You are on page 1of 36

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering Project 1 Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering Project 2 or Honours Project

Project Report Writing Guide

2008

Page 1 of 36

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
The project is a capstone course that provides students with opportunities To demonstrate that you are able to carry out a project in order to solve a significant problem in a systemic and professional way To demonstrate that you are able to communicate how the project has been carried out and the project outcomes in a professional manner in order to convince the experts of that the proposed solution to the proposed problem

The FYP report is a professional report on what you have done such the nature of the problem, the processes that you have adopted to solve and the outcomes. It is not a lecture on a particular topic.

Instructions for writing and formatting the final year project reports should be read in conjunction with project study guide. You may also borrow copies of past theses from APMI to give you a better idea of what the final product look like.

General instructions on report format


1. Style, Margins and Fonts: a. The paper size should be A4; b. Margins should be: top 1.5 cm, left 3.5 cm, right 1.5 cm and bottom 1.5 cm, footer 1cm; c. It is recommended that you use Times New Roman font, size 12 with 1.5 spacing; d. Pages are numbered right, bottom of page (footer); 2. All figures and tables should be numbered correctly. All tables should have a table heading (centered, above the table), and all figures should have a figure caption (centered, below the figure). See the examples below Table 2.1 Table of liaisons for the Electric Torch.
a1 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 a3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 a4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 a5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 a6 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a7 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 a8 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 a9 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

Page 2 of 36

Figure 7.1 Local space of type polyhedral cone (Mosemann & Rhrdanz, 1997). 3. All tables and figures should be referred to in the text of the report. For example As indicated in Figure 2.1, there is a correlation between the number of defects and customers perception of quality 4. List all references in the Reference List correctly (see Style Guide Booklet) 5. All references listed should have in-text referencing. It is recommended that you use the Harvard referencing system. Please refer to the text Report Writing Style Guide for Engineering Students for further information on report writing and referencing systems. For example Process control is responsible for only 50 % of the quality problems in a company (Chiko, 2002). 6. Place large amounts of relevant and necessary data about the project in Appendices.

General instructions on report structure


Due to the variety of projects, the instructions, template and the project checklist in this document are meant to only offer a general framework for writing and formatting the thesis and are to be customised for your particular needs. 1. The thesis report must have Chapter 1 (Project Background and Significance) and Chapter 2 (Literature Review and Project Methodology). 2. The thesis must have the last chapter as Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Work. In this chapter, you summarise the project outcomes and their significance/ benefits. You may also like to suggest further works that can be done to improve the project outcomes. 3. The structure of the rest of the report (between Chapter 2 and the last chapter) varies from project to project as this structure depends on the nature of the project. However, it may be useful to use the Project Methodology in Chapter 2 as a guide to organise the project into suitable chapters. 4. It is recommended that for each chapter you have an Introduction to brief the reader on the contents of the chapter, and a Conclusion or Concluding Remarks to summarise or highlight the main outcomes of the chapter.
Page 3 of 36

5. Even if it is impossible to assert a fixed length of a chapter, 10-20 pages should be a rough indication for this. If your chapters are unjustifiably longer or shorter, consider splitting or aggregating them. Generally, a thesis should conform to the following format and consists of the required contents specified below: Title Page Abstract Disclaimer Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables List of Symbols/Abbreviations (if applicable) Chapter 1: Project Background and Significance Chapter 2: Literature Review and Project Methodology Chapter 3: Problem (Current System/operation) Analysis Chapter 4: Consideration of Alternative Solutions Chapter 5: Detailed Development of Solutions (can be more than 1 chapter if needed) Chapter 6: Solution Implementation (can be more than 1 chapter if needed) Chapter 7: Testing and Evaluation Chapter 8: Cost/Benefit Analysis Chapter 9: Conclusions and Recommendations for Further Work Reference List Bibliography (if any) Appendix 1 ~ (n-3) Appendix (n-2): Industry Supervisors Reports Appendix (n-1): Project Daily Diary Appendix n: Industry Experience Report

The following template provides the layout, structure, and detailed instruction on writing and formatting the final year project report.

Page 4 of 36

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering

Bachelor of Engineering

Final Year Project

TOPIC OF PROJECT

Student:.. I.D. No: Supervisor:..

Year

Page 5 of 36

Abstract
Abstract is usually about 1 page at the most. It is similar to Executive Summary and should present information on project background, aim, methodology, outcomes and benefits. Example (Background) ABC [companys name] is responsible of producing hard drive recording media. Recording media are the layer of disc found inside a hard disc. The X department is the largest stage and one of the largest budget users in ABC

(Aim) As a result, a research team including the author was formed with the aims of investigating the possibility of replacing the current traditional magnetic clock with the optical clock and implementing it into the current production cycle.

(Brief description of methodology) The project is conducting firstly the techniques used by both the traditional magnetic clock and optical clock. These include the detailed processes starting from the set up process to the writing clock servo track process. Areas of comparison are divided into cost, productivity, reliability, failures and time. Each area is sub-divided into several factors to facilitate the comparison

(Project outcome and validation) From the experience of using both the traditional magnetic clock and the optical clock and results obtained from comparison shown in Chapter 5, it is concluded that overall the optical clock is the better alternative to use in because it is significantly better in terms of based on comparison and, furthermore, the production volume is increased by

(Benefits from the project) The optical clock not only has reduced clock failures by A%, but also has saved on the clock head usage of $B a year.

Page 6 of 36

Disclaimer
I hereby declare that this thesis is my own work and contains no material, which has been accepted for the award of any degree or diploma from any tertiary institution. To the best of my knowledge and belief, this thesis contains no material previously written or published by another person, except where due reference is made in the text.

Signed: ..

[Authors Name] [Date]

Page 7 of 36

Acknowledgements
This is where you acknowledge the contribution and assistance of people involved in the course of the project. It is usually about 1 page long. Example I would like to thank my principal supervisor Mr. Smith for his overall guidance throughout my project, which culminated in this thesis. Mr Smiths keen intellect and lucid understanding of manufacturing aspects, coupled with his perspective yet concise comments, have been essential during each stage of the research and writing of this thesis. I would also like to thank my industry supervisor Mr. Ng for the time he has given to making constructive criticisms and useful suggestions. There is no doubt this work could not have been completed without the observations, comments and time consuming discussions contributed by my two supervisors.

I also sincerely acknowledge the assistance provided by the following individual and organizations: My wife Chiko, for invaluable assistance in typing and setting the manuscript, from its initial stage through to its final form. Her computer skills and her experience as a research scientist and co-author of a textbook have been particularly useful in the preparation of this thesis. Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and Ministry of Education and Culture, for their continuous support throughout this work.

In addition I need to mention my parents support, which has been the driving force behind my research.

Page 8 of 36

Table of Contents
This is where you list the headings of all major chapters and sections/subsections. You must choose a suitable font for each level of headings and use them consistently. You also need to include Lists of Figures, Tables, and Symbols (if applicable). They should be numbered and worded exactly as in the text of the thesis with the corresponding page numbers correctly shown. Example Title Page Abstract Disclaimer Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables i ii iii iv

Chapter 1 Project Background and Significance


1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. Introduction Background of ABC Ltd Project Background Project Aim Project Scope Expected Outcomes Thesis Structure Concluding Remarks 1 2 4 5 5 6 6 7

Chapter 2 Literature Review and Project Methodology


2.1. 2.2. Introduction Clock Technology 2.2.1 Traditional magnetic clock 2.2.1.1 Creating prototype 2.2.1.2 Types of clock 2.2.1.3 General Advantages and Disadvantages 8

Page 9 of 36

2.2.2 Optical Clock 2.2.2.1 System overview 2.2.2.2 Creating Prototype

... ... ... ... ...

2.5

Discussion Project Methodology Concluding Remarks

2.6. 2.7.

Chapter 3 System Analysis and Consideration of Alternative Solutions


3.1. 3.2. Introduction Problem Analysis of Current System 3.2.1 Features of current system operations 3.2.2 Current issues 3.3. 3.4. Solution Alternative 1 Solution Alternative 2

3.(n-1).Disucssion 3.n. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 4 Development of Detailed Solution


4.1. Introduction

4.n.

Concluding Remarks

Chapter 5 Project Implementation


5.1. Introduction.

5.n.

Conclusions

Page 10 of 36

Chapter 6 Testing and Evaluation


6.1. ... ... 6.n. Conclusions Introduction.

Chapter 7 Conclusions and Suggestion for Further Works


7.1. Introduction ... ... 7.n. Suggested Further Works

References Appendices
Appendix 1: Customer Survey Questionnaire Appendix 2: Project Data Appendix (n-2): Industry Supervisors Reports Appendix (n-1): Project Diary Appendix n: Work Experience Report

Page 11 of 36

List of Figures

Chapter 1 Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Chapter 2 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2

Application characteristics of Flexible Manufacturing Systems An example of an AGV-based FMS (Tempelmeier & Kuhn 1993) Structure of the planning process for the introduction of an FMS (Tempelmeier & Kuhn 1993) The structure of the thesis An example of fuzzy membership function (Berkan & Trubatch 1997; Welstead 1994) An example of FAM matrix (Berkan & Trubatch 1997; Welstead 1994)

5 7 9 13

38 39

Chapter 7 Figure 7.1 Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3 Figure 7.4 Figure 7.5 Figure 7.6 Figure 7.7 . . . . . The initial FMS configuration Chromosome structure of the genetic algorithms Six types of AGV flow-paths and their coding systems Plot of transportation cost of genetic search Plot of fitness value during the evolution process The optimal FMS configuration Fuzzy membership function for TPR and AWU 136 139 140 141 141 142 145

Page 12 of 36

List of Tables
Chapter 5 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 5.6 The revised heuristic coding system (RHCS) for AGV flow-path......... 88 A shortest distance (in meter) matrix of chromosome [136245] [011] 89 Production information including 20 part-types and 6 machines........... 96 Unit transportation cost matrix (in $/unit/m) ........................................ 97 Work-flow matrix (in unit)................................................................... 97 The list of new chromosomes in population P(1) after crossover........ 103

Chapter 6 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 Table 6.8 Table 6.9 The cut-off values for simulation output parameters........................... 120 List of the recommendations of the expert system.............................. 121 Knowledge formalization result ......................................................... 122 Simulation parameters ....................................................................... 126 The design objectives for the FMS..................................................... 127 The cut-off values for simulation output parameters........................... 128 Output of simulation (1st run)............................................................. 129 Output of simulation (2nd run) ............................................................ 131 Summary of the design evaluation and refinement process................. 132

Chapter 7 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Table 7.4 Table 7.5 Table 7.6 Table 7.7
. .

Production information including 30 part-types and 10 machines....... 135 Comparison of the case study problem and the previous example ...... 137 Transportation cost matrix (in $/unit/m)............................................. 138 Work-flow matrix (in unit)................................................................. 139 Simulation parameters for design evaluation ...................................... 143 The design objectives for the FMS..................................................... 144 The cut-off values for simulation output parameters........................... 145

Page 13 of 36

Chapter 1 Project Background and Significance

In the first chapter, you are expected to explain reason for the project with descriptions of the background and overview of company and project. In addition, you should clearly state the aim and desired outcomes for the project. To clarify the focus of the project, you must define the scope of the project, which states what will and will not be considered or dealt with in this project. In this chapter, you also need to set out the structure of the thesis, presenting titles and order of chapters.

1.1.

Introduction

This is where you introduce the reader to the contents of the chapter.

Example This chapter intends to introduce the reader the background of the company and the project overview. The project aim, scope, expected outcomes, and structure of the thesis will be described later in this chapter.

1.2.

Background of ABC

This is where the reader is introduced to the company and its products and services. Some pictures or diagrams would be useful. Example ABC International was founded in 1980. It is based in ABC is the worlds largest manufacturer of Figure 1.1 below shows ABCs plant in Singapore. The plant was established in 1996

1.3.

Project Background

This is where the reader is introduced to background to the project. For example, it is the current quality practice at ABC Ltd. and the where problems associated with the current practice. In a way, it is the justification for the project but you do not need to go into detailed problem analysis at this stage (this is for chapter 3). Some pictures or diagrams would be useful. .

Page 14 of 36

Example According to the recent analysis of product failures, it is found that the clock failure is one of the major failures incurred during the process of The management of ABC has assigned a research team in X department to develop a new clock system to overcome this problem The next task assigned to the team is to study the performance of the optical clock The results from this study will be embraced by ABC and the overall project team management in the decision for full implementation of

1.4.

Project Aim

This is where the aim of the project should be stated clearly.

Example 1
The aim of this project is to benchmark the optical clock by performing comparative study between the optical clock and the traditional magnetic clock The hardware team will compare Project Cell 1 with another work cell These two project cells will be compared in the following areas: In addition, the processes involving both optical and magnetic clocks will also be compared

Example 2
The aim of this project was to design an ultralight aircraft that is simple enough to be built from a set of plans, by anyone who is capable of using hand tools and doing their own maintenance around the house. The proposed aircraft is to have one seat, fly at a cruise speed of 75 Kilometres per hour, stall at less than 40 Kilometres per hour, have a rate of climb greater than 2 metres per second and operate within the rules of Civil Aviation Order 95.10. The materials to be used are to be of aircraft grade and the engine is to be of proven aircraft type with power rating less than 37 Kilowatt.

Page 15 of 36

The cost of all materials, components, basic instruments, engine and propeller is to be less than $10 000 AUD. The aircraft has to be safe and stable enough for a pilot with low flying hours to operate safely with ease. The wings of this aircraft need to be capable of being removed or folded by one person easily, so that the aircraft can be transported on or in a trailer and thus be stored by the owner at home.

1.5.

Project Scope

This is where the project scope is defined (what will be included in the project and what will be excluded). Example 1 After consultation with the overall project team management, it is decided that the comparative study will only consider cost, productivity, reliability, failures, time, and clock processes The project will not have major alteration both in the program and the mechanical parts. This is to ensure that the standards of recording media production remain the same. The study will not consider the following issues: Example 2
The scope of this project has been to do conceptual design for the wings, central boom and tail control area. The scope covers the conceptual design of the wings, central boom, vertical and horizontal tail areas and the engine and propeller combination. The project also covers the structural design for the wing structure, flaps and ailerons, wing struts, central boom, vertical and horizontal tail structures and their control surfaces. The performance is predicted by means of calculations.

1.6.

Expected Outcomes

This is where the expected outcomes of the project are clearly stated. The outcomes should usually stated in quantitative terms, e.g. cost savings by 15%.

Page 16 of 36

Example 1 As the result of performing comparative study on the optical clock and the traditional magnetic clock, the expected outcomes are as follows: Fully implementing the optical clock throughout the production line. Understanding the optical clock with will help in trouble shooting of the optical clock based failures.

Example 2 This thesis focused on the research and design of an ultralight aircraft that is affordable and can be built and piloted by the average person with a keen interest in flying

The outcomes of this project are: The conceptual design of the wings, central boom, vertical and horizontal tail areas and the engine and propeller combination; the structural design of wing structure, flaps and ailerons, wing struts, central boom, vertical and horizontal tail structures and their control surfaces; the expected performance for the design.

1.7.

Thesis Structure

This is where the thesis structure is outlined.

Example 1 Chapter 1 begins with an introduction of the history of ABC and the project overview. Chapter 2 commences with the literature review of clock operations, followed by the project methodology. Chapter 3 presents the analysis of the setup and operation of the traditional magnetic clock. Chapter 4 will be focused on those of the optical clock. The data collected for comparison will be discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 will analyse the results from the data analysis. Finally, in Chapter 7, the collection of the project is presented. Recommendations for future improvements to the optical clock are proposed at the end of Chapter 7.

Page 17 of 36

Example 2 The structure of thesis is shown in Figure 1.2 below. Chapter 2 commences with a literature review of FMS design, and this part concludes with a summary of the unsolved problems in this area. The final sections of Chapter 2 describe in detail the objectives and plan of the research undertaken for this study, the structure of this thesis, and the tools employed. In Chapter 3, a new genetic algorithm technique developed in this work is presented. In Chapter 4, the framework of the new approach for AGVbased FMS design presented in this work is described. Chapters 5 and 6 explain the development in this work in detail. A case study to demonstrate the capability of the methodology developed in this work is presented in Chapter 7. Finally, Chapter 8 presents the conclusion of this thesis.

Chapter 1
Introduction to Flexible Manufacturing Systems

Chapter 2
Literature review on FMS design

Chapter 3
Genetic Algorithms for FMS design

Chapter 4
A new approach for AGV-based FMS design

Chapter 5
A genetic algorithm for optimization of machine layout and AGV flow-path simultaneously

Chapter 6
An intelligent design evaluation and refinement system

Chapter 4
A Case Study

Chapter 8
Cost/Benefit Analysis

Chapter 9
Conclusions and Further Works Figure 1.2 The structure of the thesis

Page 18 of 36

1.8.

Concluding Remarks

This is where the main findings or issues raised in the chapter are summarised and/or highlighted.

Example 1 This chapter mentioned that the main purpose of this project is The results from this comparative study will be used by the company for

Example 2 Ultralight flying is about simpler and more affordable personal recreational flying. The design of an ultralight aircraft which is affordable, easy to build and structurally safe, will enable more aviation enthusiasts to experience the thrill of flying on a regular basis

With no plans available to fulfill the needs as set out in Sections 1.3 and 1.4, the only option is to design a new aircraft. This project focuses on the design of the major and critical components: wings, central boom, tail and control surfaces and the selection of a suitable engine and propeller for such an aircraft.

Page 19 of 36

Chapter 2 Literature Review and Project Methodology

This chapter should consist of 2 parts: Literature review: this is to equip the project person/team with the most up-to-date knowledge in the project area. You should first identify the information you need for the project (e.g. current developments/industry practices related to the project, common techniques/tools for solving similar problems, key technical issues to consider for problem solving in relevant contexts). The outcome of this may be a list of keywords (e.g. TQM, Statistical Process Control, ..) which can be used for literature search. After that, you need to carry out a professional search for the information using databases, journals and any other resources. Then, you must critically review the information to demonstrate the need for your project (e.g. there is no available/cheap/easy to implement/better method for the job), and analyse current tools and techniques in order to select the most suitable tools/techniques to be used in the project methodology as well as developing solution alternatives. Project methodology: You need to state how you will carry out the project, identify the resources you will need, describe the procedure for conducting the project, and may produce a GANTT chart and identify the critical path.

2.1.

Introduction

This is where you introduce the reader to the contents of the chapter.

Example This chapter is intended to summarise the background research conducted prior to the beginning of the comparative study The background research work includes a literature search and review, internet searches The internet searches are primarily to check for any available clock system and data relevant to this project. The literature search is focused on understanding the fundamentals of clock system, comparison methods, and data collection.

2.2.

Source of Literature

This is where you describe the resources used for information retrieval in literature search and the composition of the body of literature being reviewed, which include textbooks conference proceedings journals websites benchmarking i.e. visit and discussion with other businesses in similar area.
Page 20 of 36

Example 1 The following sources are used for literature search during the course of doing the project: Books from polytechnics, University of South Australia, and National Library of Singapore Example 2 A systematic search using library catalogues, online databases, online journal indexes and the internet have proven that little information is available for the design of ultralight aircraft. There is information available with respect to the history of some ultralight designs, but the technical information required to build an ultralight aircraft is not available Recreational Aviation Australia (2006) is in the process of constructing a web site that This information is intended to enable enthusiasts to make informed decisions with respect to their aircraft project. This information is, however, restricted in its scope A number of books and journal articles relate to the design of light aircraft and experimental aircraft, but there were no books, journal articles or internet sites found relating directly to the design of ultralight aircraft. Databases of University of South Australias Library Company ABCs databases

2.3.

Review of

This section (including any other sections before Current Limitations/Review Discussion) is to review current work and techniques retrieved from the literature search which are relevant to the focus of the project. it is useful to organise the contents in logical sections/subsections. You must apply proper in-text referencing. The Author-Date system is recommended. Example 1 The spindle is a motor that rotates the disk pack According to Hu (2007), the clock is Figure 2.1 below shows a multi-disc writer (MDW)

Figure 2.1 Top view of MDW (Company ABC, 2007)

Page 21 of 36

2.3.1 Optical Clock System Overview In the optical clock, the term drift means several relate phenomena where the optical signal from the optical encoder sensor is different from the other optical encoder sensor (Friedman, 2006). Figure 2.2 shows

Example 2 A search of the internet, books and magazines that deal with general flying and aircraft has shown that there are a number of options available with regards to existing aircraft configurations (Affordaplane_Ultralights, 2006; Beaujon, 2006; Bingelis, 1995; EAA, 2006a; EAA, 2006b; Maneschijn, 1990; RAA, 2006; Plans-Delivery, 2006; Raymer, 1999; and Stinton, 2001). Most aircraft use one or a combination of the following basic configurations (Maneschijn, 1990): Sections of the aircraft are considered with different options and are shown in Table 2.1. Table 2.1 Aircraft options Component Fuselage structure Option Welded truss Single tubular, open cockpit High Mid Low Tandem Bi-plane Elliptical Taper Delta Swept Rectangular Disadvantage to this project Welding skills required None None Either cantilever structure or struts above and below wing, more complex fuselage High centre of gravity, either cantilever structure or compression struts above wing More wings therefore more complexity More wings therefore more complexity Wing ribs are all different sizes therefore more work required and more complexity Wing ribs are all different sizes therefore more work required and more complexity Wing ribs are all different sizes therefore more work required and more complexity Wing ribs are all different sizes therefore more work required and more complexity None

Wing position

Wing shape

Page 22 of 36

2.4.

Discussion

There should be a separate section called Discussion (or Current Limitations.) Relevant literature areas should have been presented and discussed in previous sections of this chapter. This section (Discussion) summarises/highlights the current status of literature in the context of the project in order to: (i) identify limitations of current work and the gap of knowledge. (ii) analyse current tools and techniques in order to select the most suitable tools/techniques to be used in the project methodology.

Example 1 Based on the literature review, the Hardware team realizes the need and importance of the comparative study for The tools that will be used in this study are the Direct Comparison and Analytical Hierarchy Process

Example 2 It has been found that the options for powered flight recreational flying are restricted to either commercially built aircraft, commercially available kits, commercially available plans or the design of a new aircraft. Considering the cost involved with the purchase of commercially available aircraft and kits, it is out of financial reach for most people. With respect to the safety issues discussed in Section 2.2, the option to design a new aircraft with the requirements as stated in Chapter 1, is the only option available when funds are limited. According to the RAA, an aircraft built under the rules of Civil Aviation Order 95.10 could be built for well under $10 000 (RAA, 2006)

2.5.

Project Methodology

There should be a section on Project Methodology where you explain to the reader how you plan to carry out the project. You may also include a Gantt chart here for your project scheduling.

Example 1 This section shall give a brief guide through the stages on how the entire project is carried out. There are five stages implemented for the project

Page 23 of 36

Stage 1: Project planning Stage 2: Literature survey and selection of method Stage 3: Implementation Stage 4: Data collection Stage 5: Analysis, evaluation, and validation

Example 2
It was decided that the aircraft will be of the type that has a central, single tubular structure onto which the engine, wings, empennage and cockpit will be mounted. This configuration is based on the information in Table 2.1 and is the simplest rigid design. The following steps were performed in the design of the required aircraft.

2.6.

Concluding Remarks

This is where the main findings or issues raised in the chapter are summarised and/or highlighted.

Example 1 The main purpose of this chapter is to conduct background research prior to the implementation of the project. The literature survey provides information on general characteristics of the clock system and its problems. It also identifies the tools for the comparative study

Example 2 There is currently no solution available for a flying enthusiast that can, even remotely, match the requirements for this project. There are no suitable plans available for an affordable aircraft that can be transported easily and flown safely. There is therefore a need for a new ultralight aircraft design. A search of the available literature has indicated that the most suitable design method for the purpose of this project is to design a new aircraft based on existing aircraft configurations and layouts of commercially available aircraft. There are a number of different configurations to

Page 24 of 36

consider in selecting the best design options. The suitability of each will be considered, making use of the literature available on aircraft design and structural analysis.

Page 25 of 36

Chapter 3
Current system/operation Analysis

This is where you analyse the current system/operation in details with the aid of diagrams. You may like to use process the mapping technique to map the current process or work flow. This is where you (1) describe the current system/process in detail with the aid of diagrams, (2) analyse the current process/system & identify clearly what the problems with the current system are, and (3) prioritise & explain clearly why you have selected a problem or problems to be solved from the list of problems identified in (2). If the problem is an original design, this is where you set out the design parameters or criteria to be met (design specifications) If it is a productivity improvement project, this is where you analyse the process in detail. Identify clearly what the problems are, explore the area for improvement, select the problem to solve (with the reasons why selecting this problem among others) - e.g. quick die change & scheduling. If it is a project on concurrent engineering or quality system, this is where you analyse the current practice and compare to benchmarks or other systems.

Page 26 of 36

Chapter 4
Consideration of Alternative Solutions

This is where you consider alternative solutions, and select the optimum solution(s). You need to consider the alternative solutions and analyse the advantages and disadvantages of each. You must justify your selected selection(s) in qualitative or quantitative terms or using techniques such as AHP and Multi-attribute decision analysis. If it is a design/facility layout/ productivity improvement project, this is where you explore alternative design or layout or process concepts and select the best solution/ concept. If it is a project on concurrent engineering or quality system, this is where you explore alternative frameworks for concurrent engineering or quality system implementation, and select the best one.

Page 27 of 36

Chapter 5
Development of Solutions

In this chapter you need to describe in details the analysis, calculations and development of the solution(s) selected in Chapters 4 with appropriate diagrams, engineering drawings, etc.

This chapter must be substantial as this is your technical contributions to the project. For a design project, this chapter is where you cover the detailed design stage. If necessary, you may need more than one chapter for these. For example, if you have identified 2 major problems and developed 2 separate solutions (one for each problem) then you may want to allocate one chapter for each problem. For example, if you have selected 2 solutions: quick die change and scheduling, then you may devote 1 chapter to quick die change and 1 chapter on scheduling, and so on.

Page 28 of 36

Chapter 6
Solution Implementation

This is where you discuss the construction or implementation of the selected solution(s) if it is relevant to the project

Page 29 of 36

Chapter 7
Testing and Evaluation

The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate and demonstrate that the solution(s) that you have developed in Chapter 6 actually work and meet project objectives specified in Chapter 1. For product/process/ layout design projects, you need to demonstrate that the design/solution(s) actually work and meet the design specifications and project objectives. For projects on the development of methodology (e.g product development methodology, concurrent engineering, ISO, etc), you need to demonstrate in this chapter how the methodology or outcomes that you have developed in Chapter 6 are applied using an example (or a case study).

Page 30 of 36

Chapter 8
Cost/Benefit Analysis

You should have a detailed costing of the design and implementation of your design and indicate the benefits of implementing your design. This is where you do a cost/benefit analysis to demonstrate that the project has met its financial objectives.

Page 31 of 36

Chapter 9
Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Work

This is where you summarise the outcomes and benefits of the project against the project objectives, and make recommendations for further work. In this chapter you need to highlight: 1. 2. 3. 4. What the problem was What you have developed or designed The benefits obtained from using your design Any other further works that can be done to improve your design/ solutions

Page 32 of 36

References

This is where you list all the references used in the thesis (at least 12 references). Each reference listed hereunder must be referred to at least once in the text of thesis. Author-Date system is recommended.

Example 2_STROKE_INTERNATIONAL (2006) 2 Stroke International. www.2si.com (Accessed Oct 2006). ABBOTT, H. & VON DOENHOFF, A. E. (1959) Theory of wing sections, Mineola, NY, Dover Publications. AFFORDAPLANE_ULTRALIGHTS (2006) Affordaplane Ultralights. www.affordaplane.com (accessed Apr 2006). AIRCRAFT_SPRUCE (2006) Aircraft Spruce and Speciality. www.aircraftspruce.com (accessed Apr 2006). AMBROSE, J. E. & PARKER, H. (1997) Simplified design of steel structures, New York, J. Wiley & Sons. ANDERSON, J. D. (1999) Aircraft performance and design, Boston, WCB/McGrawHill. ASKELAND, D. R. (2001) The Science and Engineering of Materials, Cheltenam, UK, Nelson Thomas Ltd. ASKUE, V. (2004) Airfoils for airplanes. Air Medical Journal, 23, 10-11. BAUGHN, T. V. & PACKMAN, P. F. (1985) Finite element analysis of an ultralight aircraft. Journal of Aircraft, 23, 82-86. BEAUJON (2006) Beaujon Ultralights. www.usairnet.com (accessed Apr 2006). BEER, P. B. & JOHNSTON, E. R. (1998) Vector mechanics for engineers: Statics, McGraw-Hill Ryerson. BINGELIS, T. (1995) The sportplane builder, Tom Poberezny. BINGELIS, T. (1998) Sportplane construction techniques, Tom Poberezny. BINGELIS, T. (2000) Tony Bingelis on Engines, Tom Poberezny. BOLLY_PROPS (2005) Bolly propellers. www.bolly.com.au (accessed Oct 2006). BUSHBABY_AIRCRAFT (2006) Kitplanes for Africa. www.kitplanes.co.za (accessed May 2006). CASA (2006) Civil Aviation Safety Authority. www.casa.gov.au (accessed Apr 2006). COATES, M. (2000) Info pack. www.mcp.com.au/xair (accessed Apr '06).

Page 33 of 36

DAVIS, J. (1991) Pass your PPL, 43 Publications. EAA (2006a) EAA's AeroCrafter, Experimental Aircraft Assoc. EAA (2006b) Experimental aircraft association. www.eaa.org (accessed Apr 2006). FISCHER, A. (1981) Some aerodynamic aspects of hang gliding. Endeavour, 5, 152157. GATEWOOD, B. E. (1989) Virtual principles in aircraft structures, Dordrecht ; Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers. 95 HELLER, H., DAHLEN, H. & DOBRZYNSKI, W. (1990) Acoustics of Ultralight Airplanes. Journal of Aircraft, 27, 529-535. HOSKIN, B. C., WATTERS, K. C., CALLINAN, R. J. & AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (AUSTRALIA) (1989) Lectures on fundamentals of aircraft structural analysis (U), Melbourne, Dept. of Defence Defence Science and Technology Organisation Aeronautical Research Laboratory. IVOPROP (2006) Ivoprop Corp. www.ivoprop.com (accessed Oct 2006). KODIAK (2006) Kodiak Research Ltd. www.kodiakbs.com (accessed Oct 2006).

Page 34 of 36

Appendices
Appendix 1 ~ (n-3): any information or data that are not appropriate for the main body of the report should come in the form of appendices Appendix (n-2): Industry Supervisors Reports Appendix (n-1): Project Daily Diary Appendix n: Industry Experience Report
This is the work experience report you submitted to gain additional credit, and must be written according to the required format (see Application for Additional Credit document). This report must have been accessed.

Page 35 of 36

Check List
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Did you check spelling and grammar? All figures are correctly numbered, have a caption, and referred to in the text? All tables are correctly numbered, have a heading, and referred to in the text? Have you correctly referenced your work (in-text referencing)? Have you listed all references in the reference list correctly according to the Style Guide booklet? Have you structured the thesis according to the required format?

6.

Page 36 of 36