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Maria Brmme Dahlia Goldfeld Max McCrea

Taylor Series
Taylor series: a series expansion of a function about a point. A one-dimensional Taylor series is an expansion of a real function f(x) about a point x = a is given by: f "(a ) f "'(a ) f ( n ) (a) 2 3 f ( x) = f (a ) + f '( a)( x a ) + ( x a) + ( x a ) + ... + ( x a) n + ... 2! 3! n! A Taylor Series is a precise representation of a function, in polynomial form, making many manipulations much easier. The Taylor Series is built around derivatives of a function in the following formula:

f n ( a ) (x a )n n!

Where n is the number term, and a is the centering point. So take, for example, 1 1+ x Lets start by making a derivative chart: 1 2 1 0. 1. 2. 2 (1 + x ) (1 + x)3 1+ x 6 (1 + x ) 4 24 (1 + x)5

3.

4.

Now we can make the Taylor Series: 1 2 6 24 1 ( x a )1 ( x a )2 ( x a )3 ( x a)4 ( x a)0 2 3 4 5 (1 + a ) (1 + a) (1 + a) (1 + a ) 1+ a + + 0! 1! 2! 3! 4! Lets simplify this, plugging 0 in for the centering point: 2 3 Now, lets try the same with 1 1 + x2 3. 24 x ( x 2 1) (1 + x 2 ) 4 4. 120 ( x 4 2 x 2 + 2 ) (1 + x 2 )5

1 x + x x + x4

Well make a derivative chart: 2x 1 6 x2 2 0. 1. 2. (1 + x 2 ) 2 1 + x2 (1 + x 2 )3

After the series for this function is:

1 x 2 + x 4 x6
1 is the derivative of arctan(x). 1 + x2 1 To find the Taylor series, we can just integrate, term-by-term, the series of . We 1 + x2 end up with: 3 5 7 Now well see the use of Taylor series. If you recall,

x x x + 2 5 7

Try checking it. It works. The inverse is true: try taking the derivative of each term: 2 4 6

1 x + x x

You have the series for the derivative of arctan(x). This shows the true power of Taylor series: the easy manipulation of functions. Polynomials are far easier to manipulate than, say, arctan(x), and now we have a way to manipulate them. Common Taylor series include: 1 = 1 ( x 1) + ( x 1) 2 ( x 1)3 + ( x 1)4 ... + (1) n ( x 1)n x 1 = 1 x + x 2 x3 + x 4 x5 + ... + (1) n ( x 1)n 1+ x ( x 1) 2 ( x 1)3 ( x 1)4 (1) n 1 ( x 1) ln x = ( x 1) + + ... + 2 3 4 n x 2 x3 x 4 x5 xn e = 1 + x + + + + + ... + 2! 3! 4! 5! n!
x
n

sin x = x

x 3 x5 x7 (1) n x2 n +1 + + ... + 3! 5! 7! (2n + 1)!

x 2 x 4 x6 (1) n x2 n cos x = 1 + + ... + 3! 5! 7! (2n)!

arctan x = x

x 3 x5 x7 x9 (1) n x2 n +1 + + ... + 3 5 7 9 2n + 1

We can also manipulate Taylor series. For example, take the Taylor expansion of f(x) = 1 = 1 x 2 + x 4 x6 + x8 x10 1 + x2 1 1 + x2

2 Now lets say you were curious about f ( x ) =

Rather than using the definition of a Taylor polynomial, we can just do some handy substitution by literally putting in x2 for all x terms. Heres how you do it: 1 = 1 x 2 + x 4 x6 + x8 x10 2 1+ x Another way to use the manipulations of Taylor polynomials is if you happened to be interested in f(x+2). Just like when you substituted x2, you substitute in x+2. Heres how you do it f ( x + 2) = 1 1 + ( x + 2)

1 = 1 ( x + 2) + ( x + 2) 2 ( x + 2)3 + ( x + 2)4 ( x + 2)5 1 + ( x + 2) Lets do one last example. Recall that the Taylor series for ln(x) is the following: ( x 1) 2 ( x 1)3 ( x 1)4 (1) n 1 ( x 1) ln x = ( x 1) + + ... + 2 3 4 n
n

Now find the Taylor polynomial for ln(1+2x). Just do some plugging in! Let (1+2x) equal the x-value in the ln(x) Taylor expansion. Note that in our answer, when we plug in 1+2x we subtract 1-1 to get zero, which is why only 2x is left. Heres the answer! (2 x) 2 (2 x)3 (2 x )4 ln(1 + 2 x) = (2 x ) + 2 3 4