Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

Department of Electronics and Communication Government Engineering College, Thrissur

Seminar Report 2004

Teleportation
Presented by Girish M.
S7 ECE Roll No: 01-621

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to thank everyone who helped to see this seminar to completion. In particular, I would like to thank my seminar coordinator Mrs. Muneera.C.R for her moral support and guidance to complete my seminar on time. Also I would like to thank Mr. C. D. Anil Kumar for his invaluable help and support.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank Prof. Indiradevi, Head of the Department, Electronics & Communication Engineering for her support and encouragement.

I express my gratitude to all my friends and classmates for their support and help in this seminar.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

CONTENTS

ABSTRACT 1. 2. INTRODUCTION MECHANISM OF TELEPORTATION 2.1. 3. 4. 5. 6. QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT

4 5 6 10 13 16 18

QUANTUM TELEPORTATION INNSBRUCK EXPERIMENT PHOTON EXPERIMENTS FUTURE POSSIBILITIES 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. HUMAN TELEPORTATION COMMUNICATION QUANTUM COMPUTERS QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY TIME TRAVEL

20 21 22 23 24 25 26

7. 8.

CONCLUSION REFERENCES

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

ABSTRACT

Teleportation is the name given by science fiction writers to the feat of making an object or a person disintegrate in one place while a perfect replica appears some where else. A teleportation machine would be like fax machine except that it would work on three dimensional objects as well as documents, it would produce an exact copy rather than an approximate facsimile, and it would destroy the original in the process of scanning it. Teleportation was not taken seriously by scientists, because it was thought to violate the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, which forbids any measuring or scanning process from extracting all the information in an atom or other object. Scientists found a way to make and end-run around this logic, using a celebrated and paradoxical feature of quantum mechanics known as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect. The future is promising that we can even teleport man.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

INTRODUCTION
Teleportation involves dematerializing an object at one point, and sending the details of that object’s precise atomic configuration to another location, where it will be reconstructed. What this means is that time and space could be eliminated from travel – we could be transported to any location instantly, without actually crossing a physical distance.

Most of us were introduced to the idea of teleportation, and other futuristic technologies, by the short-lived star Trek television series (1966-69) based on tales written by Gene Roddenberry.

In 1993, the idea of teleportation moved out of the realm of science fiction and into the world of theoretical possibility. It was then that physicist Charles Bennett and a team of researchers at IBM confirmed that quantum teleportation was possible, but only if the original object being teleported was destroyed.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

MECHANISM OF QUANTUM TELEPORTATION
Before going into more detail about the teleportation experiments performed to date, let us firstly get a better idea about what teleportation actually is. To begin with, a key part of this process involves something getting from one place to another without it moving through any places in between. For example, imagine that you can teleport from school to home. This means that you are able to get home without having to walk, catch a bus or a train, ride your bike or indeed use any other type of everyday transport. Instead, you are simply “beamed” there.

In science-fiction stories, teleportation often involves three things : 1. Firstly, a machine scans some object to find out everything about

it. For example, this may mean that some device scans a space explorer on board her spaceship to find out what she’s like. This includes finding her height, her mass, the colour of her hair, what sort of shoes she is wearing etc..

2.

Next, the machine “disassembles” the space explorer and sends

or “beams” all the things that she’s made up of to some uncharted planet nearby. These include, for example, all the atoms in her body. The machine also sends a message to the planet containing everything that it found out about her.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

3.

Finally, we resemble the space explorer on the nearby planet

using all the things she’s made up of and the message. Teleportation is now complete

Though quantum teleportation involves many facets, entanglement is the magical ingredient that is the key to its operation. Somehow, in a manner that we still have much to learn about, it is entanglement that allows quantum teleportation to transmit a message directly from Alice to Bob, whilst skipping all the places in between.

TELEPORTATION OF LIGHT

This fig shows teleportation of light. The sender is known as Alice and receiver is known as Bob. In order to teleport light from Alice to Bob three steps has to be taken place.
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg.. Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

1. 2. 3.

The object has to be scanned to extract all data This large quantity of information has to be sent by some means finally the object has to be reassembled based on data

The whole process seems to be very simple. But as we go deeper into the logistic details it become very difficult to explain. Scanning means to record from each particle the quantity that specifies the properties of an object. Two such properties are position and momentum. So the first step is to measure this two canonically conjugate properties. Heisengerg in his uncertainty paper proved that both position and momentum of a

particle cannot be known simultaneously with any degree of certainty. This principle has been proved by many experiments. When we attempt to find out the position its momentum may change and vice versa, so scientists at first thought that teleportation would be impossible. In 1993 an international group of six scientists, including IBM Fellow Charles H. Bennett, confirmed the intuitions of the majority of science fiction writers by showing that perfect teleportation is indeed possible in principle, but only if the original is destroyed. In subsequent years, other scientists have demonstrated teleportation experimentally in a variety of systems, including single photons, coherent light fields, nuclear spins, and trapped ions. Teleportation promises to be quite useful as an information processing primitive, facilitating long range quantum communication (perhaps ultimately leading to a “quantum internet”), and making it much easier to build a working quantum computer. In the past, the idea of teleportation was not taken very seriously by scientists, because it was thought to violate the uncertainty principle of quantum, mechanics,

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

which forbids ay measuring or scanning process from extracting all the information in an atom or other object. According to the uncertainty

principle, the more accurately an object is scanned, the more it is disturbed by the scanning process, until one reaches a point where the object’s original state has been completely disrupted, still without having extracted enough information to make a perfect replica. This sounds like a solid argument against teleportation : if one cannot extract enough information from an object to make a perfect copy, it would seem that a perfect copy cannot be made. But the six scientists found a way to make an end run around this logic, using a celebrated and paradoxical feature of quantum mechanics known as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect. In brief, they found a way to scan out part of the information from an object, which one wishes to teleport, while causing the remaining, unscanned, part of the information to pass, via the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Effect.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT (EPR EFFECT)
Here we shall prepare pairs of entangled photons with opposite polarizations; we shall call them E/and E2. the entanglement means that if we measure a beam of, say, E1 photons with a polarizer, onehalf of the incident photons will pass the filter, regardless of the orientation of the polarizer. Whether a particular photon will pass the filter is random. However, if we measure its companion E2 photon with a polarizer oriented at 90 degrees relative to the first, then if E1 passes its filter E2 will also pass its filter. Similarly if E1 does not pass its filter its companion E2 will not. Mirrors are sometimes called beam splitters because they split a light beam into two equal parts. We shall use a half-silvered mirror to perform Bell State Measurements. The name is after the originator of Bell’s Theorem. We direct one of the entangled photons, say E1, to the beam splitter. Meanwhile, we prepare another photon with a polarization of 45O, and direct it to the same beam splitter from the other side, as shown. This is the photon whose properties will be transported we label it K (for Kirk). We time it so that both e1 and K reach the beam splitter at the same time. The E1 photon incident from above will be reflected by the beam splitter some of the time and will be transmitted some of the time. Similarly for the K photon that is incident from below. So sometimes both photons will end up going up and to the right as shown. Similarly, sometimes both photons will end up going down and to the right

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

Quantum entanglement *is the property that allows 2 photons to behave as one whatever be the distance between them. If we measure the state of one particle we can instantly measure the state of other.

To make a copy of that object at a distant location one does not need the original parts and pieces-all that is needed is to send the scanned information so that it can be used for reconstructing the object. Teleportation necessitates both production and measurement of entangled states ; these are the two most challenging tasks for any experimental realization. Thus far there are only a few experimental techniques by which one can prepare entangled states.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

A teleportation machine would be like a fax machine, except that it would work on 3-dimensional objects as well as documents, it would produce an exact copy rather than an approximate facsimile, and it would destroy the original in the process of scanning it. A few science fiction writers consider teleporters that preserve the original, and the plot gets complicated when the original, and the plot gets complicated when the original and teleported versions of the same person meet ; but the more common kind of teleporter destroys the original, functioning as a super transportation device, not as a perfect replicator of souls and bodies.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

QUANTUM TELEPORTATION
Scientists found a way to scan out part of the information from an object A, which one wishes to teleport, while causing the remaining, unscanned, part of the information to pass, via the EinsteinPodolsky-Rosen effect, into another object C which has never been in contact with A. Later, by applying to C a treatment depending on the scanned-out information, it is possible to maneuver C into exactly the same state as A was in before it was scanned. A itself is no longer in that state, having been thoroughly disrupted by the scanning, so what has been achieved is teleportation.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

As the figures suggests, the unscanned part of the information is conveyed from A to C by an intermediary object B, which interacts first with C and then with A. in order to convey something from A to C, the delivery vehicle must visit A before C, not the other way around. But there is a subtle, unscannable kind of information that, unlike any material cargo, and even unlike ordinary information, can indeed be delivered in such a backward fashion. This subtle kind of information, also called “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation” or “entanglement”, has been at least partly understood since the 1930s when it was discussed in a famous paper by Albert Einstein, Bories Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen.

In the 1960s John Bell showed that a pair of entangled particles, which were once in contact but later move too far apart to interact directly, can exhibit individually random behavior that is too strongly correlated to be explained by classical statistics. Experiments on photons and other particles have repeatedly confirmed these correlations, thereby providing strong evidence for the validity of quantum mechanics, which neatly explains them. Another well-known fact about EPR correlations is that they cannot by themselves deliver a meaningful and controllable message. It was thought that their only usefulness was in proving the validity of quantum mechanics. But now it is known that, through the part of the information in an object which is too delicate to be scanned out and delivered by conventional methods.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

Figure compares conventional facsimile transmission with quantum teleportation. In conventional facsimile transmission the original is scanned, extracting partial information about it, but remains more or less intact after the scanning process. The scanned information is sent to the receiving station, where it is imprinted on some raw material (eg. Paper) to produce an approximate copy of the original. By contrast, in quantum teleportation, two objects B and C are first brought into contact and then separated. Object B is taken to the sending station, while object C is taken to the receiving station. At the sending station object B is scanned together with the original object A which one wishes to teleport, yielding some information and totally disrupting the state of A and B. the scanned information is sent to the receiving station, where it is used to select one of several treatments to be applied to object C thereby putting C into an exact replica of the former state of A.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

THE INNSBRUCK EXPERIMENT
Image depicts the University of Innsbruck experimental setup for quantum teleportation. .

Here is how it works : at the sending station of quantum teleporter, Alice encodes a “messenger” photon (M) with a specific state:

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

450 polarization. This travels towards a beam splitter. Meanwhile, two additional “entangled” photons (A and B) are created. The polarization of each photon is in a fuzzy, undetermined state, at the two photons have a specially defined interrelationship. Specifically, they must have

complementary polarizations. For example, if photon A is later measured to have horizontal polarization then the other photon must collapse into the complementary state of vertical polarization.

Entangled photon A arrives at the beam splitter at the same time as the message photon M. The beam splitter causes each photon to both continue towards detector 1 or change course and travel to detector 2. In 25% of all cases, in which the two photons go off into different detectors, Alice does not know which photon went to which detector. This inability of Alice to distinguish between the two photons causes quantum weirdness to kick in. Just by the very fact that the two photons are now indistinguishable, the M photon loses its original identity and becomes entangled with A. The polarization value for each photon is now indeterminate, but since they travel towards different detectors Alice knows that the two photons must have complementary polarizations.

Since message photon M must have complementary polarization to photon A, then the other entangled photon (B) must now attain the same polarization value as M. Therefore, teleportation is successful. Indeed, Bob sees that the polarization value of photon B is 450 the initial value of the message photon.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

PHOTON EXPERIMENTS
In 1998, physicists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), along with two European groups, turned the IBM ideas into reality by successfully teleporting a photon, a particle of energy that carries light. The Caltech group was able to read the atomic structure of a photon, send this information across 1 meter (3.28 feet) of coaxial cable and create a replica of the photon. As predicted, the original photon no longer existed once the replica was made. In performing the experiment, the Caltech group was able to get around the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, the main barrier for teleportation of objects larger than a photon. This principle states that you cannot simultaneously know the location and the speed of a particle. But if you can't know the position of a particle, then how can you teleport it? In order to teleport a photon without violating the Heisenberg Principle, the Caltech physicists used a phenomenon known as entanglement. In entanglement, at least three photons are needed to achieve quantum teleportation:
• • •

Photon A: The photon to be teleported Photon B: The transporting photon Photon C: The photon that is entangled with photon B

If researchers tried to look too closely at photon A without entanglement, they would bump it, and thereby change it. By entangling

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

photons B and C, researchers can extract some information about photon A, and the remaining information would be passed on to B by way of entanglement, and then on to photon C. When researchers apply the information from photon A to photon C, they can create an exact replica of photon A. However, photon A no longer exists as it did before the information was sent to photon C. In other words, when Captain Kirk beams down to an alien planet, an analysis of his atomic structure is passed through the transporter room to his desired location, where a replica of Kirk is created and the original is destroyed. A more recent teleportation success was achieved at the Australian National University, when researchers successfully teleported a laser beam. While the idea of creating replicas of objects and destroying the originals doesn't sound too inviting for humans, quantum teleportation does hold promise for quantum computing. These experiments with photons are important in developing networks that can distribute quantum information. Professor Samuel Braunstein, of the University of Wales, Bangor, called such a network a "quantum Internet." This technology may be used one day to build a quantum computer that has data transmission rates many times faster than today's most powerful computers.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

FUTURE POSSIBILITIES OF QUANTUM TELEPORTATION

HUMAN TELEPORTATION

The man is standing on a platform called transporter and he is beamed up part by part and teleported accordingly. The human body consist of 1028 atoms. So we have to teleport these atoms with exact precision. A duplicate of the person would be made at the other end. Original mind and body no longer exists, their atomic structure would be recreated at the other end. But there are some limitations.

1.

By reconstruction we may obtain the body, but can be a dead body

2.

Since a large quantity of information has to be teleported, it will take years to teleport a man.

3.

Large quantity of light genetic variation

is involved there is a chance of

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

COMMUNICATION
Teleportation has many promising possibilities in the field of Communication

1.

If teleportation be possible it become the fastest means of Communication

2.

Tremendous amount of chemicals are now shipped from one location to another, reactants mixed at one location, sent to another to be used. Since each is a molecule we can teleport chemicals, saving time and space.

3.

Just as online shopping offers the opportunity to avoid shops. Teleportation provides instant store free purchase.

4.

This teleportation can be used in military purpose for data Encryption

5.

Space exploration can be enhanced. We cam teleport machinery to space shuttles or space colonies. Fuels for space stations can also be teleported.

6.

Colonizing in mars is not possible today due to the lack of fresh water, if we can teleport water directly from earth colonizing in mars is possible

7.

It can be used in war fare. Missiles and bombs can instantly be placed in enemy locations. This can be done by setting a teleporting device at the enemy lines.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY
Quantum cryptography is an effort to allow two users of a common communication channel to create a body of shared and secret information. This information, which generally takes the form of a random string of bits, can then be used as a conventional secret key for secure communication. It is useful to assume that the communicating parties initially share a small amount of secret information, which is used up and then \renewed in the exchange process, but even without this assumption exchanges are possible. Purpose of cryptography is to transmit information in such a way that access to it is restricted entirely to the intended recipient, even if the transmission itself is received by others. Cryptography operates by a sender scrambling or encrypting the original message or plain text in a systematic way that obtains its meaning. The encrypted message of crypto text is transmitted, and the receiver recovers the message by unscrambling or decrypting the transmission Quantum cryptographic techniques provide no protection against the classic bucket brigade attack (also known as the “man-in-themiddle attack”). In this scheme, an eavesdropper, E (“Eve”) is assumed to have the capacity to monitor the communications channel and insert and remove messages without inaccuracy or delay. When Alice attempts to establish a secret key with Bob, Eve intercepts and responds to messages in both directions, fooling both Alice and Bob into believing she is the other. Once the keys are established, Eve receives, copies, and resends messages so as to allow Alice and Bob to communicate

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

QUANTUM COMPUTERS
The basic data unit in a conventional (or classical) computer is the bit, or binary digit .. A bit stores a numerical value of either 0 or 1. An example of how bits are stored is given by a CD rom: “pits” and “lands” (absence of a pit) are used to store the binary data. In quantum computing, the byte is replaced by a single talks to you about the ‘Mona Lisa’, by just hearing the name, you know what the picture looks like without having been given the enormous string of 1s and 0s that the element called a qubit. A qubit is in effect a single entity rather like a conventional computer’s bit, but actually it is a combination of many quantum states of atomic or sub atomic particles. In a single qubit it is possible to carry lot of zeros and ones all together but in a single quantum bit imagine a picture of MonaLisa is stored in the computer as millions of bits. However, if somebody computer needs to redraw it. In the same way, in a quantum computer, the qubit is the equivalent of the name ‘MonaLisa’. Consequently, quantum computers have the potential ability to carry and process large amounts of information in parallel and at very high speeds. It is for this reason that it is believed that they could be useful in dealing with the most computationally intense tasks, such as code breaking. The key problem facing quantum computer developers is the one of finding a suitable quantum register, which cannot only be set-up with the correct input data but can be manipulated with quantum operations.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

TIME TRAVEL

The concept of time travel can be explained based on some assumptions. We see an object when light rays from that object reaches our eyes. The light rays from the sun takes 8 minutes to reach the earth. So we are seeing the sun in the past. We see stars shining in the sky, it may have died years before but we still see it because light rays takes a long time to reach the earth.

Assume that time at point c is same as that of the earth. Consider a boy at the age of 10 is standing on earth, the light rays from the star reaches the boy and is reflected from the boy to c. at that point of reflection from the boy, the boy is traveling towards c with a speed greater than the velocity of light, he reaches the point c at an approximate age of 15 and wait there. When the reflected ray reaches his eyes he can see his image at the ageof 10. he is seeing his past.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

CONCLUSION

The future of teleportation is as varied as the past that led to its creation. Society’s fascination with teleportation gives the drive for further research strong ensuring teleportation as an integral part of society’s progress… Science, however, can only go as far as society will allow, making ethical dilemmas a key issue in the potential uses of teleportation. Although the advancement of teleportation is irrefutable, the route of such research is unknown and offers an unpredictable and exciting future. So we can hope the best.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

Teleportation

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Seminar Report 2004

REFERENCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Quantum entanglement – “Quantum Mechanics” by Maxwell. Nature Magazine New Scientist Magazine IBM Research papers www.ibmresearchpapers.com www.newscientist.com www.nature.com www.qubit.org

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg..

Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur

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