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4 More about Equations
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Followup Exercise
p. 162
1. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation x
4
– 10x
2
+ 9 = 0,
we have
u
2
– 10u + 9 = 0
(u – 1)(u – 9) = 0
u = 1 or u = 9
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
= 1 or x
2
= 9
x = t1 or x = t3
∴ The real roots of the equation are –3, –1, 1 and 3.
2. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation x
4
+ 3x
2
– 4 = 0,
we have
u
2
+ 3u – 4 = 0
(u – 1)(u + 4) = 0
u = 1 or u = – 4
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
= 1 or x
2
= –4 (rejected)
x = t1
∴ The real roots of the equation are –1 and 1.
3. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation 4x
4
– 17x
2
+ 4 = 0,
we have
4u
2
– 17u + 4 = 0
(4u – 1)(u – 4) = 0
u =
4
1
or u = 4
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
=
4
1
or x
2
= 4
x =
2
1
t or x = t2
∴ The real roots of the equation are –2,
2
1
− ,
2
1
and 2.
4. By substituting x
3
= u into the equation x
6
+ 2x
3
+ 1 = 0,
we have
u
2
+ 2u + 1 = 0
(u + 1)
2
= 0
u = –1
∵ x
3
= u
∴ x
3
= –1
x = –1
∴ The real root of the equation is –1.
p. 163
1.
8 4
2
− − x x
= 2
2
2
8 4
,
`
.

− − x x = 2
2
x
2
– 4x – 8 = 4
x
2
– 4x – 12 = 0
(x + 2)(x – 6) = 0
x = –2 or x = 6
Checking:
When x = –2,
8 4
2
− − x x
= 8 ) 2 ( 4 ) 2 (
2
− − × − − = 2
When x = 6,
8 4
2
− − x x
=
8 6 4 6
2
− × −
= 2
∴ The real roots of the equation are –2 and 6.
2. x + x 3 = 4
x – 4 = – x 3
(x – 4)
2
=
( )
2
3 x −
x
2
– 8x + 16 = 9x
x
2
– 17x + 16 = 0
(x – 1)(x – 16) = 0
x = 1 or x = 16
Checking: When x = 1, x + x 3 = 1 +
1 3
= 4
When x = 16, x + x 3 = 16 + 16 3 = 28 ≠ 4
∴ The real root of the equation is 1.
Alternative Solution
By substituting x = u into the equation x + x 3 = 4, we
have
u
2
+ 3u = 4
u
2
+ 3u – 4 = 0
(u – 1)(u + 4) = 0
u = 1 or u = –4
∵ x = u
∴ x = 1 or x = –4 (rejected)
x = 1
∴ The real root of the equation is 1.
3. x – 2 3 − x = 0
x = 2 3 − x
x
2
=
( )
2
2 3 − x
x
2
= 9x – 18
x
2
– 9x + 18 = 0
(x – 3)(x – 6) = 0
x = 3 or x = 6
Checking:
When x = 3, x – 2 3 − x = 3 – 2 3 3 − = 0
When x = 6, x – 2 3 − x = 6 – 2 6 3 − = 0
∴ The real roots of the equation are 3 and 6.
4. x + 2 2 − x = 10
2 2 − x = 10 – x
( )
2
2 2 − x
= (10 – x)
2
4x – 8 = 100 – 20x + x
2
x
2
– 24x + 108 = 0
83
4 More about Equations
(x – 6)(x – 18) = 0
x = 6 or x = 18
Checking:
When x = 6, x + 2 2 − x = 6 + 2 6 2 − = 10
When x = 18, x + 2 2 − x = 18 + 2 18 2 − = 26 ≠ 10
∴ The real root of the equation is 6.
p.168
For questions 1 to 4, refer to the graph below:
1. y = 3x – 5
x 1 2 3
y –2 1 4
∵ The two graphs intersect at only one point (2, 1).
∴ The solution of the simultaneous equations is (2, 1).
2. y = –2x – 2
x –2 –1 0
y 2 0 –2
∵ The two graphs do not intersect.
∴ The simultaneous equations have no real solutions.
3. –x + y = 2
x –1 0 1
y 1 2 3
∵ The two graphs intersect at (–1, 1) and (3, 5).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–1, 1) and (3, 5).
4. x – y – 4 = 0
x 1 2 3
y –3 –2 –1
∵ The two graphs do not intersect.
∴ The simultaneous equations have no real solutions.
p. 175
1. (a) ∵ x
2
– 4x = 0
x
2
= 4x
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y = 4x.
(b) ∵ x
2
+ 3x – 2 = 0
x
2
= –3x + 2
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y = –3x + 2.
(c) ∵ 3x
2
+ 6x – 1 = 0
3x
2
= –6x + 1
x
2
= –2x +
3
1
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y = –2x +
3
1
.
2. (a) ∵ y = x
2
y = x – 3
∴ x
2
= x – 3
x
2
– x + 3 = 0
∴ The quadratic equation that can be solved is
x
2
– x + 3 = 0.
(b) ∵ y = 3x
2
y = 4x + 1
∴ 3x
2
= 4x + 1
3x
2
– 4x – 1 = 0
∴ The quadratic equation that can be solved is
3x
2
– 4x – 1 = 0.
(c) y = –2x
2
+ x ……(1)
2x + y = 1 ……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
2x + (–2x
2
+ x) = 1
2x
2
– 3x + 1 = 0
∴ The quadratic equation that can be solved is
2x
2
– 3x + 1 = 0.
3.
84
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
(a) ∵ x
2
– 2x – 3 = 0
x
2
– 2x = 3
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
·
− ·
3
2
2
y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = 3 on the graph of
y = x
2
– 2x.
From the graphs, the roots of x
2
– 2x – 3 = 0 are –1
and 3.
(b) ∵ x
2
+ 2x + 1 = 0
x
2
– 2x + 4x +1 = 0
x
2
– 2x = –4x –1
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
− − ·
− ·
1 4
2
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = –4x –1 on the graph of
y = x
2
– 2x.
From the graphs, the root of x
2
+ 2x + 1 = 0 is –1.
(c) ∵ 2x
2
+ x – 6 = 0
2x
2
+ x – 5x – 6 = – 5x
2x
2
– 4x – 6 = – 5x
x
2
– 2x – 3 = x
2
5
−
x
2
– 2x = x
2
5
− + 3
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
− ·
3
2
5
2
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = x
2
5
− + 3 on the graph of
y = x
2
– 2x.
From the graphs, the roots of 2x
2
+ x – 6 = 0 are –2
and 1.5.
p.183
1.
¹
'
¹
− ·
· +
x y
y x
6
20
2 2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
+ (6 – x)
2
= 20
x
2
+ 36 – 12x + x
2
= 20
2x
2
– 12x + 16 = 0
x
2
– 6x + 8 = 0
(x – 2)(x – 4) = 0
x – 2 = 0 or x – 4 = 0
x = 2 or x = 4
By substituting x = 2 into (2), we have y = 6 – 2 = 4
By substituting x = 4 into (2), we have y = 6 – 4 = 2
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(2, 4) and (4, 2).
2.
¹
'
¹
·
· + −
x y
y x
2
3
0 6 9
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (1), we have x = 9y – 6 ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (2), we have
3y
2
= 9y – 6
3y
2
– 9y + 6 = 0
y
2
– 3y + 2 = 0
(y – 1)(y – 2) = 0
y = 1 or y = 2
By substituting y = 1 into (3), we have x = 9(1) – 6 = 3
By substituting y = 2 into (3), we have x = 9(2) – 6 = 12
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(3, 1) and (12, 2).
3.
¹
'
¹
· + −
· + + +
0 7 4
0 1 4 2
2
y x
y x x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have y = 4x + 7……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
2x
2
+ 4x + 4x + 7 + 1 = 0
2x
2
+ 8x + 8 = 0
x
2
+ 4x + 4 = 0
(x + 2)
2
= 0
x = –2
By substituting x = –2 into (3), we have y = 4(–2) +7 = –1
∴ The solution of the simultaneous equations is
(–2, –1).
4.
¹
'
¹
· + −
· +
0 7 2
1
2 2
y x
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have y = 2x + 7……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
x
2
+ (2x + 7)
2
= 1
x
2
+ 4x
2
+ 28x + 49 = 1
5x
2
+ 28x + 48 = 0
Consider the discriminant of 5x
2
+ 28x + 48 = 0.
∆ = 28
2
– 4(5)(48) = –176 < 0
∴ 5x
2
+ 28x + 48 = 0 has no real roots.
∴ The simultaneous equations have no real solutions.
5.
¹
'
¹
· − +
+ + ·
0 1 5
1 2
2
y x
x x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have y = –5x + 1……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
–5x + 1 = 2x
2
+ x + 1
2x
2
+ 6x = 0
Consider the discriminant of 2x
2
+ 6x = 0.
∆ = 6
2
– 4(2)(0) = 36 > 0
∴ 2x
2
+ 6x = 0 has two distinct real roots.
∴ The simultaneous equations have two real solutions.
p.185
1. Let x cm and y cm be the length and the width of the
rectangle respectively.
∵ The perimeter of the rectangle is 46 cm.
∴ 2(x + y) = 46
x + y = 23
y = 23 – x ……(1)
∵ The area of the rectangle is 120 cm
2
.
∴ xy = 120 ……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x(23 – x) = 120
23x – x
2
= 120
x
2
– 23x + 120 = 0
85
4 More about Equations
(x – 8)(x – 15) = 0
x = 8 or x = 15
By substituting x = 8 into (1), we have y = 23 – 8 = 15
By substituting x = 15 into (1), we have y = 23 – 15 = 8
∴ The dimensions of the rectangle are 8 cm × 15 cm.
2. (a) ∵ The length of the string is 14 cm.
∴ PT + TQ = 14 cm
x + y = 14
PT
2
+ TQ
2
= PQ
2
(Pyth. theorem)
x
2
+ y
2
= 10
2
x
2
+ y
2
= 100
∴ The required simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
· +
· +
100
14
2 2
y x
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
.
(b) From (1), we have
x + y = 14
y = 14 – x ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (2), we have
x
2
+ (14 – x)
2
= 100
x
2
+ 196 – 28x + x
2
= 100
2x
2
– 28x + 96 = 0
x
2
– 14x + 48 = 0
(x – 6)(x – 8) = 0
x = 6 or x = 8
By substituting x = 6 into (3), we have y = 14 – 6 = 8
By substituting x = 8 into (3), we have y = 14 – 8 = 6
∴ The solutions are
¹
'
¹
·
·
8
6
y
x
or
¹
'
¹
·
·
6
8
y
x
.
3. Let x be the tens digit and y be the units digit of the
original number.
∴ The original number is 10x + y,
and the reversed number is 10y + x.
∵ The number is increased by 36 when the digits are
reversed.
∴ (10y + x) – (10x + y) = 36
–9x + 9y = 36
–x + y = 4
y = x + 4 ……(1)
∵ The product of the digits is 32.
∴ xy = 32 …..(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x(x + 4) = 32
x
2
+ 4 x = 32
x
2
+ 4 x – 32 = 0
(x – 4)(x + 8) = 0
x = 4 or x = –8 (rejected)
By substituting x = 4 into (1), we have y = 4 + 4 = 8
∴ The number is 48.
p.192
1. (a) The possible factors of f(x) are x t 1, x t 2,
x t 5 and x t 10.
∵ f(1) = 1
3
+ 4(1)
2
– 7(1) – 10 = –12 ≠ 0
∴ x – 1 is not a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–1) = (–1)
3
+ 4(–1)
2
– 7(–1) – 10 = 0
∴ x + 1 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f(2) = 2
3
+ 4(2)
2
– 7(2) – 10 = 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–2) = (–2)
3
+ 4(–2)
2
– 7(–2) – 10 = 12 ≠ 0
∴ x + 2 is not a factor of f(x).
∵ f(5) = 5
3
+ 4(5)
2
– 7(5) – 10 = 180 ≠ 0
∴ x – 5 is not a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–5) = (–5)
3
+ 4(–5)
2
– 7(–5) – 10 = 0
∴ x + 5 is a factor of f(x).
∴ The factors of f(x) are x – 2, x +1 and
x + 5.
∴ A factor of f(x) is x – 2, x +1 or x + 5.(any one)
(b) ∵ The factors of f(x) are (x – 2), (x +1) and
(x + 5).
∴ f(x) =
) 5 )( 1 )( 2 ( + + − x x x
(c) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 2)(x + 1)(x + 5) = 0
x – 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0
x =
2
or x =
1 −
or x =
5 −
2. (a) ∵ f(1) = 1
4
+ 1
3
– 14(1)
2
– 8(1) + 48 = 28 ≠ 0
∴ x – 1 is not a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–1) = (–1)
4
+ (–1)
3
– 14(–1)
2
– 8(–1) + 48
= 42
≠ 0
∴ x + 1 is not a factor of f(x).
∵ f(2) = 2
4
+ 2
3
– 14(2)
2
– 8(2) + 48 = 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–2) = (–2)
4
+ (–2)
3
– 14(–2)
2
– 8(–2) + 48
= 16
≠ 0
∴ x + 2 is not a factor of f(x).
∵ f(3) = 3
4
+ 3
3
– 14(3)
2
– 8(3) + 48 = 6 ≠ 0
∴ x – 3 is not a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–3) = (–3)
4
+ (–3)
3
– 14(–3)
2
– 8(–3) + 48
= 0
∴ x + 3 is a factor of f(x).
∴ The required linear factors of f(x) are x – 2 and
x + 3.
(b) ∵ x – 2 and x + 3 are factors of f(x).
∴ (x – 2)(x + 3) is also a factor of f(x).
Divide f(x) by (x – 2)(x + 3), i.e. x
2
+ x – 6.
8
48 8 8
48 8 8
6
48 8 14 6
2
2
2
2 3 4
2 3 4 2
−
+ − −
+ − −
− +
+ − − + − +
x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x x x x
∴ x
4
+ x
3
– 14x
2
– 8x + 48 = (x – 2)(x + 3)(x
2
– 8)
∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 2)(x + 3)(x
2
– 8) = 0
x – 2 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 or x
2
– 8 = 0
x =
2
or x =
3 −
or x = 2 2 t
3. 2x
4
+ x
3
– 3x
2
– x + 1 = (2x
4
– 3x
2
+ 1) + (x
3
– x)
= [2(x
2
)
2
– 3x
2
+ 1] + x(x
2
– 1)
= (2x
2
– 1)(x
2
– 1) + x(x
2
– 1)
= (x
2
– 1)(2x
2
– 1 + x)
= (x + 1)(x – 1)(2x
2
+ x – 1)
86
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
= (x + 1)(x – 1)(2x – 1)(x + 1)
= (x + 1)
2
(x – 1)(2x – 1)
∵ 2x
4
+ x
3
– 3x
2
– x + 1 = 0
∴ (x + 1)
2
(x – 1)(2x – 1) = 0
(x + 1)
2
= 0 or x – 1 = 0 or 2x – 1 = 0
x =
1 −
or x =
1
or x =
2
1
4. 8(x + 1)
3
– (x + 2)
3
= [2(x + 1)]
3
– (x + 2)
3
= [2(x + 1) – (x + 2)]{[2(x + 1)]
2
+ 2(x + 1)(x + 2)
+ (x + 2)
2
}
= (2x + 2 – x – 2)(4x
2
+ 8x + 4 + 2x
2
+ 6x + 4 + x
2
+ 4x +
4)
= x(7x
2
+ 18x + 12)
∵ 8(x + 1)
3
– (x + 2)
3
= 0
∴ x(7x
2
+ 18x + 12) = 0
∴ x = 0 or 7x
2
+ 18x + 12 = 0
x = 0 or x =
) 7 ( 2
) 12 )( 7 ( 4 18 18
2
− t −
=
14
12 18 − t −
(rejected)
∴ x =
0
Exercise
Exercise 4A (p.164)
Level 1
1. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation x
4
– 17x
2
+ 16 = 0,
we have
u
2
– 17u + 16 = 0
(u – 1)(u – 16) = 0
u = 1or u = 16
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
= 1 or x
2
= 16
x = t1 or x = t4
∴ The real roots of the equation are –4, –1, 1 and 4.
2. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation x
4
– 26x
2
+ 25 = 0,
we have
u
2
– 26u + 25 = 0
(u – 1)(u – 25) = 0
u = 1 or u = 25
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
= 1 or x
2
= 25
x = t1 or x = t5
∴ The real roots of the equation are –5, –1, 1 and 5.
3. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation x
4
– 11x
2
– 80 = 0,
we have
u
2
– 11u – 80 = 0
(u – 16)(u + 5) = 0
u = 16 or u = –5
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
= 16 or x
2
= –5 (rejected)
x = t4
∴ The real roots of the equation are –4 and 4.
4. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation x
4
– 12x
2
+27 = 0,
we have
u
2
– 12u + 27 = 0
(u – 3)(u – 9) = 0
u = 3 or u = 9
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
= 3 or x
2
= 9
x = 3 t or x = t3
∴ The real roots of the equation are –3, 3 − , 3 and 3.
5. x
3
– 8x
2
+ 7x = 0
x(x
2
– 8x + 7) = 0
x(x – 1)(x – 7) = 0
x = 0 or x = 1 or x = 7
∴ The real roots of the equation are 0, 1 and 7.
6. x
5
– 6x
4
+ 5x
3
= 0
x
3
(x
2
– 6x + 5) = 0
x
3
(x – 1)(x – 5) = 0
x = 0 or x = 1 or x = 5
∴ The real roots of the equation are 0, 1 and 5.
7. By substituting x
3
= u into the equation x
6
+ 9x
3
+ 8 = 0,
we have
u
2
+ 9u + 8 = 0
(u + 1)(u + 8) = 0
u = –1 or u = –8
∵ x
3
= u
∴ x
3
= –1 or x
3
= –8
x = –1 or x = –2
∴ The real roots of the equation are –2 and –1.
8.
3 1 2
2
· + + x x
2
2
2
3 1 2 ·
,
`
.

+ + x x
x
2
+ 2x + 1 = 9
x
2
+ 2x – 8 = 0
(x + 4)(x – 2) = 0
x = –4 or x = 2
Checking:
When x = –4,
1 2
2
+ + x x
=
1 ) 4 ( 2 ) 4 (
2
+ − + −
= 3
When x = 2,
1 2
2
+ + x x
=
1 ) 2 ( 2 2
2
+ +
= 3
∴ The real roots of the equation are –4 and 2.
9. x – x – 12 = 0
x – 12 = x
(x – 12)
2
=
( )
2
x
x
2
– 24x + 144 = x
x
2
– 25x + 144 = 0
(x – 9)(x – 16) = 0
x = 9 or x = 16
Checking:
When x = 9, x – x – 12 = 9 – 9 – 12 = –6 ≠ 0
When x = 16, x – x – 12 = 16 – 16 – 12 = 0
87
4 More about Equations
∴ The real root of the equation is 16.
Alternative Solution
By substituting x = u into the equation x – x – 12 = 0,
we have
u
2
– u – 12 = 0
(u – 4)(u + 3) = 0
u = 4 or u = –3
∵ x = u
∴ x = 4 or x = –3 (rejected)
x = 16
∴ The real root of the equation is 16.
10. x – x 5 + 6 = 0
x + 6 = x 5
(x + 6)
2
=
( )
2
5 x
x
2
+ 12x + 36 = 25x
x
2
– 13x + 36 = 0
(x – 4)(x – 9) = 0
x = 4 or x = 9
Checking:
When x = 4, x – x 5 + 6 = 4 –
4 5
+ 6 = 0
When x = 9, x – x 5 + 6 = 9 – 9 5 + 6 = 0
∴ The real roots of the equation are 4 and 9.
Alternative Solution
By substituting x = u into the equation x – x 5 + 6 = 0,
we have
u
2
– 5u + 6 = 0
(u – 2)(u – 3) = 0
u = 2 or u = 3
∵ x = u
∴ x = 2 or x = 3
x = 4 or x = 9
∴ The real roots of the equation are 4 and 9.
11. 2 + x + x = 10
2 + x = –x + 10
( )
2
2 + x
= (–x + 10)
2
x + 2 = x
2
– 20x +100
x
2
– 21x + 98 = 0
(x – 7)(x – 14) = 0
x = 7 or x = 14
Checking:
When x = 7, 2 + x + x = 2 7 + + 7 = 10
When x = 14, 2 + x + x =
2 14 +
+14 = 18 ≠ 10
∴ The real root of the equation is 7.
12. x – 1 + x = 1
x – 1 = 1 + x
(x – 1)
2
= ( 1 + x )
2
x
2
– 2x + 1 = x + 1
x
2
– 3x = 0
x(x – 3) = 0
x = 0 or x = 3
Checking:
When x = 0, x – 1 + x = 0 – 1 0 + = –1 ≠ 1
When x = 3, x – 1 + x = 3 – 1 3 + = 1
∴ The real root of the equation is 3.
13. ∵ 1 is a root of the equation ax
4
+ bx
2
+ c = 0.
∴ a(1)
4
+ b(1)
2
+ c = 0
a + b + c = 0
By substituting x
2
= u into the equation ax
4
+ bx
2
+ c = 0,
we have
au
2
+ bu + c = 0
1 is also a root of the equation au
2
+ bu + c = 0.
∴ ∆ ≥ 0
b
2
– 4ac ≥ 0
Let a = 1, b = –5, c = 4.
a + b + c = 1 + (–5) + 4 = 0
b
2
– 4ac = (–5)
2
– 4(1)(4) = 25 – 16 = 9 ≥ 0
Let a = 3, b = 4, c = –7,
a + b + c = 3 +4 + (–7) = 0
b
2
– 4ac = 4
2
– 4(3)( –7) = 100 ≥ 0
∴ A possible set of values of a, b and c is
a = 1, b = –5, c = 4 or a = 3, b = 4, c = –7. (or
any other reasonable answers)
14. x + 2 2 − x = k
2 2 − x = –x + k
( )
2
2 2 − x
= (–x + k)
2
4x – 8 = x
2
– 2kx + k
2
x
2
– (2k + 4)x + (k
2
+ 8) = 0
∵ The equation has no real roots.
∴ ∆ < 0
[– (2k + 4)]
2
– 4(1)(k
2
+ 8) < 0
4k
2
+ 16k + 16 – 4k
2
– 32 < 0
16k – 16 < 0
k < 1
∴ A possible value of k is –1 or –2.(or any other
reasonable answers)
Level 2
15. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation 4x
4
+ 5x
2
– 9 = 0,
we have
4u
2
+ 5u – 9 = 0
(u – 1)(4u + 9) = 0
u = 1 or u =
4
9
−
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
= 1 or x
2
=
4
9
− (rejected)
x = t1
∴ The real roots of the equation are –1and 1.
16. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation 9x
4
– 37x
2
+ 4 = 0,
we have
9u
2
– 37u + 4 = 0
(9u – 1)(u – 4) = 0
u =
9
1
or u = 4
88
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
=
9
1
or x
2
= 4
x =
3
1
t or x = t2
∴ The real roots of the equation are –2,
3
1
− ,
3
1
and 2.
17. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation
4x
4
– 101x
2
+ 25 = 0, we have
4u
2
– 101u + 25 = 0
(4u – 1)(u – 25) = 0
u =
4
1
or u = 25
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
=
4
1
or x
2
= 25
x =
2
1
t or x = t5
∴ The real roots of the equation are –5,
2
1
− ,
2
1
and 5.
18. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation
25x
4
+ 99x
2
– 4 = 0, we have
25u
2
+ 99u – 4 = 0
(25u – 1)(u + 4) = 0
u =
25
1
or u = –4
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
=
25
1
or x
2
= –4 (rejected)
x =
5
1
t
∴ The real roots of the equation are
5
1
− and
5
1
.
19. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation
4x
4
– 19x
2
+ 21 = 0, we have
4u
2
– 19u + 21 = 0
(4u – 7)(u – 3) = 0
u =
4
7
or u = 3
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
=
4
7
or x
2
= 3
x =
2
7
t or x = 3 t
∴ The real roots of the equation are 3 − ,
2
7
− ,
2
7
and 3 .
20. By substituting x
3
= u into the equation x
6
– 5x
3
+ 4 = 0,
we have
u
2
– 5u + 4 = 0
(u – 1)(u – 4) = 0
u = 1 or u = 4
∵ x
3
= u
∴ x
3
= 1 or x
3
= 4
x = 1 or x =
3
4
∴ The real roots of the equation are 1 and
3
4
.
21. 3 3 + x + 2 = 3x – 1
3 3 + x = 3x – 3
( )
2
3 3 + x
= (3x – 3)
2
3x + 3 = 9x
2
– 18x + 9
9x
2
– 21x + 6 = 0
3x
2
– 7x + 2 = 0
(3x – 1)(x – 2) = 0
x =
3
1
or x = 2
Checking:
When x =
3
1
, 3 3 + x + 2 = 3
3
1
3 +
,
`
.

+ 2 = 4
3x – 1 = 3
,
`
.

3
1
– 1 = 0 ≠ 4
When x = 2, 3 3 + x + 2 = 3 ) 2 ( 3 + + 2 = 5
3x – 1 = 3(2) – 1 = 5
∴ The real root of the equation is 2.
22. 3 3 − x + 5 = 2x
3 3 − x = 2x – 5
( )
2
3 3 − x
= (2x – 5)
2
3x – 3 = 4x
2
– 20x + 25
4x
2
– 23x + 28 = 0
(4x – 7)(x – 4) = 0
x =
4
7
or x = 4
Checking:
When x =
4
7
, 3 3 − x + 5 = 3
4
7
3 −
,
`
.

+ 5 =
2
13
2x = 2
,
`
.

4
7
=
2
7
≠
2
13
When x = 4, 3 3 − x + 5 = ( ) 3 4 3 − + 5 = 8
2x = 2(4) = 8
∴ The real root of the equation is 4.
23. By substituting x
2
– 5x = u into the equation
(x
2
– 5x)
2
+ 8(x
2
– 5x) + 16 = 0, we have
u
2
+ 8u + 16 = 0
(u + 4)
2
= 0
∵ u = –4
∴ x
2
– 5x = u
x
2
– 5x = –4
x
2
– 5x + 4 = 0
(x – 1)(x – 4) = 0
x = 1 or x = 4
∴ The real roots of the equation are 1 and 4.
24. (a) 3x
2
+ 15x +
1 5 2
2
+ + x x
= 3x
2
+ 15x + 3 – 3 +
1 5 2
2
+ + x x
89
4 More about Equations
= 3(x
2
+ 5x + 1) +
1 5 2
2
+ + x x
– 3
By substituting
1 5
2
+ + x x
= u into the expression
3x
2
+ 15x +
1 5 2
2
+ + x x
, we have
3x
2
+ 15x +
1 5 2
2
+ + x x
= 3(x
2
+ 5x + 1) +
1 5 2
2
+ + x x
– 3
= 3u
2
+ 2u – 3
(b) By substituting
1 5
2
+ + x x
= u into the equation
3x
2
+ 15x +
1 5 2
2
+ + x x
= 2, we have
3u
2
+ 2u – 3 = 2 (By (a))
3u
2
+ 2u – 5 = 0
(u – 1)(3u + 5) = 0
u = 1 or u =
3
5
−
∵
1 5
2
+ + x x
= u
∴
1 5
2
+ + x x
= 1 or
1 5
2
+ + x x
=
3
5
− (rejected)
5 or 0
0 ) 5 (
0 5
1 1 5
1 ) 1 5 (
2
2
2 2 2
− · ·
· +
· +
· + +
· + +
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
Checking:
When x = 0,
3x
2
+ 15x +
1 5 2
2
+ + x x
= 3(0)
2
+ 15(0) +
1 ) 0 ( 5 0 2
2
+ +
= 2
When x = –5,
3x
2
+ 15x +
1 5 2
2
+ + x x
= 1 ) 5 ( 5 ) 5 ( 2 ) 5 ( 15 ) 5 ( 3
2 2
+ − + − + − + −
= 2
∴ The real roots of the equation are –5 and 0.
25. (a) RHS =
( )
2
2 + + x x
– 2
= x
2
+ 2 2 + x x + x + 2 – 2
= x
2
+ x + 2 2 + x x
= LHS
∴ x
2
+ x + 2 2 + x x ≡
( )
2
2 + + x x
– 2
(b) x
2
+ x + 2 2 + x x = 14
( )
2
2 + + x x
– 2 = 14 (By (a))
( )
2
2 + + x x
– 16 = 0
( 2 + + x x + 4)( 2 + + x x – 4) = 0
2 + + x x + 4 = 0 or 2 + + x x – 4 = 0
( )
2
2 + x
= (–x – 4)
2
or
( )
2
2 + x
= (–x + 4)
2
x + 2 = x
2
+ 8x + 16 or x + 2 = x
2
– 8x + 16
x
2
+ 7x + 14 = 0 or x
2
– 9x + 14 = 0
x =
) 1 ( 2
) 14 )( 1 ( 4 7 7
2
− t −
or (x – 2)(x – 7) = 0
x =
2
7 7 − t −
(rejected) or x = 2 or x = 7
Checking:
When x = 2, x
2
+ x + 2 2 + x x = 2
2
+ 2 + 2 2 ) 2 ( 2 +
= 14
When x = 7, x
2
+ x + 2 2 + x x = 7
2
+ 7 + 2 7 ) 7 ( 2 +
= 98
≠ 14
∴ The real root of the equation is 2.
Exercise 4B (p.176)
Level 1
For questions 1 to 3, refer to the graph below:
1. y = 6
x 1 2 3
y 6 6 6
∵ The two graphs intersect at (–1, 6) and (3, 6).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–1, 6) and (3, 6).
2. y = x + 3
x –1 0 1
y 2 3 4
∵ The two graphs intersect at (0, 3) and (3, 6).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(0, 3) and (3, 6).
3. y = 2x – 1
x 0 1 2
90
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
y –1 1 3
∵ The two graphs intersect at only one point (2, 3).
∴ The solution of the simultaneous equations is (2, 3).
For questions 4 to 6, refer to the graph below:
4. y = x – 1
x –1 0 1
y –2 –1 0
∵ The two graphs intersect at (–3.0, –4.0) and (1.0, 0).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–3.0, –4.0) and (1.0, 0).
5. y = 3x
x –1 0 1
y –3 0 3
∵ The two graphs intersect at (–2.0, –6.0) and (2.0,
6.0).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–2.0, –6.0) and (2.0, 6.0).
6. y = 2x + 3
x –1 0 1
y 1 3 5
∵ The two graphs intersect at (–3.2, –3.2) and
(2.2, 7.2).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
approximately (–3.2, –3.2) and (2.2, 7.2).
7. ∵ y = x
2
y = 9
∴ x
2
= 9
x
2
– 9 = 0
∴ The quadratic equation that can be solved is
x
2
– 9 = 0.
8. ∵ y = x
2
y = –2x + 4
∴ x
2
= –2x + 4
x
2
+ 2x – 4 = 0
∴ The quadratic equation that can be solved is
x
2
+ 2x – 4 = 0.
9. y = x
2
……(1)
2y = 5x – 1 ……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
2x
2
= 5x – 1
2x
2
– 5x + 1 = 0
∴ The quadratic equation that can be solved is
2x
2
– 5x + 1 = 0.
10. ∵ x
2
– 4x – 4 = 0
x
2
= 4x + 4
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y = 4x + 4.
11. ∵ x
2
+ 5x + 1 = 0
x
2
= –5x – 1
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y = –5x – 1.
12. ∵ 2x
2
+ 3x – 4 = 0
2x
2
= –3x + 4
x
2
=
2
3
− x + 2
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y =
2
3
− x + 2.
Level 2
13. y = x
2
+ 1
x –2 –1 0 1 2 3
y 5 2 1 2 5 10
y = 4x – 2
x 1 2 3
y 2 6 10
∵ The two graphs intersect at (1.0, 2.0) and (3.0, 10.0).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
91
4 More about Equations
(1.0, 2.0) and (3.0, 10.0).
14. y = x
2
– 1
x –2 –1 0 1 2 3
y 3 0 –1 0 3 8
y = 2x – 2
x 1 2 3
y 0 2 4
∵ The two graphs intersect at only one point (1.0, 0).
∴ The solution of the simultaneous equations is (1.0, 0).
15. y = x
2
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2
y 9 4 1 0 1 4
4x + y + 5 = 0
x –3 –2 –1
Y 7 3 –1
∵ The two graphs do not intersect.
∴ The simultaneous equations have no real solutions.
16. y = x
2
– x – 1
x –2 –1 0 1 2 3
y 5 1 –1 –1 1 5
2x + 3y = –1
x –2 –0.5 1
y 1 0 –1
∵ The two graphs intersect at (–0.7, 0.1) and (1.0,
–1.0).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
approximately (–0.7, 0.1) and (1.0, –1.0).
17. ∵ 2x
2
– 3 = 0
2x
2
– 3 + x – 1 = x – 1
2x
2
+ x – 4 = x – 1
∴ The equation of the required straight line is y = x – 1.
18. ∵ – 2x
2
+ 5x + 1 = 0
2x
2
– 5x – 1 = 0
2x
2
– 5x – 1 + 6x – 3 = 6x – 3
2x
2
+ x – 4 = 6x – 3
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y = 6x – 3.
19. ∵ 4x
2
+ 3x – 9 = 0
4x
2
+ 2x + x – 8 – 1 = 0
4x
2
+ 2x – 8 = –x + 1
2x
2
+ x – 4 =
2
1
2
1
+ − x
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y =
2
1
2
1
+ − x .
20. ∵ x
2
+ 5x + 4 = 0
92
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
2x
2
+ 10x + 8 = 0
2x
2
+ x + 9x – 4 + 12 = 0
2x
2
+ x – 4 = –9x – 12
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y = –9x – 12.
For questions 21 to 23, refer to the graph below:
y = x
2
– 3x – 3
x –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
y 7 1 –3 –5 –5 –3 1 7
21. ∵ x
2
– 2x + 1 = 0
x
2
– 2x – x – 4 + 1 = – x – 4
x
2
– 3x – 3 = –x – 4
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
− − ·
− − ·
4
3 3
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = –x – 4 on the graph of
y = x
2
– 3x – 3.
From the graphs, the root of x
2
– 2x + 1 = 0 is 1.0.
22. ∵ x
2
– 4x + 5 = 0
x
2
– 3x – x + 8 – 3 = 0
x
2
– 3x – 3 = x – 8
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
− ·
− − ·
8
3 3
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = x – 8 on the graph of
y = x
2
– 3x – 3.
From the graphs, x
2
– 4x + 5 = 0 has no real roots.
23. ∵ 2x
2
– 5x – 10 = 0
2x
2
– 5x – x – 6 – 4 = – x
2x
2
– 6x – 6 = – x + 4
x
2
– 3x – 3 = x
2
1
− + 2
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
− − ·
2
2
1
3 3
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = x
2
1
− + 2 on the graph of
y = x
2
– 3x – 3.
From the graphs, the roots of 2x
2
– 5x – 10 = 0 are
approximately –1.3 and 3.8.
24. (a) y = x
2
– 4x
x –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
y 5 0 –3 –4 –3 0 5
(b)
(c) (i) ∵ x
2
– 4x + 1 = 0
x
2
– 4x = –1
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations
are
¹
'
¹
− ·
− ·
1
4
2
y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = –1 on the graph of
y = x
2
– 4x.
From the graphs, the roots of x
2
– 4x + 1 = 0 are
approximately 0.3 and 3.7.
(ii) ∵ x
2
– 3x – 3 = 0
x
2
– 3x – x + x – 3 = 0
x
2
– 4x = – x + 3
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations
are
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
− ·
3
4
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = – x + 3 on the graph of
y = x
2
– 4x.
93
4 More about Equations
From the graphs, the roots of x
2
– 3x – 3 = 0 are
approximately –0.8 and 3.8.
(iii) ∵ 2x
2
– 7x – 2 = 0
2x
2
– 7x – x – 2 = – x
2x
2
– 8x = – x + 2
x
2
– 4x = x
2
1
− + 1
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations
are
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
− ·
1
2
1
4
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = x
2
1
− + 1 on the graph
of y = x
2
– 4x.
From the graphs, the roots of 2x
2
– 7x – 2 = 0 are
approximately –0.3 and 3.8.
25. (a) y = 2x
2
– x
x –1 –0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
y 3 1 0 0 1 3
(b)
(c) (i) ∵ 2x
2
– 3x + 1 = 0
2x
2
– x – 2x + 1 = 0
2x
2
– x = 2x – 1
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations
are
¹
'
¹
− ·
− ·
1 2
2
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = 2x – 1 on the graph of
y = 2x
2
– x.
From the graphs, the roots of 2x
2
– 3x + 1 = 0
are 0.5 and 1.0.
(ii) ∵ 3x
2
– 5x + 1 = 0
2x
2
–
3
2
3
10
+ x = 0
2x
2
– x –
3
2
3
7
+ x = 0
2x
2
– x =
3
2
3
7
− x
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations
are
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− ·
− ·
3
2
3
7
2
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y =
3
2
3
7
− x on the graph
of y = 2x
2
– x.
From the graphs, the roots of 3x
2
– 5x + 1 = 0
are approximately 0.2 and 1.4.
(iii) ∵ 4x
2
– 2x – 3 = 0
4x
2
– 2x = 3
2x
2
– x =
2
3
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations
are
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
− ·
2
3
2
2
y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y =
2
3
on the graph of
y = 2x
2
– x.
From the graphs, the roots of 4x
2
– 2x – 3 = 0 are
approximately –0.7 and 1.2.
26. (a) ∵ x
2
+ (b – m)x + (c – n) = 0
x
2
+ bx – mx + c – n = 0
x
2
+ bx + c = mx + n
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
+ ·
+ + ·
n mx y
c bx x y
2
.
From the graphs, the roots of
x
2
+ (b – m)x + (c – n) = 0 are 1 and 4.
(b) (i) Read from the graph of y = x
2
+ bx + c.
When x = 1, y = 6.
∴ 6 = 1
2
+ b(1) + c
b + c = 5
c = –b + 5 ……(1)
When x = 4, y = 3.
∴ 3 = 4
2
+ b(4) + c
4b + c = –13 ……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
4b + (–b + 5) = –13
3b = –18
b =
6 −
By substituting b = –6 into (1), we have c =
11
(ii) Read from the graphs of y = mx + n.
When x = 1, y = 6.
∴ 6 = m(1) + n
m + n = 6
n = –m + 6 ……(1)
When x = 4, y = 3.
∴ 3 = m(4) + n
4m + n = 3 ……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
4m + (–m + 6) = 3
3m = –3
m =
1 −
By substituting m = –1 into (1), we have n =
7
94
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
Exercise 4C (p.186)
Level 1
1.
¹
'
¹
+ ·
+ ·
4 2
1
2
x y
x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
2x + 4 = x
2
+ 1
x
2
– 2x – 3 = 0
(x + 1)(x – 3) = 0
x + 1 = 0 or x – 3 = 0
x = –1 or x = 3
By substituting x = –1 into (2), we have y = 2(–1) + 4 = 2
By substituting x = 3 into (2), we have y = 2(3) + 4 = 10
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–1, 2) and (3, 10).
2.
¹
'
¹
+ + ·
+ ·
13 2
12 4
2
x x y
x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
+ 2x + 13 = 4x +12
x
2
– 2x + 1 = 0
(x – 1)
2
= 0
x = 1
By substituting x = 1 into (1), we have y = 4(1) + 12 = 16
∴ The solution of the simultaneous equations is (1, 16).
3.
¹
'
¹
· −
− ·
9
7 3
2 2
y x
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
(3y – 7)
2
– y
2
= 9
9y
2
– 42y + 49 – y
2
= 9
8y
2
– 42y + 40 = 0
4y
2
– 21y + 20 = 0
(4y – 5)(y – 4) = 0
4y – 5 = 0 or y – 4 = 0
y =
4
5
or y = 4
By substituting y =
4
5
into (1), we have
4
13
7
4
5
3 − · −
,
`
.

· x
By substituting y = 4 into (1), we have x = 3(4) – 7 = 5
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
,
`
.

−
4
5
,
4
13
and (5, 4).
4.
¹
'
¹
− ·
· +
x y
y x
5
4
2 2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
+ (5 – x)
2
= 4
x
2
+ 25 – 10x + x
2
= 4
2x
2
– 10x + 21 = 0
Using the quadratic formula, we have
) 2 ( 2
) 21 )( 2 ( 4 ) 10 ( ) 10 (
2
− − t − −
· x
4
68 10 − t
· (rejected)
∴ The simultaneous equations have no real solutions.
5.
¹
'
¹
·
+ ·
x y
x y
2
1 2
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
2x
2
+ 1 = 2x
2x
2
– 2x + 1 = 0
Consider the discriminant of 2x
2
– 2x + 1 = 0.
∆ = (–2)
2
– 4(2)(1) = –4 < 0
∴ 2x
2
– 2x + 1 = 0 has no real roots.
∴ The simultaneous equations have no real solutions.
6.
¹
'
¹
− ·
− ·
x y
x x y
2 1
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x
2
– x = 1 – 2x
x
2
+ x – 1 = 0
Consider the discriminant of x
2
+ x – 1 = 0.
∆ = 1
2
– 4(1)(–1) = 5 > 0
∴ x
2
+ x – 1 = 0 has two real roots.
∴ The simultaneous equations have two real solutions.
7.
¹
'
¹
− ·
+ · +
8 9
10 2 3
2
x y
x y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
3x + (9x – 8) = 2x
2
+ 10
2x
2
– 12x + 18 = 0
x
2
– 6x + 9 = 0
Consider the discriminant of x
2
– 6x + 9 = 0.
∆ = (–6)
2
– 4(1)(9) = 0
∴ x
2
– 6x + 9 = 0 has only one real root.
∴ The simultaneous equations have one real solution.
8.
¹
'
¹
· +
− · +
3 2
1
2
y x
x x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have y = –2x + 3……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
–2x + 3 + 1 = x
2
– x
x
2
+ x – 4 = 0
Consider the discriminant of x
2
+ x – 4 = 0.
∆ = 1
2
– 4(1)(–4) = 17 > 0
∴ x
2
+ x – 4 = 0 has two real roots.
∴ The simultaneous equations have two real solutions.
9.
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
·
k x x y
x y
3
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
– 3x + k = x
x
2
– 4x + k = 0……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
∴ (3) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–4)
2
– 4(1)(k) = 0
16 – 4k = 0
4k = 16
k =
4
10.
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
− ·
k x x y
x y
6
5 4
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
95
4 More about Equations
x
2
– 6x + k = 4x – 5
x
2
– 10x + (k + 5) = 0……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
∴ (3) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–10)
2
– 4(1)(k + 5) = 0
100 – 4k – 20 = 0
4k = 80
k =
20
11.
¹
'
¹
− − ·
− ·
k x x y
y x
4
6 7
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
7 = 6x – (x
2
– 4x – k)
x
2
– 10x + (7 – k) = 0……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
∴ (3) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–10)
2
– 4(1)(7 – k) = 0
100 – 28 + 4k = 0
4k = –72
k =
18 −
12.
¹
'
¹
· +
+ · +
x y k
y x x
5
5 16
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have y = 5x – k ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
x
2
+16 = 5x + 5x – k
x
2
– 10x + (16 + k) = 0 ……(4)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
∴ (4) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–10)
2
– 4(1)(16 + k) = 0
100 – 64 – 4k = 0
4k = 36
k =
9
13. (a) ∵ The length of the rectangle is longer than the
width by 10 cm.
∴ x – y = 10
∵ The area of the rectangle is 200 cm
2
.
∴ xy = 200
∴ The required simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
·
· −
200
10
xy
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
.
(b) From (1), we have
x – y = 10
x = y + 10……(3)
By substituting (3) into (2), we have
(y + 10)y = 200
y
2
+ 10y – 200 = 0
(y – 10)(y + 20) = 0
y = 10 or y = –20 (rejected)
By substituting y = 10 into (3), we have
x = 10 + 10 = 20
∴ The dimensions of the rectangle are
10 cm × 20 cm.
14. Let x cm and y cm be the length and the width of the
rectangle respectively.
Then the length of the equilateral triangle is also y cm.
∵ The perimeter of the figure is 40 cm.
∴ 2x + 4y = 40
x + 2y = 20
x = 20 – 2y ……(1)
∵ The area of the rectangle is 50 cm
2
.
∴ xy = 50 ……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
(20 – 2y)y = 50
20y – 2y
2
= 50
2y
2
– 20y + 50 = 0
y
2
– 10y + 25 = 0
(y – 5)
2
= 0
y = 5
By substituting y = 5 into (1), we have x = 20 – 2(5) = 10
∴ The dimensions of the rectangle are 5 cm × 10 cm.
15. Let x m and y m be the length and the width of the garden
respectively.
∵ The area of the garden is 150 m
2
.
∴ xy = 150 ……(1)
∵ The area of the path is 186 m
2
.
∴ [x + 2(3)][y + 2(3)] – xy = 186
xy + 6x + 6y + 36 – xy = 186
6x + 6y = 150
x + y = 25
y = 25 – x ……(2)
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x(25 – x) = 150
25x – x
2
= 150
x
2
– 25x + 150 = 0
(x – 10)(x – 15) = 0
x = 10 or x = 15
By substituting x = 10 into (2), we have y = 25 – 10 = 15
By substituting x = 15 into (2), we have y = 25 – 15 = 10
∴ The dimensions of the garden are 10 m × 15 m.
16.
¹
'
¹
·
+ ·
mx y
k x y
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x
2
+ k = mx
x
2
– mx + k = 0 ……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
∴ (3) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–m)
2
– 4(1)k = 0
m
2
= 4k
From the graphs, y = mx has a positive slope.
∴ m > 0
Let m = 2, then k = 1.
Let m = 4, then k = 4.
Let m = 8, then k = 16.
Two pairs of possible values of m and k are:
m = 2, k = 1 or m = 4, k = 4 or m = 8, k = 16. (or any
other reasonable answers)
17. Let the constant term of the quadratic equation be k.
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
·
k x x y
y
2
1
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
– 2x + k = 1
x
2
– 2x + (k – 1) = 0 ……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have two real solutions.
96
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
∴ (3) has two real roots.
∴ ∆ > 0
(–2)
2
– 4(1)(k – 1) > 0
4 – 4k + 4 > 0
8 > 4k
k < 2
∴ A possible value of the constant term is –1 or 1. (or
any other reasonable answers)
Level 2
18.
¹
'
¹
· + −
· − −
7
0 1
2 2
y xy x
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (1), we have x = 1 + y ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (2), we have
(1 + y)
2
– (1 + y)y + y
2
= 7
1 + 2y + y
2
– y – y
2
+ y
2
= 7
y
2
+ y – 6 = 0
(y + 3)(y – 2) = 0
y = –3 or y = 2
By substituting y = –3 into (3), we have x = 1 + (–3) = –2
By substituting y = 2 into (3), we have x = 1 + 2 = 3
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–2, –3) and (3, 2).
19.
¹
'
¹
· + −
· +
0 25 4 3
25
2 2
y x
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have y =
4
25 3 + x
……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
25
4
25 3
2
2
·
,
`
.
 +
+
x
x
16x
2
+ 9x
2
+150x + 625 = 400
25x
2
+ 150x + 225 = 0
x
2
+ 6x + 9 = 0
(x + 3)
2
= 0
x = –3
By substituting x = –3 into (3), we have
y =
4
25 ) 3 ( 3 + −
= 4
∴ The solution of the simultaneous equations is (–3, 4).
20.
¹
'
¹
· −
− · + + +
2 3 2
2 2 3
2 2
y x
y x y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have x = 1
2
3
+ y ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
0 6
2
19
4
13
2 2 3
2
9
1 3
4
9
2 2 1
2
3
3 1
2
3
2
2 2
2
2
· + +
− · + + + + + +
− · +
,
`
.

+ + +
,
`
.

+
y y
y y y y y
y y y y
13y
2
+ 38y + 24 = 0
(y + 2)(13y + 12) = 0
y = –2 or y =
13
12
−
By substituting y = –2 into (3), we have
x = 1 ) 2 (
2
3
+ − = –2
By substituting y =
13
12
− into (3), we have
x =
13
5
1
13
12
2
3
− · +
,
`
.

−
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–2,–2) and
,
`
.

− −
13
12
,
13
5
.
21.
¹
'
¹
· + + −
· − − −
0 4 3 2
0 12 2 3 2
2 2
y x
y xy x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have x = 2
2
3
+ y ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
0 12 2 6
2
9
8 12
2
9
0 12 2 2
2
3
3 2
2
3
2
2 2 2
2
2
· − − − − + +
· − −
,
`
.

+ −
,
`
.

+
y y y y y
y y y y
2y
2
– 6y + 4 = 0
y
2
– 3y + 2 = 0
(y – 1)(y – 2) = 0
y = 1 or y = 2
By substituting y = 1 into (3), we have x =
2
7
2 ) 1 (
2
3
· +
By substituting y = 2 into (3), we have x = 2 ) 2 (
2
3
+ = 5
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
,
`
.

1 ,
2
7
and (5, 2).
22. (a)
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
·
4 2
2
x x y
mx y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
– 2x + 4 = mx
x
2
– (2 + m)x + 4 = 0 ……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one
solution.
∴ (3) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
[– (2 + m)]
2
– 4(1)(4) = 0
4 + 4m + m
2
– 16 = 0
m
2
+ 4m – 12 = 0
(m + 6)(m – 2) = 0
m =
6 −
or m =
2
(b) When m = –6, (3) becomes
x
2
– [2 + (–6)] x + 4 = 0
x
2
+ 4x + 4 = 0
(x + 2)
2
= 0
x = –2
By substituting m = –6 and x = –2 into (1), we have
y = –6(–2) = 12
∴ The coordinates of P are (–2, 12).
When m = 2, (3) becomes
x
2
– (2 + 2)x + 4 = 0
x
2
– 4x + 4 = 0
(x – 2)
2
= 0
x = 2
By substituting m = 2 and x = 2 into (1), we have
97
4 More about Equations
y = 2(2) = 4
∴ The coordinates of P are (2, 4).
23.
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
· +
9 8
2
2
x x y
x k y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
– 8x + 9 + k = 2x
x
2
– 10x + (9 + k) = 0……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have real solutions.
∴ (3) has real roots.
∴ ∆ ≥ 0
(–10)
2
– 4(1)(9 + k) ≥ 0
100 – 36 – 4k ≥ 0
4k ≤ 64
k ≤ 16
∴ The maximum value of k is 16.
24. (a)
¹
'
¹
+ + ·
+ ·
2 3
4
2
x kx y
x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
kx
2
+ 3x + 2 = x + 4
kx
2
+ 2x – 2 = 0 ……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have real solutions.
∴ (3) has real roots.
∴ ∆ ≥ 0
2
2
– 4(k)(–2) ≥ 0
4 + 8k ≥ 0
8k ≥ –4
k ≥
2
1
−
(b) By substituting the minimum value of k, i.e.
2
1
− ,
into (3), we have
2
1
− x
2
+ 2x – 2 = 0
– x
2
+ 4x – 4 = 0
x
2
– 4x + 4 = 0
(x – 2)
2
= 0
x = 2
By substituting x = 2 into (1), we have y = 2 + 4 = 6
∴ The solution of the simultaneous equations is
(2, 6).
25.
¹
'
¹
· − +
+ + − ·
0 3 4
4
2
y x
kx x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
4x + (–x
2
+ kx + 4) – 3 = 0
–x
2
+ (4 + k)x + 1 = 0
Consider the discriminant of –x
2
+ (4 + k)x + 1 = 0.
∆ = (4 + k)
2
– 4(–1)(1) = (4 + k)
2
+ 4
∵ (4 + k)
2
≥ 0 for all real values of k.
∴ ∆ > 0
∴ The simultaneous equations have two real solutions
for all real values of k.
26. Let x cm and y cm be the lengths of the sides of the
squares ABCD and DEFG respectively.
∵ EC = 4 cm
∴ x – y = 4
y = x – 4……(1)
∵ The sum of their areas is 400 cm
2
.
∴ x
2
+ y
2
= 400……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x
2
+ (x – 4)
2
= 400
x
2
+ x
2
– 8x + 16 = 400
2x
2
– 8x – 384 = 0
x
2
– 4x – 192 = 0
(x – 16)(x + 12) = 0
x = 16 or x = –12 (rejected)
By substituting x = 16 into (1), we have y = 16 – 4 = 12
∴ The length of the sides of the square ABCD is 16 cm.
The length of the sides of the square DEFG is 12 cm.
27. (a) ∵ The area of the rhombus is 15 cm
2
.
∴ xy
2
1
= 15
xy = 30
∵ The sum of the lengths of its diagonals is 11 cm.
∴ x + y = 11
∴ The required simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
· +
·
11
30
y x
xy
) 2 (
) 1 (
.
(b) From (2), we have
x + y = 11
y = 11 – x……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
x(11 – x) = 30
11x – x
2
= 30
x
2
– 11x + 30 = 0
(x – 5)(x – 6) = 0
x = 5 or x = 6
By substituting x = 5 into (3), we have
y = 11 – 5 = 6 (rejected ∵ AC > BD)
By substituting x = 6 into (3), we have
y = 11 – 6 = 5
∴ x =
6
, y =
5
Exercise 4D (p.193)
Level 1
1. (a) ∵ f(1) = 1
3
+ 2(1)
2
– 1 – 2
= 1 + 2 – 1 – 2
= 0
∴ x – 1 is a factor of f(x).
(b) By long division,
2 3
2 2
2 2
3 3
3
2 2 1
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
+ +
−
−
−
−
−
− − + −
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
+ 2x
2
– x – 2 = (x – 1)(x
2
+ 3x + 2)
) 2 )( 1 )( 1 ( + + − · x x x
(c) ∵ f(x) = 0
98
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
∴ (x – 1)(x + 1)(x + 2) = 0
x – 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0
x =
1
or x =
1 −
or x =
2 −
2. (a) ∵ f(–1) = (–1)
3
– (–1)
2
– 10(–1) – 8
= –1 – 1 + 10 – 8
= 0
∴ x + 1 is a factor of f(x).
(b) By long division,
8 2
8 8
8 8
2 2
10 2
8 10 1
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− −
− −
− −
− −
− −
+
− − − +
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
– x
2
– 10x – 8 = (x + 1)(x
2
– 2x – 8)
) 4 )( 2 )( 1 ( − + + · x x x
(c) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x + 1)(x + 2)(x – 4) = 0
x + 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 or x – 4 = 0
x =
1 −
or x =
2 −
or x =
4
3. (a) ∵ f(2) = 2
3
– 2
2
– 4(2) + 4
= 8 – 4 – 8 + 4
= 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
(b) By long division,
2
4 2
4 2
2
4
2
4 4 2
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− +
+ −
+ −
−
−
−
+ − − −
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
– x
2
– 4x + 4 = (x – 2)(x
2
+ x – 2)
) 2 )( 1 )( 2 ( + − − · x x x
(c) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 2)(x – 1)(x + 2) = 0
x – 2 = 0 or x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0
x =
2
or x =
1
or x =
2 −
4. (a) ∵ f(–3) = (–3)
3
+ 2(–3)
2
– 5(–3) – 6
= –27 + 18 + 15 – 6
= 0
∴ x + 3 is a factor of f(x).
(b) By long division,
2
6 2
6 2
3
5
3
6 5 2 3
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− −
− −
− −
− −
− −
+
− − + +
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
+ 2x
2
– 5x – 6 = (x + 3)(x
2
– x – 2)
) 2 )( 1 )( 3 ( − + + · x x x
(c) ∵ f (x) = 0
∴ (x + 3)(x + 1)(x – 2) = 0
x + 3 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x – 2 = 0
x =
3 −
or x =
1 −
or x =
2
5. (a) ∵ f (1) = 3(1)
3
+ 4(1)
2
– 5(1) – 2
= 3 + 4 – 5 – 2
= 0
∴ x – 1 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f (–2) = 3(–2)
3
+ 4(–2)
2
– 5(–2) – 2
= –24 + 16 + 10 – 2
= 0
∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
(b) ∵ x – 1 and x + 2 are factors of f(x).
∴ (x – 1)(x + 2) is also a factor of f(x).
Divide f(x) by (x – 1)(x + 2), i.e. x
2
+ x – 2.
1 3
2
2
6 3 3
2 5 4 3 2
2
2
2 3
2 3 2
+
− +
− +
− +
− − + − +
x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x x x
∴ 3x
3
+ 4x
2
– 5x – 2
) 2 )( 1 )( 1 3 ( + − + · x x x
(c) ∵ f (x) = 0
∴ (3x + 1)(x – 1)(x + 2) = 0
3x + 1 = 0 or x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0
x =
3
1
−
or x =
1
or x =
2 −
6. (a) ∵ f(1) = 1
4
– 3(1)
3
– 2(1)
2
+ 12(1) – 8
= 1 – 3 – 2 + 12 – 8
= 0
∴ x – 1 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–2) = (–2)
4
– 3(–2)
3
– 2(–2)
2
+ 12(–2) – 8
= 16 + 24 – 8 – 24 – 8
= 0
∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
(b) ∵ x – 1 and x + 2 are factors of f(x).
∴ (x – 1)(x + 2) is also a factor of f(x).
Divide f(x) by (x – 1)(x + 2), i.e. x
2
+ x – 2.
99
4 More about Equations
4 4
8 4 4
8 4 4
8 4 4
12 4
2
8 12 2 3 2
2
2
2
2 3
3
2 3 4
2 3 4 2
+ −
− +
− +
+ − −
+ −
− +
− + − − − +
x x
x x
x x
x x x
x x
x x x
x x x x x x
∴ x
4
– 3x
3
– 2x
2
+ 12x – 8
= (x – 1)(x + 2)(x
2
– 4x + 4)
2
) 2 )( 2 )( 1 ( − + − · x x x
(c) ∵ f (x) = 0
∴ (x – 1)(x + 2)(x – 2)
2
= 0
x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 or (x – 2)
2
= 0
x =
1
or x =
2 −
or x =
2
7. (a) ∵ f (1) = 1
4
+ 5(1)
3
+ 5(1)
2
– 5(1) – 6
= 1 + 5 + 5 – 5 – 6
= 0
∴ x – 1 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f (–2) = (–2)
4
+ 5(–2)
3
+ 5(–2)
2
– 5(–2) – 6
= 16 – 40 + 20 + 10 – 6
= 0
∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
(b) ∵ x – 1 and x + 2 are factors of f(x).
∴ (x – 1)(x + 2) is also a factor of f(x).
Divide f(x) by (x – 1)(x + 2), i.e. x
2
+ x – 2.
3 4
6 3 3
6 3 3
8 4 4
5 7 4
2
6 5 5 5 2
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
2 3 4
2 3 4 2
+ +
− +
− +
− +
− +
− +
− − + + − +
x x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x x x x
∴ x
4
+ 5x
3
+ 5x
2
– 5x – 6
= (x – 1)(x + 2)(x
2
+ 4x + 3)
) 3 )( 1 )( 2 )( 1 ( + + + − · x x x x
(c) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 1)(x + 2)(x + 1)(x + 3) = 0
x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x + 3 = 0
x =
1
or x =
2 −
or x =
1 −
or x =
3 −
8. (a) ∵ f(1) = 2(1)
4
+ 1
3
– 2(1)
2
+ 5(1) – 6
= 2 + 1 – 2 + 5 – 6
= 0
∴ x – 1 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–2) = 2(–2)
4
+ (–2)
3
– 2(–2)
2
+ 5(–2) – 6
= 32 – 8 – 8 – 10 – 6
= 0
∴ x + 2 is a factor of f(x).
(b) ∵ x – 1 and x + 2 are factors of f(x).
∴ (x – 1)(x + 2) is also a factor of f(x).
Divide f(x) by (x – 1)(x + 2), i.e. x
2
+ x – 2.
3 2
6 3 3
6 3 3
2
5 2
4 2 2
6 5 2 2 2
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
2 3 4
2 3 4 2
+ −
− +
− +
+ − −
+ + −
− +
− + − + − +
x x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x x x x
∴ 2x
4
+ x
3
– 2x
2
+ 5x – 6
) 3 2 )( 2 )( 1 (
2
+ − + − · x x x x
(c) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 1)(x + 2)(2x
2
– x + 3) = 0
x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 or 2x
2
– x + 3 = 0
x = 1 or x = –2 or x =
) 2 ( 2
) 3 )( 2 ( 4 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
− − t − −
=
4
23 1 − t
(rejected)
∴ x =
1
or x =
2 −
9. (x + 2)
3
– 1 = 0
[(x + 2) – 1][ (x + 2)
2
+ (x + 2) + 1] = 0
(x + 1)(x
2
+ 4x + 4 + x + 2 + 1) = 0
(x + 1)(x
2
+ 5x + 7) = 0
∴ x + 1 = 0 or x
2
+ 5x + 7 = 0
x = –1 or x =
) 1 ( 2
) 7 )( 1 ( 4 5 5
2
− t −
=
2
3 5 − t −
(rejected)
∴ x =
1 −
10. 8(x – 3)
3
– 27 = 0
[2(x – 3)]
3
– 3
3
= 0
[2(x – 3) – 3][4(x – 3)
2
+ 2(x – 3)(3) + 3
2
] = 0
(2x – 9)(4x
2
– 24x + 36 + 6x – 18 + 9) = 0
(2x – 9)(4x
2
– 18x + 27) = 0
∴ 2x – 9 = 0 or 4x
2
– 18x + 27 = 0
x =
2
9
or x =
) 4 ( 2
) 27 )( 4 ( 4 ) 18 ( ) 18 (
2
− − t − −
=
8
108 18 − t
(rejected)
∴ x =
2
9
11. 125(2x – 1)
3
+ 1 = 0
[5(2x – 1)]
3
+ (1)
3
= 0
[5(2x – 1) + 1][25(2x – 1)
2
– 5(2x – 1) + 1] = 0
(10x – 4)(100x
2
– 100x + 25 – 10x + 5 + 1) = 0
(10x – 4)(100x
2
– 110x + 31) = 0
∴ 10x – 4 = 0 or 100x
2
– 110x + 31 = 0
100
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
x =
5
2
or x =
) 100 ( 2
) 31 )( 100 ( 4 ) 110 ( ) 110 (
2
− − t − −
=
200
300 110 − t
(rejected)
∴ x =
5
2
12. (2x + 1)
3
+ x
3
= 0
[(2x + 1) + x][(2x + 1)
2
– (2x + 1)x + x
2
] = 0
(3x + 1)(4x
2
+ 4x + 1 – 2x
2
– x + x
2
) = 0
(3x + 1)(3x
2
+ 3x + 1) = 0
∴ 3x + 1 = 0 or 3x
2
+ 3x + 1 = 0
x =
3
1
− or x =
) 3 ( 2
) 1 )( 3 ( 4 3 3
2
− t −
=
6
3 3 − t −
(rejected)
∴ x =
3
1
−
Level 2
13. (a) ∵ f(2) = 2
3
– 3(2)
2
– 4(2) + 12
= 8 – 12 – 8 + 12
= 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
6
12 6
12 6
2
4
2
12 4 3 2
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− −
+ −
+ −
+ −
− −
−
+ − − −
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
– 3x
2
– 4x + 12 = (x – 2)(x
2
– x – 6)
) 2 )( 3 )( 2 ( + − − · x x x
(b) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 2)(x – 3)(x + 2) = 0
x – 2 = 0 or x – 3 = 0 or x + 2 = 0
x =
2
or x =
3
or x =
2 −
14. (a) ∵ f(3) = 3
3
– 3
2
– 41(3) + 105
= 27 – 9 – 123 + 105
= 0
∴ x – 3 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
35 2
105 5 3
105 5 3
6 2
41 2
3
105 41 3
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− +
+ −
+ −
−
−
−
+ − − −
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
– x
2
– 41x + 105 = (x – 3)(x
2
+ 2x – 35)
) 7 )( 5 )( 3 ( + − − · x x x
(b) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 3)(x – 5)(x + 7) = 0
x – 3 = 0 or x – 5 = 0 or x + 7 = 0
x =
3
or x =
5
or x =
7 −
15. (a) ∵ f(4) = 4
4
+ 4
3
– 26(4)
2
– 6(4) + 120
= 256 + 64 – 416 – 24 + 120
= 0
∴ x – 4 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–5) = (–5)
4
+ (–5)
3
– 26(–5)
2
– 6(–5) + 120
= 625 – 125 – 650 + 30 + 120
= 0
∴ x + 5 is a factor of f(x).
∵ x – 4 and x + 5 are factors of f(x).
∴ (x – 4)(x + 5) is also a factor of f(x).
Divide f(x) by (x – 4)(x + 5), i.e. x
2
+ x – 20.
6
120 6 6
120 6 6
20
120 6 26 20
2
2
2
2 3 4
2 3 4 2
−
+ − −
+ − −
− +
+ − − + − +
x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x x x x
∴ x
4
+ x
3
– 26x
2
– 6x + 120
) 6 )( 5 )( 4 (
2
− + − · x x x
(b) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 4)(x + 5)(x
2
– 6) = 0
x – 4 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 or x
2
– 6 = 0
x =
4
or x =
5 −
or x = 6 t
16. (a) ∵ f(3) = 3
4
+ 2(3)
3
– 30(3)
2
+ 38(3) + 21
= 81 + 54 – 270 + 114 + 21
= 0
∴ x – 3 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f(–7) = (–7)
4
+ 2(–7)
3
– 30(–7)
2
+ 38(–7) + 21
= 2401 – 686 – 1470 – 266 + 21
= 0
∴ x + 7 is a factor of f(x).
∵ x – 3 and x + 7 are factors of f(x).
∴ (x – 3)(x + 7) is also a factor of f(x).
Divide f(x) by (x – 3)(x + 7), i.e. x
2
+ 4x – 21.
101
4 More about Equations
1 2
21 4
21 4
42 8 2
38 9 2
21 4
21 38 30 2 21 4
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
2 3 4
2 3 4 2
− −
+ − −
+ − −
+ − −
+ − −
− +
+ + − + − +
x x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x x x x
∴ x
4
+ 2x
3
– 30x
2
+ 38x + 21
) 1 2 )( 7 )( 3 (
2
− − + − · x x x x
(b) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 3)(x + 7)(x
2
– 2x – 1) = 0
x – 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 or x
2
– 2x – 1 = 0
x =
3
or x =
7 −
or
x =
) 1 ( 2
) 1 )( 1 ( 4 ) 2 ( ) 2 (
2
− − − t − −
= 2 1t
17. 64(x – 1)
3
– (x – 5)
3
= 0
[4(x – 1)]
3
– (x – 5)
3
= 0
[4(x – 1) – (x – 5)][16(x – 1)
2
+ 4(x – 1)(x – 5) + (x – 5)
2
]
= 0
(3x + 1)(16x
2
– 32x + 16 + 4x
2
– 24x + 20 + x
2
– 10x + 25)
= 0
(3x + 1)(21x
2
– 66x + 61) = 0
∴ 3x + 1 = 0 or 21x
2
– 66x + 61 = 0
x =
3
1
− or
x =
) 21 ( 2
) 61 )( 21 ( 4 ) 66 ( ) 66 (
2
− − t − −
=
42
768 66 − t
(rejected)
∴ x =
3
1
−
18. (x + 3)
3
– 27(2x – 3)
3
= 0
(x + 3)
3
– [3(2x – 3)]
3
= 0
[(x + 3) – 3(2x – 3)][(x + 3)
2
+ 3(x + 3)(2x – 3) + 9(2x
– 3)
2
] = 0
(–5x + 12)(x
2
+ 6x + 9 + 6x
2
+ 9x – 27 + 36x
2
– 108x + 81)
= 0
(–5x + 12)(43x
2
– 93x + 63) = 0
∴ –5x + 12 = 0 or 43x
2
– 93x + 63 = 0
x =
5
12
or x =
) 43 ( 2
) 63 )( 43 ( 4 ) 93 ( ) 93 (
2
− − t − −
=
86
2187 93 − t
(rejected)
∴ x =
5
12
19. 8(x + 6)
3
+ (2x – 9)
3
= 0
[2(x + 6)]
3
+ (2x – 9)
3
= 0
[2(x + 6) + (2x – 9)][4(x + 6)
2
– 2(x + 6)(2x – 9) +
(2x – 9)
2
] = 0
(4x + 3)(4x
2
+ 48x + 144 – 4x
2
– 6x + 108 + 4x
2
– 36x +
81) = 0
(4x + 3)(4x
2
+ 6x + 333) = 0
∴ 4x + 3 = 0 or 4x
2
+ 6x + 333 = 0
x =
4
3
− or x =
) 4 ( 2
) 333 )( 4 ( 4 6 6
2
− t −
=
8
5292 6 − t −
(rejected)
∴ x =
4
3
−
20. 4(x – 3)
3
– 256(3x + 1)
3
= 0
(x – 3)
3
– 64(3x + 1)
3
= 0
(x – 3)
3
– [4(3x + 1)]
3
= 0
[(x – 3) – 4(3x + 1)][(x – 3)
2
+ 4(x – 3)(3x + 1) +
16(3x + 1)
2
] = 0
(–11x – 7)(x
2
– 6x + 9 + 12x
2
– 32x – 12 + 144x
2
+ 96x +
16) = 0
(–11x – 7)(157x
2
+ 58x + 13) = 0
∴ –11x – 7 = 0 or 157x
2
+ 58x + 13 = 0
x =
11
7
− or x =
) 157 ( 2
) 13 )( 157 ( 4 58 58
2
− t −
=
314
4800 58 − t −
(rejected)
∴ x =
11
7
−
21. x
4
+ x
3
– 6x
2
– 4x + 8 = 0
(x
4
– 6x
2
+ 8) + (x
3
– 4x) = 0
[(x
2
)
2
– 6x
2
+ 8] + x(x
2
– 4) = 0
(x
2
– 2)(x
2
– 4) + x(x
2
– 4) = 0
(x
2
– 4)[(x
2
– 2) + x] = 0
(x + 2)(x – 2)(x
2
+ x – 2) = 0
(x + 2)(x – 2)(x + 2)(x – 1) = 0
(x + 2)
2
(x – 1)(x – 2) = 0
(x + 2)
2
= 0 or x – 1 = 0 or x – 2 = 0
x =
2 −
or x =
1
or x =
2
22. x
4
– 3x
3
– 2x
2
+ 12x – 8 = 0
(x
4
– 2x
2
– 8) – (3x
3
– 12x) = 0
[(x
2
)
2
– 2x
2
– 8] – 3x(x
2
– 4) = 0
(x
2
+ 2)(x
2
– 4) – 3x(x
2
– 4) = 0
(x
2
– 4)[(x
2
+ 2) – 3x] = 0
(x + 2)(x – 2)(x
2
– 3x + 2) = 0
(x + 2)(x – 2)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0
(x + 2)(x – 1)(x – 2)
2
= 0
x + 2 = 0 or x – 1 = 0 or (x – 2)
2
= 0
x =
2 −
or x =
1
or x =
2
23. x
4
– 3x
3
– 3x
2
+ 3x + 2 = 0
(x
4
– 3x
2
+ 2) – (3x
3
– 3x) = 0
[(x
2
)
2
– 3x
2
+ 2] – 3x(x
2
– 1) = 0
(x
2
– 1)(x
2
– 2) – 3x(x
2
– 1) = 0
(x
2
– 1)[(x
2
– 2) – 3x] = 0
(x
2
– 1)(x
2
– 3x – 2) = 0
(x + 1)(x – 1)(x
2
– 3x – 2) = 0
x + 1 = 0 or x – 1 = 0 or x
2
– 3x – 2 = 0
x =
1 −
or x =
1
or
x =
) 1 ( 2
) 2 )( 1 ( 4 ) 3 ( ) 3 (
2
− − − t − −
102
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
=
2
17 3t
Revision Exercise 4 (p.196)
Level 1
1. By substituting x
2
= u into the equation x
4
– 9x
2
+ 20 = 0,
we have
u
2
– 9u + 20 = 0
(u – 4)(u – 5) = 0
u = 4 or u = 5
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
= 4 or x
2
= 5
x = t2 or x = 5 t
∴ The real roots of the equation are 5 − , –2, 2 and
5 .
2. By substituting x
3
= u into the equation
27x
6
– 1720x
3
– 512 = 0, we have
27u
2
– 1720u – 512 = 0
(27u + 8)(u – 64) = 0
u =
27
8
− or u = 64
∵ x
3
= u
∴ x
3
=
27
8
− or x
3
= 64
x =
3
2
− or x = 4
∴ The real roots of the equation are
3
2
− and 4.
3. By substituting x = u into the equation x + x – 3 = 0,
we have
u
2
+ u – 3 = 0
u =
) 1 ( 2
) 3 )( 1 ( 4 1 1
2
− − t −
u =
2
13 1+ −
or u =
2
13 1− −
∵ x = u
∴ x =
2
13 1+ −
or x =
2
13 1− −
(rejected)
x =
2
2
13 1
,
`
.

+ −
=
4
13 13 2 1 + −
=
2
13 7 −
∴ The real root of the equation is
2
13 7 −
.
4. 4 3 + x + x = 8
x – 8 = 4 3 + − x
(x – 8)
2
= ( ) 4 3 + − x
2
x
2
– 16x + 64 = 3x + 4
x
2
– 19x + 60 = 0
(x – 4)(x – 15) = 0
x = 4 or x = 15
Checking:
When x = 4, 4 3 + x + x = 4 ) 4 ( 3 + + 4= 8
When x = 15, 4 3 + x + x = 4 ) 15 ( 3 + + 15 = 22 ≠ 8
∴ The real root of the equation is 4.
For questions 5 to 6, refer to the graph below:
5. y = –x – 1
x –1 0 1
y 0 –1 –2
∵ The two graphs intersect at (–1, 0) and (4, –5).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–1, 0) and (4, –5).
6. y = –3x + 1
x –1 0 1
y 4 1 –2
∵ The two graphs intersect at (–2, 7) and (3, –8).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–2, 7) and (3, –8).
7. ∵ x
2
+ 5x + 2 = 0
x
2
+ 3x + 2x – 1 + 3 = 0
x
2
+ 3x – 1 = –2x – 3
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y = –2x – 3.
8. ∵ 2x
2
– 7x + 6 = 0
2x
2
+ 6x – 13x – 2 + 8 = 0
2x
2
+ 6x – 2 = 13x– 8
x
2
+ 3x – 1 = 4
2
13
− x
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
103
4 More about Equations
y = 4
2
13
− x .
9.
¹
'
¹
− ·
+ − ·
1 3
3 2
2
x y
x x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x
2
– 2x + 3 = 3x – 1
x
2
– 5x + 4 = 0
(x – 1)(x – 4) = 0
x – 1 = 0 or x – 4 = 0
x = 1 or x = 4
By substituting x = 1 into (2), we have y = 3(1) – 1 = 2
By substituting x = 4 into (2), we have y = 3(4) – 1 = 11
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(1, 2) and (4, 11).
10.
¹
'
¹
+ ·
· +
1 2
1
2 2
x y
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
+ (2x + 1)
2
= 1
x
2
+ 4x
2
+ 4x + 1 = 1
5x
2
+ 4x = 0
x(5x + 4) = 0
x = 0 or 5x + 4 = 0
x =
5
4
−
By substituting x = 0 into (2), we have y = 2(0) + 1 = 1
By substituting x =
5
4
− into (2), we have y = 1
5
4
2 +
,
`
.

−
=
5
3
−
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(0, 1) and
,
`
.

− −
5
3
,
5
4
.
11.
¹
'
¹
· −
+ − ·
3 2
1 2
2
y x
x x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have y = 2x – 3 ……(3)
By substituting (1) into (3), we have
2x
2
– x + 1 = 2x – 3
2x
2
– 3x + 4 = 0
Consider the discriminant of 2x
2
– 3x + 4 = 0.
∆ = (–3)
2
– 4(2)(4) = –23 < 0
∴ 2x
2
– 3x + 4 = 0 has no real roots.
∴ The simultaneous equations have no real solutions.
12.
¹
'
¹
· − −
· +
0
4
2 2
k y x
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have y = x – k……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
x
2
+ (x – k)
2
= 4
x
2
+ x
2
– 2kx + k
2
= 4
2x
2
– 2kx + (k
2
– 4) = 0……(4)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
∴ (4) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–2k)
2
– 4(2)(k
2
– 4) = 0
4k
2
– 8k
2
+ 32 = 0
4k
2
= 32
k = 2 2 t
13.
¹
'
¹
· − +
· + −
0 3
0 20 4
2 2
k y x
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have x = k – 3y……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
(k – 3y)
2
– 4y
2
+ 20 = 0
k
2
– 6ky + 9y
2
– 4y
2
+ 20 = 0
5y
2
– 6ky + (20 + k
2
) = 0……(4)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
∴ (4) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–6k)
2
– 4(5)(20 + k
2
) = 0
36k
2
– 400 – 20k
2
= 0
16k
2
= 400
k =
5 t
14. Let x be the tens digit and y be the units digit of the
original number.
∴ The original number is 10x + y,
and the reversed number is 10y + x.
∵ The number is increased by 18 when the digits are
reversed.
∴ (10y + x) – (10x + y) = 18
–9x + 9y = 18
–x + y = 2
y = x + 2 ……(1)
∵ The product of the two numbers is 1855.
∴ (10x + y)(10y + x) = 1855
10x
2
+ 101xy + 10y
2
= 1855 .…..(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
10x
2
+ 101x(x + 2) + 10(x + 2)
2
= 1855
10x
2
+ 101x
2
+ 202x + 10x
2
+ 40x + 40 = 1855
121x
2
+ 242 x – 1815 = 0
x
2
+ 2 x – 15 = 0
(x – 3)(x + 5) = 0
x = 3 or x = –5 (rejected)
By substituting x = 3 into (1), we have
y = 3 + 2 = 5
∴ The original number is 35.
15. Let x be the present age of the younger brother and y be
the present age of the older brother.
∵ The older brother is twice as old as the younger
brother.
∴ 2x = y……(1)
∵ After four years, the sum of the squares of their ages
is 277.
∴ (x + 4)
2
+ (y + 4)
2
= 277
x
2
+ 8x + 16 + y
2
+ 8y + 16 = 277
x
2
+ y
2
+ 8x + 8y – 245 = 0 …..(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x
2
+ (2x)
2
+ 8x + 8(2x) – 245 = 0
5x
2
+ 24x – 245 = 0
(x – 5)(5x + 49) = 0
x = 5 or x =
5
49
− (rejected)
By substituting x = 5 into (1), we have
y = 2(5) = 10
∴ The present ages of the brothers are 5 and 10.
16. (a) Let y cm be the length of a side of the square.
104
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
∵ The perimeter of the rectangle is 18 cm greater
than that of the square.
∴ 2(4 + x) – 4y = 18
8 + 2x – 4y = 18
x – 2y = 5
x = 5 + 2y ……(1)
∵ The rectangle and the square have equal areas.
∴ 4x = y
2
……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
4(5 + 2y) = y
2
y
2
– 8y – 20 = 0
(y – 10)(y + 2) = 0
y = 10 or y = –2(rejected)
∴ The length of a side of the square is 10 cm.
(b) By substituting y = 10 into (1), we have
x = 5 + 2(10) =
25
17. (a) Let f(x) = x
3
– 14x + 15.
∵ f(3) = 3
3
– 14(3) + 15
= 27 – 42 + 15
= 0
∴ x – 3 is a factor of x
3
– 14x + 15.
(b) By long division,
5 3
15 5
15 5
9 3
14 3
3
15 14 0 3
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− +
+ −
+ −
−
−
−
+ − + −
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
– 14x + 15
) 5 3 )( 3 (
2
− + − · x x x
(c) ∵ x
3
– 14x + 15 = 0
∴ (x – 3)(x
2
+ 3x – 5) = 0
x – 3 = 0 or x
2
+ 3x – 5 = 0
x =
3
or x =
) 1 ( 2
) 5 )( 1 ( 4 3 3
2
− − t −
=
2
29 3t −
18. (a) Let f(x) = x
4
– 3x
3
– x
2
+ 5x + 2.
∵ f(–1) = (–1)
4
– 3(–1)
3
– (–1)
2
+ 5(–1) + 2
= 1 + 3 – 1 – 5 + 2
= 0
∴ x + 1 is a factor of x
4
– 3x
3
– x
2
+ 5x + 2.
∵ f(2) = 2
4
– 3(2)
3
– 2
2
+ 5(2) + 2
= 16 – 24 – 4 + 10 + 2
= 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of x
4
– 3x
3
– x
2
+ 5x + 2.
(b) ∵ x + 1 and x – 2 are factors of f(x).
∴ (x + 1)(x – 2) is also a factor of f(x).
Divide f(x) by (x + 1)(x – 2), i.e. x
2
– x – 2.
1 2
2
2
4 2 2
5 2
2
2 5 3 2
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
2 3 4
2 3 4 2
− −
+ + −
+ + −
+ + −
+ + −
− −
+ + − − − −
x x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x x x x
∴ x
4
– 3x
3
– x
2
+ 5x + 2 = (x + 1)(x – 2)(x
2
– 2x – 1)
∵ x
4
– 3x
3
– x
2
+ 5x + 2 = 0
∴ (x + 1)(x – 2)(x
2
– 2x – 1) = 0
x + 1 = 0 or x – 2 = 0 or x
2
– 2x – 1 = 0
x =
1 −
or x =
2
or
x =
) 1 ( 2
) 1 )( 1 ( 4 ) 2 ( ) 2 (
2
− − − t − −
= 2 1t
19. 1 – 8(x – 1)
3
= 0
1
3
– [2(x – 1)]
3
= 0
[1 –2(x – 1)][1
2
+ 2(x – 1) + 4(x – 1)
2
] = 0
(3 – 2x)( 1 + 2x – 2 + 4x
2
– 8x + 4) = 0
(3 – 2x)(4x
2
– 6x + 3) = 0
∴ 3 – 2x = 0 or 4x
2
– 6x + 3 = 0
x =
2
3
or x =
) 4 ( 2
) 3 )( 4 ( 4 ) 6 ( ) 6 (
2
− − t − −
=
8
12 6 − t
(rejected)
∴ x =
2
3
20. Let a = 0, b = –1.
The equation x
4
+ ax
2
+ b = 0 becomes x
4
– 1 = 0.
x
4
– 1 = 0
(x
2
– 1)(x
2
+ 1) = 0
(x + 1)(x – 1)(x
2
+ 1) = 0
∴ x + 1 = 0 or x – 1 = 0 or x
2
+ 1 = 0
x = –1 or x = 1 or x
2
= –1(rejected)
∴ The equation has only two real roots.
Let a = 1, b = –2.
The equation x
4
+ ax
2
+ b = 0 becomes x
4
+ x
2
–2 = 0.
x
4
+ x
2
–2 = 0
(x
2
– 1)(x
2
+ 2) = 0
x
2
= 1 or x
2
= –2 (rejected)
x = –1 or x = 1
∴ The equation has only two real roots.
∴ a = 0, b = –1 or a = 1, b = –2 (or any other reasonable
answers)
21.
¹
'
¹
+ + ·
·
2 4
2
x x y
c y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
+ 4x + 2 = c
x
2
+ 4x + (2 – c) = 0……(3)
Let the two solutions of the simultaneous equations be h
105
4 More about Equations
and k.
Then x – h and x – k are the factors of (3).
∴ x
2
+ 4x + (2 – c) = (x – h)(x – k)
= x
2
– (h + k)x + hk
By comparing constant terms, we have
2 – c = hk
∵ Both solutions are negative.
∴ hk > 0
∴ 2 – c > 0
c < 2
∵ The simultaneous equations have two solutions.
∴ (3) has two real roots.
∴ ∆ > 0
4
2
– 4(1)(2 – c) > 0
16 – 8 + 4c > 0
c > –2
∴ A possible value of c is –1 or
4
1
. (or any other
reasonable answers)
22. By substituting x = u into the equation x + x 2 = k, we
have
u
2
+ 2u = k
u
2
+ 2u – k = 0 …..(1)
∵ The equation x + x 2 = k has no real roots.
∴ The equation u
2
+ 2u – k = 0 also has no real roots.
∴ The discriminant of u
2
+ 2u – k = 0 is negative.
∆ < 0
2
2
– 4(1)( –k) < 0
4 + 4k < 0
4k < –4
k < –1
∴ A possible value of k is –2 or –3. (or any other
reasonable answers)
Level 2
23. By substituting x
2
+ 2x = u into the equation
(x
2
+ 2x)
2
+ 5(x
2
+ 2x) + 4 = 0, we have
u
2
+ 5u + 4 = 0
(u + 1)(u + 4) = 0
u = –1 or u = –4
∵ x
2
+ 2x = u
∴ x
2
+ 2x = –1 or x
2
+ 2x = –4
x
2
+ 2x + 1 = 0 or x
2
+ 2x + 4 = 0
(x + 1)
2
= 0 or x =
) 1 ( 2
) 4 )( 1 ( 4 2 2
2
− t −
x = –1 or x = 3 1 − t − (rejected)
∴ The real root of the equation is –1.
24. (x
2
– 3x)
2
– 2x
2
+ 6x + 1 = 0
(x
2
– 3x)
2
– 2(x
2
– 3x) + 1 = 0
By substituting x
2
– 3x = u into the equation
(x
2
– 3x)
2
– 2(x
2
– 3x) + 1 = 0, we have
u
2
– 2u + 1 = 0
(u – 1)
2
= 0
u = 1
∵ x
2
– 3x = u
∴ x
2
– 3x = 1
x
2
– 3x – 1 = 0
x =
) 1 ( 2
) 1 )( 1 ( 4 ) 3 ( ) 3 (
2
− − − t − −
=
2
13 3t
∴ The real roots of the equation are
2
13 3−
and
2
13 3+
.
25. 3x – 1 2 + x = 9
3x – 9 = 1 2 + x
(3x – 9)
2
= ( ) 1 2 + x
2
9x
2
– 54x + 81 = 2x + 1
9x
2
– 56x + 80 = 0
(9x – 20)(x – 4) = 0
x =
9
20
or x = 4
Checking:
When x =
9
20
, 3x – 1 2 + x = 3
,
`
.

9
20
– 1
9
20
2 +
,
`
.

=
3
13
≠ 9
When x = 4, 3x – 1 2 + x = 3(4) – 1 ) 4 ( 2 + = 9
∴ The real root of the equation is 4.
26. 5x – 6 5 + x = 6
5x – 6 = 6 5 + x
(5x – 6)
2
= ( ) 6 5 + x
2
25x
2
– 60x + 36 = 5x + 6
25x
2
– 65x + 30 = 0
5x
2
– 13x + 6 = 0
(5x – 3)(x – 2) = 0
x =
5
3
or x = 2
Checking:
When x =
5
3
, 5x – 6 5 + x = 5
,
`
.

5
3
– 6
5
3
5 +
,
`
.

= 0 ≠ 6
When x = 2, 5x – 6 5 + x = 5(2) – 6 ) 2 ( 5 + = 6
∴ The real root of the equation is 2.
27. y = x
2
– x
x –2 –1 0 1 2 3
y 6 2 0 0 2 6
2x – 3y = 1
x –1 0.5 2
y –1 0 1
106
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
∵ The two graphs intersect at (0.2, –0.2) and (1.4, 0.6).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
approximately (0.2, –0.2) and (1.4, 0.6).
107
4 More about Equations
28. y = x
2
– 4x + 3
x 0 1 2 3 4
y 3 0 –1 0 3
1
3 2
· +
y x
x 0 2 4
y 3 0 –3
∵ The two graphs intersect at (0, 3.0) and (2.5, –0.8).
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
approximately (0, 3.0) and (2.5, –0.8).
For questions 29 to 30, refer to the graph below:
y = x
2
– 2x + 1
x –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
y 9 4 1 0 1 4 9
29. ∵ 2x
2
– 5x + 2 = 0
2x
2
– 4x + 2 = x
x
2
– 2x + 1 =
2
x
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
+ − ·
2
1 2
2
x
y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y =
2
x
on the graph of
y = x
2
– 2x + 1.
From the graphs, the roots of 2x
2
– 5x + 2 = 0 are
approximately 0.5 and 2.0.
30. ∵ 2x
2
+ 4x + 1 = 0
2x
2
+ 4x – 8x + 1 + 1 = 1 – 8x
2x
2
– 4x + 2 = 1 – 8x
x
2
– 2x + 1 = x 4
2
1
−
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− ·
+ − ·
x y
x x y
4
2
1
1 2
2
.
Draw the straight line y = x 4
2
1
− on the graph of
y = x
2
– 2x + 1.
From the graphs, the roots of 2x
2
+ 4x + 1 = 0 are
approximately –1.7 and –0.3.
108
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
31. (a) y = x
2
+ 2x
x –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
y 0 –1 0 3 8 15 24 35
(b)
(c) (i) ∵ x
2
– 3x + 1 = 0
x
2
+ 2x – 5x + 1 = 0
x
2
+ 2x = 5x – 1
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
− ·
+ ·
1 5
2
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = 5x – 1 on the graph of y =
x
2
+ 2x.
From the graphs, the roots of x
2
– 3x + 1 = 0 are
approximately 0.4 and 2.6.
(ii) ∵ x
2
– x – 1 = 0
x
2
+ 2x – 3x – 1 = 0
x
2
+ 2x = 3x + 1
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
+ ·
+ ·
1 3
2
2
x y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = 3x + 1 on the graph of y =
x
2
+ 2x.
From the graphs, the roots of x
2
– x – 1 = 0 are
approximately –0.6 and 1.6.
(iii) ∵ 2x
2
+ 3x – 2 = 0
2x
2
+ 4x – x – 2 = 0
2x
2
+ 4x = x + 2
x
2
+ 2x = 1
2
+
x
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ ·
+ ·
1
2
2
2
x
y
x x y
.
Draw the straight line y = 1
2
+
x
on the graph of
y = x
2
+ 2x.
From the graphs, the roots of 2x
2
+ 3x – 2 = 0 are
approximately –2.0 and 0.5.
32. (a) From the graph, the yintercept of y = ax
2
+ bx + c is 4.
∴ 4 = a(0)
2
+ b(0) + c
c =
4
From the graph, the xintercepts of y = ax
2
+ bx + c are –
3 and 1.
∴ 0 = a(–3)
2
+ b(–3) + c
0 = 9a –3b + c ……(1)
and 0 = a(1)
2
+ b(1) + c
0 = a + b + c ……(2)
By substituting c = 4 into (1) and (2), we have
0 = 9a –3b + 4 ……(3)
and 0 = a + b + 4 ……(4)
By solving (3) and (4), we have
a =
3
4
−
, b =
3
8
−
(b) By substituting a =
3
4
− , b =
3
8
− and c = 4 into
y = ax
2
+ bx + c, we have
y = 4
3
8
3
4
2
+ − − x x
We are going to solve the following simultaneous
equations:
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
· + −
+ − − ·
) 6 ( 0 8 2
) 5 ( 4
3
8
3
4
2
y x
x x y
By substituting (5) into (6), we have
0 8 4
3
8
3
4
2
2
· +
,
`
.

+ − − − x x x
0
3
19
3
8
2
· + x x
8x
2
+ 19x = 0
x(8x + 19) = 0
x = 0 (rejected) or x =
8
19
−
By substituting x =
8
19
− into (6), we have
109
4 More about Equations
8
19
− – 2y + 8 = 0
y =
16
45
∴ The coordinates of P are (
16
45
,
8
19
− ).
33.
¹
'
¹
· +
· − +
1 3 2
1
2
y x
x y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (2), we have
3
2 1 x
y
−
· ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (1), we have
x
2
+
3
2 1 x −
– x = 1
3x
2
+ 1 – 2x – 3x = 3
3x
2
– 5x – 2 = 0
(3x + 1)(x – 2) = 0
x =
3
1
− or x = 2
By substituting x =
3
1
− into (3), we have
9
5
3
3
1
2 1
·
,
`
.

− −
· y
By substituting x = 2 into (3), we have y =
3
) 2 ( 2 1−
= –1
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
,
`
.

−
9
5
,
3
1
and (2, –1).
34.
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
· + − +
· + −
0 4 3
4
3
0 6
2
y x x
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
From (1), we have y = x + 6 ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (2), we have
4
3
x
2
+ 3x – (x + 6) + 4 = 0
3x
2
+ 12x – 4x – 24 + 16 = 0
3x
2
+ 8x – 8 = 0
Using the quadratic formula, we have
x =
) 3 ( 2
) 8 )( 3 ( 4 8 8
2
− − t −
x =
3
10 2 4 − −
or x =
3
10 2 4 + −
x = –3.44(cor. to 2 d.p.) or x = 0.77(cor. to 2 d.p.)
By substituting x =
3
10 2 4 − −
into (3), we have
y =
3
10 2 4 − −
+ 6 =
3
10 2 14 −
= 2.56(cor. to 2 d.p.)
By substituting x =
3
10 2 4 + −
into (3), we have
y =
3
10 2 4 + −
+ 6 =
3
10 2 14 +
= 6.77(cor. to 2 d.p.)
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are
(–3.44, 2.56) and (0.77, 6.77).
35. (a) ∵ The length of the wire is 70 cm.
∴ x + y + 29 = 70
x + y = 41
AB
2
+ BC
2
= AC
2
(Pyth. theorem)
x
2
+ y
2
= 29
2
x
2
+ y
2
= 841
∴ The required simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
· +
· +
841
41
2 2
y x
y x
) 2 (
) 1 (
.
(b) From (1), we have
x + y = 41
y = 41 – x ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (2), we have
x
2
+ (41 – x)
2
= 841
x
2
+ 1681 – 82x + x
2
= 841
2x
2
– 82x + 840 = 0
x
2
– 41x + 420 = 0
(x – 20)(x – 21) = 0
x = 20 or x = 21
By substituting x = 20 into (3), we have
y = 41 – 20 = 21
By substituting x = 21 into (3), we have
y = 41 – 21 = 20
∴ The solutions are
¹
'
¹
·
·
21
20
y
x
or
¹
'
¹
·
·
20
21
y
x
.
36. Let x cm and y cm be the length and the width of the
rectangle respectively.
∵ The perimeter of the rectangle is 28 cm.
∴ 2(x + y) = 28
y = 14 – x ……(1)
The length of the diagonal =
2 2
y x + cm
∵ The product of the lengths of the diagonals is
100 cm
2
.
∴
100
2 2 2 2
·
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

+ y x y x
x
2
+ y
2
= 100 ……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x
2
+ (14 – x)
2
= 100
x
2
+ 196 – 28x + x
2
= 100
2x
2
– 28x + 96 = 0
x
2
– 14x + 48 = 0
(x – 6)(x – 8) = 0
x = 6 or x = 8
By substituting x = 6 into (1), we have y = 14 – 6 = 8
By substituting x = 8 into (1), we have y = 14 – 8 = 6
∴ The length and the width of the rectangle is 6 cm and
8 cm or the length and the width of the rectangle is
8 cm and 6 cm respectively.
37. ∵ The length of the wire is 36 cm.
∴ 8x + 4y = 36
y = 9 – 2x ……(1)
∵ The total surface area enclosed by the framework is 48
cm
2
.
∴ 2x
2
+ 4xy = 48 ……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
2x
2
+ 4x(9 – 2x) = 48
2x
2
+ 36x – 8x
2
= 48
6x
2
– 36x + 48 = 0
x
2
– 6x + 8 = 0
110
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
(x – 2)(x – 4) = 0
x = 2 or x = 4
By substituting x = 2 into (1), we have y = 9 – 2(2) = 5
By substituting x = 4 into (1), we have y = 9 – 2(4) = 1
∴ The solutions are
¹
'
¹
·
·
5
2
y
x
or
¹
'
¹
·
·
1
4
y
x
.
38. Let x cm and y cm be the length and width of each rectangle
respectively.
∵ The length of the wire is 78 cm.
∴ 10x + 12y = 78
y =
6
5 39 x −
……(1)
∵ The area enclosed by the framework is 96 cm
2
.
∴ 8xy = 96
xy = 12 ……(2)
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x
,
`
.
 −
6
5 39 x
= 12
39x – 5x
2
= 72
5x
2
– 39x + 72 = 0
(x – 3)(5x – 24) = 0
x = 3 or x = 4.8
By substituting x = 3 into (1), we have
y =
6
) 3 ( 5 39 −
= 4
By substituting x = 4.8 into (1), we have
y =
6
) 8 . 4 ( 5 39 −
= 2.5
∴ The dimensions of each rectangle are 3 cm × 4 cm or 4.8
cm × 2.5 cm.
39. (a) Consider △AHE. Let AH = x cm and AE = y cm.
∴ The length of the side of ABCD is (x + y) cm.
∵ ∠A is a right angle.
∴ AH
2
+ AE
2
= EH
2
(Pyth. theorem)
(x cm)
2
+ (y cm)
2
= EH
2
EH =
2 2
y x + cm ……(1)
∴ The length of the side of EFGH is
2 2
y x + cm.
∵ The area of EFGH is 18 cm
2
.
∴
2
2 2
,
`
.

+ y x = 18
x
2
+ y
2
= 18 ……(2)
∵ The perimeter of ABCD is 24 cm.
∴ 4(x + y) = 24
y = 6 – x ……(3)
By substituting (3) into (2), we have
x
2
+ (6 – x)
2
= 18
x
2
+ 36 – 12x + x
2
= 18
2x
2
– 12x + 18 = 0
x
2
– 6x + 9 = 0
(x – 3)
2
= 0
x = 3
By substituting x = 3 into (3), we have y = 6 – 3 = 3
By substituting x = 3 and y = 3 into (1), we have
EH =
2 2
y x + cm
2 2
3 3 + ·
cm
2 3 ·
cm
∴ The sides of each triangle are 3 cm, 3 cm and
2 3
cm.
(b) ∵ The triangle has two equal sides and one right
angle.
∴ It is an isosceles rightangled triangle.
40. (a)
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
− + ·
6 6
2 2
2
x x y
k x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
– 6x + 6 = 2x + k – 2
x
2
– 8x + (8 – k) = 0 ……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
∴ (3) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–8)
2
– 4(1)(8 – k) = 0
64 – 32 + 4k = 0
32 + 4k = 0
k =
8 −
(b) By substituting k = –8 into (3), we have
x
2
– 8x + [8 – (–8)] = 0
x
2
– 8x + 16 = 0
(x – 4)
2
= 0
x = 4
By substituting x = 4 and k = –8 into (1), we have
y = 2(4) + (–8) – 2 = –2
∴ The coordinates of P are (4, –2).
41. (a) ∵ f(–1) = (–1)
3
+ 7(–1)
2
+ 15(–1) + 9
= – 1 + 7 – 15 + 9
= 0
∴ x + 1 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
9 6
9 9
9 9
6 6
15 6
9 15 7 1
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+ + + +
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
+ 7x
2
+ 15x + 9 = (x + 1)(x
2
+ 6x + 9)
2
) 3 )( 1 ( + + · x x
(b) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x + 1)(x + 3)
2
= 0
x + 1 = 0 or (x + 3)
2
= 0
x =
1 −
or x =
3 −
42. (a) ∵ f(2) = 2
3
– 3(2)
2
–10(2) + 24
= 8 – 12 – 20 + 24
= 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
111
4 More about Equations
12
24 12
24 12
2
10
2
24 10 3 2
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− −
+ −
+ −
+ −
− −
−
+ − − −
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
– 3x
2
– 10x + 24 = (x – 2)(x
2
– x – 12)
) 3 )( 4 )( 2 ( + − − · x x x
(b) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 2)(x – 4)(x + 3) = 0
x – 2 = 0 or x – 4 = 0 or x + 3 = 0
x =
2
or x =
4
or x =
3 −
43. (a) ∵ f(3) = 3
3
– 2(3)
2
–23(3) + 60
= 27 – 18 – 69 + 60
= 0
∴ x – 3 is a factor of f(x).
By long division,
20
60 0 2
60 0 2
3
23
3
60 23 2 3
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− +
+ −
+ −
−
−
−
+ − − −
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
– 2x
2
– 23x + 60 = (x – 3)(x
2
+ x – 20)
) 5 )( 4 )( 3 ( + − − · x x x
(b) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 3)(x – 4)(x + 5) = 0
x – 3 = 0 or x – 4 = 0 or x + 5 = 0
x =
3
or x =
4
or x =
5 −
44. (a) ∵ f(–1) = (–1)
4
– 2(–1)
3
– 7(–1)
2
+ 8(–1) + 12
= 1 + 2 – 7 – 8 + 12
= 0
∴ x + 1 is a factor of f(x).
∵ f(2) = 2
4
– 2(2)
3
– 7(2)
2
+ 8(2) + 12
= 16 – 16 – 28 + 16 + 12
= 0
∴ x – 2 is a factor of f(x).
∵ x + 1 and x – 2 are factors of f(x).
∴ (x + 1)(x – 2) is also a factor of f(x).
Divide f(x) by (x + 1)(x – 2), i.e. x
2
– x – 2.
6
12 6 6
12 6 6
2
8 5
2
12 8 7 2 2
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
2 3 4
2 3 4 2
− −
+ + −
+ + −
+ + −
+ − −
− −
+ + − − − −
x x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x x x x
∴ x
4
– 2x
3
– 7x
2
+ 8x + 12
= (x + 1)(x – 2)(x
2
– x – 6)
) 3 )( 2 )( 2 )( 1 ( − + − + · x x x x
(b) ∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2)(x – 3) = 0
x + 1 = 0 or x – 2 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 or x – 3 = 0
x =
1 −
or x =
2
or x =
2 −
or x =
3
45. x
4
+ 6x
3
– 7x
2
– 36x + 6 = 0
(x
4
– 7x
2
+ 6) + (6x
3
– 36x) = 0
[(x
2
)
2
– 7x
2
+ 6] + 6x(x
2
– 6) = 0
(x
2
– 6)(x
2
– 1) + 6x(x
2
– 6) = 0
(x
2
– 6)[(x
2
– 1) + 6x] = 0
(x
2
– 6)(x
2
+ 6x – 1) = 0
∴ x
2
– 6 = 0 or x
2
+ 6x – 1= 0
x =
6 t
or x =
) 1 ( 2
) 1 )( 1 ( 4 6 6
2
− − t −
= 10 3t −
46. x
4
+ x
3
– 5x
2
– x + 4 = 0
(x
4
– 5x
2
+ 4) + (x
3
– x) = 0
[(x
2
)
2
– 5x
2
+ 4] + x(x
2
– 1) = 0
(x
2
– 4)(x
2
– 1) + x(x
2
– 1) = 0
(x
2
– 1)[(x
2
– 4) + x] = 0
(x
2
– 1)(x
2
+ x – 4) = 0
∴ x
2
– 1 = 0 or x
2
+ x – 4= 0
x =
1 t
or x =
) 1 ( 2
) 4 )( 1 ( 4 1 1
2
− − t −
=
2
17 1t −
Multiple Choice Questions (p.200)
1. Answer: A
By substituting x
2
= u into the equation x
4
– 8x
2
– 9 = 0, we
have
u
2
– 8u – 9 = 0
(u – 9)(u + 1) = 0
u = 9 or u = –1
∵ x
2
= u
∴ x
2
= 9 or x
2
= –1 (rejected)
x =
1 t
2. Answer: C
By substituting x
3
= u into the equation x
6
+ 9x
3
+8 = 0, we
have
u
2
+ 9u + 8 = 0
(u + 8)(u + 1) = 0
112
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A
u = –8 or u = –1
∵ x
3
= u
∴ x
3
= –8 or x
3
= –1
x =
2 −
or x =
1 −
3. Answer: C
By substituting x = u into the equation x + x – 2 = 0, we
have
u
2
+ u – 2 = 0
(u – 1)(u + 2) = 0
u = 1or u = –2
∵ x = u
∴ x = 1 or x = –2 (rejected)
x =
1
4. Answer: C
∵ ax
2
+ (b – m)x + (c – d) = 0
ax
2
+ bx – mx + c – d = 0
ax
2
+ bx + c = mx + d
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
+ ·
+ + ·
d mx y
c bx ax y
2
.
From the graphs, the roots of
ax
2
+ (b – m)x + (c – d) = 0 are 0 and 2.
5. Answer: B
∵ y = x
2
y = 3x –
2
3
∴ x
2
= 3x –
2
3
2x
2
= 6x – 3
2x
2
– 6x + 3 = 0
∴ The quadratic equation can be solved is
2x
2
– 6x + 3 = 0.
6. Answer: C
∵ The equation x
2
+ ax + b = 0 has no xintercepts.
∴ It has no real roots.
∴ I is wrong.
∵ x
2
+ (a – 1)x + b = 0
x
2
+ ax – x + b = 0
x
2
+ ax + b = x
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
'
¹
·
+ + ·
x y
b ax x y
2
.
From the graphs, the simultaneous equations have one real
solution.
∴ The equation x
2
+ (a – 1)x + b = 0 has a double real root.
∴ II is correct.
The corresponding simultaneous equations of x
2
+ ax
+ b = c are
¹
'
¹
·
+ + ·
c y
b ax x y
2
.
From the graphs, the simultaneous equations have two real
solutions.
∴ The equation x
2
+ ax + b = c has two real roots.
∴ III is correct.
7. Answer: D
¹
'
¹
+ ·
+ + ·
c mx y
b ax x y
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x
2
+ ax + b = mx + c
x
2
+ (a – m)x + (b – c) = 0 ……(3)
∴ The simultaneous equations have two real solutions.
∴ (3) has two real roots.
∴ ∆ > 0
(a – m)
2
– 4(1)(b – c) > 0
(a – m)
2
– 4(b – c) > 0
∴ (a – m)
2
> 4(b – c)
8. Answer: D
∵ 2x
2
+ x – 3 = 0
2x
2
= – x + 3
x
2
=
2
3 + −x
∴ The corresponding simultaneous equations are
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ −
·
·
2
3
2
x
y
x y
.
∴ The equation of the required straight line is
y =
2
3 + −x
.
9. Answer: C
¹
'
¹
+ ·
·
k x y
x y
2
4
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
x
2
+ k = 4x
x
2
– 4x + k = 0 ……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
∴ (3) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–4)
2
– 4(1)k = 0
16 – 4k = 0
∴
4 · k
10.
Answer: A
¹
'
¹
·
+ − ·
x y
x x y
2
6 5
2
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (1) into (2), we have
x
2
– 5x + 6 = 2x
x
2
– 7x + 6 = 0
(x – 1)(x – 6) = 0
x = 1 or x = 6
By substituting x = 1 into (2), we have y = 2(1) = 2
By substituting x = 6 into (2), we have y = 2(6) = 12
∴ The solutions of the simultaneous equations are (1, 2)
and (6, 12).
11.
Answer: A
¹
'
¹
− + − ·
+ + ·
6 6
2 2
2
x x y
k x y
) 2 (
) 1 (
By substituting (2) into (1), we have
–x
2
+ 6x – 6 = 2x + k + 2
x
2
– 4x + (k + 8) = 0 ……(3)
∵ The simultaneous equations have only one solution.
113
4 More about Equations
∴ (3) has only one real root.
∴ ∆ = 0
(–4)
2
– 4(1)(k + 8)= 0
16 – 4k – 32 = 0
∴
4 − · k
12. Answer: D
Let f(x) = x
3
– 3x + 2.
∵ f(1) = 1
3
– 3(1) + 2
= 1 – 3 + 2
= 0
∴ x – 1 is a factor of x
3
– 3x + 2.
By long division,
2
2 2
2 2
3
2 3 0 1
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− +
+ −
+ −
−
−
−
+ − + −
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ x
3
– 3x + 2 = (x – 1)(x
2
+ x – 2)
= (x – 1)(x – 1)(x + 2)
= (x – 1)
2
(x + 2)
∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x – 1)
2
(x + 2) = 0
(x – 1)
2
= 0 or x + 2 = 0
x =
1
or x =
2 −
HKMO (p. 201)
Let f(x) = 2x
3
+ 7x
2
– 29x – 70.
∵ f(–2) = 2(–2)
3
+ 7(–2)
2
– 29(–2) – 70
= –16 + 28 + 58 – 70
= 0
∴ x + 2 is a factor of 2x
3
+ 7x
2
– 29x – 70.
By long division,
35 3 2
70 35
70 35
6 3
29 3
4 2
70 29 7 2 2
2
2
2
2 3
2 3
− +
− −
− −
+
−
+
− − + +
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
∴ 2x
3
+ 7x
2
– 29x – 70 = (x + 2)(2x
2
+ 3x – 35)
= (x + 2)(x + 5)(2x – 7)
∵ f(x) = 0
∴ (x + 2)(x + 5)(2x – 7) = 0
∴ x + 2 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 or 2x – 7 = 0
x = –2 or x = –5 or x =
2
7
∵ p is the positive real root.
∴ p =
2
7
Let’s Discuss
p. 170
Both methods are correct.
p. 180
Ken’s method is more tedious as it involves squaring of the
expression y + 1.
114
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