildest—described as: ‘Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable circumstances’— and XII is the most severe—‘Damage total. Waves seen on ground surfaces. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown upward into the air. Page 12 of 62

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34. The climate of the Karachi can be broadly classified as moderate and which lies in ‘Subtropical Double Season Coastland zone’6. The characteristic features of this climatic zone are moderate temperatures, afternoon sea breezes in the hot season, and higher temperatures in the period from July to January than January to July, in spite of the monsoon-rain. 35. At present, monitoring of urban air pollution in Pakistan is limited to isolated studies and instances where air pollutants are measured for brief periods at selected locations. Urban locality, city, region, or countrywide continuous or repeated air quality monitoring data has not been collected. Similarly, there is no formal system of air quality data storage and reporting. Whatever air quality data is available is with the public and private organizations and agencies that conducted the studies. The integrity of air quality as well as the availability of ambient air quality data are important concerns. 36. A study on emissions of vehicular traffic was conducted by Transport and Communication Department (TCD), of the CDGK to evaluate the impact of operation of vehicular traffic on physical, living and social environment of Karachi7. The study was based on sampling undertaken at 28 different locations throughout the city. The results are presented in Table 1. Table 1: Ambient Air Quality in Karachi (µg/m3)
Maximum Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Particulate Matter Less than 10 micron Ozone
Source: TCD CDGK

Minimum 16 17 40 10

Average 57 199 243 35

WHO Guidelines and Targets8 500 (10-minute) 20-125 (annual) 40 annual 200 1-hr 20-70 annual 50-150 24-hr mean 100-250 8-hr mean

110 489 490 92

37. The air quality study also included measurement of roadside noise. The study suggested that the average noise level at the 28 locations was 77dB(A). The maximum was recorded as high as 99dB(A), the minimum level was 52dB(A). By comparison with the World Bank Guidelines the measured levels are much above guideline acceptable limits of 55dB(A) during the day for residential areas and 70dB(A) for industrial and commercial areas. Biological Environment 38. Pakistan can be divided into four phytogeographical regions based on similarity of floral diversity. Karachi falls in the Saharo-Sindian region. This region covers almost 80% of the country including all of Sindh, central and southern Punjab, most of Balochistan and the plains of Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP). Floristically the

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Shamshad, K.M. 1988. The Meteorology of Pakistan. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Feasibility Study and Development of Transportation Control Plan of Karachi. Prepared by Pakistnn Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission for Transport and Communication Department, City District Government Karachi. 2007. For several parameters, WHO now sets guidelines and also interim targets. Wherever a range is provided, the first number is the guideline value whereas the second is first interim target value. Page 13 of 62

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Saharo-Sindian region is considered very poor because despite the area covered only 9.1% of the known 5,640 floral species of Pakistan are found in this region9. The natural flora is sparse and mostly xerophytes in the west and northwest areas of the city. However, marine phytoplankton and mangrove forests are in relative abundance in the coastal areas. 39. Several species of reptiles, birds, and terrestrial mammals are found in the city, wherever suitable refuges and habitats are found. The beaches and coast of Karachi are home to an abundance of marine fauna, such as birds, rare reptiles, fish, and marine mammals. Karachi also falls in the Indus Flyway, one of the major migration routes for birds. Karachi coast becomes the winter home and even breeding ground for many species of birds. There are 26 mammal species reported from the region, in which 2 species musk shrew and pigmy shrew are considered to be the rare species. 40. The reptiles and amphibians found in the Karachi include 4 species of land snake, 8 species of marine snake, 10 species of gecko, the Indian sand swimmer, the Indian monitor, and 5 species of frogs. All these species are widely distributed across the region10. Social and Cultural Environment 41. Karachi is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the largest city in Pakistan. The metropolitan area along with its suburbs comprises one of the world's most populated area that spreads over 1,000 square kilometers11. The city credits its growth to the mixed populations of economic and political migrants and refugees with different national, provincial, linguistic and religious origins, many of whom have come to settle permanently. 42. The population of Karachi in the 1998 census was reported as 9.86 million, an increase of 80% from the 1981 census (see Table 2). The present estimate of Karachi population in the Master Plan is 16.4 million.12 This demonstrates that the population growth rate has increased from 3.6% per annum in the 1981-98 period to 5.8% since 1998. Part of this phenomenal growth can be explained if the population of Karachi was under-reported in 1998. The Master Plan estimates that the population in 1998 was actually 11.335 million. This gives an annual growth rate of 4.42% in the 1981-1998 period and 4.2% since then. According to the Karachi Master Plan, the population of the city is expected to reach 27.6 million by 2020, almost double that of 2005.

9 10 11

Nasir, Y. J. and A.R. Rubina. 1995. Wild Flowers of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Hafiz Ur Rehman and I. Fehmida. 1997. A Revised checklist of Reptiles of Pakistan. Records Zool. Sur. of Pak. Vol. XIII. Zoological Survey Department of Pakistan. The Karachi is divided into 18 towns. The total areas of these towns is 3,530 square kilometers. This includes the urban areas, as well as the rural areas. report three different figures ranging from 14.7 million to 20 million.

12 The estimates of current population of Karachi vary by a large margin. Even the website of CDGK,

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Table 2: Population of Karachi
Source Population Census Organization Year 1981 1998 Karachi Master Plan 1998 2007 Population (‘000) 5,438 9,856 11,335 16,401 Annual Growth Rate 4.96% 3.56% 4.42% 4.19%

Sources: 1981 District Census Report of Karachi Division, 1981 District Census Reports of five districts of Karachi, Karachi Master Plan 2020

43. The female-to-male ratio in the Karachi population 100:117, as compared to the national figure of 100:109. Of the total population 37.6% are under the age of 15 years and 58% are between 15 to 50 years of age. In comparison, the national figures are 42.4% and 44.6%, respectively. These numbers are reflective of the high migrant population in the city who come here often leaving their families behind in order to earn their living. 44. Approximately 22% of the present day population consists of migrants. The ethnic configuration of the metropolis shows that 48% people are Urdu speaking. 14% of Karachiites are Punjabi speaking, 11% speak Pashto, 7.2% speak Sindhi, 4.3% speak Balochi and Seraiki is spoken by 2.11% of the population. 45. Literacy rates have been on a constant ascendancy in Karachi, with substantial reduction in male-female literacy gap. The overall literacy rate in 1998 was 67.4%, including 62.3% literacy for women. The Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-06 reports that the gross enrolment rate (GER) in Karachi for the primary schools (age 5-9) is almost 100%. Furthermore, the GER at the metric level in Karachi is at 79% during the period 2004-05, and the overall literacy rate of the population (10 years and above) in 2004-05 was 78%. There will thus be a large population ready to enter the work force in a decade or so requiring employment opportunities. B Environmental Conditions of the Existing Road

46. The existing link road passes through an area in which very little development has taken place although a large portion of the land has been allocated for various purposes. On both sides of the road most of the land is bare or covered with sparse wild vegetation and few trees. The satellite image of the existing road is shown in Figures 2 and 3. Selected photographs showing conditions along the road are included as Appendix A. 47. The key environmental features on the 18-km road are the following: i) There are three villages that are connected to this road. The largest of the three is located on both side of the road, however, other than one building the other houses are located more than 100 m from the road. Both the other villages are located away at least 300 m from the road.

ii) An underground water conduit crosses the road at about 3 km from National Highway (N-5). This is the main water conduit that brings water from Indus River to Karachi. iii) At least three housing schemes are planned on the road for which land has been allocated and acquired, however, no development has taken place so far.

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iv) At least two poultry farms are operating near the road. The farms buildings are made of unbaked bricks and corrugated metal roofs. v) There are three roadside tea and food stalls to cater for the needs of the travelers and the local population. Two of these are located at the same place. vi) There is one shrine at about 8 km from the National Highway (N-5). It is located more than 500 m from the road. In addition, there is one roadside mosque. vii) There are two bridges on the road: a 4-span bridge at 11 km from National Highway (N-5) on Sukin Nallah, and an 11-span bridge on Malir River at 17 km from the National Highway (N-5). viii) There is one milk processing plant near the link road at 14 km from the National Highway (N-5). 48. The project area lies in the tropical thorn forest ecozone and vegetation is typical desert scrub. The common and dominant species are Zizyphus nummularia, Salvadora oleoides, Rhazia stricta, and Fagonia indica, along with other common grass species, such as Aristida funniculata and Octhocloa compressa. Most of the species found in the project area are quite hardy, with a wide ecological aptitude. No threatened or endangered species are present in the project area. 49. The nearby villages that have access from the road are Goth Jokhio Aeb, Goth Abdur Rehman Jokhio, and Goth Mohammad Qasim Magsi. 50. The villages residents are dependent on the Link Road road for access to the city. The largest of these villages is Goth Abdul Rahman Jokhio. It has nearly 500 households and a population of more than 4,000. The villages have electrical connections but no gas supply. The villages depend on locally collected fuel wood to meet their cooking needs. There is no water source. Water is bought from Gadap on the Super Highway (M-9) at Rs 600 per tanker. Although there is a primary school but teachers are often not available. There is one basic health unit in the area. The livelihood of the occupants is dependent on the jobs provided by industrial units and farms in the area. Other opportunities include manual labor for loading of sand at quarries, fuel wood collection, jobs in government organization mainly as security guards, and livestock rearing.

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Figure 2: Satellite Image of Northern Section of the Existing Road

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Figure 3: Satellite Image of Southern Section of the Existing Road

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IV. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES
51. This section discusses the potential environmental impacts of the proposed rehabilitation project of the link road and identifies mitigation measures to minimize the impacts in the design, construction and operational phases. The main issues relate to impacts such as noise, dust, and traffic interruption during construction. A Design Related Impacts and Design Concept

52. The proposed project involves rehabilitation and widening to a dual carriageway of an existing two lane road. As the existing alignment of the road will be followed, route selection and its related impacts not likely to be relevant. However there are a number of other matter that will require the attention of the detailed design consultant engineers (DDC) to avoid construction impacts by good design and to minimise operational environmental pollution impacts. In line with ADB policy on environmentally responsible procurement, opportunities to provide environmental enhancements should also be identified in the detailed designs well as routine matters such as avoiding unnecessary removing of trees and compensatory and enhancement planting. Other opportunities for design construction ad operational enhancements have been included in the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and should be reviewed at the detailed design stage. 53. The land required for widening of the road is part of the existing right-of-way and no additional land will be acquired. The proposed land is free of encroachments and no requirement for resettlement is envisaged. However the project will need to be disclosed to SEPA and a check should be made at the detailed design stage that the road alignment has been designed as described in the Report and Recommendations to the President (RRP) as approved by the ADB Board. If there are changes in alignment the IEE and EMP should be reviewed and resubmitted to ADB and incorporating any recommendations and requirement form the SEPA. B Sensitive Receptors

54. The Education City and residential estates are planned to be near the Link Road. The residential elements and teaching facilities should not bet alongside the Link Road carriageways but should be set back from the Link Road so that traffic fumes can be dispersed and road traffic noise can be attenuated before affecting the sensitive receivers in the developments. 55. There are no schools or any medical facility on the Link road yet. The receptors with some degree of sensitivity include the shrine at about 8 km from National Highway N-5 and 500 m from the Link Road, and a roadside mosque the three roadside tea and food stalls, and part of the village Goth Abdul Rahman Jokhio. 56. At the detailed design stage, and with the benefit of forecast traffic flows for the Link Road, noise criteria for environmental planning should be discussed with CDGK such as appropriate set backs can be planned. At this stage and given the ample space available it appears that the World Bank criterion of Leq67dB(A) at the sensitive receiver for new noise sensitive developments such as residences, schools, colleges and hospitals could comfortably be achieved. C Preparing the Contractor(s) to Install Mitigation

57. During the detailed design phase and in preparation for the construction phase, the DDC will prepare tender documents to make sure that future contractors will be prepared
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and primed to cooperate with the implementing agency, project management, supervising consultants and local population in the mitigation of environmental impacts. The detailed designers should include in the tender documents and daft contracts requirements as follows: i) Minimize acquisition of agricultural land for temporary facilities (if needed) by selecting preferred locations in detailed designs for construction yards and asphalt plant on barren or marginal land.

ii) Solution spaces should be identified in advance by the DDC and approved by CDGK to ensure sufficient disposal space for cut surface materials and avoid flytipping. iii) Arrangements to facilitate the timely production of rock and bitumen based materials for construction and to avoid impacts due to unnecessary stockpiling near the Link Road route. iv) Retain or re-provision current facilities for pedestrian crossing in detailed designs and avoid severance v) Ensure that provisions are made to preserve the operation of any existing local infrastructure and that utilities are protected. vi) Extend / improve drainage culverts under embankments for Link Road should be included in detailed designs and minimize hydrological and drainage impacts during construction by early phasing of replacement of culverts and other infrastructure. Include preliminary designs for in contracts. vii) Avoid disruption to and retain or re-provision current facilities for irrigation; that provisions are made to preserve the operation of current facilities for irrigation viii) Include plans to minimize disturbance of vehicular traffic and pedestrians during construction I the detailed designs. ix) Aim to provide some enhancements in line with ADB policy on environmentally responsible procurement and avoid negative impacts due to unnecessary removing of trees. 58. Furthermore the contractor will be primed by including the EMP and environmental assessments in the contract documentation. The contractor will be required to produce method statements and plans in advance as required in the EMP for: i) Temporary traffic management plan, ii) Drainage and utilities re-provisioning plan, iii) Materials management master plan, iv) Noise and dust control plan, v) Waste management plan; vi) Tree Compensatory Planting Plan (if required) 59. All the above should be agreed in advance with CDGK in the project preparation phase and in the contract documentation. The requirements in the contract will include full implementation of the EMP. The contractor would also be required to engage capable and trained environmental management staff to audit the effectiveness and review mitigation measures as the project proceeds. The effective implementation of the EMP will be audited as part of the loan conditions and the executing agency will be prepared for this. In this regard, the CDGK (the Implementing Agency) will also prepare resources to fulfill the requirements of the law and guidance prepared by federal and

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provincial EPAs on the environmental aspects of road construction13 or other road projects. Any updated recommendations would be incorporated in the EMP and updated. D Construction Related Impacts

60. The source of the construction impacts will mainly be from works (cut and fill), reconstruction of the road base, building elevated carriageways across river beds, reprovisioning of crossing drains in embankments and construction of road embankments base courses, lanes and surfacing works. Traffic Management 61. Construction activities on the Link Road are likely to cause hindrance in traffic flow if not mitigated properly. A temporary traffic management plan will be developed and submitted by the contractor at least one month before commencement of construction. The main objectives of the plan shall be to maximize the safety of the workforce and the travelling public. The main secondary objective will be to keep traffic flowing as freely as possible. 62. The Temporary Traffic Management Plan will include consideration of the following i) Lane availability and minimization of traffic flows past the works site. ii) Establishment of acceptable working hours and constraints. iii) Agreement on the time scale for the works and establishment of traffic flow/delay requirements. iv) Programming issues including the time of year and available resources. v) Acceptability of diversion routes, where necessary. vi) Discussion of the CDGK inspection/monitoring role. vii) Establishment of incident management system for duration of the works viii) Agreement on publicity/public consultation requirements (advance signing etc.). 63. The plan will be reviewed by CDGK and approved, if found appropriate. Resources from contractor, CDGK, and the traffic police will be provided as per the plan before construction commences. Public Safety 64. Public safety, particularly of pedestrians can be threatened by the excavation of the trenches for sewer construction. A safety plan will be submitted by the contractor and properly resourced at least one month before construction commences and approved by CDGK before construction commences. The plans will include provisions for site security, trench barriers, reflective signs and covers to other holes, hoarding plans and any other safety measures as necessary. Land Productivity and Resource Use 65. The potential impact of road construction works include: a) the loss of the fertile plough layer at campsites and asphalt mixing plants, and a drop in the elevation of borrow areas will decrease land productivity; b) potential conflicts may emerge with

13

Guidelines for Major Roads, Pakistan EPA, 1997; Small and Medium Size Road Construction in Urban Areas, NWFP EPA 2004. Page 21 of 62

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landowners regarding the restoration of borrow areas; c) borrow pits and other landscape depressions if left open, may prove hazardous to human beings and livestock; d) open pits containing water are potential sources of mosquito breeding if left stagnant, and can create health problems; e) during highway operation, embankments that restrict cross-country drainage may cause the land on either side of the embankment to flood in case of heavy rains; and, f) surface run-off from the impervious surface of the carriageway can further aggravate the flooding of embankment sides during the operation phase. 66. The following measures to mitigate potential impacts will be included in the contracts: i) Project facilities such as concrete batching or asphalt plant will be located at a minimum distance of 500 m from settlements or any other sensitive receivers.

ii) As far as possible, waste/barren land i.e. areas not under agricultural or residential use and natural areas with a higher elevation will be used for setting up project supporting facilities such as construction plant parking and maintenance yards. iii) Where the use of agricultural land is unavoidable, the top 30 cm of the plough layer will be stripped and stockpiled for redressing the land after the required borrow material has been removed and the holes backfilled. iv) The excavation of earth fill will be limited to an approximate depth of 50 cm. This practice will be applied uniformly across the entire extent of the farmland unit acquired for borrowing earth material. v) If deep ditching is to be carried out, the top 1m layer of the ditching area will be stripped and stockpiled. The ditch will initially be filled with only inert scrap material from construction and then leveled with the stockpiled topsoil to make it even with the rest of the area. vi) Ditches or borrow pits shall all be fully rehabilitated and landscaped to minimize erosion and to avoid creating hazards for people and livestock. vii) The embankments will be stabilized with erosion control measures immediately after construction is complete to protect the works. viii) Side drains and median drains will be constructed to prevent flooding on the carriageways. The traversed areas will all be in open areas and lead off drains will be constructed along the toe of the embankment. ix) All existing culverts will be extended and an adequate number of culverts will be included in the detailed designs and constructed across under the highway embankments. Soil Erosion 67. Once the highway returns to normal operation, it may become subject to a natural settlement as high embankments become increasingly prone to soil erosion, causing an increase in dust emissions and a fall in land productivity. 68. Engineering controls that include erosion protection measures will be designed and installed to control soil erosion both at all the constructed works and in peripheral areas, particularly in borrow areas and along haul tracks. These will include the following measures: i) Low embankments will be protected from erosion by hydro-seeding and planting indigenous grasses that can flourish under relatively dry conditions.

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ii) High embankments, i.e. 2 m high and above, will be protected by constructing stone pitching or a riprap across the embankment immediately after the works are completed. This practice will also be applied along cross-drainage structures where embankments are more susceptible to erosion by water runoff. iii) The contractors will also be required to include appropriate measures for slope protection, i.e. vegetation cover and stone pitching, as required in the detailed construction drawings and implement them accordingly. iv) Payments should be linked to the completion of the works as marked by the installation of erosion control measures to protect the works. Soil Contamination 69. Scarified/scraped asphalt and concrete materials, if not disposed of properly, may contaminate soil resources. Possible contamination of soil may also occur from oils and chemicals at asphalt plant sites, workshop areas, and equipment washing-yards. The contamination may limit the future use of land for agricultural purposes. 70. The following practices will be adopted to minimize the risk of soil contamination: i) The contractors will be required to instruct and train their workforce in the storage and handling of materials and chemicals that can potentially cause soil contamination.

ii) Solid waste generated during construction and at campsites will be properly treated and safely disposed of only in demarcated waste disposal sites identified and agreed with CDGK. iii) Debris generated by the dismantling of existing pavement structures will be recycled subject to the suitability of the material. Material Management 71. The construction of the road will require cutting and filling to create elevated transitway. Balancing cut and fill requirements can be a major contribution to the minimization of impacts. If surplus materials arise from the removal of the existing surfaces these may be used elsewhere on the project for fill before additional rock, gravel or sand extraction is considered. The use of this immediately available material will minimize the need for additional rock based materials extraction. 72. The detailed design engineers will produce a mass haul chart for the aggregate and bitumen materials needed for the construction works. The mass haul chart or something similar can be modified to produce a materials management plan (MMP) including mitigation for the extraction of materials, to specify (i) the methods to be employed prior to and during construction, (ii) all other measures to be employed to mitigate nuisances to local residents, and (iii) any additional measures such as compensatory planting, if trees have to be removed. The MMP should be updated regularly and reported monthly as a contract requirement for each contractor to monitor the production and use of materials. The construction supervising consultant (CSC) will be responsible for updating and reporting the cut and fill estimates in the MMP. The MMP can then be used to plan for bitumen and aggregates management and to provide an overall balance for bitumen and cut and filled materials and minimize impacts on other local resources outside the Right-of-Way (RoW). 73. Locations for dumping of material will be identified in the plan. It is preferred that government land is used for dumping of material. If private land is to be acquired for the purpose, compensation will be paid before dumping commences and only after written permission from the owner.
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74. Contractual clauses should be included to require each contractor to produce a draft MMP (including mass haul chart one month before construction commences) to identify all sources of bitumen and aggregates and to balance cut and fill. The plan should clearly state surplus or shortfall and the methods to be employed prior to and during the extraction of materials and all the mitigation measures to be employed to mitigate nuisances to local residents. Financial compensation shall not be allowed as mitigation for environmental impacts or environmental nuisance. Mitigation measures shall seek to control the impacts at source in the first place. The CSC shall be responsible to report the update of the cut and fill estimates and monitor bitumen and aggregates master planning between the different areas and sub-contractors and advise on overall balancing for cut and fill materials to minimize impacts on local resources. A waste management plan will also be required. Water Resources 75. The surrounding land’s drainage system and water resources may be affected by construction activities as follows: a) Local water supplies will need to be tapped to meet campsite and construction requirements, bringing project based water use into competition with local use; b) Surface and subsurface water resources in the selected sections could be contaminated by fuel and chemical spills, or by solid waste and effluents generated by the kitchens and toilets at construction campsites; c) Natural streams and irrigation channels may become silted by borrow material (earth) in the runoff from the construction area, workshops and equipment washing-yards. 76. Generally water should be brought in by tanker from other areas. Local water resources could be used only if it is determined that sufficient yield is available. As a rule of thumb 50% of the available yield (total yield minus existing use) can be used for the project. Other measures to mitigate the adverse impact on water resources and surface drainage patterns have been incorporated into the other drainage mitigation measures. 77. The contractors will incorporate the following design features into the detailed design to minimize alterations in the project corridor’s surface drainage patterns as far as possible: i) Contractors will review the detailed designs for cross-drainage structures provided with the tender and assess and agree with CDGK if redesign is required or if new structures would be constructed or existing ones would be repaired.

ii) Median drains would be in line with the detailed designs such that the outlets would lead into either natural streambeds or to open areas, if no natural streams are located nearby. iii) In areas close to the sensitive receiver (SR), appropriate drains would be constructed so that the outfalls of the highway median and surface run-off from the carriageway are diverted away from the SR. iv) Measures will also be taken during the construction phase to ensure that storm drains and highway drainage systems are periodically cleared to maintain storm water flow. 78. The contractors will carry out the following measures to mitigate the impact of tapping local community water resources, where required: i) In areas where potable water is in short supply, the availability of water will be assessed to evaluate the impact on community resources. Project water will be brought in by tanker as necessary without depleting local supplies.

ii) Camps will be located at least 500 m away from the nearest local settlement to prevent the contamination of community-owned water resources.
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iii) The contractors will be required to maintain close liaison with local communities to ensure that any potential conflicts related to common resource utilization for project purposes are resolved quickly. iv) Guidelines will be established to minimize the wastage of water during construction operations and at campsites. 79. The contractors will adopt good management practices to ensure that fuels and chemicals, raw sewage, wastewater effluent, and construction debris/scarified material is disposed of in controlled conditions to reduce the risk of contamination. The proposed measures include: i) Construction camps will be established in areas with adequate natural drainage channels in order to facilitate flow of the treated effluents.

ii) Portable lavatories or at least pit latrines shall be installed and open defecation shall be discouraged and prevented by keeping lavatory facilities clean at all times. iii) Wastewater effluent from contractors’ workshops and equipment washing-yards will be passed through gravel/sand beds to remove oil/grease contaminants before discharging it into natural streams. Oil and grease residues shall be stored in drums awaiting disposal in line with the agreed waste management plan. iv) Borrow pits and natural depressions with pre-laid impervious liners will be used to dispose of scarified/scraped asphalt, and then covered with soil. This will check potential groundwater contamination. Options for completely or partially recycling scraped asphalt will also be taken into account. Noise and Dust 80. There is generally sufficient buffer distance between the work corridor and the existing SRs such that no significant impact is expected from the construction works on residential sensitive receivers in terms of noise, vibration, and dust. However noise and dust have been identified as significant concerns by the general public in consultation and it is good practice to control all dusty materials at source so that visibility on the adjacent road is not impaired and so that road safety can be maintained or increased. i) Water will be sprinkled on the road and exposed surfaces when work is carried out within 100 m of the roadside tea and food stalls.

ii) No work will be carried out within 500 m of any settlement during the night (2100hrs to 0700hrs). iii) If works have given rise to complaints over dust, the contractor shall investigate the cause and review and propose alternative mitigation measures before works recommence. iv) All heavy equipment and machinery shall be fitted in full compliance with the national and local regulations. v) Stockpiled soil and sand shall be slightly wetted before loading, particularly in windy conditions. vi) Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks shall be employed to minimize exhaust emissions. Smoke belching vehicles and equipment shall not be allowed and shall be removed from the project. vii) Vehicles transporting soil, sand and other construction materials shall be covered with tarpaulin sheets. Speeds of such vehicles shall be limited to 15 km/h within the works site and on unpaved edge areas of the Link Road.
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viii) The active open areas of the construction yard sites and haul roads shall be sprayed at least twice per day with water to suppress dust and to avoid excessive dust obscuring visibility on the remaining operation lanes of the Link Road. In the event of complaints water spraying shall be increased and the pattern of spraying shall be reviewed to improve its effect. ix) Wheel and vehicle washing facilities shall be installed at the main construction yards, stockpiling areas, cement batching facilities and bitumen plant to prevent the transfer of excessive dust on to the remaining operational lanes of the Link Road. x) Concrete batching plants. Asphalt plant and rock crusher activities (if required) to be controlled (e.g. asphalt hot-mix plants should not be located within 500 m of any sensitive receiver, river bank or irrigation channel but located at convenient sites nearby but downwind of and at least 500 m from sensitive receptors such as schools and hospitals. Sanitation and Disease Vectors 81. In order to maintain proper sanitation around construction routes, temporary toilets will be provided, particularly when work is carried out close to the settlements. Vectors such as mosquitoes will be encountered at any standing water which is allowed to accumulate in the temporary drainage facilities, improper disposal of wastewater generated from the local wells along the roadside or water accumulating in the works. Temporary and permanent drainage facilities shall be designed to facilitate the rapid removal of surface water from all areas and prevent the accumulation of surface water ponds. As a fall back option a thin mist of kerosene can be applied to standing water if it cannot be removed or drained within five days. Traffic Management 82. During construction, the existing road would be partly closed. This could affect the free flow of the existing traffic. A traffic management plan will be developed in the detailed design stage for finalization by the chosen contractor in agreement with CDGK. Measures may include signage, traffic control signals and addition of the new lanes only before starting work on the existing lane so that when work is carried out on the existing land the traffic could be diverted to the new lanes. Enhancements 83. Environmental enhancements have not been a major consideration in the assessment of other Tranche 1 sub-project sites. However it is noted that it has been common practice to plant trees along highways to provide visual interest in line with best international practice for highway design. Whereas water supply may be limited along much of the Link Road there may be some opportunity sites near the occupied isolated buildings. These locations may provide a chance to create some local soft landscaping where successful planting of trees and shrubs could be accomplished and should be investigated at the detailed design stage. This practice should be encouraged as far as practicable. Other opportunities for enhancements can be assessed prior to construction and proposed enhancements should be discussed with the local population to identify possible water supply and serve as a vehicle for further public consultation at the implementation stage and to assist in public relations.

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E

Operational Impacts

84. The introduction of the dual carriageway can be expected to cause some increases in ambient noise and air pollution. However these impacts may not become visible for some time and may be balanced out by other changes that are implemented in the management of the vehicle fleets in Karachi and depending on improvements that can be made resulting from the proposals for the of Urban Traffic Control System and Transport Master Plan. 85. The implementation of Link Road will be within a wide reserve within the RoW keeping the Link Road vehicles away from sensitive receivers and at this stage it is difficult to see that many residences or commercial premises or schools will still be close to the Link Road during the foreseeable operation of Link Road. Noise 86. There are very few SRs close to the Link Road. It is therefore expected that road traffic noise impacts upon SRs will be acceptable. However as yet there is little information on the proposed developments near the Link Road and no traffic modeling to confirm future traffic flows so that a noise model cannot be constructed. Noise criteria for operational performance should therefore be agreed with the CDGK and included in the Urban Traffic Control System and Transport Master Plan. At the detailed design stage and prior to implementation, acoustical checks should be made to reconfirm that noise mitigation is not required for any sensitive receivers that are developed in the meantime. 87. Whereas there is no statutory control on road noise in Pakistan a criterion of Leq67dB(A) or L1070dB(A) at the exterior of residences, schools, mosques and other noise sensitive receivers is suggested as a target criterion based on international standards. Several EIAs in Pakistan have used similar criteria upon which to base conclusions about predicted noise levels and if they will cause a significant disturbing effect. This would correspond approximately to a noise level of about L1060 dB(A) at the exterior of residences that are 100 m from the Link Road. Gaseous Emissions 88. Vehicle emissions (gaseous) as indicated concentration of oxides of nitrogen will be the main air pollution sources during operation. There will be a few other sources of emissions near the Link Road from fuel burning. However most sensitive receivers are set far enough back from the Link Road to allow adequate dispersion that there will be no significant impacts at the sensitive receivers. 89. In conjunction with the additional policy measures and institutional arrangements, fuel controls, transportation control systems and transportation planning as well as the removal of the “smoke belching vehicles” from the roads, it is expected that there will be improvements in air quality in the near medium to long term such that the recommended air quality standards can be met at locations on the Link Road. Particle Emissions 90. Vehicle emissions (particulate contamination) such as dust and fumes will also be air pollution sources during operation however toxic residues from vehicle emissions near the Link Road are unlikely to accumulate or create significant impacts under the local conditions. 91. Air quality observations near the existing road indicate that dust can be a nuisance in some places especially where traffic accidentally or deliberately uses the unsealed hard shoulders. The dual carriageways and wider sealed surfaces will reduce, to some

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extent locally, dust arising from the passage of traffic on unsealed areas near the existing road. Hazardous Driving Conditions 92. The Link Road will introduce fully separated two way traffic. Overall the condition of the road facilities will be enhanced and with the implementation of dual carriageway Link Road driving conditions should improve. Routine safety measures, signage and road markings should be introduced to reduce driving risk further in accident prone areas and provide enhancements to driving conditions near the junctions. The Urban Traffic Control system should also contribute to reduce d accidents and improved road safety. 93. With fully separated two way traffic the risk of accidents such as involving colliding lorries carrying hazardous chemicals will be low. In the event of chemical spillage a rapid clean up and accidental spillage action plan should be prepared with the local emergency services to protect local soils or any water bodies in the event of an accidental spillage of toxic or hazardous chemicals. 94. Provisions will need to be made to consider in the detailed designs for road conditions at the major intersections and other local intersections. The overall visibility at the intersections is unlikely to be hindered but checks should be made to ensure the designs meet the local design standards and will need to be acceptable under all the foreseeable conditions. Improvements to sighting angles and improved junction warning signage and road markings may need to be included at the detailed design stages. Fluorescent junction countdown markers should be considered for the major junctions. The Urban Traffic Control system should also contribute to the overall improvement in the condition of the junctions and driving conditions generally. 95. The main environmental impacts of the Link Road during operations phase include soil erosion and community safety. Soil Erosion 96. Will be prevented by developing a comprehensive suite of engineering controls in the detailed designs to prevent and maintain erosion. 97. A system will be devised and engineered to control erosion and flooding on either side of the embankment in case of heavy rains. Apart from affecting the community lands and resources, this may cause natural streams and irrigation channels to become silted. 98. Measures will also be taken during the operational phase to ensure that storm drains and highway drainage systems are periodically cleared to maintain clear drainage to allow rapid dispersal of storm water flow. 99. An adequate system of monitoring, reporting and maintenance will be developed to maintain cross-drainage structures, culverts and water channels to ensure that they are not choked with debris and eroded soil, adversely affecting the cross-country drainage. Road sweeping and refuse disposal should also be included in the system of monitoring. Community Safety 100. The rehabilitation and widening of the Link Road is likely to increase the vehicle speed on the road. Increases in traffic flow have not yet been modeled and there are no up to date predictions for future traffic. Increased traffic speed may create some community safety issues. However, the conversion of the road to median-separated dual carriage road, the traffic hazards and community safety issues would be mitigated. With fully separated two way traffic the risk of accidents such as involving colliding lorries will
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be low. However road crossing facilities must be reprovisioned as necessary for the local community. 101. The crossing near the Goth Abdur Rehman Jokhio and the shrine will need to be carefully designed to include a safe pedestrian crossing. This may include and at grade crossing with flashing lights to warn the drivers about the crossing and lower speed limit or a footbridge when the local population is large enough to warrant it.

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V. PUBLIC CONSULTATION
102. The objectives of the stakeholder consultation process was to disseminate information on the project and its expected impact, long-term as well as short-term, among primary and secondary stakeholders, and to gather information on relevant issues so that the feedback received could be used to address these issues at an early stages of project design. Another important objective was to determine the extent of the concerns amongst the community and to address these in the project implementation and suggest appropriate mitigation measures. A Identification of Stakeholders

103. Stakeholders are people, groups, or institutions that may be affected by, can significantly influence, or are important to the achievement of the stated purpose of a proposed intervention. For this project stakeholders included the community living in the area, the road users, the business associated with the road and the locally elected representative. B Consultation with Stakeholders

104. The results of the public consultations are recorded in Table 3. The main concerns included community safety, land acquisition, and construction dust.

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Table 3: Summary of Public Consultation
No. Name Participants Address Date Issues Raised/Concerns Expressed/Suggestions and Requests/Action Proposed Considered the project beneficial for area Demonstrated concern about dust during construction Enquired about land acquisition for the project Suggested that roadside dumping of material on private land should be avoided 5 Mohammad Musawir Foodstall owner Quetta Samandri Hotel Considered the project beneficial for his business Showed concerns about the dust but considered it as a temporary nuisance Unavailability of public transport is a major issue for the area There is additional traffic on the weekends and Community safety holidays due to visitors to the shrine measures 6 Attaullah Truck Driver Considered the project beneficial for his business Asked for minimal disturbance to existing traffic particularly during the peak hours (evenings) Traffic management Dust mitigation measures Dust mitigation measures No land to be acquired Material management plan to be developed Action Taken/ Proposed

1-4

Imam Bux Irfan Jokhio Abdul Aziz Jokhio Dawood Jokhio

Farm workers and residents of the area

S. S. Farms

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No.

Name

Participants

Address

Date

Issues Raised/Concerns Expressed/Suggestions and Requests/Action Proposed Expressed concern about the land acquisition process Complained that although toll is collected but there is no maintenance of existing road by the CDGK Demanded that the residents of the area should be exempted from toll tax

Action Taken/ Proposed No land to be acquired

7

Hussain Bux Jokhio

Councilor, Union Council 7, Bin Qasim Town

8-10

Ali Bux Jokhio Muhammad Khan Jokhio Abdul Aziz Jokhio

Community

Goth Abdul Rehman Jokhio

Demonstrated concern about community safety and accidents involving livestock. Suggested proper arrangement for road crossing of community Expressed concern about the land acquisition process

Community safety measures

No land to be acquired

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VI. INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
A Institutional Requirements

105.Environmental regulations of the GoP require proponents of projects that have reasonably foreseeable qualitative and quantitative impacts are required to submit an IEE for their respective projects (Schedule I). Proponents of projects that have more adverse environmental impact (Schedule II) are required to submit an EIA to the respective provincial EPA. Provincial highways or major roads (except maintenance or rebuilding or reconstruction) costing more than Rs 50 million require EIA (Schedule II) and those costing less require IEE. Dualization of existing roads is not specifically included in the schedules. 106.However the IEE-EIA Regulations 2000 also allow the EPAs to direct the proponent of a project whether or not listed in Schedule I or Schedule II to file an IEE or EIA for reasons recorded in such a direction. Such a direction would need to be issued after recommendation in writing from the Environmental Assessment Advisory Committee to be constituted under the IEE-EIA Regulations 2000. The Link Road will generally involve the use of existing carriageways and at this stage it is not known if CDGK will be required to submit an IEE for the Link Road. An IEE with Environmental Management Plan is required for all MFF subprojects under ADB requirements and therefore this IEE has been prepared. This IEE which has been prepared for ADB submission can be also be used as the basis for regulatory approval requirements of the PEPA 1997. 107.It has also been noted that in another ADB MFF project, Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) has assumed that all proponents will consult with the relevant provincial EPAs and follow their advice with regards to environmental assessment requirements for all MFF subprojects. In 2006 Punjab EPA requested disclosure of the scope and extent of each of the subprojects in ADB Power Transmission Enhancement MFF. As such it is expected that all the Tranche 1 and subprojects in future tranches will be disclosed to the SEPA and the environmental assessment requirements of the statutory authority will be followed. An Environmental Assessment and Review Framework (EARF) has also been prepared to select, assess, monitor, and manage the potential environmental impacts of any subprojects in future tranches. 108. Therefore prior to implementation and commencement of construction of the Link Road CDGK will need to notify the SEPA of the location and scale of the subproject and comply with any environmental requirements and, if IEE is required, obtain approval or “No Objection Certificates” (under the PEPA 1997). Whatever the SEPA requirements, IEE is required by ADB for road projects of this scale. The EMP (Appendix B) was prepared taking into account the environmental management capacity of the CDGK and SEPA14. 109.In September 2007, Municipal Services of CDGK had one full time environmental staff member, the District Officer Environment (DOE). The DOE is responsible for addressing environmental concerns for a citywide development program. The DOE took charge of his post and department in February 2007. The DOE therefore faces considerable challenges in implementing the terms of reference. Other problems have

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been identified with the lack of capacity in SEPA but these are not the subject of this IEE. 110.At present DOE is responsible for overseeing several key functions that relate to environmental assessment and management. These were previously under the jurisdiction of the Law Department but were transferred to the DOE. The environmental responsibilities of CDGK are defined under the Sindh Local Government Ordinance 2001 (SLGO 2001) and there is a general requirement to raise environmental awareness in the CDGK jurisdiction. The key elements directly relevant to the implementation of the MFF subprojects can be summarized as follows: i) To ensure implementation of environmental protection and preservation measures in all development projects at district level and sensitize government agencies on environmental issues;

ii) To assist provincial EPA in discharge of its functions under the PEPA 1997; iii) To ensure, guide and assist proponents of new projects in the submission of IEEs and EIAs to SEPA for approval; iv) To request the Environmental Magistrate or Environmental Tribunal to take cognizance of any offence under the provisions of PEPA 1997; v) To undertake regular monitoring of projects financed from the provincial sustainable development fund and to submit progress reports to the SEPA for publication in its annual report. 111.At present the DOE is alone within the CDGK with sole responsibility for bringing environmental issues to the notice of corporate management (District Coordination Officer, DCO and City District Nazim). The most significant challenge is the lack of human and financial resources and necessary infrastructure. In 2006 the Governor of Sindh made a call to establish a separate environment department in the face of growing national and international environmental concerns. The DOE has made a proposal for a separate environment department to the DCO but as of February 2008 there is no change to the existing Municipal Services Department structure. 112.If the terms of reference stated in the SLGO are to be realized then overcoming environmental capacity deficit within the CDGK will need to be addressed. Environmental assessment and coordination with SEPA are both key to CDGKs environmental responsibilities under the SLGO. However although proposals have been made to address this shortfall in environmental capacity by DOE, a response in terms of adequate additional human and financial resources may not materialize for some time. Therefore there is likely to be a period at the start of the KMCSDP MFF when DOE has insufficient resources to carry out the environmental assessment requirements for ADB. The lack of appropriate institutional arrangements may interfere with the KMCSDP attempts to ensure compliance with both GoP and ADB environmental assessment requirements. Therefore it is recommended that the KMCDSP provide an environmental cell of at least two full time environmental specialists to support the DOE and remain in support until such time as the proposed Environmental Department is created or sufficient other resources are available in CDGK and the proposed Executive District Officer (EDO) Environment is fully capable of supporting the environmental assessment portfolio of CDGK. At such a time the appointed environmental cell professionals may be absorbed into the Environment Department in order to retain institutional memory. To facilitate EMP implementation, during preparation for construction the contractors must be prepared to cooperate with the environmental cell team, DOE, and the local population in the mitigation of impacts. However, experience suggests that contractors may have little impetus or interest in dealing with environmental problems in
113.
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the absence of performance-linked criteria. Therefore, the required environmental mitigation will be clearly described in a memorandum of understanding and other contract documents at the bidding stage; the completion of mitigation will be linked to payment milestones. 114.The EDO will need more staff and training resources if effective quality control is to be provided for the EMP implementation and much of the environmental assessment work may be delegated to consultants. The aspirations of the SLGO objectives, to raise awareness both within Municipal Services Department and more broadly in CDGK, are sound, but at present the awareness level is not high. Specific areas for immediate attention are in environmental assessment and auditing, waste, air, water and noise pollution management and impact mitigation. As a first step CDGK should consolidate DOE as soon as possible and nominate additional suitable staff to work from within the department to monitor and audit progress on environmental management for the MFF. 115.For the KMCSDP, the environmental cell staff, engaged to support the DOE for the MFF subprojects, must be appointed at the outset of the implementation. At the detail design stage of subproject the cell shall have at least one environmental specialist to assist the DOE to address all environmental aspects in the detailed design and contracting stages and the relevant statutory submissions and approvals. In addition, there needs to be an environmental specialist to cover the implementation of environmental mitigation measures in the construction stage of the subproject packages. The environmental specialists should work as members of the environmental management team with significant proportion of time spent in the field, observing and making recommendations to improve or modify environmental mitigation measures executed by the contractors, as the EMP evolves and the MFF subprojects proceed, to respond to unexpected circumstances. 116.The requisite staff should be appointed prior to the commencement of the tendering for the construction activities to ensure the inclusion of environmental requirements can be translated into contractual works for completion to four lane standard and also respond to unexpected circumstances. Both members of the cell can initially be bolted on to the DEO or within supervising consultant’s team. i) The environmental specialists will: a) Work with DOE to execute any additional EIA and IEE requirements prior to project commencement; b) Work with the project management team(s) in CDGK to ensure all environmental requirements and mitigation measures from the EIAs and IEEs and environmental performance criteria are incorporated in the contracts; and c) Work with contractors to manage the implementation of the project EMP. ii) Overall implementation of the EMP will become CDGK’s responsibility. Other parties to be involved in implementing the EMP are as follows: a) Contractors: responsible for implementing all measures required to mitigate environmental impacts during construction; and b) Other government agencies: such as union councils, Towns authorities, regional EPA and state pollution authorities for monitoring the implementation of environmental conditions and compliance with statutory requirements in their respective areas. 117.Considering the number of government agencies that need to be involved in implementing the EMP, training workshops should be conducted at every six months or twice each year, for the first 3 years, to share experience in the implementation of the
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subprojects and the monitoring report on the implementation of the EMP, to share lessons learned in the implementation and to decide on remedial actions, if unexpected environmental impacts occur. B Environmental Assessment of Follow-Up Subprojects

118.Other road routes may be subprojects in a future tranche(s). Based on the likely urban location they will be in similar locations to other transportation subprojects. However other follow-up subprojects in the transport management sector may involve more complex environmental assessments. A detailed EARF procedure has therefore been prepared that must be followed as required by ADB for all the subprojects in future Tranches of the KMCSD MFF. C Environmental Management Plan

119.This IEE concludes that the construction impacts will be manageable if the mitigation measures are implemented thoroughly. The EMP is based on the type, extent and duration of the identified environmental impacts. The EMP has been prepared by close reference to best practices and in line with ADB’s Environmental Policy (2002) and Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003). 120.Implementation of construction of the Link Road will need to comply with several environmental requirements and clearance will be required from SEPA for any statutory environmental assessment or an indication that no assessment is required. DOE will also need to confirm that contractors and their suppliers have complied with all statutory requirements for licenses from CDGK. DOE should also check that contractors have all the necessary valid licenses and permits for use of powered mechanical equipment if necessary and the use of local water supplies (and to construct and operate plants such as concrete batching in line with all environmental regulations and license conditions from EPA). 121.The effective implementation of the EMP should be audited as part of the loan conditions and the executing agency must be prepared for this. In this regard the CDGK (the Implementing Agency) must be prepared to guide the design engineers and contractors on the environmental aspects and ADB has suggested that such leadership and auditing should be undertaken by the DOE and environmental cell from the commencement of the MFF. 122.Prior to implementation of Tranche 1 the EMP shall be amended and reviewed by the DOE and environmental cell in due course after Link Road detailed designs are complete and contracting arrangements are known. Such a review shall be based on reconfirmation and any additional information on the assumptions made at the feasibility stage on location scale and expected operating conditions of the subprojects. For example, in this case if there is additional land required for junctions and fly-overs (although not confirmed as yet) the designs may be amended and the environmental significance must be reviewed. Although no major additional impacts would be anticipated based on the information provided to date the performance and evaluation schedules to be implemented during project construction and operation can be reviewed, updated, and costs estimates can be revised if necessary. 123.The EMP must be reviewed by the DOE and project management in CDGK and approved before any construction activity is initiated on Tranche 1, to take account of any subsequent changes and fine tuning of the proposals. It is recommended that before the Tranche 1 contracts are worked out in detail and before pre-qualification, that the environmental status of the existing Link Road routes is monitored to set a baseline for benefit monitoring using some of the key EMP mitigation measures as the performance indicators.
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124.This IEE including the EMP should be used as a basis for an environmental compliance program and an updated EMP should be included in the revised contract documentation for the Link Road route. The updated EMP, any conditions of the environmental clearance from the SEPA and any subsequent licenses and approvals from SEPA should also be included in the environmental requirements for the contractors in the compliance program. Therefore, continued monitoring of the implementation of mitigation measures, the implementation of the environmental conditions from environmental clearance, and monitoring of the environmental impact related to the construction of all future works to complete the Link Road, including complaints, should be properly carried out and reported periodically in monthly progress reports. Compliance with all of the EMP requirements shall also be reported in other periodic project performance reports. 125.The impacts from construction and operation will be manageable and no insurmountable impacts are predicted providing that the updated EMP is included in the contract documents and implemented to its full extent. The details of EMP given in Appendix B are in the form of the matrix and may require revision as the project reaches detailed design. The impacts have been classified as per the design/preparation stage, construction stage and operation and maintenance stage. The matrix details the mitigation measures recommended for each of the identified impacts, approximate location of the mitigation routes, time span of the implementation of mitigation measures, an analysis of the associated costs and the responsibility of the institution. The institutional responsibility has been specified for the purpose of the implementation and the supervision. The matrix is supplemented with a monitoring plan for the performance indicators. An estimation of the associated costs for the monitoring is given with the plan. The EMP has been prepared following best practice and the ADB’s Environmental Policy (2002) and Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003). D Environmental Monitoring

126.Monitoring activities during implementation will focus on compliance with license conditions, recording implementation of mitigation measures, monitoring complaints, recording environmental parameters, reviewing contractor environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to address unexpected impacts during construction. Some of these tasks can be assigned to the contractors and managed by the DOE and environmental cell. The monitoring plan n (Tables 4 and 5) was designed based on the likely subproject cycle. 127.During the preconstruction period, the monitoring activities will focus on (i) checking the contractor’s bidding documents, particularly to ensure that all necessary environmental requirements have been included; and (ii) checking that the contract documents’ references to environmental mitigation measures requirements have been incorporated as part of contractor’s assignment. Where detailed design is required (e.g. for further elaboration of the junctions and viaducts) the checking of updated designs must be carried out including requirements for additional land. During the construction period, the monitoring activities will focus on ensuring that environmental mitigation measures are implemented, and some performance indicators and complaints will need to be monitored to record the subproject’s environmental achievements and to guide any remedial action to address unexpected impacts. Monitoring activities during project operation will focus on recording transport management and dust near the Link Road as well as general environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to address unexpected impacts. 128. Operational monitoring of the Link Road is essential to ensure that the system is performing to required standards and that adjustments can be made as required to meet demand levels of an expanding road network. Travel times and accidents should be
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monitored. Monitoring activities during project operation will also focus on traffic accident frequency and soil erosion. Effective monitoring will also facilitate data and performance outcomes to be fed back into the design and operation of the next phases of the Link Road network development. 129. The impacts from construction and operation will be manageable and no insurmountable impacts are predicted providing that the updated EMP is included in the contract documents and implemented to its full extent. The details of EMP given in Appendix B are in the form of the matrix and may require revision as the project reaches detailed design. The impacts have been classified as per the design/preparation stage, construction stage and operation and maintenance stage. The matrix details the mitigation measures recommended for each of the identified impacts, approximate location of the mitigation routes, time span of the implementation of mitigation measures, an analysis of the associated costs and the responsibility of the institution. The institutional responsibility has been specified for the purpose of the implementation and the supervision. The matrix is supplemented with a monitoring plan for the performance indicators. An estimation of the associated costs for the monitoring is given with the plan. The EMP has been prepared following best practice and the ADB’s Environmental Policy (2002) and the Environmental Assessment Guidelines 2003.

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Table 4: Environmental Monitoring Plan for Link Road Subproject
No. 1 Environmental Monitoring Tasks15 Design Phase CDGK through environmental officer Prior to issue of bidding documents. Implementation Responsibility Implementation Schedule

1.1 Audit project bidding documents to ensure IEE and EMP is included. 1.2 Disclosure of subproject to SEPA 1.3 Monitor final site selection (alignment) and its environmental compliance with EMP 1.4 Monitor the performance of environmental training and briefings and of the environmental awareness of project staff and CDGK 2 Construction Phase

CDGK through environmental officer

Prior to CDGK approval of detailed designs.

CDGK through environmental officer

Ongoing, prior to and during implementation of works and operation.

CDGK through environmental officer CDGK through environmental officer Continuous throughout construction period.

2.1 Regular (monthly) monitoring and reporting (quarterly) of contractor’s compliance with statutory environmental requirements 2.2 Regular (monthly) monitoring and reporting (quarterly) of contractor’s compliance with contractual environmental mitigation measures 2.3 Regular (monthly) monitoring and reporting (quarterly) of complaints and responses or environmental mitigation measures 2.4 Monitor adjustments to the EMP and the thorough implementation of detailed EMP 2.5 Commissioning phase monitoring of as built equipment and facilities versus environmental contractual performance criteria

CDGK through environmental officer

Continuous throughout construction period.

CDGK through environmental officer

Continuous throughout construction period.

CDGK through environmental officer

During all phases of the subprojects

CDGK through environmental officer

At commissioning.

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No. 3

Environmental Monitoring Tasks15 Operation and Maintenance Phase

Implementation Responsibility CDGK through environmental officer

Implementation Schedule

3.1 Observations during routine CDGK through maintenance inspections of environmental officer facilities. Inspections will include monitoring implementation of operational mitigation measures versus environmental criteria specified in EMP for operational impacts. 3.2 Visual monitoring of dust and operational noise from two locations on the link road. CDGK through environmental officer

As per CDGK inspection schedules

During the life of the project

Table 5: Summary of Estimated Costs for EMP Implementation for Link Road
Item Sub Item Estimated Total Costs [PKR] 1,500,000 5,000,000 11,500,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 20,000,000 Estimated Total Cost [USD] 25,000 83,300 191,700 16,700 16,700 333,400

Staffing, audit and monitoring Monitoring activities Mitigation measures Transport Contingency Total

2 persons for 2 years As detailed under EMP As prescribed under EMP and IEE 1 vehicle for 2 years 5% contingency

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VII. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
130. This IEE study was carried out when the MFF Tranche 1 subproject were at the stage of conceptual design during the TA 4753 (PAK). Essentially secondary data were used to assess the environmental impacts in a comprehensive manner and public consultation and route reconnaissance were carried out in order complete the environmental assessments and recommend suitable mitigation measures. 131. Several actions are required during the detailed design stage to minimize impacts to acceptable levels. The negative environmental impacts from the Link road rehabilitation and widening projects will mostly take place during the construction stage. The construction impacts should be very predictable and manageable and with appropriate mitigation few residual impacts are likely. 132. Some key actions are required after the detailed designs are developed. CDGK should update the EMP and together with the IEE recommendations all mitigation measures should be included as contractual requirements, accepted by all contractors prior to signing the contract(s). Certain mitigation management plans (temporary traffic management plan, materials management master plan, noise and dust control plan, waste management, and erosion control plan) should be deliverable by the contractors before construction commences. 133. The construction is restricted to Government land and as far as can be ascertained at this stage there is not likely to be any significant additional land required to complete the construction. However it is possible that some land may be required at the detailed design stage. A resettlement action plan has been completed in tandem with the environmental work stream that will apply to all subprojects. 134. At the detailed design stage a review should be conducted of the monitoring activities proposed in this IEE to establish the parameters to be checked during the construction and operation. Impact and compliance monitoring activities will focus on compliance with license conditions, recording implementation of mitigation measures, recording environmental parameters, reviewing contractor environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to address unexpected impacts and complaints. 135. The IEE, including the EMP, should be used as a basis for an environmental compliance program and be included in the contract documentation. The EMP shall be reviewed at the detailed design stage. In addition, any conditions that are part of the environmental clearance from the SEPA should also be as a basis for the environmental compliance program. Therefore, continued monitoring of the implementation of mitigation measures, the implementation of the environmental conditions for work and environmental clearance, and monitoring of the environmental impact related to the operation of the road should be properly carried out and reported monthly to track and determine the net environmental benefits that have accrued. These should be summarized by CDGK in regular quarterly progress reports to ADB also summarized at least twice per year as part of the ADB project performance report. The negative environmental impacts from the project will mostly take place during the construction. 136. The implementation of the environmental mitigation measures during the construction period will be assigned to the contractors. However, experience suggests that contractors may have little impetus or interest to deal with environmental problems in the absence of performance linked criteria. Therefore, the required environmental mitigation must be clearly described in the contract documents at the bidding stage and the completion of mitigation should be linked to payment milestones.

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VIII.CONCLUSIONS
137.Environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of the Link Road need to be mitigated and institutional arrangements are available. Additional human and financial resources will be required by CDGK to incorporate the environmental recommendations effectively and efficiently in the contract documents, linked to payment milestones. The proposed mitigation and management plans are practicable but require additional resources. 138.Monitoring activities will need to focus on compliance with license conditions, recording implementation of mitigation measures, recording environmental parameters, reviewing contractor environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to address unexpected impacts. 139. The need for dualization of the Link Road is well established but thorough implementation of the EMP is required throughout the design, construction and operation of the Link Road in order to minimize impacts and retain public support for the project. .

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Appendix A: Selected Photographs

View to north

T-Junction at National Highway (N-5)

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Another view of the road

Goth Ahmad Jokhio

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Bridge on Sukin Nallah

Bridge on Malir River

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A typical culvert

Roadside mosque

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Under-construction Entrance to a planned Housing Estate

A roadside tea and food stall

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Appendix B: Environmental Management Plan

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B.1.1
Environmental Concern
DESIGN STAGE 1. Project disclosure Ensure statutory compliance with PEPA 1997.

Link Road Dualization - Environmental Management Plan – Matrix
Timing to Implement MM
Commencement of detailed design.

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended

Locations to Implement MM
The Link Road route

Resp to Implement MM
CDGK with the DDC

Resp to Minotor MM
CDGK – ADB

Disclose Link Road project and design to the SEPA and clarify that no documents are required to be filed with the Provincial and Federal EPA to ensure compliance with Sec. 12(1) of the PEPA 1997 (as amended). Ensure route is as described in RRP with no land acquisition. OR Review IEE and EMP and confirm findings and recommendations. Submit REA, revised IEE/EIA and EMP to ADB. Complete the environmental assessment process in line with and ADB Guidelines. 1. Discuss and agree noise criteria for environmental planning with CDGK such as set backs and World Bank criterion of Leq67dB(A) for new noise sensitive developments such as schools, colleges, hospitals and temples near the Link Road (if any). 2. At detailed design stage, with the benefit of traffic flow forecasts, acoustical assessments should be made to reconfirm width of noise mitigation set back from source for future / planned noise sensitive receivers (or if noise barriers / low noise road surfacing are required). 3. Conduct detailed acoustic assessment to determine appropriate set back based on best estimate of road traffic on the Link Road for 2025. Design set back width to attenuate noise to below agreed criterion [e.g. Leq67dB(A) as recommended by World Bank]. 4. Ensure any future new noise sensitive developments such as schools, colleges, hospitals and temples are set back from the road to attenuate CSC=construction supervision consultant

2. Subproject boundaries change.

Ensure EMP sufficient to control impacts and compliance with statutory requirements PEPA 1997.

Completion of detailed design.

The Link Road route

CDGK with the DDC

CDGK – ADB

3. Noise control

Ensure noise impacts are acceptable in operational phase.

1. During designing stage no later than prequalification or tender negotiations. 2. Include barrier / low noise road surface in the dualization contract if required.

1., 2., 3. For Link Road route and for future urban planning improvements. 4. Noise sensitive locations to be reconfirmed and checked in the EMP that is approved by ADB.

CDGK with the DDC

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Environmental Concern
4. Air quality

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
noise climate to below criterion agreed with CDGK.

Timing to Implement MM
During detailed design stage

Locations to Implement MM
1. Throughout the Link Road route and for future urban planning improvements.

Resp to Implement MM
CDGK with the DDC

Resp to Minotor MM
CDGK

Prevent future development in areas of deterioration air quality.

1. Establish clear demarcation of RoW and enforce to prevent development within the RoW to provide some set back. 2. Ensure any new developments are set back from the road to allow dispersal of vehicular emissions to below criteria agreed with CDGK or any likely future additions to the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) to cover fugitive emissions. Consultation with local authorities and land owners s Site selection on marginal land. As far as possible, use waste/barren land and nonagricultural plots.

5. Loss of productive agriculture

Minimise need to acquire agricultural land for temporary facilities (if needed).

1. Integral part of detailed design output. 2. Consultation with local authorities and land owners. 3. Reconfirmation during construction planning 1. Detailed design output. 2. Within one month of award of contract or earlier.

The Link Road route

1. DDC 2. DDC/CDGK 3. CDGK / Contractor

CDGK

6. Waste Disposal

Ensure sufficient disposal space for cut surface materials and avoid fly-tipping.

1. Design consultants to identify reuse options and sufficient stockpiling and disposal locations for site clearance of scabbled and cut surface bitumen materials and bored piles or caissons and include disposal locations and requirements in contracts. 2. Before works commence selected contractor to prepare Waste Management Plan with disposal sites identified for agreement by construction supervision consultants and CDGK. 1. Link Road detailed designers estimate the additional construction materials required. Works scheduled to facilitate the timely production of rock, based and bitumen materials for construction and to avoid the need for excessive stockpiling and importing from elsewhere in the districts that will be affected by this subproject. CSC=construction supervision consultant

The Link Road route

DDC/CDGK

CDGK

7. Plan construction materials management

Facilitate the timely production of rock and bitumen based materials for construction and to avoid impacts

1. Detailed design output. 2. Within one month of award of contract or earlier.

The Link Road route.

DDC/contractors/ CDGK

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Environmental Concern

Objectives
due to stockpiling near the Link Road route.

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
2. The selected contractor(s) to prepare Mass Balance for Waste Management Plan with disposal sites identified for agreement by construction supervision consultants and CDGK. 1. Detailed design consultants to maintain current level of pedestrian crossing after inclusion of median barrier or provide alternatives and include in detailed design. 2. Retain existing crossings places or include footbridges or overpasses and underpasses to avoid pedestrian severance. 3. Ensure existing drainage and other utilities have been identified and avoided / re-provisioned. 4. The impacts related to the aesthetic value, religious context (if any) of the local environment have been considered.

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

8. Minimize impacts due to Link Road route alignment designs.

Retain or reprovision current facilities for pedestrian crossing. Ensure that provisions are made to preserve the operation of any existing local infrastructure and that utilities are protected. Avoid severance.

During detailed design stage.

1. Existing crossing facilities across the Link Road especially. 2. Close to mosques, schools and other SRs to be retained. 3. Locations of overpasses and drainage to be included in plans 4. Shrine to the south east of Sukin Nullah and other SRs. Areas considered prone to flooding, bridges and culverts

CDGK with DDC

CDGK

9. Hydrological Impacts

To minimize hydrological and drainage impacts during constructions.

1.Hydrologic flow in areas where it is sensitive, such as bridges and culverts or where flooding may occur next to embankments to be facilitated through provision of permeable base layer in the road base with appropriate drainage structures additional bridges and culverts. 2. Redistribution of sheet flows from road surfaces to be provided for in the design to reduce impacts. 3. Design of adequate major and minor lead off drainage facilities will be completed in detailed design. 1. Detailed design consultants to maintain current level of current facilities for irrigation 2. Consultation with local irrigation authorities and design engineers 3. Appropriate location of facilities to avoid CSC=construction supervision consultant

1., 2.During detailed design. 3. Agreed with contractors before the commencement of construction activities/during reconfirmation of designs. During detailed design stage.

CDGK with DDC

CDGK

10. Irrigation channels and related facilities.

Avoid and retain or re-provision current facilities for irrigation. Ensure that

Any irrigation facilities identified in consultation with local irrigation authorities and especially the

CDGK with DDC

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Environmental Concern

Objectives
provisions are made to preserve the operation of current facilities for irrigation.

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
interference with irrigation channels 4. The impacts related to the aesthetic value, religious context (if any) of the local environment have been considered. 1. Identify all locations for drains and slopes or embankment that are to be expanded and all culverts. 2. Design slope stabilization and protection for works in line with worst case storm predictions. 3. Contracts to specify locations and expected mitigation measures. 3.include reprovisioning in contracts as payment milestone(s) 1. Avoiding blocking existing roads and access near the Link Road during construction. 2. Design provisional TEMPORARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN for updating by the construction contractors ONE MONTH PRIOR TO START OF WORKS in any given sector. 3. Installation of traffic warning signs, and enforcing traffic regulations during transportation of materials and equipment and machinery. 4. 4. Conditions of access roads to all the Link Road bridges to be considered. 5. Include plans for conducting awareness programs on safety and proper traffic behavior near Link Road construction sites. 6. Plan requirements to assign dedicated traffic control personnel and to construct new lanes before starting work on the existing lane. 7. Prior to the conclusion of the detailed design stage, modify plans as required to respond to any changes that result from the assumptions made in other Tranche 1 subprojects such as the CSC=construction supervision consultant

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM
water conduit south of shrine.

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

11 Temporary and permanent drainage and erosion control.

Extend / improve drainage culverts under Link Road. Include preliminary designs for in contract.

1. During designing stage no later than prequalification or tender negotiations 2. Include in the contract.

All embankments and vulnerable slopes to be identified during detailed design stages Other locations based on complaints and problems as advised by CSC. The most important locations to be identified and listed in revised EMP. Relevant plans to be made available to the Contractor with tenders.

CDGK with DDC

CSC

12.Traffic Condition

Plan to minimize disturbance of vehicular traffic and pedestrians during construction.

During detailed design.

DDC

CDGK

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 52 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
development of the Urban Traffic Control System and preparation of the comprehensive long term Transport Master Plan. I.e. the potential cascade of effects upon traffic conditions on the Link Road (if any). There is insufficient data to make these assumptions at the present stage.

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

13. Enhance landscape by including trees in landscape designs

To provide enhancements in line with ADB policy on environmental avoid negative impacts due to unnecessary removing of trees

1. Opportunity spaces for landscape planting to be identified along side of highway to provide visual interest in line with best international practice for highway design. Locations may provide a chance to create landscaping where successful planting of trees and shrubs could be accomplished. This practice should be encouraged as far as practicable. Other opportunities for enhancements can be assessed prior to construction and proposed enhancements should be discussed with the local population with respect to available water supply during establishment and protection to avoid cutting for fuel. 2. Detailed design to avoid tree removal unless justified and include tree protection and mitigation requirements in tender and contract documentation. 3 Landscaping at available Link Road verges included in detailed designs. Trees/shrubs/ornamental plants to increase aesthetic value. Choose non polluting or enhancing methods. Contractor to submit Method Statement and schedule of environmental mitigation measures with tender. Enhancements, techniques and machinery selection to minimize impacts and duration of works. Choose non polluting equipment Specify equipment not to contain persistent organic pollutants, asbestos and other hazardous or toxic components.

1. Detailed design output.

The Link Road route

CDGK with DDC

CDGK

14. Environmentally responsible procurement

Look for enhancement opportunities in design and construction. Avoid construction and operational environmental pollution.

During detailed design and compiling contracts and during contractor selection, prior to contract signing.

CSC / Tender evaluators to check contractors Method Statements include sufficient resources for proposed environmental mitigation measures and correct timing in tender/bids.

CSC / Tender evaluators

CDGK

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

CSC=construction supervision consultant

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 53 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM
Equipment and construction specifications and performance with company testimonials / certificates / accreditations.

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

CONSTRUCTION STAGE 1. Plans to control environmental and associated impacts Avoid impacts from unplanned activities 1. Temporary traffic management plan, 2. Drainage and utilities re-provisioning plan, 3. Materials management master plan, 4. Noise and dust control plan, 5. Waste management plan; 6. Tree Compensatory Planting Plan (if required) should all be deliverable in final form by the contractors one month before construction commences. PAYMENTS LINKED TO TREE REESTABLISHMENT NOT TREE REMOVAL1. Removal of trees>10cm DBH (diameter at breast height) to be justified on engineering and safety grounds in tree removal plan. 2. Clearing of trees for construction, cutting trees and other important vegetation during construction should be minimized. 3. Trees that are unavoidably to be removed for construction shall have compensatory planting and replacement and establishment plans for trees that shall be approved by the contractor one month before existing trees are cut. 4. Payments for site clearance shall be withheld until compensatory tree planting is complete for that sector and payment therefore linked to tree reestablishment not removal as one of the milestone CSC=construction supervision consultant Prior to construction activity Submission to ADB To cover all the Link Road route. Contractor. CDGK.

2. Loss of trees and vegetation cover of the areas workareas and aesthetics (if required)

To avoid several negative impacts due to unnecessary removing of shrubs / trees and other street foliage.

One month prior to and during construction of relevant activities

The Link Road route especially where trees can remain under elevated bridge sections.

Contractor and CSC

CDGK/ CSC

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 54 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
payments. 5 At least seven (7) new trees shall replace each cut tree and maintained alive for three years as part of the contractual agreement and milestone payments. 6. Landscaping with trees and shrubs shall take place at the Link Road verges. Planting of trees/shrubs/ornamental plants to contribute to the aesthetic value of the area. 7. At conclusion of the project, all debris and waste shall be removed. All temporary structures, including office buildings, shelters and toilets shall be removed.

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

3. Orientation for Contractor, and Workers and materials management.

Ensure that the CSC, Contractor and workers understand and have the capacity to ensure that the environmental requirements and mitigation measures must be implemented by them.

1. Contractors tenders shall be required to separate clearly the resources and funds to be applied to the mitigation measures for environmental impacts. 2. Contractors tenders shall identify named staff to supervise and plan,

Tree removal and compensatory planting 3. Contractual clauses shall be included to tie the implementation of environmental mitigation measures in the above plans to trigger milestone payments. Contractual clauses shall require Contractors to conduct induction briefing and / or on-site training for the contractors’ management, contractors’ staff, subcontractors and casual workers to cover the environmental requirements of the project. 4. Contractual clauses shall be included to require contractors to employ dedicated environmental management staff to conduct/oversee the environmental orientation sessions and the implementation of environmental mitigation measures CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08 CSC=construction supervision consultant

• • • • • •

Drainage and utilities re-provisioning Temporary traffic management, Materials management, Noise and dust control, Waste management,

Induction for all site agents and above including all CSC staff new staff before commencement of work. Weekly tool box talks and refreshers at early stages of construction for all construction employees as far as reasonably practicable. Include with safety talks.

All site agent staff. monthly induction and six month refresher course as necessary until contractors comply / improve.

Contractor management with the CSC to check monthly and record details and report monthly in progress reports

CDGK to observe and record success.

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 55 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
so as to facilitate checking for milestone payments. 5. Contractual clauses shall emphasize that financial compensation shall not be allowed as mitigation for environmental impacts or environmental nuisance without written and environmentally justifiable agreement from the relevant environmental authorities. 6. Engineering controls shall be promulgated by the construction contractors and shall be designed as mitigation measures to control the impacts at source in the first place. The CSC shall be responsible to approve the measures and report the update of EMP. 7. The contractor shall be responsible for implementation of an effective environmental monitoring and reporting system using checklists of all contractual environmental requirements and EMP.

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

4. Exploitation handling, transportation and storage of construction materials

To minimize and or avoid adverse environmental impacts arising out of construction material exploitation, handling, transportation and storage. To minimize contamination of the surroundings (due mainly to implementation of works, asphalt, concrete and aggregates crushing plants)

Contracts to include specifications for 1. Fuel and bulk materials securely stored above high flood level of the Malir River and Sukin Nallah with covers and retaining boards, covered when not in use, at end of shift and at night. 2. Selecting sites for material exploitation as approved by CDGK. 3. Move bulk materials at Link Road’s off peak less bus times. 4. Maintain vehicles used in material transport in good condition and covered with tarpaulins. 5. Specifiy sites for material storage >1000m away from SRs in contracts 6. Excavation of earth fill to be limited to an approximate depth of 50 cm. In case of deep ditching, the top 1 m layer of the ditching area to be stripped and stockpiled. Ditch initially to be filled with scrap material from construction and then levelled with the stockpiled topsoil. 7. Ditches or borrow pits be revegetated and CSC=construction supervision consultant

update monthly

1. List the borrow areas to be prepared one month prior to commencement of contracts stage 2 construction 2.A list of routes of transport of construction material is to be prepared for the contract and agreed one month prior to stage 2 construction 4. A map of locations of storage is prepared by the contractor.

Contractor and CSC to agree

CDGK

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 56 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
landscaped to minimize erosion and to avoid creating surface hazards for people and livestock 8. Update materials management plan monthly and include in progress report

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

5. Institutional strengthening and capacity building

To ensure that CDGK and PMU officials are trained to understand and to appreciate and have the resources to apply the EMP. To minimize air impacts effectively and avoid complaints due to the airborne particulate matter released to the atmosphere.

1. Capacity building activities. 2. Consolidation of the DOE or Setting up of DOE within CDGK. 3. Development of a strengthening plan for the DOE.

Initiate during preconstruction and continue beyond project completion.

All senior staff in CDGK at senior engineer and above in PMU and related units.

CDGK

ADB

6. Air quality

CONTOL ALL DUSTY MATERIALS AT SOURCE. 1. If works have given rise to complaints over dust, the contractor shall investigate the cause and review and propose alternative mitigation measures before works recommence. 2. All heavy equipment and machinery shall be fitted in full compliance with the national and local regulations. 3. Stockpiled soil and sand shall be slightly wetted before loading, particularly in windy conditions. 4. Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks shall be employed to minimize exhaust emissions. Smoke belching vehicles and equipment shall not be allowed and shall be removed from the project. 5. Vehicles transporting soil, sand and other construction materials shall be covered with tarpaulin sheets. Speeds of such vehicles shall be limited to 15km/h within the works site and on unpaved edge areas of the Link Road. 6 The active open areas of the sites and haul roads shall be sprayed at least twice per day with water to suppress dust and to avoid excessive dust obscuring visibility on the remaining operation lanes of the Link Road. In the event of complaints water spraying shall CSC=construction supervision consultant

1. Before works commence and weekly throughout all construction works 2 Monthly reporting in progress reports. 3.Report to allow inclusion in PPR to ADB.

The Link Road route

1. The Contractor should maintain the accepted standards. 2. CSC should monitor dust complaints, wheel washing and surface wetting and other relevant activities. 3. CDGK

CDGK

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 57 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
be increased and the pattern of spraying shall be reviewed to improve its effect. 7. Wheel and vehicle washing facilities shall be installed at the main construction yards, stockpiling areas, cement batching facilities abd bitumen plant to prevent the transfer of excessive dust on to the remaining operation lanes of the Link Road. 8. Concrete batching plants. Asphalt plant and rock crusher activities (if required) to be controlled (e.g. asphalt hot-mix plants should not be located within 500m of any sensitive receiver, river bank or irrigation channel but located at convenient sites nearby but downwind of and at least 500m from sensitive receptors such as schools and hospitals.

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

7. Bitumen usage

Avoid air pollution and traffic obstacles

Bitumen should not be used as fuel Fuel wood should not be for bitumen heating. Bitumen drums should be stored in a dedicated area, not scattered along the works

Before works commence and throughout all construction works

The Link Road route

The Contractor observe rules CSC should monitor bitumen use and other related activities. 1.Contractor 2.CSC should supervise and take action to ensure completion of Contractor’s relevant activities according to environmental standards.

CDGK

8. Construction Waste Disposal

To minimize the impacts from construction waste disposal.

Waste management plan to be submitted to the CSC and approved one month prior to starting works. 1. Estimating the amounts and types of construction waste to be generated by the project. 2. Identify opportunities for waste to be reused in the project or by other interested parties. 3 Identifying potentially safe disposal sites close to the project. or those designated sites in the contract. 4 Waste shall not be burned - under any circumstances. OPEN BURNING IS CONTRARY TO GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE.

Update once a month and report quarterly.

1. A list of temporary dumping areas identified by detailed design engineer to be prepared at the contract stage for agreement. 2. The list of waste sites to be reconfirmed and that dumping areas is available as identified by detailed design engineer.

CDGK/CSC

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

CSC=construction supervision consultant

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 58 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern
9. Water quality

Objectives
To prevent adverse water quality impacts due to negligence and ensure unavoidable impacts are managed effectively. Ensure adverse impacts on water quality caused by construction activities are minimized. To avoid threat to established works and minimize excessive erosion of works in progress, embankments and slopes. To ensure that the operation of the works and worker facilities does not adversely affect the surrounding environment and residents in the area.

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
1. Storage of lubricants, fuels and other hydrocarbons in self-contained dedicated enclosures >50 m away from water bodies. 3. Proper disposal of solid waste from construction activities and labour camps. 4. Covering the construction material and spoil stockpiles with a suitable material to reduce material loss and sedimentation. 5. Avoiding stockpiling to water bodies. 6. Stripped material shall not be stored where natural drainage will be disrupted. 7. Borrow sites should not be close to sources of drinking water. Immediately after completion of engineering works in any sector require establishment of vegetation cover and other erosion protection prior to payment milestone. Prior to hand back of any section regular monthly surveillance by contractor and immediate repair and reestablishment and as part of routine progress reporting. 1. Identify location of worker canteen and toilet facilities in consultation with local communities. Location subject to approval by the CDGK. If possible, canteen and toilet facilities shall include drinking water supplies. 2. Marking of vegetation not to be removed prior to clearance, and strict control on clearing activities to ensure minimal clearance. Felled trees and other cleared or pruned vegetation to be disposed of as authorized by CDGK but not burned. LPG or other fuels to be provided for cooking at worker camps. 3. In case of agricultural land, top 30 cm of soil to be stockpiled and preserved for future re-spread after site vacated. CSC=construction supervision consultant

Timing to Implement MM
Timing will depend on the construction timetable

Locations to Implement MM
Throughout the Link Road Route

Resp to Implement MM
Contractor

Resp to Minotor MM
CDGK/CSC

10. Erosion control

At all times with special focus in rainy seasons.

All embankments and vulnerable slopes to be identified during detailed design stages

CDGK

CDGK/CSC

11. Worker camp canteen and toilet facilities

Update Once a month

Location Map is prepared by the Contractor.

Contractor

CDGK/CSC

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 59 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
4. In order to maintain proper sanitation around construction routes, temporary toilets will need to be provided. Waste shall not be buried (see above) 5. Drinking water and sanitary facilities shall be provided for employees. 6. Solid waste and sewage shall be managed according to the national and local regulations. 7. The Contractor shall organize and maintain a waste separation, collection and transport system. 8. The Contractor shall document that all liquid and solid hazardous and non-hazardous waste are separated, collected and disposed of according to the given requirements and regulations. 9. At the conclusion of the project in a particular sector, all debris and waste shall be removed. All temporary structures, including office buildings, shelters, waste receptacles and toilets shall be removed. 10. Exposed areas shall be replanted with suitable vegetation in line with the landscape plans and be inspected by CDGK and CSC shall inspect and report that the site has been vacated and restored to preproject conditions or as agreed with CDGK.

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

12. Safety Precautions for the Workers and first aid.

To ensure safety of workers and equipment.

1. Providing adequate warning signs. 2. Providing workers with skull guard or hard hat. 3. Contractor shall instruct his workers in health and safety matters, weekly, and require the workers to use the provided safety equipment. 4. Establish all relevant safety measures as required by law and good engineering practices. 5. Contractor shall provide first aid facilities for the workers on the Link Road Route and at the worker canteens with at least one qualified first-aider or nurse present at all times. It is recommended that the workforce be given access to a trained doctor at least once per two weeks for routine checks and medical CSC=construction supervision consultant

During construction

Relevant canteen and worker sanitation facilities Base height as for equipment yards above HFL.

Contractor and CSC

CDGK/CSC

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 60 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
examinations if necessary. 6. Locate construction yards and facilities above the highest recorded flood level (HFL – also avoids water contamination)

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

13. Traffic Condition

Minimize disturbance of vehicular traffic & pedestrians during haulage of materials, spoil, equipment & machinery. No blocking access near the Link Road.

SUBMIT TEMPORARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN ONE MONTH PRIOR TO START OF WORKS in any given sector. - Formulation and implementation of a construction related traffic management plan . Assign traffic control personnel.. - Vicinity of schools and hospitals to be considered. Installation of traffic warning signs. - Conducting awareness programs on safety and proper traffic behavior in densely populated areas near the construction sites.

Day time

The most important locations to be identified and listed. Relevant plans of the Contractor on traffic arrangements are available.

Contractor and Engineer

CDGK/CSC

OPERATIONAL STAGE 1. Soil erosion. To minimize excessive erosion of embankments and slopes. Ensure thorough maintenance programme of vegetation cover and other erosion protection prior to payment milestone. Regular monthly surveillance as part of routine regular maintenance for initial three years of operation. Law enforcement on vehicles conditions. Full development of the Urban Traffic Control System Timely preparation of the comprehensive long term Transport Master Plan. I.e. the potential cascade of effects upon traffic conditions at the street level resulting from the proposals for the of Urban Traffic Control System and Transport Master Plan should contribute to some reductions in air pollution. Adopting other subsequent policies, initiatives and guidelines or National measures due to regulations on fuel type and purification of exhaust gases. CSC=construction supervision consultant Throughout operations All embankments and slopes with protection measures. CSC and CDGK. CDGK

2. Air Quality

Integrated approach to traffic management hand in hand with reductions in pollution.

During operation of all roads.

Throughout road transport network.

CSC and CDGK.

CDGK

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 61 of 62

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Concern

Objectives

Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Promoting mass transport and traffic management. Establishing vehicle emission regulations and standards. Strict enforcement of the regulations subsequent to an awareness program.

Timing to Implement MM

Locations to Implement MM

Resp to Implement MM

Resp to Minotor MM

3. Noise

Control noise from exceeding tolerable levels within a 100m corridor by decrease of traffic flow.

Establishing standards and regulations for noise levels emanating from vehicles. Strict enforcement of regulations, subsequent to an awareness programme. Establishing a national policy on vehicle imports – noise levels in line proposals for the of Urban Traffic Control System and Transport Master Plan should contribute to some reductions in noise as vehicle fleet is improved. Link Road user and neighbour information/ education, traffic signs and Link Road feeder road markings. Lighted junctions, lane markings and coloured catseyes for identification of lanes in nighttime operation. Establishment of accident review committee.

During operation.

-

CDGK

CDGK

4. Monitoring Accidents

To control serious and fatal accidents on the roads surrounding the Link Road due to new road layouts and possibly higher speeds. To control litter, fly tipping and garbage disposal by the side of Link Road by users creating pollution and dangerous driving conditions

During operation

-

CDGK

CDGK

5 Refuse disposal and fly tipping.

Link Road sweeping weekly. Information campaigns and litter bins at junctions. Placing garbage bins along the Link Road lanes with signboards Fines against littering and rewards for whistle blowers. Regular cleaning of the Link Road lanes. Collaborative work with NGOs

During operation.

CDGK

CDGK

CDGK = City District Government Karachi 07/03/08

CSC=construction supervision consultant

DDC = Detailed Design Consultant

PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar. Page 62 of 62

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