This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
被被協會開除 Am I qualified ？ 我夠資格嗎？ The essence of comedy. 喜劇的本質 What is a praxis?. 本體是什麼？ Between science and religion. 科學與宗教之間 The hysteric and Freud's own desire 歇斯底里症與佛洛伊德本人的欲望 Ladies and Gentlemen, 女士們、先生們： In this series of lectures, which I have been invited to give by the École pratique des Hautes Etudes, I shall be talking to you about the fundamentals of psycho-analysis. 承蒙社會科學高等學院的邀請，我發表這一系列演講。 我打算跟你們談論有關精 神分析學的基本原則。 Today I should like simply to point out to you the meaning I intend to give to this title and the way I hope to justify it. 今天，我僅是要跟你們指出：我打算賦予這篇題目怎樣的意義，以及我希望以 怎樣的方式，來證明它能夠自圓其說。 And yet, I must first introduce myself to you—despite the fact that most, though not all of you, know me already—because the circumstances are such that before dealing with this subject it might be appropriate to ask a preliminary question, namely: am I
qualified to do so? 可是，我必須跟你們先做個自我介紹。 雖然你們多數人都已經認識我，但不是全 部。 但是情況的要求是，在處理這個題目之前，我最好先問一個基本問題：我有 資格在此演講嗎？ My qualification for speaking to you on this subject amounts to this: for ten years, I held what was called a seminar, addressed to psychoanalysts. 跟你們演講這個題目，我的資格相當等於這樣：十年來，我舉行所謂的講座， 演講的物件是精神分析師。 As some of you may know, I withdrew from this role (to which I had in fact devoted my life) as a result of events occurring within what is called a psycho-analytic association, and, more specifically, within the association that had conferred this role upon me. 在座有些人可能知道，由於所謂精神分析協會內部發生一些事情，說得更明確 些，我能否演講，是要這個協會批准的。 所以，我從這個角色隱退下來（實際上， 這是我一生致力的角色。） It might be said that my qualification to undertake the same role elsewhere is not, by that token, impugned as such. However that may be, I consider the problem deferred for the time being. 我們可以說，我在別的地方從事演講的角色，並不因為那種原因，能力上受到 質疑。不管怎樣，這個問題，我想暫時擱置一旁。 And if today I am in a position to be able, let us simply say, to further this teaching of mine, I feel it incumbent upon me, before embarking on what for me is a new phase, to express my thanks to M. Fernand Braudel, the chairman of the section of the Hautes Etudes that appointed me to appear before you here. 假如今天我有這個立場，容我們僅是說，能夠從事我的這個演講教學，容我在 開始新的階段之前，我覺得我有義務跟布羅得爾表示我的感謝。 他是社會科學高 等學院的部門主管。承蒙他的邀請，我才能夠出現在諸位面前。 M. Braudel has informed me of his regret at being unable to be present: I would like to pay tribute to what I can only call his nobility in providing me with a means of
I shall now turn to what it is about—the fundamentals of psychoanalysis. so to speak. 這一切都牽涉到「基地」 ，無論從地形學，甚至從軍事用語的意義而言，我教學 的「基地」事關緊要。我現在就來談論何謂「基地」，精神分析學的基本原則。 I As far as the fundamentals of psycho-analysis are concerned. whose style and reputation alone were known to him. implicated.布羅得先生跟我表達，他現在不能出席的遺憾。在此，我謹表示我的敬意，對 於他的雍容大度，提供給我繼續教學的一個機會，雖然他僅識得我教學的風格 與風評。 他能夠歡迎受到排擠，無立錐之地的我來演講，謂之雍容大度確實不算 是溢美之詞。 M. 那些在這個場合支持我的人，我也希望表示感謝。 例如，佛拉西爾，高等師範學 院的校董，他慷慨提供這個大禮堂，讓社會科學高等學院使用。 如果沒有這個大 禮堂，我本來會茫然不知如何來迎接眾多人數的你們。 因此，我必須表示我由衷 的感謝。 All this concerns the base. Director of the Ecole Normale SupCrieure. Braudel extended this welcome to me as soon as he had been alerted by the vigilance of my friend Claude Levi. from the beginning. whom I am delighted to see here today and who knows how precious for me this evidence of his interest in my work is—in work that has developed in parallel with his own. 布羅得先生一聽到我的朋友列文、 史特勞斯，關注地推薦，就欣然歡迎我前兩演 講。列文，史特勞斯今天出席現場，真令我感到榮幸。他知道，他對我的研究工 作感到關注，而且推薦，對我而言，是多麼難能可貴！儘管他自己從事的研究， 還比我先進得多。 I wish also to thank all those who on this occasion demonstrated their sympathy to such effect that M. .Strauss. in the topographical and even the military sense of the word—the base for my teaching. Robert Flaceière. my seminar was.continuing my teaching. was generous enough to put this auditorium at the disposal of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes—and without which I should have been at a loss to welcome you in such numbers—for which I wish to express my most heartfelt thanks. 3 .
就精神分析的基本原則觀念而言，我的研討班開始就牽連在內，可以這樣說。 It was an element of those fundamentals. namely. 這是這些基本原則的元素，因為這是對於它們的一種貢獻，協同演出---因為這 是精神分析本體本身的內部---因為它的目標朝著那個本體的根本所在，也就是 說，精神分析的訓練。 There was a time when. 反諷地，有一段時間---或許暫時地，在我當時的處境，我因為缺乏更好的東 西---我被引導替精神分析定義一個標準。 換句話說，由精神分析師亨利，艾伊施 用的治療。 他今天在這裏，他會記得受到質疑的那篇文章，當它被出版在他編輯 的百科全書的一冊上。 And. ironically—temporarily. since he is present. and you will. perhaps. 結果，艾伊先生，他對我的理想的同情是眾所周知。 他無力抵擋由編輯委員會施 壓的運作。那個委員會有幾位委員確實是精神分析師。 The article concerned will be included in a collection of a number of my essays that I am trying to put together. who is here today. I think. and for lack of anything better in the situation I was in—I was led to define a criterion of what psycho-analysis is. be able to judge for yourselves 4 . namely. Henry Ey. some psycho-analysts. because it was a contribution. M. will remember the article in question as it was published in a volume of the encyclopaedia he edits. the treatment handed Out by psycho-analysts. precisely. in concreto. to them—because it was an internal part of psycho-analytic praxis itself—because it was aimed at what is an essential of that praxis. whose sympathy for my cause is well known. the training of psychoanalysts. it is all the easier for me to recall the fury that the article aroused and the pressure exerted to get the said article withdrawn from the said encyclopaedia. 因為他在現場，我很容易回想起那篇文章引起的渲染大波，以及排山倒海的壓 力，要將所謂的那篇文章，從所謂的百科全書撤走。 As a result. Ey. was powerless to resist an operation masterminded by an editorial committee on which there were.
無可置疑的，在這裏有某些的曖昧模糊—如同我在這篇文章提出的—這個問題 依舊具有夜間才能洞視的特質。在光天化日之下檢視，是我當時建議要做的事。 無論我今天的立場是什麼，這是我今天建議要做的事。 5 . whatever position I am in. still asking that very same question —what is psycho-analjsis? 對於我而言，這似乎更加不可能，假如考慮到我在裏面提出的問題，跟我今天 要在這裏克服的那些問題，是大同小異。 這些問題一再地被提起，由於這個事實， 我現在此，處於目前的情況，依舊在詢問相同的問題：精神分析的本體是什麼？ 雄伯譯 32hsiung@pchome. and the question—as I pointed out in the article—still has a certain bat-like quality.tw http://springhero.com Concept 002 THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN Book XI 拉康研討班第十一冊 THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS 精神分析四個基本觀念 I EXCOMMUNICATION 被協會開除 No doubt there are certain ambiguities in all this. To examine it in broad daylight is what I proposed to do then and.com. 這篇引起風波的文章，被收入在一本我正在嘗試彙集的論文雜集。 我想你們將能 夠親自判斷，是否它真的是洪水猛獸。 For me. and which are resuscitated by the fact that here I am. in the present circumstances. this seems all the less likely given that the questions I raise in it are the very same as those that I shall be grappling with here. it is what I propose to do today.whether it has lost any of its relevance.wordpress.
The position I refer to has changed. since what it amounts to is no less than a ban on this teaching—which is to be regarded as nul and void as far as any qualification to the title of psychoanalyst is concerned. in fact. 接受這樣的禁止，就是我是會員之一的精神分析協會，跟國際結盟的一個條件。 But this is not all. but whether it is outside is not known. The latter exists only in a religious community designated 6 . 但這還不是全部。 它清楚地被表明，這個結盟將會被接納，條件是要提供保證， 就精神分析師的訓練而言，我的教學永遠不再被協會批准。 So. I think you will agree that I am having recourse neither to gossip nor to any kind of polemic if I point out here what is simply a fact. 我提到的立場已經改變。 事實上，問題不完全在裏面，至於是否在外面，則是未 知。 In reminding you of all this. It is expressly spelt out that this affiliation is to be accepted only if a guarantee is given that my teaching may never again be sanctioned by the Association as far as the training of analysts is concerned. it is not wholly inside. namely. that my teaching—specifically designated as such—has been the object of censure by a body calling itself the Executive Committee of an organization calling itself the International Psychoanalytical Association. what it amounts to is something strictly comparable to what is elsewhere called major excommunication—although there the term is never pronounced without any possibility of repeal. 當我提醒你們這一切，我並不是在自憐自哀。 我認為你們將會同意，我既不是在 賣弄八卦，也不是庸人自擾，假如我在此指出的，僅是一個事實。 我的教學---明 確地被設計就是這樣---我的教學始終是飽受批判的物件，被一個自稱是某個組 織執行委員會的團體，它自稱是國際精神分析協會。 這樣的批判不能等尋觀之， 因為它相當等於就是禁止我的教學---就精神分析師的頭銜的任何資格而言，我 的教學被認為是一文不值。 And the acceptance of this ban is to be a condition of the international affiliation of the Psycho-analytical Association to which I belong. Such censorship is of no ordinary kind. I am not indulging in personal reminiscence.
serious enough terrain we have to cover. and it was precisely that which Spinoza was condemned to. 7 . which consists of appending the clause of no return. 1656年7月27日---這是一個特別的兩百周年紀念，因為它跟佛洛伊德的紀念日一 致---史賓諾莎成為被逐出教會的對象，這等於是嚴重違規地逐出教會。 因為他必 須等待一段時間，才能成為 「終身逐出」 的對象，那就附加永遠不得回歸的條款。 Please do not imagine that here—any more than elsewhere —I am indulging in some metaphorical game—that would be too puerile in view of the long and. God knows. it will be useful in what follows. for it corresponds to that of Freud— Spinoza was made the object of the kherem. Yet the question indubitably does arise—what is it in that community that is so reminiscent of religious practice? Nor would I have stressed this point — though it is sufficiently significant to carry the musty odour of scandal—were it not that like everything I have to say today. an excommunication that corresponds to major excommunication. but by the structure it implies. 我相信—你們將能夠自己判斷---不但憑藉它所引起的迴響，而且憑藉它暗示的 結構，這個事實介紹我們對於精神分析本體的研究，某件很根本的東西。 I am not saying—though it would not be inconceivable—that the community is a Church. 所以，它相當等於是某件嚴格來說，類比於別的地方所謂的嚴重違規地逐出教 會---雖然這個術語每次宣佈之後，也有可能被取消。取消的可能性，僅存在于 「猶太教聚會所」 這個重要的象徵術語，所指定的宗教團體。 這確實史賓諾莎當年 被判處的命運。 On 27 July 1656—a singular bi-centenary. this fact introduces something that is essential to our investigation of psychoanalytic praxis.by the significant symbolic term synagogue. 請不要想像，在此---或是在別的地方---我是樂此不疲地玩弄比喻的遊戲---天曉 得，從我們必須經歷的漫長而嚴酷的考驗來看，這樣說未免太過天真。 1 believe—you will be able to judge for yourselves—that not only by virtue of the echoes it evokes. since he had to wait some time before becoming the object of the chammata.
I suppose. I think. This can be fully appreciated. It is no laughing matter. namely. the international affiliation of the Association. 因為岌岌可危的是，關於我的教學是否正確，我要讓步到什麼程度？它能夠跟 這個交易的另外一面交換嗎？也就是跟協會跟國際結盟，作為交換條件嗎？ I do not wish to forgo this opportunity—we shall return to it later—of indicating that the situation can be experienced at the level of the comic dimension proper. that of knowing that I was—at the hands of precisely those who. 我的意思並不是，對於在這些情況，我對於我的遭遇無動於衷。 請不要想像，就 我而言---我認為，跟我毫不躊躇就能引證的先行者一樣---這是喜劇的材料。 這可 不是輕鬆好玩的事情。 Nevertheless. Do not imagine that for me—any more. What I am referring to here is not at the level of what I have called excommunication.我並不是在說—雖然這並非不可想像—這個團體是一個教會。 可是，這個問題無 疑地會出現---在那個團體，是什麼讓人想到宗教的種種行徑？我本來不會強調 這一點---雖然引起謗毀交加的醜聞，已經足夠重要---若非是像今天我必須說的 一切，在隨後的論述，它將會被用到。 I do not mean that I am indifferent to what happens to me in such circumstances. were colleagues or even pupils— the object of what is called a deal. in relation to me. I should like to let you know en passant that something of the order of a vast comic dimension in all this has not wholly escaped me. only by a psychoanalyst. than for the intercessor whose precedent I have not hesitated to evoke—this is material for comedy. 它必須跟這兩年來，我所身曆的處境有關。 我的處境讓我知道，我當時確實是在 那些跟我是同事，或是學生的人們的掌控之中---我是所謂的被交易的客體。 For what was at stake was the extent to which the concessions made with respect to the validity of my teaching could be traded off with the other side of the deal. 8 . 可是，我想要讓你們順便知道，在這一切當中，我並沒有完全倖免于某個廣大 的喜劇維度層次的命運。我在此提到的，並不是屬於我所謂的被逐出協會。 It has to do with the situation I was in for two years.
being the object of a deal is not a rare situation for an individual—contrary to all the verbiage about human dignity. then. concealed. with all their supposed sacred rights to autonomy. of those social supports which. not to mention the Rights of Man. in a different context. of its nature. if seen from the outside. that is. as analysis shows. 無可置疑的，成為一個交易的客體，就個人而言，並不罕見---跟有關人性尊嚴 的陳腔濫調恰恰相反， 「人類權利」 就更不用去提了。 我們每一個人，在任何時刻， 在任何層次，都可能被作為交易---若是沒有這個交易的觀念，我們就無法嚴肅 地洞見到社會的結構。 The kind of exchange involved here is the exchange of individuals. 9 . to bring this object out into the light of day is really and truly the essence of comedy. called by a different name. Each of us at any moment and at any level may be traded off—without the notion of exchange we can have no serious insight into the social structure. but. even when he is in the position of master. and even pupils. are known as 'subjects'. is sometimes. does not reside in himself. in hundreds of thousands. about my situation. 因此，關於我的情境，這並不是什麼特別的例外。 除了，被我剛才提到作為同事， 甚至是我的學生的那些人交易，假如從外面來看，有時名稱會不同。 But if the truth of the subject. in an object that is. in lots. 在此牽涉到的這種交易，就是個人的交易，換句話說，那些社會支援的交易。 在 不同的情境裏，他們是眾所周知的「生命主體」 ，擁有他們被認為的自己作主的 神聖權利。 It is a well known fact that politics is a matter of trading—wholesale. except that being traded by those whom I referred to just now as colleagues. who are now called citizens. 眾所周知的事實是，政治就是交易的事情---在這個情境裏，是整批蠆售，分批 批發---相同的生命主體，現在被稱為的公民，成千上萬地被交易。 There was nothing particularly exceptional.我並不希望鑄造這個機會—我們以後還會回來談論它---指示這個情況能夠被經 驗，在喜劇本體的層次。我認為，只有精神分析師才會充分體認到這一點。 No doubt. in this context— the same subjects.
as someone who had experienced it from the outside might do. which.com. it might be treated.但是假如生命主體的真理，即使當他具有主人的地位，並沒有駐居在他的本身， 而是如精神分析所顯示的，是在性質被隱藏的客體，將這個客體揭露到陽光底 下，道道地地是喜劇的本質， 雄伯譯 32hsiung@pchome. that it may be experienced from the analytic point of view. in a way that overcomes it —namely. I can tell you that this dimension is quite legitimate. after all. 我认为这个情境的维度是值得提出，特别是是在我能够作为验证的立场。 畢竟， 在这样一个场合，它可能被对待，由于过度的约束，一种虚假的谦虚，当作是 从外面经历它的人所为。 From the inside. a sort of false modesty. especially in the position from which I can testify to it. on such an occasion. I think.wordpress. 从里面，我能够告诉你们，这个维度是合情合理的。 它可以从精神分析的观点来 经历，甚至，从它被感觉到时刻，以克服它的方法—换句话说，从幽默的观点， 10 . from the point of view of humour. from the moment it is perceived.tw http://springhero. here.com Concept 003 THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN Book XI 拉康研讨班第十一册 THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS 精神分析四个基本观念 I EXCOMMUNICATION 被教会开除 This dimension of the situation is worth pointing out. and even. with undue restraint. because. is simply the recognition of the comic.
we were to stop at the pudendum. 他们可能会询问他们自己，这样的事情如何可能，若非在你的分析者跟你自己 之间的关系的层次，有了一些不协调，置疑到精神分析的价值。 Well. may be surprised that certain of my analysands. in an analytic discourse. which has been completely ignored in all published work on psychoanalysis— and throw some light on its aims. 11 . its limits and its effects. on the outside.在此，它仅是让人体认出喜剧性。 This remark is not without relevance to my subject—the fundamentals of psychoanalysis —for fundamentwn has more than one meaning. it is precisely by setting out from something that may provide grounds for scandal that we will be able to grasp in a more precise way what is called the training analysis—that praxis. in this deal. some of whom were still under analysis. 同样地，假如在精神分析的论述，我们想要在「阴户」 的地方停止，那是很特别 的。 在这个情境，无可置疑的，基本原则会形成 「底端部分」 的形式，假如这些部 分没有已经暴露一些。 Some people. there is some discord that puts in question the very value of analysis. 有些人，在外面，可能会大为惊奇，某些我的分析者，他们有些人还依旧正在 接受分析，他们竟然也参与这个交易，活跃的交易。 And they may ask themselves how such a thing is possible were it not that. in this register. were it not that those parts were already to some extent exposed. should have taken part. 这种谈论跟我的主题---精神分析的基本原则---并不是没有关联。 「基本原则」 因为 意义有多重。 我并不需要提醒你们，在犹太的卡巴拉语，它指明神祗的显示的模 式，在这个铭记里，它严格地被认同是女性的「阴户」。 All the same. and I do not need to remind you that in the Kabbala it designates one of the modes of divine manifestation. a very active part. or that stage of praxis. In this context. at the level of the relation between your analysands and yourselves. no doubt. the fundamentals would take the form of the bottom parts. 'which. it would be extraordinary if. is strictly identified with the pudenilum.
呵呵，确实从某件提供八卦丑闻的基础出发，我们才能够更加精确地理解何谓 精神分析训练---那个本体，或本体的舞台，在所有已经出版的论精神分析的著 作，都完全被忽略---然后让精神分析训练的目标，限制及其影响真相大白。 This is no longer a question of pudendum. 这不再说 「阴户」 的问题。 问题是要知道，对于精神分析，我们可能或必须期望什 么，以及它可能会证明是一种阻碍或甚至是一种失败到什么程度。 That is why I thought I was under an obligation to spare you no details. or even a failure. of psychoanalysis? Which amounts to saying—What grounds it as praxis? 这就是为什么我认为，我有这个义务要跟你们不厌其烦地详述，并且跟你们呈 现这个事实，作为一个客体。 这个客体的轮廓及可能的操控，我希望你们将会更 加清楚地看，在我现在必须说的内容的开始呈现它。 在你们面前，我询问这个问 题---从精神分析这个术语的广义来说，这些基本原则是什么？这相当等于是询 问：精神分析作为本体的基础是什么？ 2 What is a praxis? I doubt whether this term may be regarded as inappropriate to psycho-analysis. in the broad sense of the term. I ask the question—What are the fundamentals. It is the broadest term to designate a concerted human action. I hope you will see more clearly. to present it at the very outset of what I now have to say when. and the extent to which it may prove a hindrance. as an object. whatever it may be. 什么是本体？我怀疑这个术语，对于精神分析而言，可能会被认为是不适当。 广 义来说，它指明一种协调的人类的行动，无论那个行动是什么，它将人放在根 据象征界对待真实界的立场。 The fact that in doing so he encounters the imaginary to a greater or lesser degree is only of secondary importance here. whose outlines. but to present you with a fact. It is a question of knowing what may. which places man in a position to treat the real by the symbolic. 当他这样做时，他遭遇某个程度的想象界，这个事实在此仅是次要的地位。 12 . and whose possible manipulation. be expected of psycho-analysis. what must. before you.
精神分析，无论是否值得被包括在这两个铭记里，它会啟明我们，关于憑藉科 13 . then. may even enlighten us as to what we should understand by science. specifiable points of praxis. if I am here. is very extensive. very vital way. 另外一个指称，宗教的指称，稍早以前，我已经提到过，指明我正在谈论宗教， 以这个术语的真实意义---它并不是一种没有生命力的系统化的宗教，被逼迫回 到原始的思想模式的遥远过去，而是我们看到依旧意气风发在实践的宗教。 Psycho-analysis. 因此，本体的这个定义是非常广泛性。 我们将不会出发去寻求我们的精神分析， 就像戴奥吉尼斯提着灯笼寻找人，在各色各样的本体的领域。 Rather we shall take our psycho-analysis with us. and even by religion. in such a place. in the various. whether or not it is worthy of being included in one of these two registers. and with such an audience. 恰恰相反，我们将随身带着我们的精神分析。 它将引导我们马上朝着某些位置明 确，可以辨明的本体的要点。 Without even introducing by any kind of transition the two terms between which I wish to hold the question—and not at all in an ironic way—I posit first that. methodologized religion. very diversified fields of praxis. and it will direct us at once towards some fairly well located. and to examine the question with you. pushed back into the distant past of a primitive form of thought. in such a large auditorium.This definition of praxis. I already mentioned a little while ago. 我甚至没有以任何的转接就介绍这两个术语。 我希望将这个问题保留在这两个术 语之间---我丝毫没有反讽的意味—我首先提出，假如我在这里，处于一间大礼 堂，在这样一个位置，拥有这样的听众，那是要询问我自己，精神分析学是否 是一门科学，然后跟你们一起检视它。 The other reference. like Diogenes in search of man. We are not going to set out in search of our psycho-analysis. the religious one. but of religion as we see it practised in a still living. specifying that I am speaking of religion in the true sense of the term—not of a desiccated. it is to ask myself whether psycho-alaysis is a science.
学，甚至憑藉宗教，我们应该了解什么。 I would like at once to avoid a misunderstanding.com Concept 004 THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN Book XI 拉康研討班第十一冊 THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS 精神分析四個基本觀念 I EXCOMMUNICATION 被教會開除 14 . As Picasso once said.tw http://springhero.com. 呵呵，容我说得更清楚些—特别是对于领导当局，这种研究，对于他们而言， 有段时间以来，似乎充当任何事情的一种同行的暗语---对于「研究」 这个术语， 我有点不予置信。 Personally. 就我个人而言，我从来没有认为我自己，作为一位研究员。如同毕卡索有此说 过---令他四周的人大为震惊---我没有寻求，我找到。 雄伯译 32hsiung@pchome. psycho-analysis is a form of research. someone will say. for some time now. to the shocked surprise of those around him—i do not seek. In any case.wordpress. I have never regarded myself as a researcher. allow me to say quite clearly—in particular to the public authorities for whom this search has seemed. to serve as a shibboleth for any number of things —that I am a bit suspicious of this term research. I find. 我想要立刻避免一种误解。 无论如何，某个人将会说，精神分析是一种研究的形 式。 Well.
and that in which one finds. what I will call the hermeneutic demand. a complaisant，endless search that is then opened up? 這個已經被找到，已經是在後面了，但是被某件像是遺忘所取消。 因此而展開的 尋找，難道不是殷勤不懈，永無止境？ If the search concerns us here. there is no doubt some affinity between the research that seeks and the religious register. this corresponds to a fairly well defined frontier between what may and may not qualify as science. 耐人尋味的，這個對應一個非常明確定義的邊界，處於有沒有資格列為科學的 邊界。 Furthermore. but one threatened with being trampled under foot by him who finds. 的確，在所謂的科學的研究，有兩個很容易被體認出的領域，一個是我們尋求 的領域，另一個是我們找到的領域。 Curiously enough. In the religious register. then. it is by virtue of those elements of this debate that are established at the level of what we nowadays call the human sciences. beneath the feet of whoever finds. 而且，無可置疑的，尋找的研究與宗教的銘記之間，有某種的密切關係。 在宗教 的銘記，這個詞語時常被使用---假如你沒有已經找到我，你不會來尋找我。 The already found is already behind. the phrase is often used— You would not seek me had not already found me. Is it not. 的確，在這些人文科學裏，我們看到我所謂的解釋的要求，出現在任何找到的 15 . there are in the field of so-called scientific research two domains that can quite easily be recognized. but stricken by something like oblivion.Indeed. 假如這種尋求跟我們這裏有關，那是憑藉被建立的這個辯論那些元素，處於我 們今天所謂的人文科學的層次。 Indeed. as it were. which is precisely that which seeks—which seeks the ever new and the never exhausted signification. in these human sciences. that in which one seeks. one sees emerging.
科學的明確定義是要有一個客體。 我們可能主張，科學的明確定義，是要有一個 明確的客體，至少要有某種可重複製作層次的運作，也就是眾所周知的試驗。 But we must be very prudent. as a science develops. at least by a certain reproducible level of operation known as experiment. 湊巧的是，雖然這種解釋無法以相同的方式，被構想成為前述的解釋學。 在另一 方面，解釋學卻是隨時準備使用解釋。 在這一方面，我們至少看見一種溝通的管 道，處於精神分析與宗教的銘記之間。 We shall come back to this in due course. we analysts are interested in this hermeneutics. therefore. hermeneutics. and in a very strange way. In this respect. which 16 . 我們到時還會回頭談論這一點。 因此，我們將稍微要求一些東西，我們才會讓精 神分析自稱是科學。 What specifies a science is having an object. 現在，我們精神分析師對於這個解釋學感到興趣，因為由解釋學提供的發展意 義的方式，受到混淆，在很多人的心靈，跟精神分析所謂的解釋混淆。 It so happens that. although this interpretation cannot in any way be conceived in the same way as the aforementioned hermeneutics. we see. Before allowing psycho-analysis to call itself a science.人的腳下。 這確實是尋找的東西—尋找永遠是新穎而又源源不斷的意義，但是受 到的威脅是，會被找到的人，踐踏在腳下。 Now. because the way of developing signification offered by hermeneutics is confused. on the other hand. a corridor of communication between psycho-analysis and the religious register. with what analysis calls interpretation. makes ready use of interpretation. at least. we shall require a little more. 但是我們必須謹慎，因為隨著科學發展，這個客體會以奇怪的方式改變。 We cannot say that the object of modern physics is the same now as at its birth. in many minds. because this object changes. It is possible to maintain that a science is specified by a definite object.
我甚至想要說，我們能夠免除不用實證主義的立場，這些暗含的超驗的元素。 因 為這個立場總是提到所有的領域，都具有最後的一致性。 We will extricate ourselves from it all the more easily in view of the fact that. It is in no way necessary that the tree of science should have a single trunk. 我並不接受杜漢的要求：每一種科學都應該提到一個一致性的世界或系統---事 實上，這是一個總是相當理想主義的指稱，因為它提到對於認同的需要。 I would even go so far as to say that we can dispense with the implicit transcendent element in the position of the positivist. which I would date from the time of Lavoisier? – 現代化學的客體跟它剛誕生的時期會相同嗎？我將它的日期定在從拉瓦西爾的 時代開始？ It is possible that these remarks will force us into an at least tactical retreat. 我們無法說，現代物理學的客體現在會跟它剛誕生時期一樣，我是將這個日期 定在十七世紀。 And is the object of modern chemistry the same as at the moment of its birth. whether it is at the level of this field that the modern scientist. after all. I do not think that there are many of them. 17 . who is not a man who knows a lot about everything. and to start again from the praxis. since it is a reference to the need of identification. which always refers to some ultimate unity of all the fields. it is disputable. or world. 這些談論很有可能強迫我們從事至少是策略性地撤退，然後從本體重新開始， 詢問我們自己是否知道，本體會除掉領域的界限，無論是處於現代科學家應該 被明確指定的這個領域的層次，因為現代科學家不再是對一切學問樣樣精通的 人。 I do not accept Duhem's demand that every science should refer to a unitary. and may even be regarded as false. to ask ourselves1 knowing that praxis delimits a field. is to be specified. system—a reference that is always in fact more or less idealist.I would date in the seventeenth century.
which is tinged to a greater or lesser degree with obscurantism. to the mystical experience. but why shouldn't we expect psycho-analysis to throw some light on it? 或許會有兩棵不同的樹幹，如同聖經創世紀的第一章所描述---對於這個神話， 我絲毫沒有給予特別的重視。它帶有相當濃厚的蒙昧主義的氣息。但是為什麼我 們不期望精神分析跟它啟蒙開明？ If we hold to the notion of experience. as in the first chapter of Genesis. in the sense of the field of a praxis. 在此有一種曖昧模糊---將一種經驗隸屬於一種科學的檢視，總是暗示著，這個 經驗的本身擁有一種科學的存在。 但是顯而易見的，我們無法將神秘的經驗，重 新介紹進入科學。 雄伯譯 18 . Indeed. and that we almost arrive at the stage of thinking that we can have a scientific apprehension of this experience. we see very well that it is not enough to define a science. But it is obvious that we cannot re-introduce the mystical experience into science. this definition might be applied very well. two different trunks—not that I attach in any way an exceptional importance to this myth. for example. 甚至從這道門，它再一次被認為是科學。 我們幾乎到達思想的這個階段，我們能 夠以科學角度理解這個經驗。 There is a sort of ambiguity here—to subject an experience to a scientific examination always implies that the experience has of itself a scientific subsistance. 假如我們堅守精神分析經驗的觀念，作為本體的領域的意義，我們很清楚看出， 光是定義科學是不足夠的。 的確，這個定義可能被廣泛應用，譬如，被應用到神 秘主義的經驗。 It is even by this door that it is regarded once again as scientific.我們將會更加容易地從這個一致性抽離出來，因為這個事實：畢竟，它是具有 爭議性的，甚至可能會被認為是虛假。 科學之樹根本就沒有需要擁有一棵大樹幹。 我不認為樹幹會有很多。 There are perhaps.
com. is decisive. Although chemistry was born with Lavoisier. based on the field determined by a praxis. be applied to alchemy to give it the status of a science? I was recently rereading a little book that is not even included in Diderot's Complete Works. but which certainly seems to be by him. 是什麼讓我們立刻說，儘管他描述從過去幾世紀來的故事，具有令人暈眩的特 性，當一切被說被做了，那難道不是科學嗎？以我之見，某件事情是決定性的。 換句話說，運作者靈魂的純淨本身，明確地，是這件事情的基本要素。 This remark is not beside the point.com Concept 005 THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN Book XI 拉康研討班第十一冊 THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS 精神分析四個基本觀念 I EXCOMMUNICATION 被教會開除 One further remark. but of alchemy. since we may be about to 19 .32hsiung@pchome. namely. when all is said and done.tw http://springhero. 讓我們更深一層探討。 這個科學的定義，由本體決定的領域為基礎，能夠運用到 煉金術嗎？我最近重新閱讀一本小書，笛特羅百科全書甚至沒有收入它，但是 他似乎覺得那確實就是百科全書。 雖然化學誕生於拉瓦西爾，笛特羅在這本小書 裏談論，以我們期望他的極其微妙的心靈，不是談到化學，而是談到煉金術。 What is it that makes us say at once that. that the purity of soul of the operator was.wordpress. with all the subtlety of mind we expect of him. is not a science? Something. not of chemistry. Might this definition of science. as you may realize. in my view. an essential element in the matter. Diderot speaks throughout this little book. as such. and in a specific way. alchemy. despite the dazzling character of the stories he recounts from ages past.
and to maintain that it is perhaps what our training analysis seeks. No one pays any attention to him anyway. Is this desire something of the same order as that which is required of the adept of alchemy? 假如有位像奧本海默的物理學家，詢問我們大家，關於現代物理學的基礎隱藏 的欲望是什麼，那確實會有一連串的危機。無論如何，沒有人注意他。這被認為 是一件政治的意外事件。 這個欲望是某件跟要求煉金術的靈巧，相同層次的東西 嗎， In any case. 這個談論並非無關緊要，你們可能體會到，因為我們即將提出某件類似的東西， 關於分析師存在於精神分析的偉大工作裏，並且主張，這或許就是我們的精神 分析訓練要尋求的東西。 I may even seem to have been saying the same thing myself in my teaching recently. And the training analysis has no other purpose than to bring the analyst to the point I designate in my 20 . all veils torn aside. of the physicist? 在分析師的欲望裏，一定有什麼讓它正確地運作？這個問題能夠被放置在我們 領域限制的外面嗎？如同實際上它在科學裏被放置在外面—確定方式的的現代 科學---在那裏，沒有人置疑他自己，譬如，關於物理學家的欲望是什麼？ There really must be a series of crises for an Oppenheimer to question us all as to what there is in the desire that lies at the basis of modern physics. towards that central point that I put in question.raise something similar concerning the presence of the analyst in the analytic Great Work. and in a quite overt way. It is thought to be a political incident. for the simple reason that the problem of the training of the analyst poses it. for example. namely—what is the analjvst's desire? 我自己甚至在我最近的教學裏，似乎曾經說過相同的事情。 當我直接指出，所有 的面紗被撕開後，以公然的方式，朝向我置疑的那個中心點，也就是---分析師 的欲望是什麼？ 3 What must there be in the analyst's desire for it to operate in a correct way? Can this question be left outside the limits of our field. when I point straight out. as it is in effect in the sciences—the modern sciences of the most assured type—where no one questions himself as to what there must be in the desire. the analyst's desire can in no way be left outside our question.
after all. 無論如何，分析師的欲望根本就不能被擺置在我們問題的外面，理由很簡單， 分析師的訓練的問題提出它。 精神分析的訓練沒有其他目的，除了就是要將分析 師帶到我指明的那一點，我曾以代數公式表示分析師的欲望。 Here. again. appears to have such problematic features. may be expressed in formulae. You may feel that I am leading you. just like a true science.algebra as the analyst's desire. 而且，在此，我目前必須將這個問題攤開。 你們可能感覺到，我正在漸漸地引導 你們，到某個這樣的問題---農業是一門科學嗎？有些人會說是，有些人會說不 是。 我提供這個例子，僅是要跟你們建議，你們應該區別由一個客體定義的農業， 跟被某個領域定義的農業，原諒我這樣說—農業跟農業經營學的差別。 This enables me to bring out one definite dimension—we are at the abc stage. 這讓我顯示一個明確的向度---我們僅是處於創造公式的開始的階段，但是畢竟 我們無可奈何。 Is that enough to define the conditions of a science? I don't think so. I must for the moment leave the question open. The question is not so simple. 這樣就足夠定義一門科學的條件嗎？我不這樣認為。 一門虛假的科學，就像一門 真實的科學，都可能用公式表達。 因此這個問題並不那麼簡單，當精神分析，作 為一門被假定的科學，似乎具有如此問題重重的特徵。 What are the formulae in psycho-analysis concerned with? What motivates and modulates this 'sliding-away' (glissement) of the object? Are there psycho-analytic concepts that we are now in possession of? How are we to understand the almost religious maintenance of the terms proposed by Freud to structure the analytic experience? Was Freud really the first. A false science. then. as a supposed science. to some such question as—Is agriculture a science? Some people will say yes. we can't help it— that of formula making. little by little. when psycho-analysis. but. I offer this example only to suggest to you that you should make some distinction between agriculture defined by an object and agriculture defined. if you'll forgive me. some people no. by a field—between agriculture and agronomy. and did he really remain the only theoretician 21 .
this pile. of conquest. 事實上，處於所有理論的討論的核心，在那沉悶而嚴峻的討論鎖鏈 （除了精神 分析師，沒有人閱讀它們），佛洛伊德的觀念的主張，眾所周知是精神分析的 文獻，並沒有改變這個事實：一般的精神分析還沒有迎頭趕上這些觀念。 在這些 文獻裏，大部分的觀念受的扭曲，貶抑，片面曲解，艱澀的部分則是完全被忽 22 .sis is a science. does not alter the fact that analysts in general have not yet caught up with these concepts. that in this literature most of the concepts are distorted. tedious. in movement. to be revised at a later date? 假如沒有這根主桅，這根主帆，這根柱子，我們精神分析的實踐停泊在那裏？ 我們甚至能夠說，我們正在處理的是嚴謹意義的觀念嗎？它們是精神分析形成 過程的觀念嗎？它們是發展的過程，移動的過程，以後要校正的觀念嗎？ I think this is a question in which we can maintain that some progress has already been made. for example.of this supposed science to have introduced fundamental concepts? Were this so. debased. it would be very unusual in the history of the sciences. from which it derives. where can our practice be moored? Can we even say that what we are dealing with are concepts in the strict sense? Are they concepts in the process of formation? Are they concepts in the process of development. 精神分析學的公式關係到什麼？是什麼觸發及調適這個客體的「溜滑」 ？我們現 在擁有的精神分析的觀念能夠成立嗎？我們應該如何瞭解，佛洛伊德為了建構 精神分析經驗，所建議的這些術語，幾乎帶有宗教的主張？佛洛伊德真的是第 一位，並且始終是這門被假定的科學，曾經介紹基本觀念的唯一的理論家嗎？ 假如是這樣，在科學的歷史，這將是很不尋常的事情。 Without this trunk. clearly retrograde and pre-conceptual. in a direction that can only be one of work. 我認為在這個問題，我們能夠主張，某些的進展已經被達成，朝著研究與克服 的方向，為了要解決這個問題，關於精神分析是否是一門科學？ In fact. in relation to Freud's concepts. and that those that are too difficult are quite simply ignored—that. forbidding chain—which is read by nobody but psycho-analysts — known as the psycho-analytic literature. fragmented. with a view to resolving the question as to whether psjcho-anal. everything that has been developed around the concept of frustration is. the maintenance of Freud's concepts at the centre of all theoretical discussion in that dull. this mast.
with the ternary structure of the Oedipus complex or with the castration complex. by an enumeration of the 'main sewer' type. with certain rare exceptions to be found among my pupils.tw http://springhero. a certain quantity of facts have been gathered together. the accumulated material of the psycho-analytic experience to the level of platitude. no one is any longer concerned. 的確，對於精神分析的理論的地位，這不能算是貢獻。 對於像費尼奇爾這樣的作 家，他將「主要脈絡」 的方式列舉，將精神分析經驗的累積的資料，化簡到陳腔 濫調的層次， Of course. and there is some point in seeing them grouped into a few chapters. in a whole field.com.com Concept 006 THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN Book XI 拉康研討班第十一冊 THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS 精神分析四個基本觀念 I EXCOMMUNICATION 被教會開除 It is certainly no contribution to the theoretical status of psycho-analysis for a writer like Fenichel to reduce. 23 .wordpress.略---例如，關於挫折的觀念，曾經被發展的內容，跟佛洛伊德的觀念有關，從 那裏獲得的東西，很明顯是一種倒退與觀念前期。 Similarly. but one cannot avoid the impression that. everything is explained in advance. 相同地，在我的學生當中，不再有人關心到某些罕見的例外，能夠被找到，關 於伊底普斯情結或閹割情結的第三層結構。 雄伯譯 32hsiung@pchome.
But this does not tell us anything about why he began to speak. it amounts to overcoming the barrier of silence. was called the analysis of the resistances. 精神分析確實是在於要她說話。 因此，我們可以說，在最後結論時，那相等於是 要克服沉默的障礙。那就是有段時間被稱為抗拒的精神分析學。 The symptom is first of all the silence in the supposed speaking subject. in the case of the silent girl. 它僅是跟我們指明一個不同的特徵，就這位元沉默的女孩的案例而言，如同我 們所能期望的，那就是歇斯底里症的特徵。 Now. 精神分析的問題，並不是要在一個特別的個案，發現不同的理論特徵，然後在 這樣做時，相信我們就是在解釋為什麼你的女兒沉默不語---因為受到爭議的這 一點，是要讓她談話。 這個效果從某種的介入繼續前進，而這種介入卻是跟不同 的理論特徵沒有絲毫關係。 Analysis consists precisely in getting her to speak. that of the hysteric. he is cured of his silence. obviously. is. 在這位被假定的言說的生命主體，病徵首先是沉默。 假如他談話，顯而易見的， 他的沉默的病徵就算是被治療好。 但是這並沒有告訴我們任何有關為什麼他開始 談話。 It merely designates for us a differential feature which.當然，某些數量的事實曾經被收集，觀看它們被聚集成為幾個章節，是有些意 義。但是我們不能避免這個印象：在整個領域，每一樣東西都預先被解釋。 Analysis is not a matter of discovering in a particular case the differential feature of the theory. the differential feature of the hysteric is precisely this —it is in the very movement of speaking that the hysteric constitutes her desire. It might be said. as was only to be expected. If he speaks. 24 . and this effect proceeds from a type of intervention that has nothing to do with a differential feature. in reality. that in the last resort. So it is hardly surprising that it should be through this door that Freud entered what was. and in doing so believe that one is explaining why your daughter is silent —for the point at issue is to get her to speak. at one time. therefore. and this is what.
The truth is perhaps simply one thing. 欲望跟語言的這個關係本身，並沒有隱藏不被他發現，這是他天才橫溢。 但是這 並不是說，這層關係就可根據移情的宏偉觀念，充分被說明---根本就沒有。 The fact that. than to 25 . in Freud. There has to be one. 現在，歇斯底里症的不同特徵確實就是這個---就在談話的這個動作，歇斯底里 症患者構成她的欲望。 佛洛伊德通過這個門檻，進入實際上是欲望跟語言的關係， 然後發現無意識的機械結構，這幾乎是不足為奇。 That this relation of desire to language as such did not remain concealed from him is a feature of his genius. was never analysed. I would say. 事實上，為了要治療歇斯底里症患者所有她的病徵，最好的方法就是滿足她的 歇斯底里症的欲望---對於她而言，那就是提出她跟我們關係的欲望，作為沒有 被滿足的欲望---將為什麼她能夠維持她的欲望，作為沒有被滿足的欲望，這個 明確的問題完全被擺置一旁。 So hysteria places us.the relations of desire to language and discovered the mechanisms of the unconscious. but this is not to say that the relation was fully elucidated—far from it—by the massive notion of the transference. the desire of Freud himself. in order to cure the hysteric of all her symptoms. namely. 我已經到達確實就是這一點，很不湊巧地，當時我的立場卻是必須放棄我的研 討班。 What I had to say on the Names-of-the-Father had no other purpose. on the track of some kind of original sin in analysis. the best way is to satisfy her hysteric's desire—which is for her to posit her desire in relation to us as an unsatisfied desire —leaves entirely to one side the specific question of why she can sustain her desire only as an unsatisfied desire. in fact. the fact that something. by a strange coincidence. 所以，我不妨這樣說，歇斯底里症將我們放置在精神分析，某種原罪的軌道上。 必須要有一種原罪。 真相或許僅是一件事情，換句話說，佛洛伊德本身的欲望， 事實上，在佛洛伊德身上有某件東西從來沒有被分析。 I had reached precisely this point when. I was put into the position of having to give up my seminar.
repetition. namely. at our next meeting. by considering the way in which. in our next meeting. such a mode of questioning the field of experience will be guided. implicit function of the signifier as such.put in question the origin. 這是絕對重要的，假如我們希望精神分析能自圓其說，我們應該回溯到起源。 In any case. I promised myself to break off at twenty-past two. and which makes it possible to show their operational value in this field. I have situated these concepts in relation to the more general function that embraces them. 我們將到達我們的下一步驟，在我們下一次會面。 我們會考慮在我過去的教學， 我用什麼方式定位這些觀念，關於接受它們的更加一般性的功用。 這使我們能夠 顯示它們在這個領域的運作的價值。 換句話說，能指的本身作為基礎的暗含的功 用。 This year. 今年，我對自己承渃要在兩點二十分結束，為了留下時間，讓那些並不需要馬 上前進到別的研究的人，發問有關我的講演的問題。 26 . the unconscious. the transference and the drive? 無論如何，這樣一種質疑精神分析領域的模式，在我們下一次會面時，將會被 引導，根據以下的指稱---對於佛洛伊德介紹的這四個術語，作為基本的觀念， 我們必須給予怎樣觀念的地位？換句話說，無意識，重複，移情與驅力。 We will reach our next step. in my past teaching. so as to leave time for those who do not have to go on at once to other pursuits to ask questions arising from my lecture. namely. 對於以父親之名，我必須說的內容，並沒有其他目的，事實上，除了就是置疑 這個起源，為了發現憑藉什麼特權，佛洛伊德的欲望能夠找到這個入口，進入 他指明作為無意識的精神分析經驗的領域。 It is absolutely essential that we should go back to this origin if we wish to put analysis on its feet. to discover by what privilege Freud's desire was able to find the entrance into the field of experience he designates as the unconscious. the subjacent. by the following reference—what conceptual status must we give to four of the terms introduced by Freud as fundamental concepts.
It was here that I brought the desire of the hysteric into play. however. 可是，佛洛伊德的欲望，我擺放在更高的層次。 我曾經說過，佛洛伊德在精神分 析實踐的領域，始終依靠某種的原初的欲望。 這個原初的欲望總是扮演一個曖昧 而支配性的角色，在精神分析的傳承。 27 . but is it enough to accommodate the unconscious as such? And if it is able to do so. but dominant role in the transmission of psychoanalysis. does it accommodate the Freudian unconscious? 我提出以下的問題：「原初思想」 的功用，處於社會法規的基礎是一個人的無意 識。 但是僅是接納無意識的本身就足夠了嗎？假如它能夠這樣做，它就接納佛洛 伊德的無意識嗎？ It was through the hysterics that Freud learnt the way of the strictly Freudian unconscious. might you not be accused of psychologism？ 陀特：當你敍述佛洛伊德的欲望及歇斯底里的欲望時，你會不會被責怪賣弄心 理學？ LACAN: The reference to Freud's desire is not a psychological reference—and reference to the hysteric's desire is not a psychological reference. I have placed at a higher level. which places at the basis of the statutes of society. TORT: When you relate to Freud's desire and to the desire of the hysteric. 拉康：提到佛洛伊德的欲望，並不是一種心理學的指稱，提到歇斯底里症的欲 望，也不是一種心理學的指稱。 I posed the following question: the functioning of 'Primitive Thinking' (la Pensée sauvage). which always plays an ambiguous. I have said that the Freudian field of analytic practice remained dependent on a certain original desire. while indicating at the same time that Freud did not stop there.QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 問題與回答 M. is one unconscious. 通過歇斯底里症，佛洛伊德學到嚴格來說是佛洛伊德無意識的方式。 就在這裏， 我運作歇斯底里症的欲望，一方面同時指示著，佛洛伊德並沒有停止在那裏。 Freud's desire.
Well! Freud. is concerned with desire as an object.The problem of this desire is not psychological. too. 15 January 1964 這個欲望的問題並不是心理學，如同蘇格拉底的欲望的未解決問題，也並不是 心理學。 關於生命主體的地位，有一個完整的主題的領域，當蘇格拉底宣稱，他 並沒有將欲望擺放在原初主觀的位置，而是擺放在一個客體的位置。 呵呵！佛洛 伊德也是關心到欲望作為一個客體。 1964年1月15日 雄伯譯 email@example.com. There is an entire thematic area concerning the status of the subject when Socrates declares that he does not place desire in a position of original subjectivity. but in the position of an object.tw http://springhero. any more than is the unsolved problem of Socrates' desire.com 28 .