Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

2.3K views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Experiment 1: Write VHDL Code for Realize All Logic Gates.
- ANR Delete Optimization
- Vhdl Codes
- VHDL Programs
- Performance Comparison of LDPC Codes and Turbo Codes
- Information Theory and coding
- VHDL LAB
- 093
- The.concepts.of.Hidden.markov.model.in.Speech.recognition
- Vlsi Implementation
- Understanding Turbo Codes
- Hima Turbo Codes
- Wireless Trends
- HMM: Theorical recall and Application
- An Introduction to Hidden Markov Models
- viterbi
- Viterbi Algorithm
- 01551066
- viterbi science direct
- Efficient Algorithms for Speech Recognition

You are on page 1of 18

Er Liu

liuer@cc.hut.fi

Communications Laboratory

16.11.2004

Outline

Convolutional Coding

Convolutional code

Generator sequence

Trellis and state diagram

Viterbi Algorithm

Maximum-Likelihood decoding

Viterbi algorithm

Page 2

Convolutional Encoding

Convolutional codes are applied in applications that require

good performance with low implementation cost. They operate

on data stream, not static block.

Convolutional codes have memory that uses previous bits to

encode or decode following bits

It is denoted by (n,k,L), where L is code memory depth

Code rate r is determined by input rate and output rate:

rinput

r= <1

routput

Page 3

Convolutional Encoder

Convolutional encoder is a finite state machine (FSM),

processing information bits in a serial manner

Thus the generated code is a function of input and the states of

the FSM

In this (n,k,L)=(2,1,2) encoder each message bits influences a

span of n(L+1)=6 successive output bits

x 'j = m j − 2 ⊕ m j −1 ⊕ m j

x ''j = m j − 2 ⊕ m j

(n,k,L)=(2,1,2) encoder

Convolutional Coding & Viterbi Algorithm Er Liu (liuer@cc.hut.fi)

Page 4

Another Encoder example

Page 5

Generator Sequence

(n,k,L) convolutional code can be described by generator sequences

g(1) , g(2),..., g(n) that are the impulse responses of each coder output

branch

⎧⎪ g (1) = [1 0 1 1]

⎨ (2)

⎪⎩ g = [1 1 1 1]

associated generator matrix

Encoded convolutional code is produced by matrix multiplication of

input and the generator matrix

Convolutional Coding & Viterbi Algorithm Er Liu (liuer@cc.hut.fi)

Page 6

Example of Using Generator Matrix

Convolutional Coding & Viterbi Algorithm Er Liu (liuer@cc.hut.fi)

Page 7

Representation – Code Tree

Page 8

Trellis and State Diagram

Page 9

Minimum Hamming Distance

Page 10

Maximum-Likelihood Decoding

Maximum likelihood decoding means finding the code

branch in the code trellis that was most likely to transmitted

Therefore maximum likelihood decoding is based on

calculating the hamming distances for each branch forming

encode word

Probability to decode sequence is then

∞

p( y, x) = ∏ p( y j x j )

j =0

The most likely path through the trellis will maximize this

metric

Page 11

Example of Maximal Likelihood Detection

Assume a three bit message is to transmitted. To clear the encoder two

zero-bits are appended after message. Thus 5 bits are inserted into

encoder and 10 bits produced. Assume channel error probability is

p=0.1. After the channel 10,01,10,11,00 is produced. What comes after

decoder, e.g. what was most likely the transmitted sequence?

Page 12

Example of Maximal Likelihood Detection

Page 13

Viterbi Algorithm

ML algorithm is too complex to search all available pathes

End to end calculation

Viterbi algorithm performs ML decoding by reducing its

complexity

Eliminate least likely trellis path at each transmission stage

Reduce decoding complexity with early rejection of unlike pathes

Viterbi algorithm gets its efficiency via concentrating on

suvival paths of the trellis

Page 14

Viterbi decoding

Page 15

Example of Viterbi decoding

Input data : m =1 1 0 1 1

Codeword : X = 11 01 01 00 01

Received code : Z = 11 01 01 10 01

Page 16

Homework

Please use Viterbi algorithm to decode the received

sequence:

Z=[11 10 10 10 01]

Please draw the trellis

and state diagram

Page 17

Helsinki University of Technology

S-72.333 Postgraduate Seminar on Radio Communications

Any questions?

Thanks!

- Experiment 1: Write VHDL Code for Realize All Logic Gates.Uploaded bysudharsan
- ANR Delete OptimizationUploaded byUmi Safitri
- Vhdl CodesUploaded byapi-27099960
- VHDL ProgramsUploaded byJoychandra Loukrakpam
- Performance Comparison of LDPC Codes and Turbo CodesUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- Information Theory and codingUploaded byMonica Jones
- VHDL LABUploaded byapi-3701797
- 093Uploaded bysunny0129
- The.concepts.of.Hidden.markov.model.in.Speech.recognitionUploaded byRichard Dam
- Vlsi ImplementationUploaded byvenchinn4676
- Understanding Turbo CodesUploaded byapi-3747046
- Hima Turbo CodesUploaded byapi-3827000
- Wireless TrendsUploaded byabhasingh02
- HMM: Theorical recall and ApplicationUploaded byMemnone
- An Introduction to Hidden Markov ModelsUploaded byapi-3830341
- viterbiUploaded byapi-19790923
- Viterbi AlgorithmUploaded byadegawa
- 01551066Uploaded byHoa Súng
- viterbi science directUploaded byapi-19790923
- Efficient Algorithms for Speech RecognitionUploaded byapi-26870484
- viterbireportUploaded bySatish Kumar Grandhi
- Viterbi DecoderUploaded bySreeni Kumar
- Craft & AldepUploaded byvikash3050
- ViterbiUploaded byabhinavcoolguy2010
- Channel CodingUploaded byMasood Totakhel
- 22.pdfUploaded byabdulsahib
- Finalised Ad Communication Lab Manual 1Uploaded byamaan2007
- Convolution Encoder Verilog CodeUploaded byMounesh Panchal
- Beethoven： String Quartets, Op. 18Uploaded byNaveen Nagalingam
- 322893654 Simulation of Convolutional EncoderUploaded bySalem Alsalem

- The New Church and the Phenomenon of Jakob LorberUploaded byThomas Noack
- Lesson Plan 2 Diversity MathUploaded bycitydarockstar
- dymanicsUploaded byahmad
- Hispanics at Home Series 8Uploaded byBen Quiggle
- HP8 71 B1A Antenna SpecUploaded bySylvester Singarayer
- Teaching History With Poetry Sell SheetUploaded byCandlewick Press
- The Witches of WernigerodeUploaded bySarthak Joshi
- A Logic Gate is an Elementary Building Block of AUploaded byAbhijit Bhoyar
- Aramco-RTFI Presentation 10-1-21Uploaded byMohammad Sajid Alam
- FIBRE OPTICS.docxUploaded byraihanaanis
- MB0034 Research Methodology - Feb 10Uploaded byAkash Dwivedi
- PSY 100-Human Behavior-Uzma Mazhar-Yasser Hashmi-Zahbia Sarfraz.pdfUploaded byMinhal Malik
- j409- senior project-14Uploaded byapi-350090932
- Alan Watt CTTM Transcripts 51-75Uploaded byHalali Hundegulasch
- Construction MnagementUploaded byVindicated Wajahat
- AdValue Self AwarenessUploaded byAlle Eiram Eilegna DeSesto
- David vs MalayUploaded byAllen Olayvar
- Symmetry and the Organization of Form a Review ArticleUploaded bysandipkluis
- Jas KulaUploaded byFabian Gonzalez Ramirez
- 5. People of the Philippines vs. Juan Cabbab, Jr. g.r. No. 173479Uploaded byJohn Yeung
- A Letter to Mariama Ba Term Paper_Christine MbuguaUploaded byNaishan
- Art CV Nils BlishenUploaded byNils Blishen
- 39499204 Crim Pro HerreraUploaded byNath Antonio
- Blogging Biz Star WorkbookUploaded byApril Song
- lice brochureUploaded byapi-280874783
- Empowering Vulnerable PopulationsUploaded byCatholic Charities USA
- restrain in marriage Contract SynopsisUploaded byMithlesh Choudhary
- Smooth Neutrosophic Topological SpacesUploaded byMia Amalia
- Thyroid Test Interpretation 2001_Dayan LANCETUploaded bybhar
- Ramos Wilfredo From Color to Form FILM SUMMER2012Uploaded byhaunted_shores1713

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.