You are on page 1of 14

Second Year Essay Fractals and the Julia Set

0407950

April 20, 2006

Contents

 1 Fractals 2 1.1 Topological Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Hausdorﬀ Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Fractals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.4 Typical Features of a Fractal Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Julia Sets 6 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2 Normal Families and Montel’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3 Normality of Iterates of f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.4 The Filled Julia Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1

1

Fractals

To be able to pinpoint our idea of what we deﬁne as a fractal, we must ﬁrst formalise our idea of dimension, as applied to a topological space.

1.1 Topological Dimension

Deﬁnition 1.1. The Topological Dimension, dim T , of a topological space, X, is deﬁned to be the minimum value of n such that for every open cover

C of X there exists some reﬁnement of C, say C , for which no point of X is

contained in any more than n + 1 sets from C

For example, consider some line, X, in the R 2 plane (not necessarily straight), with the standard topology. Intuitively, we would say that this line has a dimension of 1, so does the Topological Dimension agree with this? Consider some arbitrary open cover of this line in R 2 . This open cover will have a reﬁnement over the line which consists of a collection of open line segments along the line. From this stage, we can further reﬁne this (intuitively) so as that every point along X is contained in at most 2 sets - giving a dimension of 1. As it happens, the idea of Topological Dimension is in fact analogous to our intuitive idea of dimension on most normal sets. However the topological deﬁnition of dimension is not the only deﬁnition of dimension there is - another important deﬁnition is that of the Hausdorﬀ Dimension.

1.2 Hausdorﬀ Dimension

To be able to explain the idea of the Hausdorﬀ Dimension, we need to recap a couple of deﬁnitions of properties of sets:

Deﬁnition 1.2. The Diameter of a set U is deﬁned as |U | = sup{|x y| :

x, y U }

Deﬁnition 1.3. A δ-cover of a set F is a collection of sets {U i } such that

F i=1 U i with 0 < |U i | ≤ δ

Now, if we suppose that our set F (for which we want to ﬁnd the Hausdorﬀ Dimension for) is a subset of R n , and that s 0. We can then deﬁne:

Deﬁnition 1.4. The s-dimensional Hausdorﬀ Measure of a set F is deﬁned to be

i

H s (F ) = lim

δ0 H

δ (F)

s

2

where

H δ = inf{

s

i=1

|U i | s : U i is a δ-cover of F }

For simple integer-dimensional subsets of R n , we ﬁnd that if F is a smooth (1-dimensional) curve, then H 1 (F ) is the length of the curve, if F is a smooth (2-dimensional) surface, then H 2 (F) = ( π ) × area(F ), and if F is a smooth classical m-dimensional surface, then H m (F) = c m × vol m (F ), where c m = 2 m ( m )!m 2 . This of course all implies that, for example, that a smooth curve has a 2-dimensional Hausdorﬀ Measure of 0, and that a smooth 2-dimensional surface has a 1-dimensional Hausdorﬀ Measure which tends to inﬁnity 1 . This can be extended further, if we were to take a graph of H s (F ) against s, as in Figure 1 (page 3), we would see that the Hausdorﬀ Measure ‘jumps’ from to 0 at a particular value. At this value, the Hausdorﬀ Measure can equal 0, or any other positive real. This value is deﬁned to be the Hausdorﬀ Dimension of F , dim H (F ).

Deﬁnition 1.5. The Hausdorﬀ Dimension of a set F is deﬁned to be

dim H (F ) = inf{s : H s (F ) = 0} = sup{s : H s (F ) = ∞}

This, of course, appears to agree with the Topological Dimension of many simple sets, as outlined above. However, this deﬁnition also allows for non- integer dimensions, where the Topological deﬁnition does not. There is one futher very important property of the Hausdorﬀ Dimension:

4

2

1 Since, for example, a line has area 0 and a unit disk has length → ∞

Figure 1: Graph of H s (F ) against s

H s (F)

0

0 dim H (F)

s

3

Theorem 1.6. If F R n and λ > 0 then

H s (λF ) = λ s H s (F)

where λF = {λx : x F }. 2

Proof. If {U i } is a δ-cover of F , then {λU i } is a λδ-cover of λF . Hence

H λδ (λF ) |λU i | s = λ s |U i | s λ s H δ (F)

s

s

since this holds for any δ-cover {U i }. Letting δ 0 gives that H s (λF )

λ s H s (F ). Replacing λ required.

λ 1 and F by λF gives the opposite inequality

by 1.3

Fractals

Deﬁnition 1.7. A set F is deﬁned to be a Fractal if it has a Hausdorﬀ Dimension greater than its Topological Dimension

So let us consider an example of a set with this property

Example 1.8. Let F 0 be the unit interval [0, 1] as a subset of the reals. Let

F n+1 be equal to the set F n with the middle third of each interval making it up

removed. For

3 , This means that F n consists of 2 n intervals, each of length 3 n . The middle

third cantor set, F , is equal to

The set F clearly has a topological dimension of 0, but what of its Haus- dorﬀ Dimension? First, it is prudent to notice that the set is self-similar. That is to say that if you were to take, for example, F [1, 3 ] you would ﬁnd that it is the same as F . So, consider the two subsets of the cantor set - F l = F [1, 1 3 ] and F r = F [ 3 , 1]. Clearly, F = F l F r and the two sets F l and F r are disjoint. Assume that the set F has Hausdorﬀ Dimension d, then, since the sets F l and F r are dijoint and Borel, H d (F) = H d (F l ) + H d (F r ). Furthermore, by Theorem 1.6,

example, F 1 = [0, 3 ][ 3 , 1] and F 2 = [0, 9 ][

n=0 F n .

9 ,

1

2

1

2

3 ][ 2

1

9

][ 9

7

8 , 1].

1

2

H d (F l ) + H d (F r ) = ( 1 3 ) s H s (F) + ( 3 ) s H s (F)

1

At this point, we make the assumption 3 that at s = dim H F we have that

0 < H s (F ) < , and so by dividing by H s (F ), we get 1 = 2(

3 1 ) s s =

log 2 log 3 .

Note that dim H F = log 2

log 3 0.63 > 0 = dim T F , and so the middle third

cantor set is a fractal set.

2 From  3 This assumption is proven true in Example 2.7 on page 31 of 

4

1.4 Typical Features of a Fractal Set

There are a number of characteristics which are typical to Fractal sets:

1. Self similarity is one of the main features that Fractal sets have 4 , of which there are 3 diﬀerent types:

Exact self similarity is where the fractal appears identical at diﬀerent scales - for example in the middle third cantor set, the set F is identical to F [0, 1 3 ] which is itself identical to F [0, 9 ] and so on. This tends to be typical of fractals formed by geometric replacement rules.

1

Quasi-self similarity is where the fractal appears approximately iden- tical at diﬀerent scales - they contain small copies of the entire fractal in a distorted form.

Statistical self similarity is where a fractal preserves a statistical mea- sure at all scales, and is a feature of random fractals, but is an area I will not be going into in this essay.

2. Fractal sets also tend to have a ﬁne structure - that is to say they have detail at arbitrary levels of viewing - for example, the middle third

1 n as it does as a

cantor set has as much detail in the section F whole.

3

3. Fractal sets tend to have straightforward deﬁnitions, even though they have a ﬁne structure.

4. Fractal sets tend to 5 have non-integer hausdorﬀ dimension 6 , meaning that if you were to measure their length or area (etc) in a classical sense, you would get an answer of either 0 or . For example, the middle third cantor set is an uncountably inﬁnite set (0-dimensional measure), with 0 length (1-dimensional measure).

5. Fractal sets tend to be deﬁned by some sort of recursive procedure - whether that be a geometrical rule, as in the middle third cantor set, or some form of iterated function system or probabalistic rule.

The above features are typical of most Fractals, however to have these characteristics does not constitute a set as a fractal (although it is a good hint), and not all Fractal sets have all of the above characteristics.

4 Although note that being self similar does not constitute a set as a fractal - the straight line in euclidian space, for example, is exactly self similar, but is of course not a fractal 5 There are examples of fractals with integer dimensions, for example the path of brow- nian motion has topological dimension 1 and hausdorﬀ dimension 2 6 The word Fractal suggests the idea of a fractional dimension, although many fractals have dimension in the set R \ Q

5

2 Julia Sets

2.1

Introduction

First, we must deﬁne the polynomial f : C C to be of degree n 2 and

+ c n z n . We must now

to have complex coeﬃcients, i.e. f (z) = c 0 + c 1 z +

remind ourselves of a few deﬁnitions related to interated function systems:

Deﬁnitions 2.1. f k is the k-fold composition of the function f , i.e.

f k = f

f

k times

 z is a ﬁxed point of f if f (z) = z z is a periodic point of f if ∃p ≥ 1 st f p (z) = z

The least p such that f p (z) = z is called the period of z

Deﬁnition 2.2. A periodic point z, of period p, under a function f is called repelling if |(f p ) (z)| > 1, and is called attractive if |(f p ) (z)| < 1

We are now equipped to understand Gaston Julia’s own deﬁnition of his Julia Set:

Deﬁnition 2.3. The Julia Set, J(f ), of a complex polynomial function f is deﬁned to be the closure of the set of repelling periodic points of f .

So, let us consider a simple example of a Julia set:

Example 2.4. Let f (z) = z 2 . Clearly f k (z) = z 2k , so to ﬁnd J (f ), we need to ﬁnd the periodic points, and discover whether they are attractive or repelling. First, we shall ﬁnd these periodic points. Clearly, we have to solve z 2k = z in the complex plane. The set of points satisfying each value of k are J k =

{exp(2πi

which has period 1. z = 0 is of course attractive 7 , since

f(z) = z 2 f (z) = 2z f (0) = 0

and is therefore not in the Julia set. Note now that (f k ) (z) = 2kz 2k1 . Furthermore, the set J k lies on the unit circle |z| = 1 for all k, and the inﬁnite union of J k for all k is equal to the unit circle. This means that |z m | = 1 for all z J k , thus |(f k ) (z)| = 2k, and is certainly greater than 1, thus making this points repelling. The Julia Set J(z 2 ) is therefore the unit circle |z| = 1.

1 ) : n N, 0 n < 2 k 1}, with the extra special case of z = 0

n

2

k

7 In fact, this point is superattractive, since (f k ) (z) = 0, but that is not relevant here

6

This is, of course, one of the special cases where the Julia Set is not a fractal. In fact, there are only 2 such cases when looking only at Julia sets of functions of the form f c (z) = z 2 + c, which are the most interesting ones, and the ones I shall be using from here on 8 . In this example however, the Julia set appears to be the boundary between 2 types of behaviour of the iterated function system. Inside the Julia set, upon repeated action of f 0 , a point will tend toward 0. Outside the Julia set, however, a point will tend toward under repeated action of f 0 .

2.2 Normal Families and Montel’s Theorem

To be able to analyse the basic properties of a Julia Set, we must introduce the ideas of normal families of analytic functions and Montel’s Theorem.

Deﬁnition 2.5. Let U C, and let U be open. Let g k : U C be a family of complex analytic functions 9 . The family {g k } is Normal on U if every sequence of functions from {g k } has a subsequence which converges uniformly on every compact subset of U , either to a bounded analytic function or to .

Remark 1. This is equivalent to saying that the subsequence from the family {g k } converges to a bounded analytic function or to on each connected component of U .

Deﬁnition 2.6. The family of complex analytic functions {g k } are normal

at the point V .

Remark 2. This is equivalent to saying that a neighbourhood V of w on which every subsequence from {g k } converges uniformly to a bounded analytic function or .

At this point we can now introduce Montel’s Theorem, which is the fun- damental result on which the theory of Julia sets is based.

Theorem 2.7 (Montel). Let {g k } be a family of complex analytic functions on an open domain U . If {g k } is not a normal family, then w C, with at most one exception, we have g k (z) = w for some z U and some k.

Proof. Too complicated for here, consult  for a proof.

and {g k } is normal on

w U if open V

U , such that w V 8 The only other case where the Julia Set is not a fractal is J(z 2 2), which turns out to be a horizontal straight line 9 Functions which are complex diﬀerentiable on U

7

2.3 Normality of Iterates of f

At this point I will form a new set which is made up of those points at which the function f is not normal.

Deﬁnition 2.8.

J 0 (f ) = {z C : the family {f k } k0 is not normal at z}

Deﬁnition 2.9.

 F 0 (f) = C \ J 0 (f) = {z ∈ C : ∃ open V with z ∈ V and {f k } normal on V }

Remark 3. Note that F 0 (f ) is trivially open, since it is the union of open sets.

I am now going to show that this is an alternate deﬁnition of the Julia set for polynomials of the form f c . The following Lemma is needed by Lemma 2.11.

Lemma 2.10. For any c there exists R > 0 such that |z| > R ⇒ |f c (z)| >

2|z|

Proof. Let R = max(3, 2|c|), and let |z| > R. Then:

|f c (z)| = |z 2 + c| ≥ ||z| 2 − |c||

Now, since |z| > R, this implies |z| > max(3, 2|c|) ⇒ |z| > 2|c|, so:

||z| 2 − |c|| ≥ ||z| 2 |z| |

2

Similarly, |z| > 3, and so |z| 2 > 3 × |z|, and so

||z| 2 |z| | > (3 1

2

2 )|z| > 2|z|

This all gives that if you take R = max(3, 2|c|), then |z| > R ⇒ |f c (z)| > 2|z|

as required.

Lemma 2.11. J 0 (f c ) is compact

Proof. Since F 0 (f c ) is open, its compliment, J 0 (f c ) must be closed. By

: |z| > R}.

This means that {f k } is normal on V , so V F 0 (f c ). Therefore, J 0 (f c ) is

bounded, and thus compact. Lemma 2.10, f

c

(z) → ∞ uniformly on the open set V

k

= {z 8

Lemma 2.12. J 0 (f c ) is non-empty

Proof. Assume that J 0 (f c ) = . Then, r > 0 the family {f

k } is normal

c

on the open disc B r (0). Using R from Lemma 2.10, if we take r > R then

z B r (0) such that z → ∞. Furthermore, if we solve f c (w) = w and take

R 2 = |w|, then if r > max(R, R 2 ), then z B r (0) such that f

Therefore, it is impossible for any subsequence of {f

k } to converge uniformly

k (w) = wk.

c

c

to one of either a bounded analytic function or to inﬁnity on any compact

k }.

So J 0 (f c )

For the rest of this section, take the polynomial f to mean a polynomial of the form f c 10 .

Lemma 2.13. J 0 = f(J 0 ) = f 1 (J 0 )

Proof. Notice ﬁrst that this lemma is equivalent to saying that F 0 = f(F 0 ) =

f 1 (F 0 ). Let V be an open set with {f k } normal on V . f continuous

1 (V ) is open. Now, take {f k i } as a subsequence of {f k }. Then {f k i +1 } has a subsequence {f k i +1 } which is uniformly convergent on compact subsets of

f

subset of B r (0) containing both z and w, contradicting the normality of {f

c

= . V 11 . Note that if D is a compact subset of f 1 (V ), then f (D) is a compact

subset of V . This means that {f k i +1 } is uniformly convergent on f (D), and

so {f k i } is uniformly convergent on D. Thus {f k } is normal on f 1 (V ), and

F 0 f 1 (F 0 ). The other inclusions required can be obtained in a similar way, using the

fact that f (V ) is open whenever V is open.

Lemma 2.14. J 0 (f p ) = J 0 (f) p Z >0

Proof. The ﬁrst thing to notice for this proof is that J 0 (f p ) = J 0 (f)

F 0 (f p ) = F 0 (f ), and the right hand side is what we shall try to prove.

Notice ﬁrst that if every subsequence of {f k } has a subsequence which is uniformly convergent on a given set, then every subsequence of {f pk } k1 also has a subsequence which is uniformly continuous on that set, and so clearly

F 0 (f) F 0 (f p ).

so Next, it is clear that if D is compact, and {g k } is a family of functions uniformly convergent on D either to a bounded function or to inﬁnity, then

the same must be true for {h g k } for a polynomial h. So, if {f pk } k1 is

, p 1}.

Of course, any subsequence of {f k } k1 must contain an inﬁnite subsequence

of {f pk+r } k1 for some r ∈ {0, 1,

normal on V , then so is {f r f pk } k1 = {f pk+r } k1 for

r

∈ {0, 1,

, p1}, which, since {f pk+r } k1 is normal,

10 Although note that this can be extended to all polynomials f . 11 By the deﬁnition of normal families of analytic functions

9

contains a subsequence which is uniformly convergent to a bounded function or inﬁnity on V . Thus, {f k } is normal, and so F 0 (f) F 0 (f p ), giving the

result.

be a neigh-

bourhood of w. Let W := k=1 f k (U ). Then W is the whole of C, with

the possible exception of a single point. independent of w and U .

Proof. By the deﬁnition of J 0 , since w J 0 (f ), it follows that {f k } is not normal at w. Montel’s Theorem (Theorem 2.7) then implies that W is the whole of C. Consider a point v / W . If moreover f (z) = w, then since f (W ) W , it follows that z / W . As we showed above that C \ W consists of at most one point, then it follows that z = v. Thus f must be a polynomial of degree n,

where

So, f (z) v = c(z v) n for some

Lemma 2.15. Let f be a polynomial. Let w

J 0 (f ).

Let U

This point is not in J 0 (f ) and is

the only solution of f (z) v = 0.

c R. Consider a z that is suﬃciently close to v. It follows that f k (z) v 0 as k → ∞, this convergence being uniform on, say, {z : |z v| < (2c) 1/(1n) }. This means that {f k } is normal at v, and so v / J 0 (f ). It is clear that v

depends only on f .

Corollary 2.16. If U is an open set intersecting J 0 (f ) then, for all z C with at most one exception, f k (z) intersects U for inﬁnitely many values of

k.

Proof. Taking z C not the exceptional point from Lemma 2.15, then z

k (U ), and so f k (z) intersects U for some k. This can be repeated giving an inﬁnite sequence of k for which f k (z) intersects U .

f  Corollary 2.17. If z J 0 (f ) then J 0 (f) = ( k=1 f k (z)).

Proof. For the second point, if you take z J 0 (f ), then f k (z) J 0 (f ) by Lemma 2.13. This of course means that k=1 f k (z), and thus its closure, is contained in J 0 (f ). If U is an open set containing z, then by Corollary 2.16,

f k (z) intersects U for some k. Therefore, by Lemma 2.15, z cannot be the

exceptional point.

Corollary 2.18. If f is a polynomial, then int(J 0 (f )) = .

= , with U open. By Lemma 2.13, J 0 (f)

Proof. Suppose U = int(J 0 (f ))

k (U )k, and therefore J 0 (f) k=1 f k (U ). By Lemma 2.15, J 0 (f ) is the whole of C with the exception of at most one point, and is so unbounded,

f which contradicts Lemma 2.11 that it is compact.

Lemma 2.19. J 0 (f ) is a perfect set 12 and is therefore uncountable. 12 Meaning that it is closed and has no isolated points

10

Proof.

Let v

J 0 (f ) and let U

be a neighbourhood of v .

v

= w J 0 (f ), with w U . Consider 3 cases.

We must show

 1. v is not a periodic point of f . Combining Corollary 2.17 and Lemma 2.13, it is clear that U contains a point from f −k (v) ⊂ J 0 (f ) for some k ≥ 1, and since v is not a ﬁxed point, this point must not equal v. 2. f (v) = v. If f (z) = v has no other solution that v, then, as in Lemma 2.15, v = ∈/ J 0 (f ). Therefore ∃w v such that f (w) = v. By Corollary 2.17, U contains a point of f −k (w) for some k ≥ 1. This point, by Lemma 2.13, is in J 0 (f ) and is distinct from v since f k (v) = v. 3. f p (v) = v, p > 1. By Lemma 2.14, J 0 (f) = J 0 (f p ), so we can use the

method for case 2 on f p instead of f , giving the result required.

This case analysis shows that J 0 (f ) has no isolated points, and it is closed

since F 0 (f ) is clearly open 13 , and so is perfect.

Theorem 2.20. If f is a polynomial, then J(f ) = J 0 (f)

Proof. Let w be a repelling periodic point 14 , period p, of f . It follows that w must therefore be a repelling ﬁxed point of g := f p . Suppose that {g k } is normal at w. This implies that w has an open neighbourhood V on which a subsequence {g k i } of {g k } converges to a ﬁnite analytic function g 0 , or inﬁnity. Since g k (w) = w for all k, the analytic function that the subsequence converges to must map g 0 (w) = w, and so cannot be inﬁnite. By a result from complex analysis, the derivates must also converge 15 , and so (g k i ) (z) g 0 (z)z V . By the chain rule, |(g k i ) (w)| = |(g prime (w)) ( k i )|. However, since w is a repelling ﬁxed point, and the fact that follows that |g (w)| > 1, |(g prime (w)) ( k i )| → ∞. This implies that g 0 (w) must be inﬁnite, which is a contradiction, and so {g k } is not normal at w. This means that w J 0 (g) = J 0 (f p ) = J 0 (f ), by Lemma 2.14. Since J 0 (f ) is closed, we can see that J(f) J 0 (f ).

= 0}.

Suppose w L. It follows that there is an open neighbourhood of w, V , on which we can ﬁnd a local analytic inverse 16 f 1 : V C \ V such that f(f 1 (z)) = zz V . Deﬁne now a family of analytic functions {h k } by: Let us deﬁne a set

L

=

{w

J 0 (f)

:

z

=

w, f(z) =

w, f (z)

h k (z) =

f k (z) z

f 1 (z) z

13 Discussed in Lemma 2.11 14 Note that this means that w J(f ), and in fact covers every w from J(f ). 15 To a non-inﬁnite function. 16 By choosing values of f 1 (z) in a continuous manner.

11

Let U be an open neighbourhood of w with U V . Since w J 0 (f ), the

By Montel’s

Theorem (Theorem 2.7), h k (z) ∈ {0, 1} for some k and some z U 17 .

h k (z) = 0, then f k (z) = z for some z U . If h k (z) = 1, then f k (z) = f 1 (z), and so f k+1 (z) = z for some z U . Thus U contains a periodic point of f ,

so w J(f ).

If

family {f k } and thus the family {h k } is not normal on U .

We have shown above that L J (f ), and so L J (f ) = J (f ). However,

L contains all of J 0 (f ) excepting a ﬁnite number of points. Since, by Lemma

2.19, J 0 (f ) contains no isolated points, J 0 (f ) = L J(f ) as required. 2.4 The Filled Julia Set

We showed at the end of Section 2.1 how the Julia Set of f 0 appears to be the boundary between two diﬀerent types of behaviour of the system. We shall try to generalise this to all Julia Sets J(f c ). To do this, we need to formalise our ideas of what these behaviours are, and the sets produced by points exhibiting these behaviours.

Deﬁnition 2.21. The Filled Julia Set, or Prisoner Set of a function f c :

C C is deﬁned to be K(f c ) = {z : N

The Escape Set is the compliment of the Filled Julia Set, and is the set

of points which tend to inﬁnity under repeated action of f c .

I shall now prove that the boundary of the Filled Julia Set is equal to the

st n, f

n

c

(z) < N}.

Julia Set 18 , i.e.

Lemma 2.22. If z / K(f c ) then there exists a neighbourhood, V , of z on

which f

z

Proof. Using R from Lemma 2.10, take k such that |f take a suﬃciently small neighbourhood V of z so that f

We can

} is normal at

∂K(f c ) = J(f c ).

k

c

tends uniformly to as k → ∞. In particular {f

c

c

n

c

n

c

k

and z / J(f c ).

(z )| > R.

(V ) ⊂ {z : |z| > R}.

m (V ) ⊂ {z : |z| > 2 mn R} for all m > n, and so

Lemma 2.10 implies that f

f

m tends to uniformly on V , as required.

c Theorem 2.23. ∂K(f c ) = J(f c )

Proof. Note ﬁrst, that if z int(K(f c )), then we can take an open neigh- bourhood U of z such that U int(K(f c )). Furthermore, note that if we

take R from Lemma 2.10, f

n (U ) ⊂ {z : |z| < R} for all n.

c

17 Note that we take 2 possible points here, in case either 0 or 1 is the one exception in Montel’s Theorem. 18 Thanks to Richard Oudkerk, Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick for the outline of this proof

12

Now, consider the family of analytic functions {g k } = {f

c

k } on the open

domain U . Consider w 1 , w 2 ∈ {z : |z| > R}, with w 1

{f

w 2 . Assume that

k } is not a normal family. Then, by Montel’s Theorem (Theorem 2.7), for

k (z) = w for some z U and some k.

=

c

all w C, with at most one exception, f

f

c

k (z) < R as shown above, but w 1 > R and so w 1 must be the one exception.

c

Similarly, w 2 > R and so w 2 must be the one exception, implying w 1 = w 2 ,

k } is a normal family. So,

z / J(f c ).

and so J(f c ) ∂K(f c ).

Assume that z ∂K(f c ) \ J(f c ). Thus, we can choose a neighbourhood

U of z such that {f

k } is normal. Since z K(f c ), the orbit of z is bounded,

This, with Lemma 2.22, implies that z / ∂K(f c ) z / J(f c ),

which is a contradiction, itself implying that {f

c

c

and so no subsequence will converge to inﬁnity. Thus normality implies

that there must exist a subsequence which converges to an analytic function F : U C. However, U contains points in C \ K(f c ) which by Lemma

2.22 will tend to inﬁnity under f

k as K → ∞, so giving us a contradiction.

c

This means our assumption was wrong, and so ∂K(f c ) \ J(f c ) = and thus

∂K(f c ) = J(f c ) 13

References

 Falconer, K. (1999) Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

 Peitgen, H-O., J¨urgens, H. & Saupe, D. (1992) Fractals and Chaos: New Frontiers of Science, New York: Springer-Verlag

 Bandt, C., Graf, S. & Z¨ahle, M. (eds.) (1995) Fractal Geometry and Stochastics, Basel: Birkh¨auser Verlag

 Dekking, M., Vehel, J. L., Lutton, E. & Tricot, C. (1999) Fractals:

Theory and Applications in Engineering, London: Springer-Verlag

 Crownover, R. M. (199?) Introduction to Fractals and Chaos, ?: Jones and Bartlett Publishers

 Krantz, S. G. (1999) Handbook of Complex Variables, Boston, MA:

Birkhuser, Sections 8.4.3 and 8.4.4

 Wikipedia contributors (2006) Fractal, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclope- dia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fractal&oldid=48724032

 PlanetMath

contributors

(2006)

Periodic

Point,

PlanetMath,

http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/AttractivePeriodicPoint.html

14