Command

# arch
# cal 2007
# caL /proc/cpulnfo
# caL /proc/lnLerrupLs
# caL /proc/memlnfo
# caL /proc/swaps
# caL /proc/verslon
# caL /proc/neL/dev
# caL /proc/mounLs
# clock Ŵw
# daLe
# daLe 041217002007Ŧ00
# dmldecode Ŵq
# hdparm Ŵl /dev/hda
# hdparm ŴL1 /dev/sda
# lspcl ŴLv
# lsusb ŴLv
# uname Ŵm
# uname Ŵr
Command
# lnlL 0
# logouL
# rebooL
# shuLdown Ŵh now
# shuLdown Ŵh 16ť30 Ǝ
# shuLdown Ŵc
# shuLdown Ŵr now
# LellnlL 0
Command
# cd /home
# cd ŦŦ
# cd ŦŦ/ŦŦ
# cd
# cd Ƌuser1
# cd Ŵ
# cp flle1 flle2
# cp dlr/* Ŧ
# cp Ŵa /Lmp/dlr1 Ŧ
# cp Ŵa dlr1 dlr2
# cp flle flle1
# lconv Ŵl
# lconv Ŵf fromLncodlng ŴL LoLncodlng lnpuLllle ƽ ouLpuLllle
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Shutdownţ
# flnd Ŧ ŴmaxdepLh 1 Ŵname *Ŧ[pg ŴprlnL Ŵexec converL
# ln Ŵs flle1 lnk1
# ln flle1 lnk1
# ls
# ls Ŵl
# ls Ŵl
# ls Ŵa
# ls *ż0Ŵ9Ž*
# lsLree
# mkdlr dlr1
# mkdlr dlr1 dlr2
# mkdlr Ŵp /Lmp/dlr1/dlr2
# mv dlr1 new_dlr
# pwd
# rm Ŵf flle1
# rm Ŵrf dlr1
# rm Ŵrf dlr1 dlr2
# rmdlr dlr1
# Louch ŴL 0712230000 flle1
# Lree
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# flnd / Ŵname flle1
# flnd / Ŵuser user1
# flnd /home/user1 Ŵname Ų*Ŧbln
# flnd /usr/bln ŴLype f ŴaLlme +100
# flnd /usr/bln ŴLype f ŴmLlme Ŵ10
# flnd / Ŵname *Ŧrpm Ŵexec chmod 733 ƌžſƌ ŲŤ
# flnd / Ŵxdev Ŵname Ų*Ŧrpm
# locaLe Ų*Ŧps
# wherels halL
# whlch halL
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# fuser Ŵkm /mnL/hda2
# mounL /dev/hda2 /mnL/hda2
# mounL /dev/fd0 /mnL/floppy
# mounL /dev/cdrom /mnL/cdrom
# mounL /dev/hdc /mnL/cdrecorder
# mounL /dev/hdb /mnL/cdrecorder
# mounL Ŵo loop flleŦlso /mnL/cdrom
# mounL ŴL vfaL /dev/hda3 /mnL/hda3
# mounL /dev/sda1 /mnL/usbdlsk
# mounL ŴL smbfs Ŵo usernameƹuserţpasswordƹpass //WlnCllenL/share /mnL/share
# umounL /dev/hda2
# umounL Ŵn /mnL/hda2
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,
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# df Ŵh
# dpkgŴquery ŴW Ŵfƹƌ$žlnsLalledŴSlzeŤ10ſL$žÞackageſnƌ | sorL Ŵk1ţ1n
# du Ŵsh dlr1
# du Ŵsk * | sorL Ŵrn
# ls ŴlSr |more
# rpm Ŵq Ŵa ŴŴqf ƌƷ10žSlZLſLƷžnAMLſnƌ | sorL Ŵk1ţ1n
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# chage ŴL 2003Ŵ12Ŵ31 user1
# groupadd żgroupŽ
# groupdel żgroupŽ
# groupmod Ŵn moon sun
# grpck
# newgrp Ŵ żgroupŽ
# passwd
# passwd user1
# pwck
# useradd Ŵc ƍuser Llnuxƍ Ŵg admln Ŵd /home/user1 Ŵs /bln/bash user1
# useradd user1
# userdel Ŵr user1
# usermod Ŵc ƍuser l1Þƍ Ŵg sysLem Ŵd /fLp/user1 Ŵs /bln/nologln user1
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# chgrp group1 flle1
# chmod ugo+rwx dlrecLory1
# chmod goŴrwx dlrecLory1
# chmod u+s /bln/flle1
# chmod uŴs /bln/flle1
# chmod g+s /home/publlc
# chmod gŴs /home/publlc
# chmod o+L /home/publlc
# chmod oŴL /home/publlc
# chown user1 flle1
# chown Ŵ8 user1 dlrecLory1
# chown user1ťgroup1 flle1
# flnd / Ŵperm Ŵu+s
# ls Ŵlh
# ls /Lmp | pr Ŵ13 ŴW$CCLuMnS
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½
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# chaLLr +a flle1
# chaLLr +c flle1
# chaLLr +d flle1
# chaLLr +l flle1
# chaLLr +s flle1
# chaLLr +S flle1
# chaLLr +u flle1
# lsaLLr
Command
# bunzlp2 flle1Ŧbz2
# bzlp2 flle1
# gunzlp flle1Ŧgz
# gzlp flle1
# gzlp Ŵ9 flle1
# rar a flle1Ŧrar LesL_flle
# rar a flle1Ŧrar flle1 flle2 dlr1
# rar x flle1Ŧrar
# Lar Ŵcvf archlveŦLar flle1
# Lar Ŵcvf archlveŦLar flle1 flle2 dlr1
# Lar ŴLf archlveŦLar
# Lar Ŵxvf archlveŦLar
# Lar Ŵxvf archlveŦLar ŴC /Lmp
# Lar Ŵcvf[ archlveŦLarŦbz2 dlr1
# Lar Ŵxvf[ archlveŦLarŦbz2
# Lar Ŵcvfz archlveŦLarŦgz dlr1
# Lar Ŵxvfz archlveŦLarŦgz
# unrar x flle1Ŧrar
# unzlp flle1Ŧzlp
# zlp flle1Ŧzlp flle1
# zlp Ŵr flle1Ŧzlp flle1 flle2 dlr1
Command
# rpm Ŵlvh żpackageŦrpmŽ
# rpm Ŵlvh ŴŴnodeeps żpackageŦrpmŽ
# rpm Ŵu żpackageŦrpmŽ
# rpm Ŵl żpackageŦrpmŽ
# rpm Ŵe żpackageŽ
# rpm Ŵqa
# rpm Ŵqa | grep hLLpd
# rpm Ŵql żpackageŽ
# rpm Ŵqg ƍSysLem LnvlronmenL/uaemonsƍ
# rpm Ŵql żpackageŽ
# rpm Ŵqc żpackageŽ
# rpm Ŵq żpackageŽ ŴŴwhaLrequlres
# rpm Ŵq żpackageŽ ŴŴwhaLprovldes
Arch
kÞM Þack
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# rpm Ŵq żpackageŽ ŴŴscrlpLs
# rpm Ŵq żpackageŽ ŴŴchangelog
# rpm Ŵqf /eLc/hLLpd/conf/hLLpdŦconf
# rpm Ŵqp żpackageŦrpmŽ Ŵl
# rpm ŴŴlmporL /medla/cdrom/8ÞMŴCÞCŴkL?
# rpm ŴŴcheckslg żpackageŦrpmŽ
# rpm Ŵqa gpgŴpubkey
# rpm Ŵv żpackageŽ
# rpm Ŵva
# rpm Ŵvp żpackageŦrpmŽ
# rpm Ŵlvh /usr/src/redhaL/8ÞMS/`arch`/żpackageŦrpmŽ
# rpm2cplo żpackageŦrpmŽ | cplo ŴŴexLracL ŴŴmakeŴdlrecLorles *bln*
# rpmbulld ŴŴrebulld żpackageŦsrcŦrpmŽ
Command
# yum Ŵy lnsLall żpackageŽ
# yum locallnsLall żpackageŦrpmŽ
# yum Ŵy updaLe
# yum updaLe żpackageŽ
# yum remove żpackageŽ
# yum llsL
# yum search żpackageŽ
# yum clean żpackageŽ
# yum clean headers
# yum clean all
Command
# dpkg Ŵl żpackageŦdebŽ
# dpkg Ŵr żpackageŽ
# dpkg Ŵl
# dpkg Ŵl | grep hLLpd
# dpkg Ŵs żpackageŽ
# dpkg ŴL żpackageŽ
# dpkg ŴŴconLenLs żpackageŦdebŽ
# dpkg ŴS /bln/plng
Command
# apLŴcache search żpackageŽ
# apLŴcdrom lnsLall żpackageŽ
# apLŴgeL lnsLall żpackageŽ
# apLŴgeL updaLe
# apLŴgeL upgrade
# apLŴgeL remove żpackageŽ
# apLŴgeL check
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DL8 pack
¥UM packag
AÞ1 package
# apLŴgeL clean
Command
# pacman ŴS name
# pacman Ŵ8 name
Command
# caL flle1
# head Ŵ2 flle1
# less flle1
# more flle1
# Lac flle1
# Lall Ŵ2 flle1
# Lall Ŵf /var/log/messages
Command
# caL exampleŦLxL | awk ƌn8Ʒ2ƹƹ1ƌ
# echo a b c | awk ƌžprlnL $1ſƌ
# echo a b c | awk ƌžprlnL $1ţ$3ſƌ
# caL Ŵn flle1
# comm Ŵ1 flle1 flle2
# comm Ŵ2 flle1 flle2
# comm Ŵ3 flle1 flle2
# dlff flle1 flle2
# grep Aug /var/log/messages
# grep ƊAug /var/log/messages
# grep ż0Ŵ9Ž /var/log/messages
# grep Aug Ŵ8 /var/log/*
# pasLe flle1 flle2
# pasLe Ŵd ƌ+ƌ flle1 flle2
# sdlff flle1 flle2
# sed ƌs/sLrlng1/sLrlng2/gƌ exampleŦLxL
# sed ƌ/Ɗ$/dƌ exampleŦLxL
# sed ƌ/ *#/dŤ /Ɗ$/dƌ exampleŦLxL
# sed Ŵe ƌ1dƌ exampeŦLxL
# sed Ŵn ƌ/sLrlng1/pƌ
# sed Ŵe ƌs/ *$//ƌ exampleŦLxL
# sed Ŵe ƌs/sLrlng1//gƌ exampleŦLxL
# sed Ŵn ƌ1ţ3pƌ exampleŦLxL
# sed Ŵn ƌ3pŤ3qƌ exampleŦLxL
# sed Ŵe ƌs/00*/0/gƌ exampleŦLxL
# sorL flle1 flle2
# sorL flle1 flle2 | unlq
# sorL flle1 flle2 | unlq Ŵu
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Þacman packag
# sorL flle1 flle2 | unlq Ŵd
# echo ƌwordƌ | Lr ƌżťlowerťŽƌ ƌżťupperťŽƌ
Command
# dos2unlx flledosŦLxL flleunlxŦLxL
# recode ŦŦP1ML Ƽ pageŦLxL ƽ pageŦhLml
# recode Ŵl | more
# unlx2dos flleunlxŦLxL flledosŦLxL
Command
# badblocks Ŵv /dev/hda1
# dosfsck /dev/hda1
# e2fsck /dev/hda1
# e2fsck Ŵ[ /dev/hda1
# fsck /dev/hda1
# fsckŦexL2 /dev/hda1
# fsckŦexL3 /dev/hda1
# fsckŦvfaL /dev/hda1
# fsckŦmsdos /dev/hda1
Command
# fdformaL Ŵn /dev/fd0
# mke2fs /dev/hda1
# mke2fs Ŵ[ /dev/hda1
# mkfs /dev/hda1
# mkfs ŴL vfaL 32 Ŵl /dev/hda1
# mkswap /dev/hda3
Command
# mkswap /dev/hda3
# swapon /dev/hda3
# swapon /dev/hda2 /dev/hdb3
Command
# flnd /var/log Ŵname ƌ*Ŧlogƌ | Lar cv ŴŴfllesŴfromƹŴ | bzlp2 ƽ logŦLarŦbz2
# flnd /home/user1 Ŵname ƌ*ŦLxLƌ | xargs cp Ŵav ŴŴLargeLŴdlrecLoryƹ/home/backup/ ŴŴ
parenLs
# dd bsƹ1M lfƹ/dev/hda | gzlp | ssh user[lp_addr ƌdd ofƹhdaŦgzƌ
# dd lfƹ/dev/sda ofƹ/Lmp/flle1
# dd lfƹ/dev/hda ofƹ/dev/fd0 bsƹ312 counLƹ1
# dd lfƹ/dev/fd0 ofƹ/dev/hda bsƹ312 counLƹ1
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Character
# dump Ŵ0a[ Ŵf /Lmp/home0Ŧbak /home
# dump Ŵ1a[ Ŵf /Lmp/home0Ŧbak /home
# resLore Ŵlf /Lmp/home0Ŧbak
# rsync Ŵrogpav ŴŴdeleLe /home /Lmp
# rsync Ŵrogpav Ŵe ssh ŴŴdeleLe /home lp_addressť/Lmp
# rsync Ŵaz Ŵe ssh ŴŴdeleLe lp_addrť/home/publlc /home/local
# rsync Ŵaz Ŵe ssh ŴŴdeleLe /home/local lp_addrť/home/publlc
# Lar ŴÞuf backupŦLar /home/user
# ( cd /Lmp/local/ ƎƎ Lar c Ŧ ) | ssh ŴC user[lp_addr ƌcd /home/share/ ƎƎ Lar x Ŵpƌ
# ( Lar c /home ) | ssh ŴC user[lp_addr ƌcd /home/backupŴhome ƎƎ Lar x Ŵpƌ
# Lar cf Ŵ Ŧ | (cd /Lmp/backup Ť Lar xf Ŵ )
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# cdŴparanola Ŵ8
# cdŴparanola ŴŴ
# cdrecord Ŵv graceLlmeƹ2 devƹ/dev/cdrom Ŵe[ecL blankƹfasL Ŵforce
# cdrecord Ŵv devƹ/dev/cdrom cdŦlso
# gzlp Ŵdc cd_lsoŦgz | cdrecord devƹ/dev/cdrom Ŵ
# cdrecord ŴŴscanbus
# dd lfƹ/dev/hdc | md3sum
# mklsofs /dev/cdrom ƽ cdŦlso
# mklsofs /dev/cdrom | gzlp ƽ cd_lsoŦgz
# mklsofs Ŵ! ŴallowŴleadlngŴdoLs Ŵ8 Ŵv
# mounL Ŵo loop cdŦlso /mnL/lso
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# dhcllenL eLh0
# eLhLool eLh0
# hosL wwwŦexampleŦcom
# hosLname
# lfconflg eLh0
# lfconflg eLh0 192Ŧ168Ŧ1Ŧ1 neLmask 233Ŧ233Ŧ233Ŧ0
# lfconflg eLh0 promlsc
# lfdown eLh0
# lfup eLh0
# lp llnk show
# lwconflg eLh1
# lwllsL scan
# mllŴLool eLh0
# neLsLaL ŴLup
# neLsLaL ŴLupl
# neLsLaL Ŵrn
# nslookup wwwŦexampleŦcom
# rouLe Ŵn
# rouLe add ŴneL 0/0 gw lÞ_CaLeway
# rouLe add ŴneL 192Ŧ168Ŧ0Ŧ0 neLmask 233Ŧ233Ŧ0Ŧ0 gw 192Ŧ168Ŧ1Ŧ1
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-
# rouLe del 0/0 gw lÞ_gaLeway
# echo ƍ1ƍ ƽ /proc/sys/neL/lpv4/lp_forward
# Lcpdump Lcp porL 80
# whols wwwŦexampleŦcom
Command
# mounL ŴL smbfs Ŵo usernameƹuserţpasswordƹpass //WlnCllenL/share /mnL/share
# nbLscan lp_addr
# nmblookup ŴA lp_addr
# smbcllenL ŴL lp_addr/hosLname
# smbgeL Ŵ8r smbť//lp_addr/share
Command
# lpLables ŴL fllLer ŴL
# lpLables ŴL naL ŴL
# lpLables ŴL fllLer Ŵl
# lpLables ŴL naL Ŵl
# lpLables ŴL fllLer Ŵx
# lpLables ŴL fllLer ŴA lnÞu1 Ŵp Lcp ŴŴdporL LelneL Ŵ[ ACCLÞ1
# lpLables ŴL fllLer ŴA Cu1Þu1 Ŵp Lcp ŴŴdporL hLLp Ŵ[ u8CÞ
# lpLables ŴL fllLer ŴA lC8WA8u Ŵp Lcp ŴŴdporL pop3 Ŵ[ ACCLÞ1
# lpLables ŴL fllLer ŴA lnÞu1 Ŵ[ LCC ŴŴlogŴpreflx
# lpLables ŴL naL ŴA ÞCS18Cu1lnC Ŵo eLh0 Ŵ[ MASCuL8AuL
# lpLables ŴL naL ŴA Þ8L8Cu1lnC Ŵd 192Ŧ168Ŧ0Ŧ1 Ŵp Lcp Ŵm Lcp ŴŴdporL 22 Ŵ[ unA1 ŴŴ
LoŴdesLlnaLlon 10Ŧ0Ŧ0Ŧ2ť22
Command
# free Ŵm
# klll Ŵ9 process_ld
# klll Ŵ1 process_ld
# lasL rebooL
# lsmod
# lsof Ŵp process_ld
# lsof /home/user1
# ps Ŵeafw
# ps Ŵe Ŵo pldţargs ŴŴforesL
# psLree
# smarLcLl ŴA /dev/hda
# smarLcLl Ŵl /dev/hda
# sLrace Ŵc ls ƽ/dev/null
# sLrace Ŵf Ŵe open ls ƽ/dev/null
# Lall /var/log/dmesg
# Lall /var/log/messages
# Lop
# waLch Ŵn1 ƌcaL /proc/lnLerrupLsƌ
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M|crosof
Mo
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# allas hhƹƌhlsLoryƌ
# apropos ŦŦŦkeyword
# chsh
# chsh ŴŴllsLŴshells
# gpg Ŵc flle1
# gpg flle1Ŧgpg
# ldd /usr/bln/ssh
# man plng
# mkbooLdlsk ŴŴdevlce /dev/fd0 `uname Ŵr`
# wgeL Ŵr wwwŦexampleŦcom
# wgeL Ŵc wwwŦexampleŦcom/flleŦlso
# echo ƌwgeL Ŵc wwwŦexampleŦcom/fllesŦlsoƌ | aL 09ť00
# whaLls ŦŦŦkeyword
# who Ŵa
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Descr|pt|on
show archlLecLure of machlne(1) żmanŽ
show Lhe LlmeLable of 2007 żmanŽ
show lnformaLlon CÞu lnfo żmanŽ
show lnLerrupLs żmanŽ
verlfy memory use żmanŽ
show flle(s) swap żmanŽ
show verslon of Lhe kernel żmanŽ
show neLwork adpLers and sLaLlsLlcs żmanŽ
show mounLed flle sysLem(s) żmanŽ
save daLe changes on 8lCS żmanŽ
show sysLem daLe żmanŽ
seL daLe and Llme Ŵ MonLhuayhoursMlnuLes?earŦSeconds żmanŽ
show hardware sysLem componenLs Ŵ (SM8lCS / uMl) żmanŽ
dlsplays Lhe characLerlsLlcs of a hardŴdlsk żmanŽ
perform LesL readlng on a hardŴdlsk żmanŽ
dlsplay ÞCl devlces żmanŽ
show uS8 devlces żmanŽ
show archlLecLure of machlne(2) żmanŽ
show used kernel verslon żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
shuLdown sysLem(2) żmanŽ
leavlng sesslon żmanŽ
rebooL(2) żmanŽ
shuLdown sysLem(1) żmanŽ
planned shuLdown of Lhe sysLem żmanŽ
cancel a planned shuLdown of Lhe sysLem żmanŽ
rebooL(1) żmanŽ
shuLdown sysLem(3) żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
enLer Lo dlrecLory ƌ/ homeƌ żmanŽ
go back one level żmanŽ
go back Lwo levels żmanŽ
go Lo home dlrecLory żmanŽ
go Lo home dlrecLory żmanŽ
go Lo prevlous dlrecLory żmanŽ
copylng a flle żmanŽ
copy all flles of a dlrecLory wlLhln Lhe currenL work dlrecLory żmanŽ
copy a dlrecLory wlLhln Lhe currenL work dlrecLory żmanŽ
copy a dlrecLory żmanŽ
ouLpuLs Lhe mlme Lype of Lhe flle as LexL żmanŽ
llsLs known encodlngs żmanŽ
converLlng Lhe codlng of characLers from one formaL Lo anoLher żmanŽ
System |nformat|on
I||es and D|rectory
baLch reslze flles ln Lhe currenL dlrecLory and send Lhem Lo a Lhumbnalls dlrecLory (requlres converL from
lmagemaglck) żmanŽ
creaLe a symbollc llnk Lo flle or dlrecLory żmanŽ
creaLe a physlcal llnk Lo flle or dlrecLory żmanŽ
vlew flles of dlrecLory żmanŽ
vlew flles of dlrecLory żmanŽ
show deLalls of flles and dlrecLory żmanŽ
show hldden flles żmanŽ
show flles and dlrecLory conLalnlng numbers żmanŽ
show flles and dlrecLorles ln a Lree sLarLlng from rooL(2) żmanŽ
creaLe a dlrecLory called ƌdlr1ƌ żmanŽ
creaLe Lwo dlrecLorles slmulLaneously żmanŽ
creaLe a dlrecLory Lree żmanŽ
rename / move a flle or dlrecLory żmanŽ
show Lhe paLh of work dlrecLory żmanŽ
deleLe flle called ƌflle1ƌ żmanŽ
remove a dlrecLory called ƌdlr1ƌ and conLenLs recurslvely żmanŽ
remove Lwo dlrecLorles and Lhelr conLenLs recurslvely żmanŽ
deleLe dlrecLory called ƌdlr1ƌ żmanŽ
modlfy LlmesLamp of a flle or dlrecLory Ŵ (??MMuuhhmm) żmanŽ
show flles and dlrecLorles ln a Lree sLarLlng from rooL(1) żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
search flle and dlrecLory lnLo rooL fllesysLem from ƌ/ƌ żmanŽ
search flles and dlrecLorles belonglng Lo ƌuser1ƌ żmanŽ
search flles wlLh ƌŦ blnƌ exLenslon wlLhln dlrecLory ƌ/ home/user1ƌ żmanŽ
search blnary flles are noL used ln Lhe lasL 100 days żmanŽ
search flles creaLed or changed wlLhln 10 days żmanŽ
search flles wlLh ƌŦrpmƌ exLenslon and modlfy permlLs żmanŽ
search flles wlLh ƌŦrpmƌ exLenslon lgnorlng removable parLlLlons as cdromţ penŴdrlveţ eLcŦŧ żmanŽ
flnd flles wlLh Lhe ƌŦpsƌ exLenslon Ŵ flrsL run ƌupdaLedbƌ command żmanŽ
show locaLlon of a blnary flleţ source or man żmanŽ
show full paLh Lo a blnary / execuLable żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
force umounL when Lhe devlce ls busy żmanŽ
mounL dlsk called hda2 Ŵ verlfy exlsLence of Lhe dlrecLory ƌ/ mnL/hda2ƌ żmanŽ
mounL a floppy dlsk żmanŽ
mounL a cdrom / dvdrom żmanŽ
mounL a cdrw / dvdrom żmanŽ
mounL a cdrw / dvdrom żmanŽ
mounL a flle or lso lmage żmanŽ
mounL a Wlndows lA132 flle sysLem żmanŽ
mounL a usb penŴdrlve or flashŴdrlve żmanŽ
mounL a wlndows neLwork share żmanŽ
unmounL dlsk called hda2 Ŵ exlL from mounL polnL ƌ/ mnL/hda2ƌ flrsL żmanŽ
run umounL wlLhouL wrlLlng Lhe flle /eLc/mLab Ŵ useful when Lhe flle ls readŴonly or Lhe hard dlsk ls full żmanŽ
I||e search
Mount|ng a I||esystem
Descr|pt|on
show llsL of parLlLlons mounLed żmanŽ
show Lhe used space by lnsLalled deb packagesţ sorLlng by slze (deblanţ ubunLu and allke) żmanŽ
esLlmaLe space used by dlrecLory ƌdlr1ƌ żmanŽ
show slze of Lhe flles and dlrecLorles sorLed by slze żmanŽ
show slze of Lhe flles and dlrecLorles ordered by slze żmanŽ
show space used by rpm packages lnsLalled sorLed by slze (fedoraţ redhaL and llke) żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
seL deadllne for user password żmanŽ
creaLe a new group żmanŽ
deleLe a group żmanŽ
rename a group from moon Lo sun żmanŽ
check correcL synLax and flle formaL of ƌ/eLc/groupƌ and groups exlsLence żmanŽ
log lnLo a new group Lo change defaulL group of newly creaLed flles żmanŽ
change password żmanŽ
change a user password (only by rooL) żmanŽ
check correcL synLax and flle formaL of ƌ/eLc/passwdƌ and users exlsLence żmanŽ
creaLe a new user ƍuser1ƍ belongs ƍadmlnƍ group żmanŽ
creaLe a new user żmanŽ
deleLe a user ( ƌŴrƌ ellmlnaLes home dlrecLory) żmanŽ
change user aLLrlbuLes żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
change group of flles żmanŽ
seL permlsslons readlng (r)ţ wrlLe (w) and (x) access Lo users owner (u) group (g) and oLhers (o) żmanŽ
remove permlLs readlng (r)ţ wrlLe (w) and (x) access Lo users group (g) and oLhers (or żmanŽ
seL Sulu blL on a blnary flle Ŵ Lhe user LhaL runnlng LhaL flle geLs same prlvlleges as owner żmanŽ
dlsable Sulu blL on a blnary flle żmanŽ
seL SClu blL on a dlrecLory Ŵ slmllar Lo Sulu buL for dlrecLory żmanŽ
dlsable SClu blL on a dlrecLory żmanŽ
seL S1lk? blL on a dlrecLory Ŵ allows flles deleLlon only Lo leglLlmaLe owners żmanŽ
dlsable S1lk? blL on a dlrecLory żmanŽ
change owner of a flle żmanŽ
change user owner of a dlrecLory and all Lhe flles and dlrecLorles conLalned lnslde żmanŽ
change user and group ownershlp of a flle żmanŽ
vlew all flles on Lhe sysLem wlLh Sulu conflgured żmanŽ
show permlLs on flles żmanŽ
dlvlde Lermlnal lnLo 3 columns żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
Users and Groups
Þerm|ts on I||es
Spec|a| Attr|butes on f||es
D|sk Space
allows wrlLe openlng of a flle only append mode żmanŽ
allows LhaL a flle ls compressed / decompressed auLomaLlcally by Lhe kernel żmanŽ
makes sure LhaL Lhe program lgnores uump Lhe flles durlng backup żmanŽ
makes lL an lmmuLable flleţ whlch can noL be removedţ alLeredţ renamed or llnked żmanŽ
allows a flle Lo be deleLed safely żmanŽ
makes sure LhaL lf a flle ls modlfled changes are wrlLLen ln synchronous mode as wlLh sync żmanŽ
allows you Lo recover Lhe conLenLs of a flle even lf lL ls canceled żmanŽ
show speclals aLLrlbuLes żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
decompress a flle called ƌflle1Ŧbz2ƌ żmanŽ
compress a flle called ƌflle1ƌ żmanŽ
decompress a flle called ƌflle1Ŧgzƌ żmanŽ
compress a flle called ƌflle1ƌ żmanŽ
compress wlLh maxlmum compresslon żmanŽ
creaLe an archlve rar called ƌflle1Ŧrarƌ żmanŽ
compress ƌflle1ƌţ ƌflle2ƌ and ƌdlr1ƌ slmulLaneously żmanŽ
decompress rar archlve żmanŽ
creaLe a uncompressed Larball żmanŽ
creaLe an archlve conLalnlng ƌflle1ƌţ ƌflle2ƌ and ƌdlr1ƌ żmanŽ
show conLenLs of an archlve żmanŽ
exLracL a Larball żmanŽ
exLracL a Larball lnLo / Lmp żmanŽ
creaLe a Larball compressed lnLo bzlp2 żmanŽ
decompress a compressed Lar archlve ln bzlp2 żmanŽ
creaLe a Larball compressed lnLo gzlp żmanŽ
decompress a compressed Lar archlve ln gzlp żmanŽ
decompress rar archlve żmanŽ
decompress a zlp archlve żmanŽ
creaLe an archlve compressed ln zlp żmanŽ
compress ln zlp several flles and dlrecLorles slmulLaneously żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
lnsLall a rpm package żmanŽ
lnsLall a rpm package lgnorlng dependencles requesLs żmanŽ
upgrade a rpm package wlLhouL changlng conflguraLlon flles żmanŽ
upgrade a rpm package only lf lL ls already lnsLalled żmanŽ
remove a rpm package żmanŽ
show all rpm packages lnsLalled on Lhe sysLem żmanŽ
show all rpm packages wlLh Lhe name ƍhLLpdƍ żmanŽ
obLaln lnformaLlon on a speclflc package lnsLalled żmanŽ
show rpm packages of a group sofLware żmanŽ
show llsL of flles provlded by a rpm package lnsLalled żmanŽ
show llsL of conflguraLlon flles provlded by a rpm package lnsLalled żmanŽ
show llsL of dependencles requlred for a rpm packeL żmanŽ
show capablllLy provlded by a rpm package żmanŽ
Arch|ves and compressed f||es
show scrlpLs sLarLed durlng lnsLallaLlon / removal żmanŽ
show hlsLory of revlslons of a rpm package żmanŽ
verlfy whlch rpm package belongs Lo a glven flle żmanŽ
show llsL of flles provlded by a rpm package noL yeL lnsLalled żmanŽ
lmporL publlcŴkey dlglLal slgnaLure żmanŽ
verlfy Lhe lnLegrlLy of a rpm package żmanŽ
verlfy lnLegrlLy of all rpm packages lnsLalled żmanŽ
check flle slzeţ permlsslonsţ Lypeţ ownerţ groupţ Mu3 checksum and lasL modlflcaLlon żmanŽ
check all rpm packages lnsLalled on Lhe sysLem Ŵ use wlLh cauLlon żmanŽ
verlfy a rpm package noL yeL lnsLalled żmanŽ
lnsLall a package bullL from a rpm source żmanŽ
exLracL execuLable flle from a rpm package żmanŽ
bulld a rpm package from a rpm source żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
download and lnsLall a rpm package żmanŽ
1haL wlll lnsLall an 8ÞMţ and Lry Lo resolve all Lhe dependencles for you uslng your reposlLorlesŦ żmanŽ
updaLe all rpm packages lnsLalled on Lhe sysLem żmanŽ
upgrade a rpm package żmanŽ
remove a rpm package żmanŽ
llsL all packages lnsLalled on Lhe sysLem żmanŽ
flnd a package on rpm reposlLory żmanŽ
clean up rpm cache eraslng downloaded packages żmanŽ
remove all flles headers LhaL Lhe sysLem uses Lo resolve dependency żmanŽ
remove from Lhe cache packages and headers flles żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
lnsLall / upgrade a deb package żmanŽ
remove a deb package from Lhe sysLem żmanŽ
show all deb packages lnsLalled on Lhe sysLem żmanŽ
show all deb packages wlLh Lhe name ƍhLLpdƍ żmanŽ
obLaln lnformaLlon on a speclflc package lnsLalled on sysLem żmanŽ
show llsL of flles provlded by a package lnsLalled on sysLem żmanŽ
show llsL of flles provlded by a package noL yeL lnsLalled żmanŽ
verlfy whlch package belongs Lo a glven flle żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
reLurns llsL of packages whlch corresponds sLrlng ƍsearchedŴpackagesƍ żmanŽ
lnsLall / upgrade a deb package from cdrom żmanŽ
lnsLall / upgrade a deb package żmanŽ
updaLe Lhe package llsL żmanŽ
upgrade all of Lhe lnsLalled packages żmanŽ
remove a deb package from sysLem żmanŽ
verlfy correcL resoluLlon of dependencles żmanŽ
clean up cache from packages downloaded żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
lnsLall package ƌnameƌ wlLh dependencles żmanŽ
ueleLe package ƌnameƌ and all flles of lL żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
vlew Lhe conLenLs of a flle sLarLlng from Lhe flrsL row żmanŽ
vlew flrsL Lwo llnes of a flle żmanŽ
slmllar Lo ƌmoreƌ command buL whlch allows backward movemenL ln Lhe flle as well as forward movemenL
żmanŽ
vlew conLenL of a flle along żmanŽ
vlew Lhe conLenLs of a flle sLarLlng from Lhe lasL llne żmanŽ
vlew lasL Lwo llnes of a flle żmanŽ
vlew ln real Llme whaL ls added Lo a flle żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
remove all even llnes from exampleŦLxL żmanŽ
vlew Lhe flrsL column of a llne żmanŽ
vlew Lhe flrsL and Lhlrd column of a llne żmanŽ
number row of a flle żmanŽ
compare conLenLs of Lwo flles by deleLlng only unlque llnes from ƌflle1ƌ żmanŽ
compare conLenLs of Lwo flles by deleLlng only unlque llnes from ƌflle2ƌ żmanŽ
compare conLenLs of Lwo flles by deleLlng only Lhe llnes LhaL appear on boLh flles żmanŽ
flnd dlfferences beLween Lwo flles żmanŽ
look up words ƍAugƍ on flle ƌ/var/log/messagesƌ żmanŽ
look up words LhaL begln wlLh ƍAugƍ on flle ƌ/var/log/messagesƌ żmanŽ
selecL from flle ƌ/var/log/messagesƌ all llnes LhaL conLaln numbers żmanŽ
search sLrlng ƍAugƍ aL dlrecLory ƌ/var/logƌ and below żmanŽ
merglng conLenLs of Lwo flles for columns żmanŽ
merglng conLenLs of Lwo flles for columns wlLh ƌ+ƌ dellmlLer on Lhe cenLer żmanŽ
flnd dlfferences beLween Lwo flles and merge lnLeracLlvely allke ƍdlffƍ żmanŽ
replace ƍsLrlng1ƍ wlLh ƍsLrlng2ƍ ln exampleŦLxL żmanŽ
remove all blank llnes from exampleŦLxL żmanŽ
remove commenLs and blank llnes from exampleŦLxL żmanŽ
ellmlnaLes Lhe flrsL llne from flle exampleŦLxL żmanŽ
vlew only llnes LhaL conLaln Lhe word ƍsLrlng1ƍ żmanŽ
remove empLy characLers aL Lhe end of each row żmanŽ
remove only Lhe word ƍsLrlng1ƍ from LexL and leave lnLacL all żmanŽ
prlnL from 1Lh Lo 3Lh row of exampleŦLxL żmanŽ
prlnL row number 3 of exampleŦLxL żmanŽ
replace more zeros wlLh a slngle zero żmanŽ
sorL conLenLs of Lwo flles żmanŽ
sorL conLenLs of Lwo flles omlLLlng llnes repeaLed żmanŽ
sorL conLenLs of Lwo flles by vlewlng only unlque llne żmanŽ
1ext Man|pu|at|on
V|ew f||e content
sorL conLenLs of Lwo flles by vlewlng only dupllcaLe llne żmanŽ
converL from lower case ln upper case żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
converL a LexL flle formaL from MSuCS Lo unlx żmanŽ
converL a LexL flle Lo hLml żmanŽ
show all avallable formaLs converslon żmanŽ
converL a LexL flle formaL from unlx Lo MSuCS żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
check bad blocks on dlsk hda1 żmanŽ
repalr / check lnLegrlLy of dos fllesysLems on dlsk hda1 żmanŽ
repalr / check lnLegrlLy of exL2 fllesysLem on dlsk hda1 żmanŽ
repalr / check lnLegrlLy of exL3 fllesysLem on dlsk hda1 żmanŽ
repalr / check lnLegrlLy of llnux fllesysLem on dlsk hda1 żmanŽ
repalr / check lnLegrlLy of exL2 fllesysLem on dlsk hda1 żmanŽ
repalr / check lnLegrlLy of exL3 fllesysLem on dlsk hda1 żmanŽ
repalr / check lnLegrlLy of faL fllesysLem on dlsk hda1 żmanŽ
repalr / check lnLegrlLy of dos fllesysLem on dlsk hda1 żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
formaL a floppy dlsk żmanŽ
creaLe a fllesysLem Lype llnux exL2 on hda1 parLlLlon żmanŽ
creaLe a fllesysLem Lype llnux exL3 ([ournal) on hda1 parLlLlon żmanŽ
creaLe a fllesysLem Lype llnux on hda1 parLlLlon żmanŽ
creaLe a lA132 fllesysLem żmanŽ
creaLe a swap fllesysLem żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
creaLe a swap fllesysLem żmanŽ
acLlvaLlng a new swap parLlLlon żmanŽ
acLlvaLe Lwo swap parLlLlons żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
flnd all flles wlLh ƌŦlogƌ exLenLlon and make an bzlp archlve żmanŽ
flnd and copy all flles wlLh ƌŦLxLƌ exLenLlon from a dlrecLory Lo anoLher żmanŽ
make a backup of a local hard dlsk on remoLe hosL vla ssh żmanŽ
backup conLenL of Lhe harddrlve Lo a flle żmanŽ
make a copy of M88 (MasLer 8ooL 8ecord) Lo floppy żmanŽ
resLore M88 from backup copy saved Lo floppy żmanŽ
I||esystem Ana|ys|s
Iormat a I||esystem
I||esystem SWAÞ
8ackup
make a full backup of dlrecLory ƌ/homeƌ żmanŽ
make a lncremenLal backup of dlrecLory ƌ/homeƌ żmanŽ
resLorlng a backup lnLeracLlvely żmanŽ
synchronlzaLlon beLween dlrecLorles żmanŽ
rsync vla SSP Lunnel żmanŽ
synchronlze a local dlrecLory wlLh a remoLe dlrecLory vla ssh and compresslon żmanŽ
synchronlze a remoLe dlrecLory wlLh a local dlrecLory vla ssh and compresslon żmanŽ
make a lncremenLal backup of dlrecLory ƌ/home/userƌ żmanŽ
copy conLenL of a dlrecLory on remoLe dlrecLory vla ssh żmanŽ
copy a local dlrecLory on remoLe dlrecLory vla ssh żmanŽ
local copy preservlng permlLs and llnks from a dlrecLory Lo anoLher żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
rlp audlo Lracks from a Cu Lo wav flles żmanŽ
rlp flrsL Lhree audlo Lracks from a Cu Lo wav flles żmanŽ
clean a rewrlLable cdrom żmanŽ
burn an lSC lmage żmanŽ
burn a compressed lSC lmage żmanŽ
scan bus Lo ldenLlfy Lhe channel scsl żmanŽ
perform an md3sum on a devlceţ llke a Cu żmanŽ
creaLe an lso lmage of cdrom on dlsk żmanŽ
creaLe a compressed lso lmage of cdrom on dlsk żmanŽ
creaLe an lso lmage of a dlrecLory żmanŽ
mounL an lSC lmage żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
acLlve lnLerface ƌeLh0ƌ ln dhcp mode żmanŽ
show neLwork sLaLlsLlcs of eLh0 żmanŽ
lookup hosLname Lo resolve name Lo lp address and vlceversa żmanŽ
show hosLname of sysLem żmanŽ
show conflguraLlon of an eLherneL neLwork card żmanŽ
conflgure lÞ Address żmanŽ
conflgure ƌeLh0ƌ ln promlscuous mode Lo gaLher packeLs (snlfflng) żmanŽ
dlsable an lnLerface ƌeLh0ƌ żmanŽ
acLlvaLe an lnLerface ƌeLh0ƌ żmanŽ
show llnk sLaLus of all neLwork lnLerfaces żmanŽ
show wlreless neLworks żmanŽ
wlfl scannlng Lo dlsplay Lhe wlreless connecLlons avallable żmanŽ
show llnk sLaLus of ƌeLh0ƌ żmanŽ
show all acLlve neLwork connecLlons and Lhelr Þlu żmanŽ
show all neLwork servlces llsLenlng on Lhe sysLem and Lhelr Þlu żmanŽ
show rouLlng Lable allke ƍrouLe Ŵnƍ żmanŽ
lookup hosLname Lo resolve name Lo lp address and vlceversa żmanŽ
show rouLlng Lable żmanŽ
conflgure defaulL gaLeway żmanŽ
conflgure sLaLlc rouLe Lo reach neLwork ƌ192Ŧ168Ŧ0Ŧ0/16ƌ żmanŽ
CDkCM
Network|ng (LAN ] W|I|)
remove sLaLlc rouLe żmanŽ
acLlvaLe lp rouLlng żmanŽ
show all P11Þ Lrafflc żmanŽ
lookup on Whols daLabase żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
mounL a wlndows neLwork share żmanŽ
neLblos name resoluLlon żmanŽ
neLblos name resoluLlon żmanŽ
show remoLe shares of a wlndows hosL żmanŽ
llke wgeL can download flles from a hosL wlndows vla smb żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
show all chalns of fllLerlng Lable żmanŽ
show all chalns of naL Lable żmanŽ
clear all rules from fllLerlng Lable żmanŽ
clear all rules from Lable naL żmanŽ
deleLe any chalns creaLed by user żmanŽ
allow LelneL connecLlons Lo lnpuL żmanŽ
block P11Þ connecLlons Lo ouLpuL żmanŽ
allow ÞCÞ3 connecLlons Lo forward chaln żmanŽ
Logglng on lnpuL chaln żmanŽ
conflgure a ÞA1 (ÞorL Address 1raslaLlon) on eLh0 masklng ouLbound packeLs żmanŽ
redlrecL packeLs addressed Lo a hosL Lo anoLher hosL żmanŽ
Descr|pt|on
dlsplays sLaLus of 8AM ln megabyLes żmanŽ
force closure of Lhe process and flnlsh lL żmanŽ
force a process Lo reload conflguraLlon żmanŽ
show hlsLory rebooL żmanŽ
dlsplay kernel loaded żmanŽ
dlsplay a llsL of flles opened by processes żmanŽ
dlsplays a llsL of open flles ln a glven paLh sysLem żmanŽ
dlsplays llnux Lasks żmanŽ
dlsplays llnux Lasks ln a hlerarchlcal mode żmanŽ
Shows a Lree sysLem processes żmanŽ
monlLorlng rellablllLy of a hardŴdlsk Lhrough SMA81 żmanŽ
check lf SMA81 ls acLlve on a hardŴdlsk żmanŽ
dlsplay sysLem calls made and recelved by a process żmanŽ
dlsplay llbrary calls żmanŽ
show evenLs lnherenL Lo Lhe process of booLlng kernel żmanŽ
show sysLem evenLs żmanŽ
dlsplay llnux Lasks uslng mosL cpu żmanŽ
dlsplay lnLerrupLs ln realŴLlme żmanŽ
IÞ1A8LLS (f|rewa||)
Mon|tor|ng and debugg|ng
Descr|pt|on
seL an allas for a command Ŵ hh ƹ hlsLory żmanŽ
dlsplay a llsL of commands LhaL perLaln Lo keywords of a program ţ useful when you know whaL your program
doesţ buL you donƌL know Lhe name of Lhe command żmanŽ
change shell command żmanŽ
nlce command Lo know lf you have Lo remoLe lnLo anoLher box żmanŽ
encrypL a flle wlLh Cnu Þrlvacy Cuard żmanŽ
decrypL a flle wlLh Cnu Þrlvacy Cuard żmanŽ
show shared llbrarles requlred by ssh program żmanŽ
dlsplay Lhe onŴllne manual pages for example on plng command Ŵ use ƌŴkƌ opLlon Lo flnd any relaLed
commands żmanŽ
creaLe a booL floppy żmanŽ
download an enLlre web slLe żmanŽ
download a flle wlLh Lhe ablllLy Lo sLop Lhe download and resume laLer żmanŽ
sLarL a download aL any glven Llme żmanŽ
dlsplays descrlpLlon of whaL a program does żmanŽ
show who ls logged onţ and prlnLť Llme of lasL sysLem booLţ dead processesţ sysLem logln processesţ acLlve
processes spawned by lnlLţ currenL runlevelţ lasL sysLem clock change żmanŽ
Cthers usefu| commands