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UNIT II ENGLISH USAGE RULES OG ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND USAGE English presents innumerable difficulties of usage for those

whose mothe r tongue it is not. The main obstacle is the vernacular idiom which is deeply en trenched in the students mind. He thinks in the vernacular and fashions his Engli sh sentences on the lines of the vernacular idiom. It is difficult for him to kn ow his errors because the errors such as he commits are also freely committed by many with whom he communicates in English. The result is, he comes to cultivate speaking and writing a variety of English which can hardly be understood by an Englishman, or an American.

In this module we shall attempt to explain some of the rules of English Grammar and Usage, the neglect of which is the main cause of errors. UNIT - 1 THE ARTICLES An: An (short form of one) is used before words beginning with an open vowel a, e i, o, u (e.g.) an ass, an enemy, an uncle. But an is not used when the vowel is n ot open, for example, before such words as university, European, one-eyed man etc. Th ugh these words begin with a vowel, they are not open vowels. The u in university is pronounced as yoo and the vowel o in one is pronounced as Wa. I am an university student (incorrect) I met an one-eyed man (incorrect) I am a university student. (correct) I met a one-eyed man (correct) An is correctly used before words beginning with a silent h (an hour, an honest man) d before such consonants as are pronounced with the sound of an open vowel as an M.A. an F.C.A. and L.L.B. etc. Thus the choice between a and an is made by pronu not by spelling. Words beginning with a consonant sound take a words beginning wi th a vowel sound take an. The: The definite article the is used in the following manner. 1. I hate the fellow (To indicate a person, a place or a thin g already referred to) 2. Lets go to the club ( ) 3. Did you read the book? ( ) 4. The lion is the king of beasts (before a singular noun represen ting a whole class) 5. The dog is a faithful animal ( ) 6. The Tajmahal, The Himalayas, The Ganges, the Pacific, the Andamans, the U.S.A. (before names of buildings, mountain ranges, rivers, oceans, gul fs, or group of islands, abbreviations of the names of countries) 7. The Ramayana, the Bible, The Times of India (before names of books, newspapers, periodicals) 8. The sun, the moon, the earth, the sky (before names of things unique) 9. She is the prettiest woman I have ever met (with superlativ es) 10. The sooner the better (as an adverb with comparative) 11. This is the thing to do (to give the noun the force of superlati ve) 12. In the wrong, on the contrary, off the mark (in certain idio matic phrases) Do not 13. 14. 15. 16. use the in the following cases: Bombay is a big city (before proper nouns) Mt.Everest is the tallest peak (single mountain peak) Man is mortal (noun used in its widest sense) Gold is a precious metal. (material nouns)

17. fever, typhoid etc. (before names of diseases unless these n ames are plural in form e.g. the measles, the mumps) 18. hell, heaven, God, Parliament (the Pope, the Devil are excepti ons) 19. red, blue, green (colours) 20. President Bush, Queen Elizabeth (before certain titles followed by names) a) An is used in the following cases i) Before a silent h or y pronounced as ee an heir an honour an honest man an hour an honorarium an yield ii) Before single letters and abbreviation starting with a vowel sound: an A class an IOU b) The article a is used in following cases: i) Before words beginning with an aspirated h a hill a habitual a home a hypothesis a hero a historical ii) Before words beginning with a vowel but with the sound of a consonant a eulogy a unique a euphemism a unit a ewe a usurper a once only chance a unanimous iii) With single letters or abbreviations starting with a consonant sound a B grade hotel a T U C number a K L M flight c) The following words do not take any article The company did not offer him accommodation Legislation to c urb smuggling is too weak. The idea is anathema Peace descended on the two countries at last Curfew was imposed in Ahmedabad The hospital staff marched in pr ocession Conditions were not favourable If you have forgotten the subjec t you have to start from scratch. The officials met in conference to discuss the problem The bank employees are on strike. d) The is used in the following cases: Give someone the benefit of doubt The motion was put to th e vote Go to the cinema, the theatre Go on the rampage. At the point of the knife At the national level Give the slip She is of the opinion The monsoons In accordance with the law The lower you descend, the easier the fall In the public in terest e) A, An are used in the following In an assembly of 30 people He gave an assurance A breach of peace Caught accepting a bribe cases The leader showed an interest in In a majority of cases Lack of a quorum Run a temperature

Arrested on a charge of murder

UNIT 2 NOUNS a) Some nouns have the same form both in the singular and the plural e.g. d eer, sheep, fish, apparatus etc. - Sheep live in flocks (not sheeps) - Here are the apparatus we brought. b) Some nouns, though singular in form, are used as plural e.g. cattle, poultry, people, gentry, public, offspring, police, swine, compa ny, poor, progeny etc. Whose cattles are these? (Wrong, say cattle) c) Some nouns, though plural in form, are used as singular e.g. scissors, spectacles, trousers, measles, news, means (as in means and ends), remains, alms, riches, wages, gallows, economics, mathematics, etc..

I want my trouser. (Wrong, say trousers) But scissors, spectacles and tr ousers are usually expressed as a pair of scissors etc. in the singular. d) Some nouns are used in the singular only, e.g. Scenery, information, poetry, hair, furniture, advice, mischief, busines s, bread, etc. bread takes the plural form breads to express breads of different varietie s. However, in the ordinary sense we say one loaf of bread, two loaves of bread. The sceneries of Kashmir are very charming (wrong, say , scenery .. is. Y ou can, however, say scenes .are). e) Material names denoting a mass of matter are used in the singular, e.g. Houses made of brick and stone are now common in Indian villages. There are many kinds of copper. f) It is not always that you form a plural by adding s or es at the end of a co mpound word, e.g. Fathers-in-law; Commanders-in-chief but Major Generals. g) A noun which is made to do the work of an adjective in a compound word s hould not be pluralized e.g. A five-rupee note , a several man committee, a four-mile walk etc. h) Collective Nouns: A noun is collective when it denotes a single group of similar individuals. There is no strict rule for the use of the singular with s uch nouns. Thus we may say, i) The committee has (or have) recently published its (or their) report. ii) The company regret (or regrets) their (or its) need to revise the prices . depending on whether we wish to stress the idea of the group or of the individ uals comprising it. The important thing is the consistent use of the singular or the plural throughout the same document. You cannot say. The audience is requested to keep to THEIR seats! iii) A distinction is made between two kinds of collective nouns. i) The true collective, used to denote the group as a whole, and ii) The noun of multitude, used to denote the members forming the group. The former takes a verb in the singular; the latter, a verb in plural. i) True Collective (stressing the group) The committee consisted of ten elected members. The firm has just celebrated its centenary. ii) Noun of Multitude (stressing the members framing the group) The crew wish to consult their union. The Committee were not unanimous in rejecting the proposal. iv) Collective with of: it is better to keep the collective followed by of in pl ural.

A number of typists leave at 5 p.m. A number of machines need repairing.

i) Possessive Restrict the apostrophe () denoting possessive case to a) living things, eg. a cats paw, a mans hand. b) things personified eg. natures gifts c) space, time, or weight, eg. a days journey, a boats length. d) Some idiomatic phrases, eg. at his wits end, out of harms way, at a stones throw. The use of the possessive, except in cases above, sounds awkward. Do not say: Publics attitude (attitude of the public) Fountain pens nib (nib of the fountain pen) Do not put apostrophe with s after plurals ending in s. Put it correctly as: in boys schools, horses tails, monkeys chatter. Possessive in these cases is indicated merely by adding apostrophe after (s). Apostrophe (s) is also omitted in some words where too many hissing sounds occur eg. for goodness sake, for Jesus sake. Never add possessive () to the words, his hers, its, theirs, yours, mine, ours. They are possessive in form. SOME MORE PLURAL FORMS Foreign Plurals bacillus radius analysis critierion larva vortex beau bureau cactus fungus terminus formula acquarium genius genii Zero Plurals Cod, salmon, trout series, species Chinese, Japanese, Swiss Regular & Zero Form (Existing side by side) hunting context: We caught seven fish. Found in flocks: We saw a great many antelope There are several antelopes in the Zoo. Measurements: have a zero plural when preceded by a nominal Three dozen knives Four thousand people Million: The circulation of the paper rose to five million (or mi llions) to indicate sums of money: The national debt was fifty millions. After indications of number (several, some, a few, many) the words hundred, thou sand can have either a zero plural or a regular form. 1) many thousand (many thousand people)

bacilli radii analyses criteria larvae vortices beaux bureaux cacti fungi termini formulas, formulae acquaria, acquariums geniuses

2) many thousands (many thousands of people) some hundreds of times = several hundreds some hundred times = about a hundred If nothing precedes these nouns the regular plural form is commonly used (dozens / scores / thousands of people) Nouns pound and foot are often uninflected when they are preceded and followed by a numeral He is six foot two. If no numeral follows: His is six feet tall. horse power, hundred weight have only a zero plural. The engine developed 2000 H.P. Note: brother penny cloth die brothers brethren pennies pence cloths clothes dies dice same parents member of religious fraternities individual coins sums of money different kinds or pieces of cloth articles of clothing metal stamp for making coins small cubes used in games of chance

Change of Meaning in plural form airs affected manners colours flag of ship (Join the colours) compasses instrument for drawing circles customs import duties damage compensation grounds enclosed land attached to a house, dregs especially of coffee letters learning morals principles of behaviour pains trouble premises building quarters allotted place spectacles eye glasses spirits state of mind Compound Words schoolmasters, bedrooms hold-alls, handfuls fathers-in-law (followed by a prepositions) runners-up Verb base: breakdowns, roll-ons lay-bys (parking) added to both: men-servants [but man-hours, man-eaters] Distinctions of high office: Lords Chancellors Lords Justices Summation Plurals: scissors, tongs, thanks, riches Each pair of scissors Phonetics is a difficult subject. innings can be either singular or plural: now treated as singular gallows, works: A gallows was erected A steel works has been opened - works in the sense of the moving parts of a clock is a genuine summation plural - The works are perfectly sound Headquarters (singular) eg. A headquarters was established. (plural) eg. Their headquarters are in Paris. They dont receive much wages

There is not much Countable / Uncountable advice advices hair -

news : No news is good news (always in the singular)

uncountable This is good advice commercial usage growth of hair There is a hair in my soup (as countable) information - items of knowledge uncountable - a bit of information, not an information money - currency. Here is the money monies (legal term for sums of money) The lawyer is authorized to administer all moneys belonging to the firm news: Here is the news a piece of good news progress development a great deal of progress knowledge no plural suffix His knowledge is extensive. Preceded by a determine: A knowledge of English is necessary.

UNIT - 3 PRONOUNS a) Possessive, relative and demonstrative pronouns must be of the same numb er, person and gender, e.g. One should not waste his energy over trifles. (Wrong) One should not waste ones energy over trifles (Correct) I am not one of those who imagine facts when, in fact, I havent a ny (wrong). (they have nt any, is correct) He is one of those men who are never content with anything less than perfection (Correct) b) The pronoun is singular when two singular nouns joined by and are preceded by each or every Every day and every night brings its own duty. (Correct) c) The pronoun is singular when two or more singular nouns are joined by or, e ither .or, neither nor. Thus: The senior salesman or the sales manager should put his time in investigating the details. Either Rajan or Jagannathan forgot to take his book. Neither Bina nor Shreelekha did her job properly. d) When a plural noun and a singular noun are joined by or or nor the pronoun a grees with the noun nearest to it. Either the manager or his assistants failed in their duty. B U T Either the assistants or the manager failed in his duty. Neither he nor they have done their duty. e) The relative pronoun who or whom. When it is used as the subject of a verb i ts form is who: and when used as object of a verb its form is whom. e.g. When I entered the road, whom do you think I saw? (whom here is the object of the verb saw) There are many politicians who we know are out and out liars. (who here is the subject of the verb are) f) The complement of the verb to be, when it is expressed by the pronoun, sho uld be in the nominative form e.g. It was he. (not him) mmonly used) It must have been he. (not him) It is I (not me) (However, Its me is more co

g) The case of a pronoun following than and as is determined by mentally supply ing the verb. Thus He swims better than I (swim) - (not me) He is taller than I (am) - (not me) I love you as much as (I love) her. - (not she) h) When such verbs as avail, absent, acquit, enjoy are used reflexively, ne ver omit the reflexive pronoun I shall avail of your kind advice - (wrong) I shall avail myself of your kind advice - (correct) He absented from school. - (wrong) He absented himself from school. - (right) But a reflexive pronoun cannot be used alone as the subject of a verb. I t should be preceded by some other noun or pronoun. Myself and his sister were standing there - (wrong) His sister and I - (correct) i) After such use the relative pronoun as not who or which e.g. His answer was such as I had expected him to give. j) A relative pronoun should agree with its antecedents in person and numbe r e.g. This is one of the most interesting novels that has appeared thi s year. (wrong: change has to have) k) This is the only one of his short stories that are worth reading. ( wrong.: Change are to is for here the antecedent of that is one l) A relative pronoun or relative adverb should be placed as close to its a ntecedent as possible e.g. I have read Platos writings, who was a disciple of Socrates. (wro ng) I have read the writings of Plato, who was a disciple of Socrate s, (correct) m) Each other should be used in speaking of two persons or things, one another in speaking of more than two When we two parted we wished luck to each other B U T We should love one another. n) Either should be used in reference to two, When the reference is to more t han two, we should use any one - Either of these two books will meet my purpose. - She is taller than any one of her five sisters. o) Which when used as a relative pronoun, must relate to some noun or pronoun i.e. its antecedent previously mentioned. Using which without an antecedent is wr ong: He completed his job in good time, which pleased his boss. (wrong) His completion of the job in good time pleased his boss. (right) He paid his debts in full, which is a clear proof of his honesty. ( right) No one objected to his suggestion, which was disappointing. (wro ng, because the sentence fails to clarify what was disappointing, the suggestion or the fact that no one objected). UNIT - 4 ADJECTIVES a) Do not use an adjective in the comparative degree when no comparison, ex pressed or implied, is made He is more intelligent student in the class. (Wrong, Say, he is a very intelligent student, or he is the most intelligent student in the class) b) The following are not compared, nor can most be used with them. Perfect, unique, full, infinite, chief, perpetual, extreme, idea l, entire, complete, universal, empty, impossible, preferable, unanimous, square , round, golden, etc. eg.

He is more perfect than his brother. (wrong). Perfect expresses the quality to the utmost extent. (Say, he is perfect) c) The comparative adjectives superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, an terior, posterior, prefer, preferable, are followed by to instead of than He is senior to me (not than me). d) Avoid double comparatives, e.g. It is rather more important. (Wrong, the word rather is comparativ e). Say, It is rather important or It is more important. His brother is a more better singer than he (Obviously wrong). e) When two persons or two things are compared, it is important to see that the comparison is restricted to the only two that are compared. The population of India is greater than the U.S.A. is obviously wrong. Say than that of; otherwise, your sentence will give the impression that yo u are comparing Indian population with the U.S.A. .. a country) f) When a comparison is introduced, followed by than, the thing compared must always be excluded from the class of things with which it is compared, by using other, e.g. Calcutta is larger than any city in India (Wrong, Say, any other c ity in India) g) Do not use other or any in the superlative degree. e.g. He is the wisest of all other students in his class. (Wrong, say , he is the wisest of all)

h) Use an adjective of the superlative degree, only when the noun it qualif ies indicates the possession of a quality to a higher degree than any other memb er of the same class. He wrote a best book. (Wrong, Say, he wrote an excellent book). i) An adjective in the superlative degree normally takes the and not a or an bef re it. This is a worst example of incompetence I have ever come across. (Wrong, Say, This is the worst..) j) When two adjectives refer to the same noun and one of them is in the sup erlative degree, the other adjective must also be in the superlative degree. The same is the case with the comparatives. He is the best and honest minister in Parliament. (Wrong Insert t he most before honest) He is both charitable and richer than you. (Wrong, Say, richer an d more charitable) k) The two first is a meaningless expression for it implies that two things m ay be first. So is the two last. The two first chapters of the novel are dull. (Wrong: Say, the fi rst two). l) Use some in affirmative sentences and and in negative and interrogative sent ences. I shall buy some books (not any) I shall not buy any book. (not some) Have you bought any book? (not some) m) later and latest refer to time. latter and last refer to position. He came latter than I (Wrong: Say, later) Between these two books the later is more interesting (Wrong: Sa y, the latter) Of the three, tea, coffee and cocoa, the latter is my favourite (Wrong: Say, the last) n) Farther means more distant or advanced, further means additional Calcutta is farther (not further)_ from the equator than Colombo . After this, he made no further (not farther) remarks. Do not speak of farther places. (Wrong farther is not used as an a

djective in the positive degree. Say, distant instead)

o) Older and Oldest may be used for persons or things, but elder and eldest ap o persons only e.g. Babubhai was older (not elder) than Chinubhai. He will inherit the property after the death of his elder (not ol der) brother. He is the oldest (not eldest) inhabitant of this village. My brother is elder to (not than) me. p) Little a little and the little are correctly used as follows: There is little hope of recovery. (not likely to recover) (Say, h ardly any hope) There is a little hope of recovery. (may possibly recover) Do not waste the little energy you possess. (the small amount, w hatever, it is) q) Few, a few and the few are correctly used as follows: Few women can keep a secret. (Hardly any woman can keep a secret ) A few were present (some) The few members who came for the show had to return disappointed . (not many, but whoever there was) r) Less refers to quantity, whereas fewer denotes number e.g. No less than 50 persons were killed in the accident. (Wrong: Say , No fewer than) We do not sell fewer than 10 kg. of ghee (Wrong: Say, less than.) Less is the 1) Opposite of more He has less money 2) fewer in number There are less opportunities for young people However many people consider fewer more correct. lesser: rather literary. refers to size, value of importance. Choose the lesser of the two evils Lesser men than the P.M. have said the same thing much (used within countables) many (used countables) far - farther / further / farthest / furthest late - later / latter - latest / last old - elder / older - oldest / eldest. farther used of distance in space or time: farther up the valley further additional (and also the above usage) No further delay farthest no distinction, furthest (more common) furthest later as late (basic meaning) latter opp. of former (second of the two) latest (the most recent) No element of finality as in last. eldest used before a noun elder the comparative elder is never used before than, or if than may easily by supplied He is older than his sister; her eldest brother, He has an elder son An elder statesman (extended use) UNIT - 5 VERBS a) When two singular nouns refer to the same person or thing, the verb is s

ingular. eg. The poet and scholar is dead. b) When two singular nouns are practically synonymous the verb is singular. . His power and influence is very great. Peace and order is the most important issue. c) When two singular nouns, though not synonymous, are intended to express jointly a single idea, the verb is singular. Bread and butter is what he has for breakfast. Slow and steady wins the race. d) When the same singular noun is qualified by two contrasting adjectives, the verb is plural e.g. Mental and physical science are not the same. e) When a collective noun is used as a common noun, but shows some division , the verb is plural, e.g. The Committee are divided in their opinion on this issue. B U T The Committee is unanimous in its approval of this proposal. f) When a plural noun denotes some specific quality or amount considered as a whole, the verb is generally singular. Six miles is a long distance. Ten rupees is not a large sum. Three parts of the business is left for me today g) A plural verb is preferred with nouns which are plural in meaning though singular in form. They are: number, plenty, variety, rest, the enemy, cannon, n one, pair, dozen, the brave etc. None but the brave deserve the fair. Plenty of men are charitable. The enemy are still bombarding. Place plural verb after such nouns, as plenty, number and variety according t the context. Unless the context shows that those words are used to imply plural ity, the verb must be singular. Too great a variety of pursuits costs much and pays little. There is often a number of claims to meet. h) Two nouns connected by and not, as well as, with, besides, in addition to followed by a verb in the singular when the former of the nouns is in the singul ar, e.g. John, and not his brother was present. Silver, as well as gold, has fallen in price. The commander with all his men has been killed. Milk, besides butter, is supplied by this dairy. Satish, like Harish, is a good boy. The house with all its fittings and furniture was sold yesterday . i) When two nouns or pronouns are joined by not only but also the verb agrees with the second noun or pronoun. e.g. Not only the officer, but also six soldiers were killed. Not only six soldiers but also the officer was killed. j) Two or more singular nouns or pronouns connected by the conjunctions eith er or, neither.nor, require a singular verb. If the subjects differ in number or pers on, the verb follows the number and person of the subject nearest to it. Thus: Either the cat or the dog has done it. Neither praise nor blame seems to affect him. Neither the P.M. nor his Ministers desire war. Either you or I am in the wrong. Either you or your friends have made this mistake. Either the Ministers or the P.M. is to be blamed. k) When either and neither are used as nouns or adjectives they must be followe d by singular verbs e.g. He asked me if either of the applicants was suitable.

Neither of the men was strong. Any noun qualified by adjectives each must be followed by a singular verb. Each one of these qualities is to be found in him. Every man and woman was killed. m) A verb should agree with its subject and not with the complement e.g. Our only guide was the stars. (correct) The stars were our only guide. (correct) n) If two different subjects are qualified by the same word, repeat the wor d before each subject and make the verb plural A rise in rents and wages has been found to go together. (Wrong. Say, A rise in rents and a rise in wages have been) o) None though properly a singular, being a compound form of no one, is followe d by a plural verb when plurality is suggested by the sense, e.g. None are so deaf as those who will not hear. None but fools have ever believed it. None praises him more than I. p) When the adjectives, much, litle and less are used as nouns they must be foll wed by a singular verb, e.g. Much of what you have said, has been said by others. More than a year has passed since I saw him. A little of good manners makes our life sweet. Less than a million tons is produced in a year. q) Many a should always be followed by a singular verb, e.g. Many a man has lost everything by putting his eggs in one basket . Many a soldier has died for the sake of his country. B U T Many a man and woman were standing there. l) r) Begin a question with the verb, e.g. Have you had your meals? (not you had your meals?) When the questi on is in indirect speech, the verb does not come before the subject. I asked him what was his name. (wrong) I asked him what his names was (correct) s) The past perfect should never be used to indicate an action which is com plete e.g. I had gone to Poona. (wrong) Say, I went to Poona. (I had gone to Poona when they were search ing for me here, would be correct) t) When two auxiliaries are used with one principal verb, the principal ver b need not be repeated. If, however, both forms are different two different form s must be given, one for each auxiliary. e.g. I have never hurt anyone, and never will. (correct) I never have and never will abuse anybody (Wrong Insert abused aft er the first have) u) If the principal clause is in the past tense, it must be followed by a p ast tense in dependent clause He told me he does not believe in God. (Wrong say, he did not be lieve in God). However, this rule does not apply to such universal truths as We are taught that that the earth moves round the sun. At last he was convinced of the fact that honesty is the best po licy. v) In a subjunctive mood where there is an expression of some wish or suppo sition, the verb is plural, e.g. I wish I were a film actor. If I were you, I should agree. Though he were the P.M. of this country, I would say the same. If he were here, he would support me. w) Learn the correct uses of will and shall. To express simple future action sha ll, is used in the FIRST PERSON and will in the SECOND PERSON & THE THIRD.

I shall come You will come. He will come. They will come

(first person) (second person) (third person) (third person)

Shall is used in the second and third person to express (a) command (b) promise (c ) threat (d) determination, whereas will is used in the first person to express (a ) willingness (b) promise (c) threat or (d) determination. Thou (Your) shall not steal. (command) You shall have a holiday tomorrow. (promise) You shall be punished for this. (threat) I will send you my book. (willingness) I will try to do better next time. (promise) I will punish you if you do that again. (threat) In asking questions, shall is used in the first person and will in the third per son, e.g. Shall I ring the bell? Will he come tomorrow? [Note: For a detailed study of the verbs read the unit on TENSES] UNIT - 6 ADVERBS a) Place the adverbs in such a way as to make it quite clear which word or words they are intended to qualify e.g. He immediately disappeared (Wrong, It ought to be disappeared imm ediately) He peacefully died. (died peacefully) b) When the verb is transitive, an adverb can be placed either before the v erb or after the object but not between the verb and the object. He briefly explained his meaning. [correct] He explained his meaning briefly. [correct] He explained briefly his meaning. (wrong) c) The adverb enough is always placed after the word it qualifies e.g. You know well enough what I mean. He is enough wise to do this. (Wrong, Say, wise enough to do thi s) d) As a general rule, only or even should be placed immediately before the word they are intended to modify, e.g. I worked only two sums I praise him only when he deserves it. He cannot write even correct English. [not, he cannot even write correct English.] e) Else, should be followed by the adverb but not than, e.g. It is nothing else than pride. [wrong] It is nothing else but pride. [correct] Call me anything else than a fool. [wrong] Call me anything else but a fool. [correct] UNIT - 7 CONJUNCTIONS a) The function of or is to express an alternative or choice; and of and to exp ress addition and continuation. Care must be taken to use the one where the othe r ought to be used e.g. The choice is between glorious death or shameful life. (not and) b) Use conjunction both followed by its proper correlative and, place both, imm ediately before the words to which it refers. Both John as well as his father were present. (wrong, Both John a nd his father were) Lions are both found in Africa and in India (wrong, Lions are fou

nd both in..) Both John and his father were not present there. (wrong. Both has positive sense and cannot be used in negative sense. Use neither.nor) c) Do not use though and but together. Though he is hardworking, but he cannot pass this year. (wrong, omit but) d) Hardly or scarcely are followed by when or before not by but than or He had scarcely reached his home than it began to rain. (Wrong, Say He had scarcely reached his home when it began to rain) Hardly had I finished one set of papers when (or before) another set arrived. e) No sooner is followed by than e.g No sooner did he finish his speech than the audience began appla uding. f) After the adjective other, the only word that can be correctly used is than e.g. He had no other object but to get back his money. (Wrong. Change but to than) She had no other claim to the post except her good looks. (Wrong (Change except to than,) g) While using Not only.. but also take care to see that they are followed by the words of the same part of speech, e.g. He not only lost his ticket, but also his luggage. (Wrong, For no t only is followed by lost which is a verb and but also by his a pronoun. Correct the sentence by placing not only before his ticket. He lost not only.) h) If such is used as a pronoun in the beginning of a sentence, it should be followed not by as but by the conjunction that Such was her ambition that she found nothing to satisfy her. (Co rrect) i) The same conjunction cannot do the function of two adjectives, one of wh ich is comparative and the other positive, e.g. She is as good, if not better than her sister (wrong) She is as good as, if not better than her sister. (Right) j) Unless means if not and therefore, it should not be used in a sentence or cl ause which is already negative. Unless you do not work hard you will fail in the Examination. (W rong, Say Unless you work hard..). k) Lest expresses a negative purpose (so that not) and therefore it should not be followed by not Walk slowly, lest you should not fall. (Wrong, omit not Also note that lest takes should). He fled, lest he should be killed l) When suppose is used in the beginning of a sentence, it is not followed by if e.g. Supposing if he comes to your house, how will you face him? (Wro ng, omit if) m) When the conjunction when, while, before, till, after are used in subordi ences with reference to some future event, they are not followed by a verb in th e future tense even when the verb in the principal clause is in the future. When I shall see her I will give her your message. (Wrong, When I see her.) Before you will come, he will have left the station, (Wrong, Befo re you come ..) UNIT 8 PREPOSITIONS 1. Do not use the same preposition with two words unless it is appropriate to each of them. This quality is different and inferior to the other. (Wrong, Say

, different from and inferior to..) 2. As a general rule between is used for two persons or things and among for mo re than two. Distribute the books between John and Jack. Distribute the money among the poor. 3. In and at are used for things at rest; while to and into are used for things motion. He is in bed. He is at the top of his class. He ran to school. The rat ran into its hole. 4. On is used of time and to is used for place. He will reach on Sunday. He will be coming to Delhi. 5. With often denotes instrument, by agent. He killed two birds with one stone. He was stabbed by a madman with a dagger. 6. In is used for large places, at for small. He is in America. He lives at Dadar in Bombay. 7. For refers to period of time; since to point of time (since is always precede by a verb in perfect tense). From also is used to refer to point of time, but can be used with other tenses except the perfect. e.g. I have been ill for a fortnight. (period of time) I have taken nothing since yesterday. (point of time) I started my work from 1st November. (point of time) 8. Ago refers to the past time and before denotes precedence between two events e.g. He married five years ago. He was married five years before his coming to Bombay. 9. Morning, afternoon and evening are preceded by in. Dawn, daybreak; midday and midnight are preceded by at. When these time phrases are qualified by last or nex t they are not preceded by any preposition. e.g. I like to listen to music in the evening. I shall see you at night. I met him last evening 10. Do not use any preposition after order, attack, resist, pick, pervade, r equest, succeed, inform, resemble, assist, violate, combat, benefit, afford, acc ompany, when these verbs are used in the active voice. e.g. They attacked on him violently. (Omit on) They have violated against all rules (Omit against) 11. Beside and Besides. Beside means by the side of. Besides means In additi She sat beside her husband at the meeting. Besides being a scholar, he is good singer. 12. In and within. In means at the end of a period. Within means before the e riod. I shall return in half an hour. (after the hour is over) I shall finish the job within two days. (before two days are ove r) 13. On and Upon. On is used in speaking of things at rest and Upon of things i ion. The cat was sitting on the table. The child jumped upon the table. 14. Till and To. Till is used of time and to of place. I waited for him till 11 O clock. We walked to the temple on the hill. 15. Angry with, not against. Note 1. We get angry with a person, but at a thing; as He was ang ry at the weather (not: with the weather). Note 2. Also annoyed with, vexed with, indignant with a person, but a

a thing. 16. for 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. ar. 22.

Anxious ( = troubled) about, not for. Note: But anxious meaning wishing very much takes for: as Parents are anxio their childrens success Arrive at, not to. Say: We arrived at (and not to) the village at night. Conform to, not with. Note: But comply takes with; as We will comply with your request. Covered with, not by. The entire equipment is covered with dust. Glad of or about, not from or with. Say: I am glad of (or about) the news. Note: But a person is glad at a result: as, He is glad at having received a good mark. Good at, not in John is good at dancing. Note : Also bad at, clever at, slow at, etc. but weak in; as, He is weak i

Independent of, not from Till the age of 18 Paul was dependent on his parents. But now he is inde pendent of them. 23. Pleased with, not from Note: But we may say pleased at or pleased with if an abstract noun or a cl ause follows: They were pleased at (or with) what he said, Mother is pleased at ( or with) Marys performance. 24. Popular with, not among John is popular with his friends. 25. Take by, not from He took the blind man by his arm. Note: Also hold by, catch by, seize by, snatch by, grasp by, 26. Tired of, not from The children were tired of boiled eggs. Note: Tired with means with no energy or strength left: as, I am tired with walking: I want to rest So also weary of and weary with. 27. Warn (a person) of danger not about danger They were warned of the danger. Note: But we warn a person against a fault: as, The policeman warned him against breaking traffic regulations. UNIT 9 THE INFINITIVE, VERBAL NOUN AND THE PARTICIPLES

a) The infinitive without to is used after dare and need in the negative and int rrogative forms. I need not tell. (not to tell) Dare you speak like that? (not to speak) b) The infinitive without to is used after the phrases had better, had rather, soon as e.g. You had better not stay here. I had rather take this than that. c) If two separate ideas are better expressed by two Infinitives, repeat th e Infinitive. He helped me to progress and prosper. B U T It lies in my power to succeed or to fail. d) When the infinitive is made to qualify a noun, it must be accompanied by the appropriate preposition: I have no pen to write (wrong)

e) ase.

I have no pen to write with (correct) The noun or pronoun governing a gerund should be put in the possessive c

I dislike my friend coming so late. (wrong) I dislike my friends coming so late. (right) Please excuse me being late. (wrong) Please excuse my being late (right) f) The participle should not be left without proper agreement. It must be a ttached with a noun or pronoun to which it refers. Sitting on the grass, a snake bit him. (Wrong, say, While he was sitting on the grass, a snake bit him). Being a very hot day, I remained indoors (Wrong, say, It being a very hot day.) g) Use of Infinitives + ing Insist on + - ing. He insisted on going to Budapest Object to + - ing. She objects to being treated like a beast Used to + - ing. They are used to working hard. Avoid + -ing The Teacher could not avoid being sarcastic. Note: Also cant help ( = cant avoid) I cant help laughing. Mind (object to + - ing Would you mind shutting the door? Practice + - ing. You must practise speaking English. Its no use + - ing. Its no use crying over spilt milk. Its no good + - ing. Its no good losing ones temper over trifles. UNIT 10 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES Here are some more examples. The explanations are simple, brief, and to the point. Study them carefully. You would do well even to memorise some of the clarifications-especially those pertaining to the errors you were not aware of b efore you happened to study this note. Note: 1) Genitive without a following noun. i) Sometimes the head-word is omitted because it occurs in the i mmediate context. I parked my car next to Johns Johns is a nice house [Since there is a noun in the context that can be regarded as the headword; This type should be called semi-independent. 2) A variant of the Independent genitive is the so called post-genitive He is a friend of my fathers A work of Mittons The meaning is some what similar to One of my fathers friends, One of Miltons Works. But the two constructions are not synonymous The latter implies 1) My father has more than one friend. 2) Milton has more than one work The Post genitive does not carry this implication eg. That wife of Johns The Post genitive enables us to make a distinction between a portrait of my father (one representing him)

a portrait of my fathers (one belonging to him or painted by him) 3) Local Genitive 1) An institution of some kind : St. Josephs, St. Antonys 2) A shop dressmakers a booksellers 3) A persons house or home my aunts, my fathers Classifying & Specifying Genitive a) Johns house, the doctors car (S) (reference to specific persons) b) a fools errand, a ladys maid (no particular reference: a foolish errand) c) construction in (a) have 2 strong stresses Johns house (b) one strong stress fools errand. Note: Several phrases of this kind, though genitive in origin are now always wr itten with no spacing eg.: batsman, statesman, oarsman. Classifying: Examples a birds nest a stones throw (In American English Unity of Stress is more widely used) Genitive & of-construction: (meaning of genitive is hard to define) We operate with a grammatical category based on meaning 1) a work of art, a lot of work, the whole of England -- cannot by replaced by a genitive: No Englands whole 2) replaceable by other prepositional construction Shaws plays Plays by Shaw Americas influence influence from America I brought in one of Londons finest shops I brought in one of the finest shops in London Not of Tomorrows weather forecast Weather-forecast for tomorrow Not of tomorrow Genitive morpheme 1) To denote persons, and other living things Inanimate objects do not usually take the Genitive suffix though there a re some which, quite frequently take of (a) todays paper, an hours duration (b) abstracts art for arts sake, for pitys sake If the noun ends in s nothing is added beyond an apostrophe. for goodness sake (c) inanimate objects used in set-phrases at arms length, in my minds eye, a stones throw. (d) Certain set phrases described as compounds: the earths atmosphere, the waters edge. (e) Names of countries, & cities Englands history; Londons history 2) To indicate a body of people. (a) The Companys officials, The Worlds largest battleship (b) a work of art. The plays style: The poems meaning (c) Idiosyncratic tendency: The situations gravity The sound of a cars brakes. MISUSE OF WORDS

1.

Possessive Form Dont say: His rooms window is open. Say : The window of his room is open. The possessive form is used for persons and animals only. For things without lif e. (which cannot possess), the objective with of should be used. Note : However, we say, a days work, a nights rest, Bombays population etc. 2. Misuse of the cognate object Say : Michael played a very good game (and not a very good play) However, we say, to sing a fine song, to fight a good fight, to dream a strange dream to live a long life, to die a sad death.

3. Say : In my opinion (and not according to my opinion) he is right. 4. At the end and In the end at the end means at the farthest point or part, a here is a holiday at the end of this month. - In the end means finally or at last; as In the end they reached the city. 5. A country and the country A country is a place like India, England, or France. The country is a part of a country consisting of fields, forests and mount ains. Say : I spend my holidays in the country. 6. Tell or speak the truth, not say the truth. He always speaks (or tells) the truth. Similarly, to tell a lie. 7. Turn (switch) the light on, or off, not open or shut the light. But we light, blow out, or put out a lamp, a candle, or a fire. 8. Take an examination, not give an examination. The pupil took his examination. Note: The teacher gives or sets the examination; the students takes the examination r sits for the examination. 9. To be busy not to have work. Dont say: I have much work this morning. Say : I am very busy this morning. But w e can say, I have a lot of work to do this morning. 10. Mount or get on a horse, etc., not ride a horse, etc. Dont say: He rode his bicycle and went home. Say: He got on his bicycle and rode home. 11. Dismount or get off a horse, etc., not come down from a horse, etc. Say: They got off (not come down from) their bicycles. Note: We alight from or get out of a carriage or a motorcar. But we get on or off rain, the bus, etc. 12. What do you call? not, How do you call.? Say: What do you call this in English? Note: But if the question is not about a thing, but about some expression, we s hould say, How do you say this in English? 13. Dont say: Both of them did not go to school. Say : Neither of them went t o school. Remember that both is changed into neither in a negative sentence. 14. Do not use also or too in a negative sentence instead of either. Dont say : John has not come also (or too), Say: John has not come either. 15. If a negative word is used in a sentence, the conjunction or must be used instead of and He did not speak loudly or (not and) clearly. However, if the subjects are different, the conjunction and is used: as. He did not write, and I did not feel at rest. 16. A watch is slow or fast, not goes behind or in front. Say : My watch is two minutes slow (not behind) Note: We can also say, My watch loses or gains. 17. Have ones hair cut, not cut ones hair Dont say: I am going to cut my hair, Say : I am going to have my hair cut. 18. Dont say : How is he going with his work? Say: How is he getting on with his work? 19. Avoid saying-today morning, today afternoon, today evening, yesterday ni

ght, this night. Say : this morning, this afternoon, this evening, last night, tonight. 20. Take exercise, not make exercise Say : You ought to take (not make) more exercise. 21. A person can pay another person: he can also pay a bill, an account, or a subscription: but he pays for a thing that he buys. How much did you pay for the book? Did you pay your bill? 22. Reply to a person, a letter; but answer a person, a letter. 23. Search for a lost thing, not search a lost thing. Say : They are searching for the ball. To search (without for) means to look in ones pockets or house: as The policeman s earched the man and his house. 24. Speak to and speak with I shall speak to him means, I shall do all the speaking. I shall speak with him, means I shall have a conversation with him. 25. Supply a person with something, not supply a person something. Say : Can you supply me with all I need? Similarly : Provide a person with all he needs. 26. Dispose of a thing, not dispose a thing. Say : He will dispose of all his property 27. Do not omit the indefinite article in the following expressions:to make a mistake to make a fortune to make a will to make an impression to make an experiment to make an attempt 28. Wish for a thing, not wish a thing He does not wish for any reward. 29. Write to a person, not write a person I shall write to him tomorrow. Note : But when the direct object of write is expressed. the preposition is omitt ed: as, I shall write him a letter. 30. To know how. After the infinitive to know, the verb is always introduced b y the adverb how He knows how to swim. But: He known his work well. 31. After the word lest do not omit should. Dont say: He ran lest he miss the train. Say : He ran lest he should miss the train. 32. In making a comparison between one person or thing and all others of the same kind, the world else must be used after everybody, anybody, etc. He is stronger than anybody else. 33. Dont say : I enjoyed during the holidays. Say : I enjoyed myself during the holidays. Or : I enjoyed my holidays 34. Better used instead of had better Dont say : Better go home at once. Say : You had better go home at once. 35. Comprise ( = consist of) Dont say : The book comprises of five chapters. Say : The book comprises five chapters. 36. Say : Does he resemble (not to) his father? But, He has no resemblance to his father There is no resemblance between them. 37. When we are speaking of a space of time in the future, we must use in and not after, Here in means after the end of Dont say : I may be able to go after a week Say : I may be able to go in a week. Or : I may be able to go in a weeks time.

38. In means after the end of within means before the end of Dont say: Ill come back in an hour (if you mean before the end of an hour) Say : Ill come back within an hour. 39. Shall and May May I shut the door? means that, I wish the door closed and I ask your permission to shut it. Shall I shut the door? means that I want to know whether you wish the door closed. 40. Say and Tell To say is used (i) when referring to a persons actual words, and (ii) in indirect s peech if the sentence does not contain an indirect object. He said, I shall go home, He said that he would go home. To tell is used in indirect speech when the sentence contains an indirect object. He told me that he would go home Common Idioms with say and tell. To say ones prayers To tell the truth To say grace to tell a lie To say Good morning to tell a story To say something or nothing to tell the time To say no more to tell a secret To say a good word for to tell the price to tell ones fortune To say so to tell ones name 41. Make and Do. To make primarily means to construct or manufacture something: while to do means to accomplish a thing Common idioms to make a mistake to make a promise to make a speech to make an excuse to make haste to make fun of to make progress to make a noise to make an experiment to make a bed (- to prepare the bed for sleeping upon) to do good to do evil to do ones best to do one a favour to do wrong to do a lesson to do a problem to do business to do away with to do gymnastics to do exercise 42. Wear and put on Wear means to have upon the body as a garment or as an ornament. To put on: denote s a simple act. This man always wears black shoes. I put on my clothes in the morning. To dress has nearly the same meaning as to put on, but the object of dress is a person and not a thing as He dressed himself and went out. The mother dressed her baby.

43. Tear and Tear up. To tear means to divide along a straight or irregular line something by accident; to tear up means to destroy by tearing to pieces. Note: The word up is often used with verbs to express the idea of greater complet eness : as burn up drink up dry up cut up eat up shut up use up. 44. Grow and Grow up To grow means to become bigger: to grow up means to become a man (or a woman) Babies grow very quickly. When I grow up I shall be a doctor. 45. Pick and Pick up To pick fruit or flowers means to pull them away with the fingers: to pick up means to lift up from the ground. We picked flowers in the garden. The naughty boy picked up a stone. 46. Deal with and Deal in To deal with means to have to do with: to deal in means to buy and sell. The book deals with common errors. A bookseller deals in books. Note: to deal with also means (i) to do business with: as I will not deal with th at shopkeeper again; (ii) to arrange a matter: as The headmaster will deal with th at question:

47. Interfere with and interfere in To interfere with means to be an obstacle to; to interfere in means to take part in other peoples affairs without any right. The noise interferes with my work. I never interfere in his affairs. 48. Steal and Rob The object of steal is the thing taken by the thief such as money, a watch, a bicyc c.; while the object of rob is the person or place from (or which) the thing is t aken such as a man, a house or a bank. Someone has stolen all his money. Some men robbed a bank last night. 49. Revenge and Average To revenge oneself is to punish for a wrong done to oneself; while to aveng e is to punish on behalf of another usually the innocent or weak I revenged myself for the insult. He now avenged his sons murder. 50. Made of and Made from Made of is used if the material of which the thing is made can still be seen; and m ade from if the material can no longer be seen. Tables are usually made of wood. Bread is usually made from wheat. 51. We replace one thing by another, but we substitute one thing for another . They replaced gold by paper-money. They substituted paper-money for gold. 52. To win and to beat. To win is to gain something for which you have tried; to beat is to overcome an oppo nent; as, The girls beat the boys, and so won the prizes. 53. Drown and sink To be drowned is used only of living things and means to die in water; to sink is us ed of persons or things, and means to go down to the bottom of water. The ship sank. The crew drowned. 54. Dont say : Leave the other end of the string. Say : Let go of the other end of the string. Leave cannot be used in the sense of let go (= give up ones hold). 55. Dont say : shall sleep early tonight. Say : I shall go to bed early tonight. To go to bed denotes the act of lying down on a bed in preparation for going to sl

eep. Thus we can say that a person went to bed at nine o clock, but that he did not sleep until eleven oclock. Go to sleep means to fall asleep as, He went to sleep while he was in the cinema. 56. Dont say: The man was found in his office. Say : The man was in his office. In English, the verb to be found generally means to be discovered, as Diamonds are fo und in Africa and in India. Therefore, He was found in his office would suggest tha t the man had hidden himself in his office and was later discovered. 57. Dont say : My English book is with my brother Say : My brother has my English book. Avoid using to be with in the sense of to have. To be with means to be together or in company of: as He is with his parents. 58. I dont have; I havent. Dont say : I dont have time to see you today. Say : I havent time to see you today. I dont have is used for things occurring habitually : as, I dont have fruit for break fast. I havent is used to particular occasions, and means I havent something now. 59. Leave for give-up etc. Dont say : I have now left football. Say : I have now given up football. Or : I have now stopped playing football. 60. Care for, for Take care of Dont say : He doesnt care for money Say : He doesnt take care of his money. To care for means to like. 61. Flown for flowed Dont say : The river has flown over its banks. Say : The river has flowed over its banks. Flown is the past participle of fly. 62. Very and Too Very simply makes the adjective or adverb stronger. Too means more than enough or so much that some thing else cannot happen as a result. Here it is very hot in the summer (not too hot). It is now too hot to play football (not very hot) 63. Very and much. Very is used with adjectives and adverbs in the positive degree and with present pa rticiples used as adjectives (like interesting). Much is used with adjectives and adverbs in the comparative degree and with past pa rticiples. He is a very strong man. It is a very interesting book. He is much stronger than I am. I am much obliged to my friend 64. Too much for very much Very much is used instead of much for greater emphasis. Too much denotes an excessive quantity or degree as He ate too much and became ill. Dont say : He likes the cinema too much He is too much stronger than I am. I was too much astonished at the news. Say : He likes the cinema very much. He is very much stronger than I am. I was very much astonished at the news. Note: Much and Very much cannot be used with certain verbs like work try, rain t to be injured Thus we say : He works very hard. He tried very hard It is raining hard He thinks deeply. He was badly hurt. He was seriou sly injured. 65. So, for, very Dont say : I hear that he is not so rich.

Say : I hear that he is not very rich. So cannot be used in the sense of very. The expression He is not so rich implies a co parison : as He is not so rich as you are. 66. By and by for Gradually Gradually means slowly or little by little, by and by means soon or after a little w hile By and by the school year will be over. It is gradually learning to walk [not by and by] 67. Just now (for) Presently etc. Dont say : The messenger will arrive just now. Say : The messenger will arrive presently. If we are speaking of a near and immediate future time, we must use presently, imme diately or soon. Just now refers to present or past time, and not to future time: as He is not at ho me just now [ = at this moment]; He left just now [ = a little time ago]. 68. Presently for At present At present and presently are not synonymous. At present means now, but presently mea soon : as, He will come back presently [soon.] 69. Scarcely for Rarely Scarcely is not synonymous with rarely. Rarely means not often. Scarcely means not q e as I had scarcely finished when he came. - He rarely [not scarcely] comes 70. Lately for Late The opposite of early is late, not lately, Lately means in recent times: as, I hav there lately. 71. Wounded and injured for hurt People are injured or hurt as a result of an accident, and wounded in battle or in war. [The nouns are injury and wound] Thousands were wounded in war. He was injured in a motor accident. 72. Shade and Shadow Shade is a place sheltered from the sun, shadow is a shade of a distinct form as of a tree, a man, a dog etc. That large tree makes a nice shade. The dog saw his shadow in the water. 73. One and half hours In English, the plural must be used with anything greater than one, even if it i s less than two Say : I read it in one and a half hours (and not hour) 74. The number and A number. When number is preceded by the it denotes a unit and is singular, when it is preced ed by a it means several or many and is plural. The number of pupils is increasing. A number of pupils are absent today. 75. In English, words like heart, soul, body, mind are used in the plural wh en they refer to more than one person. Many people lost their lives at sea. 76. As, As if, and Like As introduces a group of words containing a verb [in other words, a clause] Toffee tastes sweet, as candy should. My son eats as I ate when I was his age-r apidly. as if introduces (i) contrary-to fact or untrue comparisons; (ii) non-comp arative conjectures. My son eats as if he were starving. Molly insists on singing as if she were Barbara Streisand. It looks as if well all be fired. Like introduces a group of words without a verb [in other words, a phrase]. My son eats like a horse. [But; My horse eats hay, as a horse should] 77. Pain is generally used as a noun, and is preceded by have or feel. Dont say : My leg is paining Say : I have (or feel) a pain in my leg. 78. After and Afterwards After is a preposition and must be used with an object. Afterwards, than after that adverbs of time and can be used alone. Dont say : After we went home for dinner. Say : Afterwards we went home for dinner.

79. Past and passed Past is not a verb. It can be used as. a noun, Dont think of the past. an adjective, The past week was warm. preposition, We walked past the church. Or an adverb, The train went past. I passed [not pass] by your house yesterday. 80. Between and Among The OED tells us and no one needs to be told twice-to ignore those who say that b etween must only be used of two things and that when there are more the prepositi on must be among. It goes on to say: Between is still the only word available to exp ress the relation of a thing to many surrounding things severally and individual ly: among expressing a relationship to them collectively and vaguely. We should no t say. the space lying among the three points, or a treaty among three powers or the choice lies among the three candidates in the select list or to insert a needle am ong the closed petals of a flower. 81. As follows Do not write as follow for as follows, however numerous may be the things that follo w. The construction in as follows is impersonal, and the verb should always be use d in the singular. 82. Both When using both and, be careful that these words are in their right positions and c arry equal weight. Nothing that comes between the both and the and can be regarded a s carried on after the and. If words are to be carried on after the and, the must pre ede the both; if they do not precede the both, the must be separated after the and. instance : He was both deaf to argument and entreaty. Since deaf to comes after both it cannot be understood again after and. We must adj he balance in one of the following ways: He was both deaf to argument and unmoved by entreaty. He was deaf both to argument and to entreaty. Here is a sentence where the unbalanced both puts the reader off the scent : Staff may seek rewards and satisfaction from their superiors and from th eir clients. This seems to say that there are two superiors, from both of whom, as well as fr om their clients, the staff may seek rewards. But that is not what the writer me ant : he should have written both from their superiors.

Do not use both where it is not necessary because the meaning of the sentence is n o less plain if you leave it out. Both of them are equally to blame [They are equally to blame] Please ensure that both documents are fastened together. [ that the docum ents are fastened together]. 83. Consist in, of There is a difference between consist of and consist in. Consist of denotes the subst nce of which the subject is made: consists in defines the subject. The writing desks consist of planks on trestles. The work of the branch consists in interviewing the public. 84. Depend It is wrong in writing, though common in speech to omit the on or upon after depends , as in: It depends whether we have received another consignment by then. 85. Different There is good authority for different to, but different from is today the establishe d usage. Different than is not unknown even in The Times - The air of the suburb has quite a different smell and feel at eleven O clo ck in the morning or three O clock in the afternoon than it has at the hours when the daily toiler is accustomed to take a few hurried sniffs of it. But this is condemned by the grammarians, who would say that than in this example should have been from what. Different than is, however, common in America.

86. Direct and Directly Direct, although an adjective, is also no less an adverb than directly. To avoid amb iguity, it is well to confine directly to its meaning of, immediately in time, and s o avoid the possibility of confusion between he is going to Edinburgh direct and he is going to Edinburgh directly. Here are two examples, the first of the right use of direct and the second of the wrong use of directly Committees should notify departments direct of the names and address of the banks. He will arrange directly (incorrect) with the authority concerned for th e recruitment and training of technicians. 87. Doubt British idiom requires whether or if after a positive statement and that or but that er a negative. I doubt whether he will come today. I have no doubt that he will come toda y. But in America I doubt that is common form. 88. Prefer You may say He say prefers writing to dictating or he prefers to write rather than to dictate but not he prefers to write than to dictate 89. Prevent You may choose any of three constructions with prevent prevent him from coming : prevent him coming: prevent his coming The first usually sounds the most natural. 90. Regard Unlike consider, count and deem, regard requires an as in such a sentence as I reg as an honour. 91. Require Require should not be used as an intransitive verb in the sense of need as it is in You do not require to do any stamping unless you wish (you need not) Special arrangements require to be worked out in the light of local circumstance s: (special arrangements will have to be ) 92. Substitute To substitute means to put a person or thing in the place of another; it does no t mean to take the place of another. When A is removed and B is put in its place . B is substituted for A and A is replaced by B. Substitute is wrongly used in The minister said he hoped to substitute coarse grain with home-grown barle y. The minister ought either to have used the verb replace or if he insisted on th e verb substitute to have, said to substitute, home-grown barley for coarse grain. 93. Such and So It will take some time to unravel such a complicated case. So complicated a case will take some time for unravelling. Both these constructions are good English. 94. Try Try and is well established in conversational use, Try to is to be preferred in seri ous writing. - Try and think hard. Try to think hard. 95. Unequal The idiom is unequal to, not for, a task. 96. Very It is true that very cannot be used grammatically with a past participle- that one cannot, for instance, say The effect was very enhanced, we must say much or greatly. But when the participle is no longer serving as a verb, and has become in effect an adjective, it is legitimate to use very with it as with any other adjective. T here can be no objection to very pleased, which means no more than very glad or to ve ry annoyed, which means no more than very angry. But it will not do to say very inco nvenienced or very removed, and in between are doubtful cases where it will be as w ell to be on the safe side and refrain from very 97. Worth Worth has a prepositional force and needs an object. The object may be either whi

le (i.e. the spending of time) or something else. It is, therefore, correct to sa y this job is worth while : it is also correct to say (this job is worth doing) Bu t one object is enough, and so it is wrong to say, this job is worth while doing) Worth while as an adjective (a worth while job) needs its hyphen. A FEW POINTS OF SPELLING 98. Autarchy Autarchy means absolute sovereignty. Autarky (sometimes mis-spelt autarchy) means self sufficiency. The difference in spelling reflects the different Greek words from which they are derived. 99. Connection, Connexion Both spelling are permissible. 100. Consensus The spelling, concensus, is wrong. A consensus is the result of common consent it has nothing to do with census. 101. Dependant In the ordinary usage of today dependant is a noun meaning, one who depends on ano ther for support, position etc. Dependent is an adjective meaning relying on or subject to something else. Dependants are dependent on the person whose dependants they are. 102. Enquiry Enquiry and inquiry have long existed as alternative spelling of the same words. In America inquiry is delodging enquiry for all purposes. In England a useful disti nction is developing : enquiry is used for asking a question and inquiry for making an investigation. Thus you might enquire what time the inquiry begins. 103. Forego/Forgo To forego is to go before (the foregoing provision of this act). To forgo is to go w ith out, to waive (he will forgo his right) 104. Ise or Ize On the question whether verbs like organise and nouns like organisation should be sp elt with an s or z the authorities differ. There are some verbs (e.g. advertise, comprise, despise, advise, exercise and surmise) which are never spelt with z i n Britain. There are others (such as organize) for which many people, particular ly if they have had a classical education, prefer a z; but the latest authoritie s incline to the view that in these cases s is permissible. This being so, the s implest course is to use an s in all cases, for that will never be wrong, wherea s z sometimes will be. But do not condemn those who use a z in its right place.

APPROPRIATE PREPOSITIONS Mistakes in the correct use of prepositions will easily be avoided if t he students ear is trained by making him frequently read the following sentences with the necessary emphasis on the words in heavy type. (A) 1. He is very fond of reading novels. 2. Please be kind to my son. 3. I prefer riding to walking. 4. Be careful about what you say. 5. Be correct as to what you say. 6. Parents are expected to take care of their children. 7. His teacher was angry with him for his misconduct. 8. He wanted the pardon of the king. 9. The accused begged for money from the magistrate. 10. He died of fever. 11. He is proud of his birth. 12. He takes pride in his brothers success.

(B) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (C) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (D) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (E) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (F) 1. 2. 3. 4.

He quarrelled with me over a trivial matter. The teacher was quite satisfied with the progress of his pupils. I am tired of this humdrum life. My father at once warned me of the danger. He prayed to God daily. Many in India are ignorant of English. Dont be anxious about the result of your examination. He is anxious for your forgiveness. The accused is charged with murder. I have a great contempt for liars. That rich man has no pity for his poor relatives. Have pity on me. He expressed his great regret for his past misconduct. Will you share this piece of cake with me? The teacher began to wonder at his rapid progress. I am not afraid of death. The villagers were alarmed at the sight of the tiger. I was not at all astonished at his rudeness. Are you aware of the fact? Vinoba was born of poor parents. Just then I was busy with my lessons. Quinine will cure you of malaria. I take great delight in swimming. Who would not be delighted with such a reward? The robber deprived him of all he had. This flower is different from that one. The teacher was displeased with me. He has proved himself faithful to his master. The soldiers were fatigued with travelling. Every merchant should be honest in his dealings. Sir, I was ill with fever. Rama informed the teacher of his mothers sad death. Govind proved himself innocent of the charge laid against him. I live opposite the town-hall. Apply with testimonials to the superintendent. Never ask for money. The teacher cautioned Mathur against doing this. Please excuse me for coming late. Please excuse me from attending to day. Fill this jug with pure water. This basket is full of mangoes. All of us were invited to his wedding. Never jest at a lame man. Always persevere in (or with) your work. The governor presented him with a medal. My mother prevented me from going out in the sun. The sailor was rewarded with a silver watch for saving life. How much have you subscribed to the famine fund? The artist took great pains over (or with) this picture. He was confined to bed for several days with high fever. Distribute these mangoes among those five children. All the members of hisfamily sympathized with him on his mishap.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

All his friends sympathized with him in his trouble. I was accompanied by my brother on my first voyage to England. I am much obliged to you for the use of your dictionary. Have you a taste for music? I am sorry I cannot agree to what you propose. I am sorry I cannot agree with what you say. My father was annoyed with his servants for their dishonesty. He was annoyed at that remark.

(G) 1. He called to me to come there. 2. The other day I called on him at his office. 3. The lady was clothed in a black gown. 4. He complained of pain in his right side. 5. The neighbours brought a complaint against him. 6. This book consists of 200 pages. 7. Charity consists in helping the poor, tending the sick, relieving the di stressed. 8. This man deals in tea and coffee. 9. Deal faithfully by your master. 10. You must not deal with that dishonest merchant. 11. You may trust this man with your money. 12. Can I entrust my money to him? (H) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (I) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I hope I shall be excused for my absence. My father has had much experience in teaching. The dog failed in his attempt to jump over the wall. I felt glad at his success. We must be grateful to our parents for their many kindnesses to us. I grieve very much for you. I am indebted to him for many kindnesses. I enquired of him about the matter. The police are inquiring into the matter. Do you take any interest in cricket? My elder brother introduced me to his friend. This office has become popular with all classes. Will you join us at football? Will you join in our play? The carpenter joined one piece of wood to another. Do not lean against the door. Our teacher never listens to trivial complaints. His friend was much moved by his sad plight. I have never been in need of medical advice. Never be negligent in your work. Govind passes daily by my door. He made mischief between the friends. My uncle has amply provided for his children. The guests were provided with suitable lodgings.

(J) 1. Be ready with your defence. 2. What father would not rejoice at the success of his son? 3. The selfish man rejoices in his own welfare. 4. How can I have any respect for a dishonest person? 5. The assistant teacher is responsible to the headmaster for the disciplin e his class. 6. The wicked king revenged himself on his subjects.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (K) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (L) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. s? 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (M) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (N) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

A search for the missing ornaments was made in every direction. The police are in search of the thief. It is impolite to stare at a person. The little boat struck on a rock and sank. The beggar was supplied with food and clothing. I am accustomed to bathe in cold water. John is accused of stealing a bicycle. Are you not ashamed of yourself? Dont boast of your cleverness. He did not succeed to his fathers throne. Are you acquainted with this man? My mother has a great affection for me. Pay great attention to English. The accused was condemned to death. The rider lost control over his horse. My friend has a great desire for wealth There is no doubt of his cunning. Never feel envious of anothers happiness. He showed envy at his friends success. It was lucky that you escaped from there. It was lucky that you escaped with a slight scar. The learned professor delivered a lecture on radium. I have no leisure for reading. What has become of your partnership with him in the book-selling busines Quinine is specific for malaria. Permanganate of potash is a proved remedy for snake-bite. That wicked man never shows any repentance for his acts of cruelty. He made a request for a loan of fifty rupees. He made the request to me. The British gained victory over the French at the battle of Wandewash. The boys were much amused at this. Never betray your friend to his enemy. The gods blessed him with good health. I bought this book of Messrs Ram & Co. He lives close to my house. I feel certain of doing it. I am glad to congratulate you on your success. My father is contented with what little he has. Is he guilty of theft? I was horrified at the dreadful sight. Peace is necessary to the progress of society. Some wicked persons plotted against his life. Just now my father is occupied in his business. Health is essential to success in life. Is he related to you? This book is useful for the junior boys. It will be useful to you. This knife is similar to that one. It is different from this. I was vexed with him. I am weary of it. As I was alighting from the carriage, the horse shied. They daily argue with him, about the matter.

10. 11. 12.

I succeeded in assuring the teacher of my innocence. Beware of imitations. The teacher blamed me for being inattentive.

(O) 1. My uncle has borrowed two hundred rupees from my father. 2. Yesterday a thief broke into my house. 3. He demands it of me. 4. I have exchanged books with my friend. 5. (a) We all grieve for him. (b) I was grieved to hear this. (c) He was grieved at the news. 6. Have you heard of his arrival here? 7. The stranger insisted on my going with him. 8. Why should you interfere with him? 9. Do not interfere in the matter. 10. You must knock at the door gently. 11. I did not laugh at him. 12. Ramas daughter is married to Hari. (P) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Seeing him in distress, a passer-by at once plunged into the river. I hope he will recover from this illness. He began to rule over his dominions at an early age. When will you start for Agra. Some voted against him, and some voted for him. I was reminded of the matter. Who will preside at the meeting? I object to your proposal. Obedience to our parents is our chief duty. Your uncle has great influence over him. All of you must attend to what I say. His servants attended on him during his last illness.

(Q) Study Carefully the following usages 1. (a) He did not reply to my letter. (b) I did not delay in answering your letter. 2. (a) We should be obedient to our parents. (b) We should obey our parents. 3. (a) My cousin lives in Bombay. (b) I live at 24, Main Road. 4. (a) Calcutta is in the east of India. (b) Ceylon is to the south of India. 5. (a) The window was broken by the boy. (b) It was broken with a stick. 6. (a) We went into the room. (b) We are sitting in the room. 7. (a) The prince arrived in India safely. (b) The Inspector arrived at Madras. 8. (a) It is absurd to compare tons with miles. (b) A tall lean man may be compared to a post. 9. (a) He has built a free library at his own expense. (b) I told him so to his face. 10. (a) Look at that strange creature. (b) Who looks after your fathers business since his retirement? (c) I looked for the book, but could not find it. (d) I was then looking out of the window. (e) Our teacher looks through a few essays. (f) I will look over your exercise.

EXERCISE Rewrite the following sentences correctly. Do not make unnecessary changes 1. Between wealth and character which do you think is the most necessary fo r life? 2. Lata Mangeshkar is more popular than any playback singer in India. 3. He spent many a sleepless nights worrying over his lost fortune. 4. The boss was very displeased for my conduct. 5. He is one of the shrewdest men that is in the administration. 6. This is an interesting novel about the past glory of India in four parts . 7. Neither of the two medical students suspected in the missing-girl case hav e so far been arrested. 8. The Mount Everest is higher than any other mountain peaks in the world. 9. One cannot always choose what is in his own interest. 10. Sitting by the window a car rushed past with great speed and crashed int o the tree. 11. Divine Comedy, the great Italian classic was written by Dante. 12. She is so fastidious that neither of three houses were liked by her. 13. As a standard reference, this book is as good if not better than anythin g the Americans have written on the subject. 14. Everyone of the members, including life members, were asked to show thei r tickets at the gate. 15. No sooner had he come from Vijayawada when he was asked to proceed to De lhi. 16. In just 3 minutes, the elephant drunk the pool dry. 17. The lioness with her four cubs were caught by villagers and sent to the zoo. 18. William Shakespeare was a greatest playwright of his time. 19. Scarcely did I see him than I knew he was an artist. 20. If you refuse to avail this opportunity given to you now it might not co me your way once again. 21. I like my father and will always live and work like he says 22. The castles of Germany are more magnificent than England. 23. There is no use discussing about prohibition. 24. The present government aims to make India a prosperous country. 25. He felt that an honourable death was more preferable to abject poverty. 26. Frequently in my sleep, I dream of the grand sceneries of my native hill s. 27. He asked me to lend him ten rupees, but I politely denied to do so. 28. Of the two assistants we employed last month, I find Raman the most hard working. 29. He confesses that not long ago he made a fortune by smuggling. 30. During the interview they asked me that why I had given up my job. 31. Until you do not learn the Word List, your verbal ability will remain po or. 32. Let us follow our P.M. than who India knows no better. 33. I have not least idea of his whereabouts. 34. Can you get me the copy of a letter sent to him? 35. Alps are difficult to climb, but not as difficult as Himalayas. 36. Sooner you decide, better for us all. 37. She sings very sweet. Isnt it? 38. Andamans belong to India. 39. If I were you, I will be very careful of my words. 40. I met my friend who I had not seen for three years. 41. Its late; I must take you leave now. 42. In the past they have and at present are doing a lot of harm. 43. I cant say I like the cloth, but I like its texture. 44. I congratulate you for your wonderful achievement.

45. The first thing he does after taking his seat is to order for tea. 46. They found him hiding at the backside of the house. 47. There was absolutely no place in the compartment. 48. I went to Delhi in June with my family members. 49. He left Bombay with bag and baggage. 50. I am going to inform to your parents. 51. You did well notwithstanding your opponent was a formidable man. 52. She is a dullard, except her arrogance is taken as a mark of brilliance. 53. He watched me like a cat watches a mouse. 54. I very much doubt that he would accept our offer. 55. She had no other fault but that of being too impatient. 56. To me it is equally surprising that he should flatter the rich as bully the poor. 57. May I request you to grant to us a favour? 58. He was so handsome that many a girl found it impossible to resist to him . 59. The faithful are required to pray God everyday. 60. Though I urged him to listen me he kept refusing point blank. 61. I have the freedom of speech. You cant prevent me to talk. 62. Before giving her final consent, she carefully thought over the matter. 63. The mother of the dead child was overwhelmed by grief. 64. She alighted out of the bus and headed for her home. 65. As soon as I entered my cabin, the boss sent for me to inquire if I was connected in this matter. 66. As a form of organization, joint partnership has several drawbacks. 67. Since a very long time this city has been prosperous. 68. His speech was broadcasted from Delhi. 69. The new handbook comprises of four important sections. 70. It is much cold in Delhi these days. 71. I read Times of India, but my grandfather prefers Statesman. 72. The rain was accompanied by hailstorm. 73. He entered into my cabin when I was having a talk with my secretary. 74. We do not know as to whether we should follow the new rules or stick to the old ones. 75. There is a rumour of an additional judge being appointed to Supreme Cour t. 76. The opposition held to ridicule the reforms suggested by the ruling part y. 77. The candidates will be judged by their own merit. 78. Much more training facilities than are available at present are needed. 79. The only best religion in the world is the one which preaches love and c ompassion. 80. The young man took a great liking to his neighbours daughter. 81. Though he was the leader, he kept himself on the background, throughout the debate. 82. Such things are to them now forbidden fruits. 83. The method of organization differs widely in both countries. 84. He had always at his heart, the interest of his country. 85. He prided on his great wealth and his enormous power. 86. The principal was in the premises when the incident took place. 87. My, another brother is an engineer. 88. You must compensate this loss to the workers. 89. Both Ram and his father could not be found. 90. When you will come here, I shall go with you. 91. Supposing if the police catches up with us, where will we hide our recor ds. 92. Being hard of hearing, I had to shout my words in his ear. 93. The manager went there to personally examine the situation. 94. You had better to stop your work for sometime. 95. None but those having ten years of administrative experience needs apply

for this post. 96. He said that he will send him some money soon. 97. I will drown, nobody shall save me. 98. Few remarks that he made during his talk provoked the argument. 99. I helped him though I was poor, because I felt that his needs were great er than those. 100. The further you go from your home, the more you remember it. ANSWERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. more necessary any other night displeased at that are in novel in four parts has so for been Mount Everest peak ones own interest when I was sitting The Divine Comedy none of the three as good as was asked did he come than drank was caught the greatest Scarcely had I seenwhen avail yourself of as he says than those of remove about aims at making remove more scenes, or scenery refused to do so more hardworking no error remove that Until you learn than whom the least idea a copy of the letter the Alps, the Himalayas The sooner the sweetly, Doesnt she? The Andamans would be whom take leave of you they have done its on your remove for, back of no room family remove with inform your The fact that after notwithstanding

52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100.

unless, in place of except as a cat doubt if he than in place of but equally as grant us resist him to God listen to from talking put carefully at the end with grief from the bus connected with remove joint for a very long broadcast remove of very cold The Times, The Statesman accompanied with remove into remove as to The Supreme court up to ridicule judged on many more remove only liking for in the background fruit in the two countries (in place of both) at heart prided over on the premises Another of my brothers compensate the workers for put neithernor in place of both and remove will remove if He being to examine the situation personally remove to need he would shall drown will save A few remove those of farther