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Summary of easyJet manuals

Airbus Edition, Version 1.1

Jon Hurst

Summary of easyJet manuals

Summary of easyJet manuals: Airbus Edition, Version 1.1

Jon Hurst

Summary of easyJet manuals

Table of Contents
Change log ..................................................................................... vii 1. Change highlighting ............................................................ vii 2. Changes since version 1.0 .................................................... vii 1. Authority, Duties and Responsibilities of a Commander ........................ 1 2. Crew composition .......................................................................... 3 2.1. Flight crew ....................................................................... 3 2.2. Cabin crew ....................................................................... 3 2.3. Positioning crew ................................................................ 5 2.4. Flight Ops Inspectors .......................................................... 5 3. Qualification and Recency Requirements ............................................ 7 4. Crew Health Precautions .................................................................. 9 4.1. Alcohol ............................................................................ 9 4.2. Cosmic radiation ................................................................ 9 4.3. Medication ........................................................................ 9 4.4. Immunisation ................................................................... 10 4.5. Blood donation ................................................................ 10 4.6. Diving ............................................................................ 10 4.7. Surgery .......................................................................... 10 4.8. Hypoxia .......................................................................... 10 4.9. Food poisoning ................................................................ 11 4.10. Laser attacks .................................................................. 11 5. Flight Time Limitations Scheme ...................................................... 13 5.1. Definitions ...................................................................... 13 5.2. Days Off ........................................................................ 13 5.3. Required rest ................................................................... 14 5.4. Maximum Flight Duty ....................................................... 15 5.5. Consecutive night, early start and late finish duties .................. 16 5.6. Cumulative limits ............................................................. 17 5.7. Standby .......................................................................... 18 5.8. Transitions ...................................................................... 19 5.9. Pre and post flight duties ................................................... 19 6. Flight preparation instructions ......................................................... 21 6.1. Minimum flight altitudes ................................................... 21 6.2. Usability of airports .......................................................... 24 6.3. Aerodrome Operating Minima ............................................ 25


Summary of easyJet manuals 6.4. Selection of alternates ....................................................... 6.5. Pre-flight fuel planning ...................................................... 6.6. Weight and Balance .......................................................... 6.7. Operational Flight Plans .................................................... 6.8. Aircraft Technical Log ...................................................... 6.9. Documents to be carried .................................................... 7. Ground Handling Instructions ......................................................... 7.1. Fuelling procedures .......................................................... 7.2. Passenger groups .............................................................. 7.3. Baggage and freight .......................................................... 7.4. Ground ice protection ........................................................ 7.5. Punctuality policy ............................................................. 8. Flight procedures .......................................................................... 8.1. VFR/IFR policy ............................................................... 8.2. Navigation policy ............................................................. 8.3. Altimeter setting procedures ............................................... 8.4. RVSM ............................................................................ 8.5. In-flight fuel management .................................................. 8.6. Hazardous atmospheric conditions ....................................... 8.7. Wake turbulence .............................................................. 8.8. All Weather Operations ..................................................... 8.9. Miscellaneous flight procedures .......................................... 9. Miscellaneous .............................................................................. 9.1. Uniform policy ................................................................ 27 28 30 33 33 37 39 39 40 44 45 47 49 49 49 51 52 52 53 54 55 56 61 61


Summary of easyJet manuals

List of Tables
4.1. Time of useful consciousness ....................................................... 5.1. Maximum flight duty .................................................................. 5.2. Cumulative limits ....................................................................... 6.1. Low temperature altitude corrections .............................................. 6.2. MORA Wind Speed Correction .................................................... 6.3. Met Visibility to RVR conversion ................................................. 6.4. Cruise alternate distances ............................................................. 6.5. Standard weights for passengers with hand baggage .......................... 6.6. Standard weights for checked baggage ........................................... 6.7. Standard weights for crew ............................................................ 6.8. Guide weights for other items ....................................................... 7.1. Acceptable restraints for infants and children ................................... 10 15 18 22 23 26 28 31 31 32 32 41

Summary of easyJet manuals


Change log

Change log
1.Change highlighting
Change highlighting is only available in the online version. This may be found at: Change bars will be incorporated into the printed version as soon as they are supported by the Apache Formatting Objects Processor.

2.Changes since version 1.0

Added pilot age restriction to Section2.1, Flight crew. Added limitations on *** cabin crew flying together to Section 2.2, Cabin crew. Added new 45 day recency requirement to Chapter3, Qualification and Recency Requirements. Changed Section4.2, Cosmic radiation to refer to exposure monitoring incorporation into AIMS. Simplified Section4.4, Immunisation to remove irrelevant information about immunisation in favour of a statement that standard European immunisations will currently suffice for easyJet crew. Updated Section4.6, Diving to refer to "SCUBA equipment" rather than an "aqua-lung". Added Section4.10, Laser attacks. Added new rules regarding rest reduction at home base when staying in company supplied accommodation to Section5.3.1, Reducing required rest. Added rule regarding an MSD or EFD following a dual duty not constituting a transition to Section5.8, Transitions.


Change log Added absolute minimum flight crew report time of 45 minutes to Section5.9, Pre and post flight duties. Modified Section6.3, Aerodrome Operating Minima to remove RVR 150m restriction on pilot assessment of initial part of take-off run. Modified Section6.3, Aerodrome Operating Minima to indicate that Jeppesen calculated RVR may only be used when the minimas block is labelled "STANDARD". Updated Section6.6.4, Last minute changes to incorporate minus 10 passengers as being eligible. Removed reference to provision of still air OFPs by OCC in the case of system failure from Section6.7, Operational Flight Plans as this facility is no longer available. Added explicit instructions for the recording of anti-icing operations to Section6.8.2, Layout and usage. Updated "For Info" entries paragraph in Section6.8.3, Defect management to indicate that under certain circumstances bird strikes may be recorded in this way. Removed age restrictions on use of car-type safety seat from Section 7.2.3, Infants and children. Added new rules to Section7.2.5, Escorted passengers Added new age restriction for the use of vacant cabin crew seat by an ABP to Section8.9.3, Crew seating and harnesses. Removed recommendation for use of autopilot when intentionally reducing approach guidance to a NPA from Section8.9.6, Skills retention. Added Section9.1, Uniform policy to incorporate new uniform directives.


Chapter1.Authority, Duties and Responsibilities of a Commander

Chapter1.Authority, Duties and Responsibilities of a Commander

The commander has overall responsibility for the safety of the aircraft, its occupants and its cargo, and the authority to issue any commands required to secure this. He has the authority to increase any safety margin, including aerodrome operating minima, as he sees fit. In an emergency situation, he has the authority to override any rule or procedure in the interest of safety. He must ensure that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. All SOPS are fully complied with. The weather will not infringe operating minima and the required alternates are available. Ground facilities and services required for the planned flight are available and adequate. The correct types and quantities of fuel and oil are carried, and uplifts are recorded. The aircraft and required equipment are serviceable or only have unserviceabilities that comply with the CDL or MEL. If third party maintenance is required whilst away from base, the procedures referred to in EOM-A 8.1.11 must be followed. The preflight inspection has been completed, and that all required documents, maps and charts are onboard and valid. The aircraft is within its weight and balance envelope and the load is properly secured. The available aircraft performance is sufficient for all phases of the proposed flight. Any person, or any part of the cargo, which may represent a potential hazard to the safety of the aircraft or its occupants is disembarked. This includes:

6. 7. 8. 9.

Chapter1.Authority, Duties and Responsibilities of a Commander Persons under the influence of alcohol or drugs, to the extent that they pose a risk. Inadmissible passengers, deportees or persons in custody if they pose any risk. 10. A full safety briefing, including exits and equipment carried, is given to the passengers. 11. Crew members are not permitted to perform any activity during take-off, initial climb, final approach and landing except those duties required for the safe operation of the aircraft. 12. A continuous listening watch is maintained on the appropriate radio frequencies. 13. The cabin is secured (passengers secured and cabin baggage properly stowed) for taxi, take-off, landing and whenever turbulence is expected. 14. The cabin crew are secured in their allocated seats for takeoff, landing and when not carrying out essential duties whilst taxiing. 15. The flight data recorder is not disabled, switched off or erased during flight nor erased after flight in the event of an accident or an incident subject to mandatory reporting. 16. The flight deck door is locked at all times between engine start and engine shutdown, with the exception of when it must be opened for physiological reasons. 17. A post flight debrief is carried out. 18. A journey log or equivalent ACARS is completed. [EOM-A 1.4, EOM-A 8.1]

Chapter2.Crew composition

Chapter2.Crew composition
2.1.Flight crew
The minimum flight crew is two pilots, at least one of whom must be a Captain. Not more than one pilot may be aged 60 years or more. The commander must sit in the left seat unless the commander is a training Captain and is required to occupy the right seat for a training detail. A training Captain may carry out both PNF and PF roles from either seat. Other Captains may only carry out the PNF role from the right seat. If an aircraft is only being taxied, the occupant of the right seat may be a non-type rated pilot or a suitably qualified ground employee. The occupant of the left seat must, however, be a fully type qualified commander. Inexperienced (***) crew must not operate together. A Captain is considered inexperienced until he has successfully passed his first recurrent simulator check. A First Officer is considered inexperienced until he has completed the amount of flying detailed in EOM-A 4.1.2. [EOM-A 4]

2.2.Cabin crew
The minimum cabin crew is normally one for every 50 installed seats. Where 4 cabin crew are present, a maximum of 2 may be inexperienced (i.e. ***). Where only 3 cabin crew are present, only 1 may be inexperienced [CSPM 5.4.3]. In extreme circumstances the standard complement may be reduced by one cabin crew member providing that: Authorisation is received from the duty pilot The aircraft does not dispatch from its originating base. The applicable sectors are either part of the original series of flights or are associated diversions.

Chapter2.Crew composition A maximum of 50 passengers (not including infants) per cabin crew member is carried. All passengers are seated in a position where they can adequately view the safety demonstration. If the reduction in cabin crew results in no SCCM being carried there are additional procedures detailed in EOM-A 4.1.4h. It is permissible to board with one cabin crew member absent provided that: The operating SCCM is present. A member of the flight crew is on the flight deck. In case of emergency a member of flight crew will assist at the front of the cabin. The front and rear doors each have at least one attendant cabin crew member. The aircraft is not being fuelled. A maximum of 50 passengers per cabin crew member are boarded. It is also permissible to board with a non operating crew member provided that they are fully qualified on type, in uniform and fit to operate. They are not required to have taken part in the pre-flight brief, but must be briefed on their duties during boarding and must have answered one SEP and one First Aid question. The non operating crew member must remain with the aircraft until the rostered crew member arrives. During disembarkation, once there are less than 20 passengers remaining on board the required crew complement is reduced to the SCCM and one member of flight crew. If a cabin crew member is incapacitated due to sickness, injury, tiredness or fatigue, they must be offloaded. They will then be considered unfit to fly until certified fit by a doctor or paramedic. This rule may be overridden at the Captain's discretion if "extraordinary circumstances" apply. [EOM-A 4.1.3, EOM-A 4.1.4]

Chapter2.Crew composition

2.3.Positioning crew
Positioning crew will normally be booked as passengers and proceed through normal passenger channels. When arriving on a domestic flight it is permissible for crew to transfer aircraft on the ramp, but if arriving on an international flight crew must clear immigration and customs before proceding to the aircraft via security search. In exceptional circumstances staff may be carried as "extra crew". This requires the authorisation of the duty pilot or the Network Duty Manager. In this case, crew must be shown on the crew list. [EOM-A 4.5, EOM-A 4.6]

2.4.Flight Ops Inspectors

Flight Ops Inspectors may, at any time, board any easyJet aircraft and enter and remain on the flight deck unless it is the commander's opinion that this would endanger the safety of the aircraft. Flight Ops Inspectors may act as operating crew with the approval of the duty pilot, but may only fly with a training Captain. [EOM-A 4.7]

Chapter2.Crew composition

Chapter3.Qualification and Recency Requirements

Chapter3.Qualification and Recency Requirements

The minimum qualifications to act as a commander are: 1. 2. 3. A UK JAA-FCL ATPL with relevant type rating Class I medical Valid ATQP recurrent checks: Test/ Training Licence Proficiency Check Line Oriented Evaluation d Line check Dangerous Goods Aviation Security Annual Emergency and Safety Equipment Check Triennial Emergency and Safety Equipment Check

Validity 12 months bc 12 months bc 24 months bc 24 months less 1 day 12 months b 24 months bc 3 years b

Incorporates Operator Proficiency Check, Instrument Rating renewal, and elements of Ground and Refresher Training. b The period of validity starts on the last day of the month in which the training and/or test was completed. c For renewals, the period of validity can start on the expiry date of the current check. To be considered a renewal, the training and/or test must be completed a maximum of three months before that expiry date. d Incorporates elements of Ground and Refresher Training.

4. 5. 6.

One take-off and one landing as PF in the preceding 45 days. Three take-offs and three landings as PF in the preceding 90 days. For Cat III, two landings, possibly in a simulator, using Cat III procedures within 12 months. This requirement is usually satisfied by the LPC.

Chapter3.Qualification and Recency Requirements 7. 8. 3000 factored hours of which 500 hours must be on a medium or large jet transport (see EOM-A 5.2.1 for factored hours table). Successful completion of a Command Course.

[EOM-A 5]

Chapter4.Crew Health Precautions

Chapter4.Crew Health Precautions

Do not consume any alcohol within 10 hours of a duty, and consume no more than 5 units of alcohol within 24 hours of a duty. Crews are obliged to comply with random breathalysing, but should ensure that it is not carried out in front of passengers. Alcohol must never be consumed whilst in uniform in a public place. Alcohol must not be taken onto the flight deck during flight. [EOM-A 6.1.1]

4.2.Cosmic radiation
Statutory directives state that the acceptable radiation exposure of aircrew is 6mSv/yr. Radiation exposure is modelled by easyJet to try to prevent exposure above this level. easyJet continuously monitors estimated radiation doses; personal estimated exposure is published on "Touch and Go". Embryos and foetuses are particularly susceptible to harm from cosmic radiation. Crew should not fly when pregnant. [EOM-A 6.1.3]

The use of non-prescribed narcotics or sleep inducing drugs is forbidden. Do not operate within 48 hours of a general anaesthetic or within 24 hours of a local anaesthetic. It is acceptable to operate whilst taking non drowsy cold remedies such as Sudafed. Seek medical advice before operating whilst taking any other medication. [EOM-A 6.1.2, EOM-A 6.1.4]

Chapter4.Crew Health Precautions

easyJet does not currently fly to any destination requiring vaccinations beyond those recommended for everyday life in Europe. Any change to this situation will be notified by NTC. [EOM-A 6.1.5, EOM-A 6.1.16]

4.5.Blood donation
Crew should not donate blood within 24 hours of a duty. [EOM-A 6.1.6]

Crew should not fly within 48 hours of diving to a depth exceeding 10m. Crew should avoid any diving requiring the use of SCUBA equipment within 24 hours of a duty. Crew who have been treated for decompression sickness must not fly within 72 hours of recovery. [EOM-A 6.1.7]

Aeromedical advice should be sought before returning to duty following any surgical procedure. [EOM-A 6.1.11]

Table4.1.Time of useful consciousness Pressure altitude 18000ft Time 30 minutes


Chapter4.Crew Health Precautions Pressure altitude 25000ft 30000ft 45000ft [Human Factors For Pilots, Green et al.] Time 2-3 minutes 45-75 seconds 12 seconds

4.9.Food poisoning
Crew who are operating together should not have the same meals. This includes crew food and eating together when downroute or on airport standby. If food poisoning from crew food is suspected, a Food Safety Report form must be completed and medical tests carried out to identify the strain. [EOM-A 6.1.8]

4.10.Laser attacks
To mitigate the attack, look away, increase the brightness of interior lights and avoid rubbing your eyes. Seek medical advice if symptoms persist. Notify ATC and file an ASR. [EOM-A 6.1.17]


Chapter4.Crew Health Precautions


Chapter5.Flight Time Limitations Scheme

Chapter5.Flight Time Limitations Scheme

Duty period: Any continuous period where a crew member is required to carry out a task associated with easyJet business. Flight duty period: The period between reporting to operate a flight or series of flights and the on blocks time of the last sector operated. Day off: A period of at least 34 hours that is free from duty and contains two consecutive local nights, a local night being a period of 8 hours in the period 22:00 to 08:00 local time. Discretion event: The use of either commander's or individual's discretion to reduce a rest period, extend a duty period, ignore a cumulative limit or reduce a report time.

5.2.Days Off
For crew operating under the "easyJet Variation Phase IV" (a.k.a 5/4/5/3), FTL days off restrictions will always be satisfied by the fixed pattern, even when a day off has been violated by a delay on the last day of a block of late duties. The rostering agreement specifies that 10 days off must be achieved in the 28 day reserve period, 3 of these being the final three days. In addition the variation specifies that two consecutive days off must be achieved within any 10 day period and that two consecutive days off must be achieved after any 7 consecutive duties. Crew who are not operating under a variation require 7 days off in 4 consecutive weeks and 24 days off in 12 consecutive weeks. No more that 7 days can be worked between days off, and two consecutive days off must be achieved in any 14 day period. Section5.5, Consecutive night, early start and late finish duties details additional days off restrictions for consecutive duties which overlap the period 01:00L to 06:59L.


Chapter5.Flight Time Limitations Scheme

5.2.1.Ignoring days off restrictions

The commander may, at his discretion, choose to allow the violation of days off restrictions. The company may, due to unforeseen circumstances, position a crew member back to base when this forms their eighth consecutive duty.

5.3.Required rest
For flight crew, the rest required before operating a duty is 12 hours or the length of the previous duty period, whichever is greater. For cabin crew, the rest required is one hour less than the flight crew.

5.3.1.Reducing required rest

When rest is acheived at home, flight crew may, at their discretion, reduce their required rest period by a maximum of one hour providing that the rest period is still at least 12 hours. Cabin crew may similarly reduce their rest providing the rest period is still at least 11 hours. All crew members must inform the commander at the start of a duty if individual discretion has been used to reduce rest. When rest is acheived in easyJet provided accommodation: The commander may, at his discretion, reduce rest by an unlimited amount provided that at least 10 hours are spent in suitable accommodation. Where a commander is not available, such as when a crew has split, individuals may, at their own discretion, also reduce rest by an unlimited amount provided that at least 10 hours are spent in suitable accommodation. The commander in charge of the subsequent duty period must be informed of this occurrence prior to the first sector. Where the preceding duty was less than 12 hours, easyJet may roster a reduction in rest equal to one hour minus any time that the total accommodation transfer time exceeds one hour. Exercise of discretion to reduce rest must be reported on the journey log of the subsequent duty. If the reduction is greater than one hour, a Discretion Report form must also be completed to allow CAA audit.


Chapter5.Flight Time Limitations Scheme There are additional limitations if the rest reduction forms part of a series of discretion events.

5.4.Maximum Flight Duty

The maximum allowable flight duty for flight crew is governed by the number of sectors flown and the report time in local time: Table5.1.Maximum flight duty Local time 06:00 - 07:59 08:00 - 12:59 13:00 - 1759 18:00 - 21:59

Sectors a 1 13:00 14:00 13:00 12:00 11:00 2 12:15 13:15 12:15 11:15 10:15 3 11:30 12:30 11:30 10:30 9:30 4 10:45 11:45 10:45 9:45 9:00

22:00 - 05:59

For 5 or more sectors, refer to the full table in EOM-A

The maximum allowable duty for cabin crew is one hour longer than the flight crew.

5.4.1.Increasing maximum flight duty

The commander may, at his discretion, increase the maximum flight duty detailed in Table5.1, Maximum flight duty by up to 2 hours. If required by a delay occurring during the turnaround before the final sector of a duty, the maximum flight duty may be extended by a further hour. Whenever this discretion is used it must be reported via the journey log. Where the discretion is greater than two hours a Discretion Report Form must also be completed to allow mandatory reporting to the CAA. There are additional conditions when exercising this discretion as part of a sequence of discretion events. Reporting times may be delayed by up to 4 hours if the crew member is informed of the change before leaving their place of rest. In this case the report time used in Table5.1, Maximum flight duty will be the original report time, but the flight


Chapter5.Flight Time Limitations Scheme duty will be deemed to start at the delayed report time. Where a delay is greater than 4 hours, the more restrictive of the original and delayed report time will be used when calculating max FDP, and the flight duty will be deemed to have commenced 4 hours after the original report time. Where a flight duty is scheduled such that a rest period of between 3 and 10 consecutive hours may be taken between sectors, the company can increase the maximum flight duty by one half of that rest period. If this method is used, any positioning journeys count as sectors. The allowance for inter-sector pre and post flight duties and the type of accommodation required are specified in EOM-A 7.1.13. easyJet has also negotiated FTL exemptions that allow the maximum flight duty lengths in Table5.1, Maximum flight duty to be extended by either 30 minutes or 60 minutes at the planning stage. To utilise either of these exemptions a long list of conditions (detailed in EOM-A must be met. Affected duties are annotated on rosters.

5.5.Consecutive night, early start and late finish duties

If any part of a duty falls within the period 02:00 to 04:59 local time, then it is a "night duty". Consecutive night duties are only allowed with the following restrictions: If two consecutive night duties are scheduled, the preceding duty must finish by 23:59 local time. If three consecutive night duties are scheduled, the preceding duty must finish by 21:00. If four or five consecutive night duties are scheduled, the Table5.1, Maximum flight duty limits are replaced by an 8 hour limit, regardless of sectors; in addition, 24 hours rest must be taken prior to the series and 54 hours rest must be taken post the series. No more than three consecutive duties are allowed where any part of a duty falls within the period 01:00 to 06:59, nor will more than 4 such duties occur within any 7 day period. There are the following exceptions to this rule:


Chapter5.Flight Time Limitations Scheme Crew operating under the "easyJet Variation Phase IV" (a.k.a 5/4/5/3) may operate four or five consecutive "early start duties" where max flight duty is as per Table5.1, Maximum flight duty. Only one of the series may have a report time between 03:00 and 04:59 and that duty must be 2 sectors or less. In addition, 2 days off must be achieved before any series of 4 early starts, 3 days off must be achieved before any series of 5 early starts and 72 hours must be achieved after either series. The rostering agreement further stipulates that 4 days off must be achieved before any block of earlies in the fixed pattern. Generally, a maximum of 5 consecutive FDPs is allowable under this variation, but exceptionally a sixth may be operated in accordance with the terms in EOMA Crew not operating under a variation may operate four or five consecutive "early start duties" where the Table5.1, Maximum flight duty limits are replaced by a 9 hour limit, regardless of sectors; in addition, 24 hours rest must be taken prior to the series and 63 hours rest must be taken post the series. Any run of consecutive night, early start or late finish duties can be broken by a period of 34 hours free from such duties.

The definition of an "early start duty" is inconsistent between EOM-A and the variation approval, but my interpretation is a duty that commences between 01:00 and 06:59

5.5.1.Ignoring consecutive night, early start and late finish duty limits
The commander may, at his discretion, allow violation of any of the consecutive night, early start and late finish duty limits.

5.6.Cumulative limits
Table5.2, Cumulative limits shows the cumulative duty time and block time limitations applicable to flight crew operating under the "easyJet Variation Phase IV" (a.k.a 5/4/5/3) and to cabin crew operating without variations:


Chapter5.Flight Time Limitations Scheme Table5.2.Cumulative limits Period 7 days 14 days 28 days 12 weeks 6 months 9 months

Flight Crew Duty hours 55 a b 95 190 480 1880


Cabin Crew Duty hours 60 c 105 210 Block Hours

Block hours 100 270 550 750 900

12 months

Can be increased to 60 hours where unforeseen delays occur on the day of operation. b This limitation is in the Rostering and Crewing Agreement, amended 01/08/2008, which supersedes the limit in EOM-A c Can be increased to 65 hours where unforeseen delays occur in a duty block. d Can be increased to 100 hours where unforeseen delays occur on the day of operation.

Duty time spent on "contactable" does not count towards cumulative duty hours, nor does a "duty break" of over 6 hours (but less than minimum rest) in suitable accommodation prior to positioning home. When not called out, time spent on standby during the period 22:00 to 08:00 local time only counts half.

5.6.1.Ignoring cumulative limits

The commander, at his discretion, may allow violation of any cumulative limit. In this case a Discretion Report Form must be completed to allow CAA audit.

The maximum planned standby duration is 12 hours. In general, the local time used to determine max flight duty in Table5.1, Maximum flight duty will be the most restricting of standby start time and report time. If, however, both standby start time and report time occur in the period 22:00-08:00, report time is used.


Chapter5.Flight Time Limitations Scheme The maximum flight duty must be reduced by the amount that the time between starting the standby and reporting exceeds 6 hours. A "contactable" is a special case of standby. It's duration must be less than an hour, it must occur between 06:00L and 22:00L and the minimum time between call out and report must be 10 hours. The required rest period after a contactable is reduced to 10 hours, and the time spent on contactable does not count towards cumulative duty limits.

A "morning start duty" (MSD) is a duty with a report time between 03:00L and 09:29L. An "evening finish duty" (EFD) is either a duty finishing between 18:00L and 03:00L or a duty with a report time between 18:00L and 03:00L that finishes between 03:00L and 17:59L. A transition occurs when an EFD occurs immediately after an MSD or vice versa. It is possible for a single duty to be both an MSD and an EFD; this is termed a "Dual duty" and is considered a transition in and of itself. Either an MSD or an EFD can follow a Dual duty without constituting a second transition. When crew are operating under the "easyJet Variation Phase IV" (a.k.a 5/4/5/3), only one transition is allowed per duty block. In addition, the August 2009 Rostering resolution prohibits transitions on day 5 of a duty block, and easyJet has made a commitment via pmail to limit rostered transitions to one per month.

5.9.Pre and post flight duties

For normal flight duty periods, a minimum of 1 hour must be planned for preflight duties, and a minimum of 30 minutes planned for post flight duties. For training and positioning refer to EOM-A 7.1.12. The practice of using non-standard reporting times to move a duty into a less limiting FDP band is prohibited. The commander may, at his discretion, reduce these times. The company may not. If the commander reduces standard reporting time by more than 15 minutes, a Discretion Report form must be completed to allow CAA audit. The absolute minimum pre flight report time for flight crew is 45 minutes.


Chapter5.Flight Time Limitations Scheme


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions

Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions

6.1.Minimum flight altitudes
When operating on a defined route segment, national authorities may have published the Minimum Enroute IFR Altitude (MEA) for that segment. This altitude (or flight level) ensures obstacle clearance and navaid reception. On Jeppesen enroute charts it is shown below the approximate centre of the route segment in small red font. Where a segment is wholly contained within controlled airspace, the MEA will provide a buffer of at least 500ft from uncontrolled airspace {TODO: This information comes from an FAA handbook and comparison of Jepp enroute charts and UK AIP airway specification. Confirm that it is correct}. Where applicable, national authorities may also publish a lower segment safety altitude which provides obstacle clearance only. This is called the Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude (MOCA). On Jeppesen charts, MOCA is presented adjacent to, and in the same font as, MEA; a suffix of "T" (e.g. 4200T) is used to distinguish it. Where MOCA is not presented, it may be assumed that it has the same value as MEA. When national authorities have not defined MEA, Jeppesen instead presents a value known as the Minimum Off-Route Altitude (MORA). This is in the same font as the MEAs, and is distinguished by an "a" suffix (e.g. 4200a). Jeppesen derives this value by examining charts or databases of known obstacles and terrain. The value should ensure at least 1000ft clearance of all obstacles within 10nm of any point on the route segment. When the obstacles are over 5000ft altitude, 2000ft of clearance is provided. MORA is also presented on the LIDO OFPs. When not operating on a defined route segment, Jeppesen presents area obstacle clearance data in the form of a Grid Minimum Off-Route Altitude (Grid MORA). This is again a Jeppesen derived value. It should provide the same obstacle clearance as MORA within the area enclosed by the latitude and longitude lines of a Jeppesen enroute chart. It is presented in large green or red font near the centre of the applicable area1.

Red is used when the value is greater than 14,000ft


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA) is the minimum altitude that provides 1000ft of obstacle clearance within 25nm (unless otherwise specified) of a specified navigation facility. It is published as a circle on Jeppesen plates. Where the circle is divided into segments, the altitudes are referred to as Minimum Sector Altitudes. It is for emergency use only, and does not necessarily guarantee navaid reception. Minimum Vectoring Altitude (MVA) is the lowest altitude at which an IFR aircraft will be vectored by a radar controller (excepting SRAs etc.); it may only be utilised upon the controller's determination that an adequate radar return is being received. [EOM-A 8.1.1, Jeppesen Text Manual - "Introduction"]

All published altitudes must be corrected for low temperatures. Altitudes within 5000ft of the elevation of the source of a QNH measurement can be corrected for temperatures below 0C using the following table: Table6.1.Low temperature altitude corrections OAT 0C -10C -20C -30C 200 20 20 30 40 300 20 30 50 60 Height above QNH source (feet) 400 30 40 60 80 500 30 50 70 100 1000 60 100 140 190 2000 120 200 280 380 3000 170 290 420 570 4000 230 390 570 760 5000 280 490 710 950

To correct higher altitudes for temperatures below ISA, a conservative rule of thumb is to add 1% of the altitude for every 2 that the actual temperature is below ISA, e.g for a 20,000ft MEA with ISA-20 add 200x20/2=2000ft. When operating within 20nm of terrain that has an elevation greater than 2000ft, a correction must be applied for wind as follows:


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions Table6.2.MORA Wind Speed Correction Wind speed in Knots 0 - 30 500ft 31 - 50 1,000ft 51 -70 1,500ft 70+ 2,000ft

Add a further 500ft for terrain over 8,000ft When operating in low atmospheric pressure conditions with an altimeter setting of 1013, the aircraft will be ~30ft below the indicated altitude for every millibar that the QNH is below 1013. This can be applied as a positive increment to a published minimum altitude to calculate a minimum flight level. Note that the MORAs presented on the LIDO OFPs do not have any of these corrections applied. [EOM-A]

6.1.3.Operational requirements
When operating under IFR2, the minimum enroute altitudes should be the higher of the corrected MOCA and the corrected MORA. EOM-A states: "During flight preparation, the en-route minimum altitudes must be established for all the route segments". The OFPs provide uncorrected MORAs only. Therefore, as part of pre-flight preparation, MOCAs for each route segment should be extracted from the Jeppesen en-route charts and compared to the OFP MORAs, and the higher of these values should then be corrected for temperature and wind to establish en-route minimum altitudes {TODO: this is clearly impractical - check whether my interpretation is incorrect}. Engine failure or loss of pressurisation may lead to a requirement for en-route descent. Currently, the highest obstacle affecting easyJet routes is Mont Blanc at 15,771ft. This is at least 2000ft below the A319 green dot one engine ceiling

Authorisation from the post holder flight operations is required to fly VFR.


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions assuming MTOW and ISA+20. Thus, there are currently no special drift down diversion procedures in place. In the case of emergency descent following loss of pressurisation, all obstacles must be cleared by at least 2000ft. It is worth noting that the time of useful consciousness without supplementary oxygen is 30 minutes at 18,000ft. Obstacle clearance for take-off and initial climb phase is provided by a combination of LPC performance calculation and SID and Engine Out SID design. Note that easyJet SOPs for loss of thrust after divergence point are contrary to the specific Airbus recommendations in FCOM; this can lead to some unwelcome grey areas in obstacle clearance. For the approach phase, unless in visual contact with the ground with flight visibility sufficient to identify all relevant obstacles, flight below MSA should only be conducted on promulgated routes or instrument approach procedure or when being vectored at levels not less than MVA. [EOM-A 8.1.1]

6.2.Usability of airports
easyJet is responsible for ensuring that all airports selected as destinations or alternates are adequate in all respects, including runway dimensions, obstacles, ATS, lighting, approach procedures, weather reporting and emergency services. For the A319 and A320, fire and rescue category 6 is the normal minimum acceptable level of cover. Temporary reductions to category 4 at departure and destination and to category 5 at alternates are acceptable; no crew action is required. A321 categories are 1 higher than A319. easyJet will categorise aerodromes from A to C in order of increasing difficulty. The category of an aerodrome is promulgated in the easyJet Aerodromes Briefing Supplement. Operation to a category B aerodrome requires self-briefing from EOM-C. Signing the OFP confirms that this has been done. Operation to a category C aerodrome requires a briefing and then either a visit in an operating capacity or aerodrome specific training in an approved flight simulator. [EOM-A 8.1.2]


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions

6.3.Aerodrome Operating Minima

All easyJet aircraft, with the exception of certain A321s, are CategoryC for the purpose of calculating operating minima. The A321s with MLW of 77,800kg are CategoryD. Aerodrome specific take-off minima are presented on Jeppesen chart 10-9. Pilot assessment of RVR for the initial part of the take-off run is permissable in all cases, but reported RVR must be considered for all other relevant reporting points. When operating with RVR < 150m, LVPs must be in force, crew must be LVO qualified and a 90m visual segment (equivalent to 6 centre line lights at standard 15m spacing) must be available. Straight in visual approaches require RVR 800m. A visual circuit requires Met Visibility 5km and cloud base 2,500ft. Visual approaches at night are authorised unless prohibited in the Aerodrome Briefings Supplement. Visual circuits must be flown at a height greater than 1500ft that ensures at least 500ft separation from obstacles. Minima for instrument approaches (including circling approaches) are presented on the relevant Jeppesen approach plates (11- to 18-). easyJet is authorised to use these minima whenever the minima block is titled "STANDARD". Where this is not the case, the DA/MDA on the chart will be valid, but crew must calculate RVR minima3. Minima for Cat II and III operations are presented in their own section at the start of the Jeppesen Text manual. Only RVRs applicable to segments of the runway where speed is expected to be above 60kt need to be considered for landing. When RVR is not reported, and provided that required RVR 800m, the following table may be used to convert Met Visibility to RVR for the purposes of complying with landing minima:

Use Jeppesen Text Manual, Air Traffic Control, EU OPS-1, Table 6 (Page 604 as of 29/8/2011), entering with DH/MDH and the ALS type.


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions Table6.3.Met Visibility to RVR conversion Lighting Elements in Operation HI approach and runway lighting Any other type of lighting installation No lighting RVR = Met Visibility x Day 1.5 1.0 1.0 Night 2.0 1.5 N/A

Where minima for non-precision approaches are presented in terms of a Minimum Descent altitude, 50ft should be added to create an effective Decision Altitude. Circling minima should be used unmodified. It is permissible to descend prior to the final turn. However, descent below circling minima should only occur once the landing threshold has been identified and all surrounding terrain is in sight. If standby ILS transmitters, markers, meteorological measuring equipment or lighting systems are downgraded, approach minima may need to be modified. A table is presented at EOM-A for this purpose. MDA and DA must always be above OCA and must therefore be adjusted if OCA is increased by NOTAM. [EOM-A 8.1.3, EOM-A 8.1.5, EOM-A]


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions

6.4.Selection of alternates
6.4.1.Take-off and destination alternates

Origin Performance and minimas suitable for S/E return?


Take-off alternate required: Within 320nm of origin >S/E minima @ ETA1hr


Destination Flight <6 hours and 2 independent runways and Minima @ ETA1hr: Cloudbase > Circling +500' Cloudbase > 2000' Visibility > 5km Yes

Destination alternate not required. Add 15 minutes holding fuel.


Destination Minima @ ETA1hr suitable for expected approach?


Single destination alternate required: Minima @ ETA1hr: Cat II/III Cat I Cat I Non-precision Non-precision add 200ft/1000m Circling circling minima Two destination alternates required: Minima @ ETAhr: Cat II/III Cat I Cat I Non-precision Non-precision add 200ft/1000m Circling circling minima


1. Dispatch with no destination alternate should only be considered when payload or performance is limiting.


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions 2. Two destination alternates are required when landing performance cannot be assured due to wind or runway state or when no meteorological information is available for the destination. A table for interpretation of TAFs with regards these requirements can be found at EOM-A Runways may be considered independent if each runway has a separate approach procedure based on a separate approach aid and no conceivable blockage of one runway would render the other unusable. If a destination is isolated these restrictions do not apply.

3. 4.

[EOM-A 8.1.2]

6.4.2.Cruise alternates
In the case of an engine failure at any point along the planned route an adequate aerodrome must be available within 60 minutes single engine flying time. The equivalent distances are: Table6.4.Cruise alternate distances A319 A320 A321 [EOM-B 5.1] 380nm 400nm 385nm

6.5.Pre-flight fuel planning

The OFP presents the following values for use in pre-flight fuel planning: TAXI Fuel expected to be used prior to takeoff, including engine start, taxi and APU consumption. This figure should be adjusted when significantly increased APU burn is likely (e.g. ATC slots) or when significantly increased taxi times may occur (e.g. remote de-icing). Fuel required for all phases from take-off at departure aerodrome to landing at destination aerodrome. The assumed runways and as-



Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions sociated SIDs and STARs can be found on the OFP under "OFP ROUTE". This figure will need to be increased by 5kg per nm that actual routings are potentially longer than these assumed routings. The OFP also provides trip fuel corrections for carriage of more than minimum fuel and flight at non optimal levels. CONT ALTN The greater of 5% of planned trip fuel or 5 minutes holding over destination at 1500ft. Fuel for all phases from a go-around at applicable MDA/DA at destination to a landing at first alternate. The assumed runways and routings can be found on the OFP below the Nav Log block. This figure will need to be increased by 5kg for each nm that actual routings are potentially longer than these assumed routings. Where two alternates are required (see Section6.4, Selection of alternates), this figure should be increased to the greater of the two alternate fuel burns. Note that this does not allow for flight to a second alternate after arriving at the first alternate. Final reserve fuel. This is the amount of fuel required to hold at 1500ft for 30 minutes assuming the tanks will be dry at the end of this period. Usually zero. This is mainly used to add 15 minutes holding time when operating without a destination alternate under the terms of Section6.4, Selection of alternates. It may also be used on routes where there will be insufficient trip fuel available to divert to an adequate alternate in the event of engine failure or loss of pressurisation at the most critical point. Additional fuel loaded at the discretion of the flight crew. There is not much official guidance as to amounts; my personal ballpark figures for the A319/A320 are: 40kg per minute of potential extra holding 500kg per potential extra approach 30 minutes extra holding when LVPs are expected at destination





Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions 3kg per minute of extra anticipated anti-ice usage 2kg per minute of extra anticipated APU usage TANKER Extra fuel that may be carried due to fuel price differential between origin and destination. Note that take-off and landing performance is not considered, and the planned margins against structural limits can reflect over-confidence in predicted ZFW data.

[EOM-A 8.1.7, EOM-B 5]

6.5.1.Reducing fuel loads to allow increased payload

Where payloads are such that the carriage of normal fuel loads results in exceedance of structural or performance limitations, EOM-A presents a number of methods of reducing fuel requirements below those that would normally apply. The simplest method is to reduce the trip fuel requirement once it is certain that the SID and/or STAR that will be flown requires less track mileage than those anticipated in the OFP route. The adjustment is 4kg per nm. More significant reductions can be achieved when the conditions for not requiring a destination alternate (see Section6.4, Selection of alternates) are met. In this case, the alternate fuel can be replaced with 15 minutes of holding at destination. Finally, for sectors of over 1000nm, contingency fuel can be reduced from 5% to 3% providing that a suitable en-route alternate is specified. The procedure is detailed at EOM-A Note that a new OFP should be used; OCC were unable to provide one last time I asked. [EOM-A]

6.6.Weight and Balance

6.6.1.Structural weight limitations
The aircraft operating manual specifies maximum ramp, take-off, landing and zero fuel weights. The maximum take-off weight may also be reduced by easyJet


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions to take advantage of reduced ATC charges; where this has been done, the new MTOW must be treated as a structural limit. These limitations are also presented in the weights block of the OFP. The basis for calculations to determine compliance with these structural limits is the Dry Operating Weight (DOW). The DOW is the total weight of the aircraft with no usable fuel or payload. It is available at the top of the OFP, but the canonical value is that contained in the LPC database unless otherwise notified by a flight brief notice. Other weights are calculated as follows: Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) = DOW + payload Ramp weight (RW) = ZFW + total fuel Take-off weight (TOW) = RW - taxi fuel Landing weight (LW) = TOW - trip fuel In addition to the main structural weights, there are maximum load limits for the cargo compartments. These may be found in FCOM [EOM-A]

6.6.2.Payload calculation
The following standard weights may be used when calculating payload: Table6.5.Standard weights for passengers with hand baggage Type Male Female Child (Age 2-11 inclusive) Infant(Age<2) Table6.6.Standard weights for checked baggage Type of Flight Domestic

Weight 93kg 75kg 35kg 0kg

Weight 11 kg


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions Type of Flight Within the European Region Intercontinental

Weight 13 kg 15 kg 13 kg

All Other

Domestic flights are those where origin and destination are within the same state

Table6.7.Standard weights for crew Crew Position Flight Crew


Weight 85 kga 75 kga

Cabin Crew

An allowance for hand baggage is included. Any additional crew baggage must be taken into account.

Table6.8.Guide weights for other items Item Guide Dog Cello Weight 35kg 10kg

easyJet generally uses standard weights for passengers and crew and actual weights for baggage. It is not permissible to use standard weights for baggage if this leads to a value less than known actual weights. Freight must always be weighed. [EOM-A 8.1.8]

6.6.3.Balance calculation
Compliance with balance limitations is achieved using the LPC Weight and Balance modules. If this is not available, weight and balance data should be sourced from OCC. When passenger load is more than 115 the default LPC passenger split may be used. Otherwise the correct split (e.g. rows 1-9, 10-18, 19-26 for A319) should be used. [EOM-B 7.1.1]


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions

6.6.4.Last minute changes

For the Airbus fleet, the following last minute changes do not require new LPC calculations: +5/-10 Passengers 500kg fuel 500kg load in CP 2,3 or 4 100kg load in CP 1 or 5 A new ZFW must be calculated and entered for all LMC changes. Where the LMC is positive, take-off performance must be recalculated; a 1 reduction in FLEX (assuming the new value is greater that ISA+30) will suffice for changes up to 250kg. [EOM-B 7.4]

6.7.Operational Flight Plans

Operational Flight Plans (OFP) are usually obtained via the crew room computers. OCC also have the ability to provide OFPs by email, fax or SITA if required. OFPs may be modified by OCC without crew notification until 30 minutes before crew report. The status of OFPs must be checked prior to acceptance; contact OCC if the OFP status is not annotated "Final". [EOM-A 8.1.10]

6.8.Aircraft Technical Log

6.8.1.Standard of entries
All entries must be completed in block capitals. Any signature must be accompanied by a printed surname, the date and any applicable authorisation or approval numbers.


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions If an entry is changed, the incorrect entry must have a single line drawn through it, the reason for the alteration entered next to the original text and a signature. The Tech Log must be cross checked for errors after the final sector of a duty. [EOM-A, EOM-A, EOM-A]

6.8.2.Layout and usage

The tech log is divided into prologue pages and a main section. The prologue pages include the Certificate of Release to Service, records of Acceptable Deferred Defects (ADD), the Damage Register and "Briefing Notes to Crew". These must all be checked prior to accepting an aircraft. Each page in the main section is divided into a defect section and four tear-off sector record strips. Unused strips on the current page should be struck out if any entry has been made in the defect section or when a crew change occurs without a direct handover. The top half of each sector record strip is for recording details of a sector after it has been completed. The "Log Time" and "Landings brought forward" boxes are no longer used and should be struck through. The "Full Rated Thrust T/O" and autoland reporting are only relevant to the 737 fleet. If the record of the previous sector is found to be incorrect or incomplete the duty pilot must be contacted for authorisation to continue. The bottom half of the strip is used to record pre-departure data and acceptance of the aircraft. The "Oil Check" and APU oil level boxes are not relevant to flight crew and should be struck through. The ambient temperature fuel uplift should be recorded rather than the temperature corrected figure. To calculate approximate uplift in kg, multiply the uplift in litres by 0.8. If anti-icing has been carried out, the type of fluid, concentration and start and end times should be recorded. If anti-icing is carried out more than once it will be necessary to use multiple strips; each strip must have a copy of all the pre-departure data. Each main section page has three coloured carbon copy sheets. The pink page is used to comply with regulations requiring retention of documentation at departure station. The pink strip with the commander's acceptance signature must always


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions be left behind. The entire pink page should be left behind when there are no more usable strips, including when the strips have been struck out in accordance with the paragraph above. All other pages belong to engineering. [EOM-A, EOM-A]

6.8.3.Defect management
All defects should, with the following exceptions, be immediately entered into the tech log: Recording of ECAM maintenance status messages may be deferred until the aircraft is next at a "main base". Consultation of the MEL is still required. Cabin defects must be immediately entered into the Cabin Defects Log. If the defect does not affect airworthiness (consult MOC if there is any doubt), then it does not need to be transferred to the tech log. MOC must be contacted whenever a defect is entered in the tech log. Where possible MOC will arrange for engineering to rectify the defect or clear it to an ADD sheet in accordance with the MEL. When no engineering support is available, MOC may request that flight crew either carry out certain limited engineering tasks in accordance with EOM-A or clear a defect to the ADD pages. Deferral of defects by flight crew is only possible when the defect is assessed by MOC as having no effect on airworthiness or when the relevant MEL entry has no maintenance actions specified. To defer a defect the commander should make an entry in the "ACTION TAKEN" column with the MEL reference, repair interval and ADD number. The commander signs for this in the "ACTION TAKEN" column; MOC will arrange for the Release to Service column to be signed off by a licenced engineer at the earliest opportunity. The relevant ADD entry should then be completed. If the defect does not affect airworthiness, it should be entered on the level 2 (blue) ADD sheet. Otherwise, it should be entered on the level 1 (pink) sheet. The complete tech log defect description should be transferred, along with the tech log page reference and item number, any MEL/CDL reference number and limiting criteria (e.g. expiry date). The ADD sheet should not be signed by the commander; it will be signed off by the engineer who signs the release to service.


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions Successful computer resets should be recorded by making a suitable entry in the defect section, e.g. CREW RESET: COM CIDS 1 + 2 FAULT ON THE GROUND, SUCCESSFUL RESET AS PER QRH Information that may be useful but which does not require immediate engineering action may, with MOC's agreement, be recorded as a "FOR INFO" entry in a similar way, e.g. FOR INFO: FMGC1 FAILED. RECOVERED WITH NO CREW INTERVENTION. These entries do not count as open defects, so signatures should be placed below the entry and the associated "Action Taken" and RTS sections should be struck through. Bird strikes that do not result in damage may be recorded as "For Info" entries, providing the restrictions in EOM-A are observed. [EOM-A 8.1.11, EOM-B, EOM-B 3.3, EOM-A]

6.8.4.Recurrent engineering checks

The validity of recurrent engineering checks must be confirmed prior to accepting an aircraft. This is done for most checks by checking that the Certificate of Release to Service is valid. Completion of the daily check is recorded via an entry in the defect column; it is valid until 23:59 on the day after the daily check was signed off. [EOM-A]

6.8.5.Cabin defect log

The SCCM enters details of cabin defects in the cabin defect log and presents it to the commander at the end of the flight. The commander must review the defects and transfer any airworthiness items to the technical log. [EOM-A]


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions

6.9.Documents to be carried
Certificate of Registration Certificate of Airworthiness Noise Certificate (may be a copy) Air Operator Certificate (may be a copy) Aircraft Radio Licence Third Party Liability Insurance Certificates (may be copies) Flight Crew Licences

Those parts of the Operations Manual relevant to the duties of crew Maps and Charts required to complete the flight Search and Rescue procedures

Technical Log Journey Log Operational Flight Plan (includes Air Traffic Service Flight Plan) Weather and NOTAM brief Loadsheet Forms to comply with reporting procedures


Chapter6.Flight preparation instructions Notification of special loads (if applicable) Notification of special passengers (e.g. deportees) Any other documentation required by states concerned with the flight Crew passports [EOM-A 8.1.12]


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions

Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions

7.1.Fuelling procedures
The fuel supplier is responsible for ensuring that all fuel quality checks are completed, that the bowser is properly earthed to the aircraft and that fuel caps are properly secured. Whilst fuelling, no smoking may take place within 15m of the aircraft and the strobe lights must not be operated. There may also be local restrictions regarding starting the APU. If fuel vapour is detected inside the cabin or any other hazard arises, fuelling must be suspended immediately. In the unlikely event that it becomes necessary to uplift wide cut fuel there are extra safety restrictions detailed in EOM-A 8.2.1. Refuelling may take place with passengers on board, but the following restrictions apply: Local restrictions must be checked. At least one pilot must be on the flight deck. A full cabin crew compliment is required. There must be at least one cabin crew member at each set of floor level exits. Passengers must be informed that refuelling is taking place, instructed to have their seatbelts unfastened and told the toilets are out of use. Cabin crew should make a visual check that passenger seatbelts remain unfastened. The "No Smoking" sign should be on and the "Fasten Seatbelts" sign should be off. Door 1L must be open with steps or airbridge attached. Door 2L should ideally also be open with steps attached, but it may remain closed provided the slide is serviceable. The ground area beneath exits and slide deployment areas must remain clear and the positioning of fuelling equipment must not impede evacuation Defuelling is not permitted with passengers on board.


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions The fuel card may be used to expedite the fuelling process, but fuel requirement must also be passed in person. Display of the fuel card authorises the commencement of fuelling; if any passengers remain on board it must be delayed until all relevant restrictions have been met. Communication between flight deck and refueller is required prior to commencement of refuelling. Positive acknowledgement of the fuel card by the refueller is deemed sufficient to fulfil this requirement, but the member of flight crew on the flight deck must remain in "visual contact" with the refueller whenever any passengers are on board. {TODO: EOMA is incredibly wooly on this; confirm meaning}. The fuel card must be stowed once fuelling is complete. The flight crew must monitor the fuel gauges during fuelling. [EOM-A 8.2.1]

7.2.Passenger groups
7.2.1.Able Bodied Passengers
Able bodied passengers (ABP) are those adult passengers that are deemed fit and strong and thus likely to assist evacuation. Designated seats near emergency exits are for the use of ABPs only. [EOM-A]

7.2.2.Persons of Reduced Mobility

A passenger is considered a Person of Reduced Mobility (PRM) when their physical, medical or mental condition would make them likely to impede an evacuation. The number of PRMs on board must not exceed the number of ABPs. PRMs should be pre-boarded and seated where they will not obstruct emergency exits or impede crew carrying out emergency procedures. Certain conditions entirely preclude carriage. A list is presented in EOM-A [EOM-A, EOM-A]


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions

7.2.3.Infants and children

Infants (children under two years) may fly free of charge if they sit on the lap of the accompanying person. A maximum of two infants is allowed per accompanying person. The maximum total number of infants on laps is 10% of the number of seats on the aircraft. Infants under two weeks of age are not permitted to fly. Premature babies are not permitted to fly until six months post expected date. A child is defined as a person aged between 2 years and 14 years inclusive. Children must be accompanied by a person aged 16 years or older at a maximum ratio of 10:1. In exceptional circumstances the carriage of an unaccompanied minor may be authorised by the ALO. Under no circumstances may an unconnected passenger be allowed to accept responsibility for an unaccompanied minor. The following restraints are acceptable: Table7.1.Acceptable restraints for infants and children Restraint Infant extension seatbelt Suitable car-type safety seat Normal seatbelt

Age range 2 weeks to 2 years No age restriction 2 years or more Approx 1 to 4 yearsb

Child restraint device (CARES)


See CSPM for guidance on suitability Specifically the child must be between 10kg and 20kg and capable of sitting upright unaided.

[EOM-A, CSPM 2.4.12]

7.2.4.Expectant mothers
Between 28 and 35 weeks (inclusive) of pregnancy, a medical certificate signed by a doctor or midwife confirming pregnancy stage and fitness to fly is required. Passengers cannot be accepted for travel on or after week 36 of pregnancy. Infants may travel on the laps of expectant mothers. [EOM-A, CSPM 2.4.12]


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions

7.2.5.Escorted passengers
Prisoners will only be accepted for carriage on the authority of the Network Duty Manager. Normally a maximum of one prisoner will be allowed per flight. They must be accompanied by either police, prison officers or members of a recognised and appointed Civilian Security Firm. Convicted prisoners will normally be accompanied by two prison officers, others may have a single escort. Escorts will travel in plain clothes and will carry restraints, but not firearms. Prisoners and escorts should board first and disembark last. They should be seated at the rear of the aircraft with the prisoner in the window seat. Prisoners may be handcuffed at the discretion of their escort, but only to themselves and their hands must be in front of them. [EOM-A]

When immigration authorities refuse a passenger admission, an Order to remove the passenger may be served on easyJet, possibly through the relevant commander. The commander retains the right to refuse the Order on safety grounds. UK immigration authorities have the power to require that an unacceptable passenger be detained on board. The Commander must be informed on all occasions when a deportee is carried, and the deportee must be identified to the Commander and SCCM The passport and other travel documentation of the deportee, including any "Form of Authority", should be retained in flight by the SCCM and passed to the handling agent on arrival. The deportee must not be permitted to disembark at any point within the deporting territory unless escorted by a dispatcher or passenger handling staff. The deportee may disembark at a destination other than that in their ticket provided immigration authorities are contacted prior to arrival. If the deportee is escorted, seating should be as per escorted passengers. Otherwise it should be as per PRMs.


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions This section does not apply to the class of deportees referred to as "non-satisfied genuine visitors", who should be treated as normal passengers. [EOM-A]

If a stowaway is discovered the police should be requested to meet the aircraft on arrival so that the stowaway may be detained. The company should be informed and an ASR filed. [EOM-A]

7.2.8.Human remains
Only ashes are permitted. They must be be appropriately packaged, carried in hand baggage and accompanied by copies of the death and cremation certificates. [EOM-A]

7.2.9.Live animals
The only permitted live animals are official Assistance and Guide Dogs. These may be carried on flights within and between Croatia, Switzerland and the EU nations. UK International flights are subject to the UK Pet Passport Scheme and dogs may therefore only be carried on flights originating from or arriving at LTN, STN, NCL, BRS and BFS. Dogs must be accompanied by official documentation; the identity tag attached to the dog's official harness plus the owner's identity card will suffice. Larger dogs will be accommodated on the cabin floor; smaller dogs may be carried on the owner's lap. The owner must provide a suitable harness that attaches to their seatbelt and provides an effective level of restraint during take-off, landing and turbulence. It is acceptable for the dog to be subject to less restraint during cruise. [CSPM 2.4.10]


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions

7.3.Baggage and freight

7.3.1.Cabin baggage
Each passenger may bring one piece of hand baggage with maximum dimensions of 560mm x 450mm x 250mm. Cabin baggage may only be stowed in the overhead lockers or under the seats. Underseat stowage should not be used in overwing exit rows, if the seat's restraint bar is insufficient to be effective given the size of the baggage or if the baggage would restrict egress from a seat row. Placarded weight limitations on overhead stowages must be respected, and bulk should not prevent secure closing of the doors. Where there is emergency equipment stowed in the overhead lockers, it must not be impeded. Carriage of personal medical oxygen bottles less than 500mm long and 250mm in diameter is permitted. Details of correct stowage may be found in CSPM [EOM-A, CSPM 2.4.9]

7.3.2.Musical instruments
Small musical instruments (max 300mmx1170mmx380mm) may be stowed in overhead lockers. One extra small piece of hand baggage is allowed to be carried in this case. Large musical instruments may be carried providing the passenger has purchased a seat for the instrument. A maximum of two instruments may be carried. An instrument must weigh less than 75kg and have a centre of mass less than 30cm above the seat cushion. It must be secured to a non-restricted window seat. [EOM-A]

7.3.3.Aircraft spares
OCC may authorise carriage of spares for AOG easyJet aircraft except on routes to and from Switzerland. Spares must not be classified as dangerous goods. Indi-


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions vidual items over 60kg require specific handling arrangements to be made. easyJet engineering are responsible for delivery, labelling, security screening and provision of a special load NOTOC. Engineering must oversee the offload of the spares on arrival. [EOM-A]

7.3.4.FDM Data
FDM data cards/ disks may be carried in the flight deck. They are transported in blue padded zip sealed bags, and will already have been x-rayed before loading. They will be delivered and collected by engineering personnel. If the zip seal is broken or missing, the bag may still be carried if it is thoroughly searched. The broken seal should be reported to the FDM department. [EOM-A]

7.3.5.Human Organs for Transplantation

These will arrive at the aircraft in a box sealed with tamper-proof tags. They are exempt security screening, but the police will have verified the origin of the consignment before accepting the delivery. The box should be carried in the flight deck under the Captain's supervision. [CSPM 2.4.11]

7.4.Ground ice protection

7.4.1.Types of fluid
ISO Type I fluid has a high glycol content and low viscosity. De-icing performance is good, but protection from freezing precipitation is poor. It is best used for removing frozen deposits as part of a two stage process or when precipitation has stopped. Type I fluids are usually clear or light orange. ISO Type II fluid includes a pseudo plastic thickening agent. This allows it to remain on the surface after application to provide protection from freezing precip-


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions itation. Shearing of the fluid allows it to flow off the critical surfaces as airspeed increases. Type II fluids are usually straw coloured. ISO Type IV fluid is similar in operation to Type II fluid, but uses more advanced thickening systems to give longer holdover times. Type IV fluids are usually green. Heated water may be used as the first step of a two step process. All fluids may be diluted with water. Required Type I fluid concentration is a function of OAT only, as dilution has a negligible effect on holdover. Required Type II and Type IV concentrations are a factor of OAT and holdover requirements. [EOM-A]

7.4.2.Holdover times
Guideline holdover time tables are presented on the LPC and at the front of the NTC book. Definitions of precipitation type for use in the tables are presented at EOM-A For a two step process, the holdover time begins at the commencement of the second step. The lower time limit indicates holdover time for "moderate" precipitation, the higher for "light" precipitation. Holdover times will be shortened by high winds, jet blast or when the skin temperature is less than OAT. [EOM-A, EOM-A]

De-icing fluid should not be used where it could cause loss of vision while being shed during the take-off roll. A walk-round inspection should be completed by a qualified person after de-icing is completed. Flying and control surfaces should be clear of deposits, intake and drain holes should be clear of obstructions and a check should be made that deicing fluid that has been diluted by the removed deposits has not refrozen on other parts of the aircraft. Undercarriage components should be checked for cleanliness and microswitches and uplocks should be checked for normal operation. If possible, compressors should be rotated by hand to ensure they have not frozen.


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions The flight crew should also move the control surfaces over their full range to ensure that they are free of obstruction. [EOM-A]

7.5.Punctuality policy
easyJet policy is to be be ready with doors closed at STD-3. To support this crew should aim to be at the aircraft at STD-35 and on the first wave be ready for green light boarding at STD-25. Ground staff will assume that the crew will be ready for green light boarding unless otherwise advised. The aircraft may depart no earlier than STD-10 unless otherwise agreed with OCC. In the event of ATC slot delays board passengers in the hope of improvements following transmission of a ready message. Where CTOT improvements would be disadvantageous OCC should be contacted to put a CTOT block on the flight. Remote holding should be used to release stands and manipulate OTP figures. Crew should liaise with ground agents to determine whether it would be advantageous from a ground handling perspective to push at STD, and if not should push back no later than STD+14. Note that ground crew are not required for engine start after remote holding. Slot delays of up to 30 minutes should be absorbed taxiing or at the holding point when feasible. No attempt should be made to recover the schedule by flying faster than planned on the OFP. Whenever possible, delay codes should be agreed with the dispatcher. [EOM-A 8.9]


Chapter7.Ground Handling Instructions


Chapter8.Flight procedures

Chapter8.Flight procedures
8.1.VFR/IFR policy
When controlled airspace exists between departure and destination airports, flights will be planned to remain within that airspace. Where controlled airspace does not exist, advisory airspace will be used if available. Where a flight is planned to remain within controlled or advisory airspace, flight outside that airspace should only be considered for safety reasons.{TODO: EOMA then goes on to contradict itself, saying that you can fly outside controlled airspace after all e.g. if you are VMC in sight of airfield or flying in airspace known to be clear of other traffic}. The maximum level of radar service should be sought whenever outside controlled airspace. VFR flight should be considered exceptional and must be authorised by the post holder flight operations. [EOM-A 8.3.1, EOM-A]

8.2.Navigation policy
8.2.1.Required Navigation Performance
Navigation requirements for a given phase of flight are defined in terms of Required Navigation Performance (RNP). RNP is a value with units of nautical miles. To comply with a given RNP, an aircraft must have a maximum navigational error equal to RNP for 95% of flight time. In addition, the probability of an unannunciated navigational error of greater than double the RNP value must be less than 10-5 per flight hour and the probability of an annunciated loss of RNP capability must be less than 10-4 per flight hour. All easyJet aircraft are capable of the most restrictive RNP 0.3, but this may be downgraded when navigational equipment is defective. The MEL will detail any downgrades to RNP capability caused by deferred defects. The FMS continuously calculates a value known as Estimated Position Error (EPE) by cross checking data from all the navigation sensors. The FMS also cal-


Chapter8.Flight procedures culates a default RNP value1 and produces an ECAM warning when EPE exceeds it. This FMS calculated RNP may be manually overridden if required. [EOM-A]

8.2.2.Basic RNAV
Basic RNAV (BRNAV) is defined as RNP 5. BRNAV capability is mandatory throughout ECAC airspace above FL95. Some states also use BRNAV on selected routes into and out of terminal airspace; the BRNAV portions of these routes will be above applicable safety altitudes. The INS system will maintain BRNAV capability for 2 hours after alignment, independently of estimated accuracy displayed on the MCDU. [EOM-A, EOM-B 2.4.51]

8.2.3.Precision RNAV
Precision RNAV (PRNAV) is defined as RNP 1. PRNAV may be used for departures and arrivals, and may involve flight below relevant safety altitudes. It is essential to check that each procedure loaded from the navigation database is both current and accurate. It is acceptable to add altitude and speed restrictions that have not been included. OCC must be contacted immediately if any discrepancies are discovered so that they can promulgate restrictions on the use of the route. NOTAMs should be checked to confirm the status of any required navigational aids. Where GNSS updating is not available, a navigation reasonableness check must be carried out and care should be taken to correctly use takeoff shift functionality. In general a single navigation system will suffice for PRNAV, but some procedures stipulate two RNAV systems. Some procedures also mandate GPS availability; the availability of RAIM should be confirmed in this case. PRNAV procedures may mandate an altimeter change passing a waypoint, in which case ATC will not provide the usual trigger.

0.3nm for GPS approaches, 0.5nm for other approaches, 1.0 when below 15,000ft and within 51nm of destination and 2.0nm at all other times.


Chapter8.Flight procedures Managed modes are preferred for PRNAV procedures. Selected vertical modes may be used, but altitude restrictions must be respected. Direct routings may be accepted, but modification of the procedure with manually created waypoints is not permitted. It is acceptable to intercept an ILS localiser in NAV as long as GPS PRIMARY is available. [EOM-A, EOM-B 2.4.51]

In-flight failure of navigation equipment may lead to downgrade of RNP capability. The QRH details required equipment for RNP 5 and RNP 1 on page 8.07. If one RNAV system is degraded provided that the procedure does not mandate dual systems it is acceptable to continue with the remaining system; a raw data check will determine which, if any, system remains accurate. Loss of relevant RNP capability must be reported to ATC as soon as practical. The correct phraseology is "Unable RNAV due equipment, request re-clearance". If RNP 1 is lost below MSA but above MVA, it may be possible to continue with radar vectors; otherwise an expeditious climb above safety altitude will be required. Where possible navigation should be continued using conventional aids. Where weather precludes continuation of a PRNAV routing, ATC should be informed using the phrase "Unable RNAV due weather". Radar vectors or climb should then be requested as appropriate. [EOM-A, EOM-A, EOM-B 2.4.51]

8.3.Altimeter setting procedures

On the ground, the main altimeters should be within 20ft of each other and within 25ft of the airfield elevation. The ISIS should be within 100ft of the main altimeters. easyJet is a QNH operator. Main altimeters should be set to 1013 when cleared to a flight level during climbout and set to QNH when cleared to an altitude during descent. The standby altimeter should remain on QNH until passing MSA during climbout and should be set to QNH before passing FL200 in the descent. [EOM-A 8.3.3, FCOM PRO.SUP.34]


Chapter8.Flight procedures

RVSM airspace is airspace above FL290 where only 1000ft vertical separation is maintained. All easyJet aircraft are RVSM approved. QRH 8.07 defines the equipment required for flight in RVSM airspace; the primary altimeters must agree within 200ft. The altimeter being used to control the aircraft should normally be selected as the input to the transponder. If equipment failure leads to loss of RVSM capability, inform ATC immediately. ATC must also be notified if severe turbulence is encountered. [EOM-A]

8.5.In-flight fuel management

Flights of less than 20 minutes do not require a fuel check. All other flights require a written fuel check at the top of climb, then further written checks at intervals of 1 hour or less. In addition, verbal fuel checks should be carried out at intervals of 30 minutes or less. Company Normal Reserves (CNR) is defined as ALTN + FINRES (see Section6.5, Pre-flight fuel planning). The OFP provides a Minimum Fuel Required (MFR) value for each planned waypoint. MFR is CNR plus the planned remaining fuel burn to destination. The fuel check should record Actual Fuel On Board (FOB) at a planned waypoint and compare this with MFR. The difference should be CONT + EXTRA + ~40kg per minute that you are early passing the waypoint due to shortcuts. If the FOB is less than this without reasonable explanation then the possibility of a fuel leak should be considered. If it is determined that fuel on landing at destination will be below CNR, action must be taken to reduce fuel burn. Options include flying at CI=0, changing levels or requesting shortcuts. If fuel burn cannot be reduced sufficiently to land with more than CNR, a decision must be made whether to divert or continue to destination. A decision to continue to destination is a committal to land there, and is permissible if landing is assured and the maximum anticipated delay is known. A landing is considered assured if no forecast weather deterioration or single failure of ground or airborne equipment can prevent landing. In general this means that


Chapter8.Flight procedures Cat I minimas must be available at Cat III equipped aerodromes and non-precision minimas must be available at Cat I equipped aerodromes. If it is determined that the fuel on landing may be less than final reserve, an emergency must be declared using a PAN call and ATC should be given an estimate of endurance. If it is determined that the fuel on landing will be less than final reserve, a MAYDAY call should be made. [EOM-A 8.3.7]

8.6.Hazardous atmospheric conditions

Do not attempt to land or take-off when a thunderstorm is overhead or approaching. Avoid thunderstorms by 20nm when above 20,000ft. Below 20,000ft avoid by 10nm: any echoes with 'hooks', 'fingers', scalloped edges or other protrusions any echoes with sharp edges, strong intensities or strong gradients of intensity any echoes showing rapid change of intensity, shape or height If overflying maintain at least 5000ft vertical clearance. In general it is preferable to be upwind of a thunderstorm; severe turbulence and hail are most often encountered on the downwind side. In particular avoid flying underneath the anvil or in the cirrus or cirrostratus layers downwind of the storm. The greatest probability of severe turbulence and lightning strikes is near the 0C isotherm, so avoid this level. If an area of thunderstorm activity cannot be avoided, set the aircraft up for turbulence (autopilot on, autothrust disconnected when thrust changes become excessive, thrust as per QRH 5.01), heavy icing (anti-ice systems all on) and heavy precipitation (ignitors on). Turn up the cockpit lighting fully and lower the crew


Chapter8.Flight procedures seats to prevent blindness from lightning flashes. Disregard the ADF. Penetrate lines of thunderstorms at 90 using the weather radar to identify the path of least activity. Once inside a thunderstorm maintain heading as this is likely to be the shortest path through it. If manual flight is required maintain attitude and expect large variations in altitude. [EOM-A, UK AIC P056/2010, FCOM PRO.SUP.91.101]

The cabin crew should be informed of any forecast turbulence during the preflight brief. When reporting turbulence to ATC, the term "severe turbulence" indicates that the aircraft is momentarily out of control and the term "extreme turbulence" indicates that the aircraft is practically impossible to control and likely to be suffering structural damage. [EOM-A]

8.7.Wake turbulence
8.7.1.Final approach
The following minimum distances should be applied when following an aircraft on final approach: Type A380 Heavy Upper Medium (e.g.757, 707) Separation 7nm 5nm 4nm (UK only)

Boeing 757 and Boeing 737-800/900 are classified as heavy for the purposes of final approach in some countries.


Chapter8.Flight procedures [EOM-A 8.3.9]

The following time should elapse between the time the aircraft in front becomes airborne and the time you become airborne when operating from the same runway or from parallel runways less than 760m apart: Type A380 Heavy Separation 3 mins 2 mins

Add 1 minute if departure is not from the same position [EOM-A 8.3.9]

8.8.All Weather Operations

8.8.1.Determination of minima
Determination of aerodrome minima is discussed in Section6.3, Aerodrome Operating Minima

8.8.2.Approach Ban
An approach must not be continued below 1000ft AAL unless the RVR or Met Visibility is sufficient to comply with aerodrome minima. Once below 1000ft AAL the approach may be continued even if conditions worsen. [EOM-A 8.4.3]

8.8.3.Required visual reference

An approach should not continue below relevant DH/DA/eDA unless the required visual reference is attained. No visual reference is required for Cat IIIB operations with no DH. At least one centre line light must be attained for Cat IIIB operations with DH.


Chapter8.Flight procedures Cat IIIA operations require 3 consecutive lights. These can be the centre-line lights of the approach lighting, the TDZ lights, the runway centre line lights or the runway edge lights. Cat II operations require the same reference as Cat IIIA plus a lateral element of the ground pattern (e.g. an approach lighting crossbar). easyJet policy is to use autoland systems for all Cat II and Cat III approaches. For non-precision approaches the threshold, touch down zone, PAPIs or suitable parts of the approach or runway lighting system must be distinctly visible and identifiable. [EOM-A 8.4.4, EOM-A 8.4.5, EOM-A 8.4.9]

8.8.4.Consecutive missed approaches

A third consecutive approach to the same airfield should only be considered if neither missed approach was due to weather or when there has been a significant improvement in weather conditions. Exceptionally, if only one of the missed approaches was due to weather and landing is considered assured a third approach may be flown. [EOM-A 8.4.2]

8.9.Miscellaneous flight procedures

8.9.1.Controlled rest
Controlled rest is defined as a period "off task", that may include sleep. It may be used at the commander's discretion to manage unexpected fatigue; if it is felt likely before flight that controlled rest will be required, the flight should not depart. The period of controlled rest should be no longer than 45 minutes in order to avoid periods of deep sleep with their associated long recovery times; multiple controlled rest periods within a single sector are acceptable. A crew member should not be left in sole control of the aircraft for a period of 20 minutes after the completion of a period of controlled rest. Controlled rest periods should terminate at least 30 minutes before top of descent.


Chapter8.Flight procedures The resting crew member should wear their full harness and adjust their seat to minimise the chances of interfering with controls. The cabin crew should be appraised of any controlled rest periods being taken so that they can increase their monitoring of the alertness of the remaining flight crew member. Appropriate alarm devices may also be useful as a line of last defence. [EOM-A 8.3.10]

8.9.2.Flight deck door

Except for essential entry and egress of crew, the flight deck door should remain locked whenever the engines are running. The door should be unlocked for the minimum time possible, and whenever it is unlocked it should be guarded by a cabin crew member standing outside the flight deck and facing the cabin. The flight crew should monitor compliance via CCTV or spy-hole before unlocking the door. If CCTV is not available and a pilot needs to leave the flight deck a member of cabin crew must remain in the flight deck to utilise the spy-hole. [EOM-A 8.3.10, EOM-A 8.3.12]

8.9.3.Crew seating and harnesses

Both pilots must wear full harnesses whenever the "fasten belts" sign is on. Seats should only be moved from their normal flying position when in level cruise. If a pilot leaves his seat, the other pilot should wear his full harness and have his seat in the normal flying position. An encyclopedic list of people authorised to use the flight deck jump seat may be found at EOM-A 8.3.12. Some of these will only be entitled to use the jump seat if they carry a valid cockpit permit. Should a passenger seat become unservicable the spare cabin crew seat may be utilised to accommodate an ABP at the discretion of the commander. Such a passenger must be at least 16 years old and capable of assisting in an emergency. They must be fully briefed on emergency procedures. [EOM-A 8.3.11, EOM-A 8.3.13]


Chapter8.Flight procedures

8.9.4.Incapacitation of crew members

It may be assumed that a crew member is incapacitated if he does not respond appropriately to two verbal communications or does not respond to a verbal communication associated with a significant deviation from a standard flight profile. If the incapacitation occurs when the aircraft is on approach, fully configured, and visual with the runway, the landing should be completed. Otherwise, other crew should be summoned to care for the incapacitated crew member, an emergency should be declared and a diversion should be made to the nearest suitable airport. The incapacitated crew member must take no further part in the flight, even if he appears to have fully recovered. Medical advice should be sought by the remaining crew before further flying. [EOM-A 8.3.14]

8.9.5.Passenger electronic equipment

Passengers may use mobile phones on the aircraft whenever the doors are open, including when fuelling. Passengers may also use mobile phones at the commander's discretion during extended delays on the ground, including when remote holding with running engines. All electronic equipment must be switched off for take-off and landing. The only radio transmitters acceptable for use in the cruise are Bluetooth transmitters. Devices containing any other transmitters may only be used if those transmitters are disabled. There is no requirement for passengers to remove headphones at any time. [EOM-A 8.3.16]

8.9.6.Skills retention
Where conditions are suitable it is permissible and encouraged that crew regularly practice flying with deliberately reduced levels of automation. It is also permissible to make an approach utilising reduced levels of approach guidance (e.g. an NDB approach when an ILS is available). A thorough briefing of intentions is required in both cases. It is permissible to practice LVO approaches, but these should generally be restricted to times when ATC is able to protect the ILS sensitive areas. It is accept-


Chapter8.Flight procedures able to set up the systems using LVO minima, but the Cat I minimas will be the legal minimas (LVPs will not be in force) and appropriate calls should be made against these minimas by PNF. It is not permitted to practice abnormal and emergency procedures by intentionally disabling systems. [EOM-A 8.3.18, EOM-A 8.3.19]

8.9.7.Communications policy
VHF1 will be used for the active ATC frequency and must be monitored by both pilots at all times. VHF2 may be set to 121.5 when it is not operationally necessary to use it for other purposes. Whenever set to 121.5 both pilots should monitor VHF2. Headsets must be used on the ground whenever engines are running or when copying an ATC clearance. Headsets may be removed in level cruise, but must be worn in all other phases. Headsets should be worn covering both ears except when engaged in three way communication with ground crew when use of the intercom may lead to confusion. Calls to handling agents or OCC should only be made in level flight and should be completed at least 15 minutes prior to top of descent. [EOM-A 8.3.20]


Chapter8.Flight procedures



9.1.Uniform policy
The pilot uniform standard is described in the "All Pilot Uniform Standards" document. Ties must be worn whenever outside the flight deck. Uniform jackets may be removed at the discretion of the commander. Flight crew may operate out of uniform at the discretion of the duty pilot. [EOM-A 1.4, EOM-A 1.5]