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TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

COURSE

OIL AND GAS TECHNOLOGY

 

CODE

SUBJECT

 

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

 

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

Objectives: Upon finishing this unit the trainees should be able to:

 

Outline a typical identification system

 

Recognize the most common instrument symbols and their meanings

 

Contents:

 

1. Introduction

 

2. Outline of the identification system

 

3. Functional identification

 

4. Symbols in process control

 

5. Symbol recognition

 

Flow Level Pressure Temperature Final Control Element Miscellaneous symbols

6. Summary

 

ANNEX 1: A typical P&ID Legend Sheet

 

Prepared by

Danial

Checked by

Yeganeh

Approved by

T.T.F

Ghasempour

Larijani

Date

5/17/00

Date

5/30/00

Date

5/30/00

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

1. INTRODUCTION

Every scientific and technical subject develops a specialized language for transferring information and ideas. The language usually includes words, abbreviations and symbols that are unique to that particular subject. Anyone who is learning a technical subject must also learn the language of that subject. This includes the symbols and abbreviations. For the subject of industrial process instrumentation, a set of codes and symbols has been developed to provide a satisfactory system of instrument identification and to make instrumentation drawings and layouts more consistent. Once you become familiar with these codes and symbols, it will be much easier to understand instrument drawings and systems. It should be noted that in past years there have been a number of different coding systems such as those developed by the Scientific Apparatus Makers Association (S.A.M.A.). In more recent years the codes preferred, were those developed by the Instrument Society of America (I.S.A.). These codes have been generally accepted into the International codes and standards. The codes and symbols used in this unit will be examples taken from the I.S.A. system. Practically, it is always wise to look at the instrument legend before attempting to read Instrument diagrams.

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

2. OUTLINE OF THE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

Each instrument shall be identified first by a system of letters. These are used to classify the instruments functionally. They give information regarding what type of variable is being measured or controlled and what function the instrument is performing. To identify the instrument loop, a number is joined to the letters. This number will usually be common to other instruments of the loop of which the instrument is a part. Sometimes a suffix (extra letter) is added after the number to complete the loop identification.

P

First letter

RC

302

A

Succeeding

Letters

Loop

Number

Suffix

(Usually not needed)

Functional identification

Loop identification

Instrument Identification or Tag Number

Table 2.1 - System For Identifying Instrument Symbols

The instrument tag number may include coded information such as the plant area location. Each instrument may be represented on a diagram by a symbol. The symbol may also have identification.

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

3. FUNCTIONAL IDENTIFICATION

The functional identification of an instrument shall be made up of letters taken from Table 3.1 on the next page. The code shall include one first letter, covering the measured or initiating variable followed by succeeding letters that cover the functions of the instrument. An exception to this rule is the use of the letter 'L' to denote a pilot light that is not part of an instrument loop.

The functional identification of an instrument shall be made according to the function of the instrument and not according to the construction. A typical example is when a differential pressure recorder is used to record rates of flow. It will then be identified as a flow recorder even though it is actually measuring differential pressure. Another example is when a pressure switch is connected to the output of a pneumatic level transmitter. The pressure switch (PS) shall be identified as a level switch (LS) because the pressure change at the switch is due to a change in the level transmitter output.

In an instrument loop, the first letter of the functional identification shall be selected according to the measured or initiating variable and not according to the manipulated variable. An example is when a flow control valve is used to control liquid level. The valve is called a level control valve (LCV) and not a flow control valve (FCV).

The succeeding letters of the functional identification are assigned one or more readout or indicating functions or output functions or both. A modifying letter may be used if required in addition to one or more other succeeding letters.

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

 

MEANINGS OF IDENTIFICATION LETTERS

 

This table applies only to the functional identification of Instruments

 

FIRST LETTER

SUCCEEDING LETTERS

 

MEASURED OR INITIATING VARIABLE

 

READOUT OR

   

MODIFIER

PASSIVE

OUTPUT

MODIFIER

 

FUNCTION

FUNCTION

A

Analysis

 

Alarm

   

B

Burner Flame

 

User's choice

User's choice

User's choice

C

Conductivity

   

Control

 

(Electrical.)

D

Density (Mass) or Specific Gravity

Differential

     

E

Voltage (EMF)

 

Primary Element

   

F

Flow Rate

Ratio/Fraction

     

G

Gauging

 

Glass

   

H

Hand (Manually initiated)

     

High

I

Current (Electrical)

 

Indicate

   

J

Power

Scan

     

K

Time or Schedule

   

Control Station

 

L

Level

 

Light (Pilot)

 

Low

 

Moisture or Humidity

     

Middle or

M

Intermediate

N

User's choice

 

User's choice

User's choice

User's choice

O

User's choice

 

Orifice/Restriction

   
 

Pressure or Vacuum

 

Point

   

P

(Test connection)

Q

Quantity or event

Integrate or

     

Totalize

R

Radioactivity

 

Record or Print

   

S

Speed or Frequency

Safety

 

Switch

 

T

Temperature

   

Transmit

 

U

Multivariable

 

Multifunction

Multifunction

Multifunction

V

Viscosity

   

Valve, Damper

 

or Louver

W

Weight or Force

 

Well

   

X

Unclassified

 

Unclassified

Unclassified

Unclassified

Y

User's choice

   

Relay or

 

Compute

Z

Position

   

Drive, Actuate

 

or unclassified

 

final control

element

Table 3.1 - Meanings of identification letters

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

In drawings, tag numbers are placed in circles called balloons. The following diagram shows the standard balloon arrangements.

following diagram shows the standard balloon arrangements. Fig. 3.1 - Balloon arrangements Note that the functional

Fig. 3.1 - Balloon arrangements

Note that the functional identification is always in the top half of the balloon while the loop number is in the bottom half. A solid line drawn across the center of the balloon indicates a board-mounted instrument. A broken line across the center of the balloon indicates a behind the board mounted instrument. A balloon with no centerline indicates that the instrument is local or field mounted (i.e. local to the plant and not on a panel board). When two balloons are touching, multiple functions are indicated. A typical example of this would be a multi point recorder where the recorder had pens to record pressure temperature and flow. In this case there would be three balloons touching, each with its respective tag number. If the instrument is board mounted, there may be a small number on the outside of the balloon. This identifies the control board where the instrument is located.

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

4. SYMBOLS IN PROCESS CONTROL

Different types of process control signals are used in industrial instrumentation. Process control signals can be any of the following types:

Pneumatic.

Electronic.

Hydraulic.

Sonic.

Indication radioactivity.

Each type has a different symbol as shown below.

 Indication radioactivity. Each type has a different symbol as shown below. Fig. 4.1 - Instrument

Fig. 4.1 - Instrument connecting lines

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

T.T.F. SUBJECT INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS CODE P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001 Fig. 4.2 - Typical heat exchanger control loops Figure 4.2

Fig. 4.2 - Typical heat exchanger control loops

Figure 4.2 shows a typical diagram for a process heat exchanger. In this diagram the steam flows to the heat exchanger to heat the process fluid. Note that various primary elements and different types of signals are used. To demonstrate applications, electronic and pneumatic signals are shown. Board mounted recorder FR 100 has an electronic input while board mounted TRC 102 has a pneumatic input. Board mounted TRC 101 has a filled or thermal system input.

Studying a drawing similar to the heat exchanger diagram can learn a lot of information about both process and instrumentation. The combined loops measuring steam flow (FR 102) and steam pressure (PR 103) show how symbols are applied. For example, note how the locally mounted transmitter FT 102 sends a signal to board mounted recorder FR

102. The number 1 identifies the board location. Similar information from the pressure

loop (PT 103 and PR 103) includes the fact that the downstream pressure is recorded. When compressible fluids (gas, air, vapor, or steam) are measured, the use of upstream or downstream pressure will noticeably affect the final quantity or volume that is calculated from the recording charts. The solid line joining the pressure transmitter to the process is positioned on the exchange side of the orifice, meaning the downstream pressure is recorded. In flow loop 100 the flow element or primary measuring element is not the same as the one used in the steam loop. The arrow with the letter "P" (P stands for purge) shows that the process fluid is either scale forming or a type of fluid that must not come into contact with the wet parts of the transmitter. The output signal is electronic and not pneumatic. In the temperature loop the final control element is a valve. The "FO" by the symbol shows that the valve will be "Fail Open" if the air signal fails or if the valve diaphragm bursts. The second balloon attached to the TRC (TS 101) means a pen activated switch is used to actuate a TAL (Temperature alarm low), which is also located on the central control board or panel.

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

5. SYMBOL RECOGNITION

If you are to determine the meanings of loop connections, you should be able to recognize symbols representing primary and final devices. Primary devices for the main process variables (i.e. flow, level, pressure and temperature) are shown in the following primary element diagrams. Other final and primary elements exist in addition to those shown. However, if you can understand the symbols shown here, the others will be easy to recognize.

5.1 Flow

Much time and effort has gone into designing standard symbols that look similar to the actual operating mechanism. For example, FE 9 clearly shows some form of propeller device while FE 6 shows some form of restriction to the flow line.

of propeller device while FE 6 shows some form of restriction to the flow line. Fig.

Fig. 5.1.1 - Primary elements for flow

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

5.2 Level

The diagram below shows that level symbols and actual installations are fairly similar. Note the difference between LT 18 and LT 19. LT 18 has differential taps applied to a closed or pressurized vessel while LT 19 is piped to an open or atmospheric vessel. Note also that the low-pressure side is vented to atmosphere.

vessel. Note also that the low-pressure side is vented to atmosphere. Fig. 5.2.1 - Primary elements

Fig. 5.2.1 - Primary elements for level

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

5.3 Pressure

The diagram below shows some applications of pressure measurement common in process instrumentation. In P 28 the direction of flow is shown where the pressure measurement is taken. In this system the downstream pressure is measured. If the process requirements were such that the upstream pressure needed to be measured the flow arrow would be reversed or the PT would be placed on the opposite leg of the FT.

would be reversed or the PT would be placed on the opposite leg of the FT.

Fig. 5.3.1 - primary elements for pressure

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

5.4 Temperature

In the diagram below, "TW" s (Test wells) are included with the primary elements. For example, primary element TR 31 indicates a temperature recorder that is directly connected to a process pipe by a filled thermal system. A “TW" is usually installed within 250 to 300 mm of the thermal element. The test well is used to test installed instruments for accuracy without removing or replacing the primary element.

for accuracy without removing or replacing the primary element. Fig. 5.4.1 - Primary elements for temperature

Fig. 5.4.1 - Primary elements for temperature

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

5.5 Final control elements

Valves, the final devices in a control loop are shown in the diagram below. While valves are the most common final elements, other types are also used. These include damper drives, speed controls or other types of positioning hardware. Notice that any of the actuators can be used with any of the bodies shown. Usually, you can use only the simplest symbols on many drawings and reserve the detailed specifications for instrument loop diagrams.

many drawings and reserve the detailed specifications for instrument loop diagrams. Fig. 5.5.1 - Final control

Fig. 5.5.1 - Final control elements

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

5.6 Miscellaneous symbols

The diagram below shows other frequently used symbols. Because many of these symbols will be found in our piping and instrument drawings, it is important that you become familiar with them.

piping and instrument drawings, it is important that you become familiar with them. Fig. 5.6.1 -

Fig. 5.6.1 - Miscellaneous symbols

TSP-POGC-NIGC

T.T.F.

SUBJECT

INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS

CODE

P/TM/TRG/I.IS/001

6. SUMMARY

An instrument identification system should include the following:

Tag numbers to define process function and instrument location.

Symbols to identify pneumatic, electronic, capillary, hydraulic, sonic or radioactivity process control signals.

Symbols to represent primary and final control devices that govern flow, level, pressure and temperature.

Four types of drawings are used in process control systems:

Piping and instrument drawings (P & IDs.) as the basis of any process design.

Location drawings to indicate the position of installed instrument equipment.

Installation drawings to provide details of components and instrument positions.

Loop diagrams for calibration and trouble shooting purposes.

As noted in the Introduction, there are other symbols published, so before trying to read instrument diagrams, make sure you study the instrument legend first.