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STUDY OF ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF USING AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE AS PART

REPLACEMENT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE IN REGENERATION MEDIA IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT.

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ABSTRACT Water Treatment Plant in RCF, Chembur, Mumbai supplies polished water to deaerators, boilers and other downstream plants for generation of HP steam. Water received either from B.M.C. or from outlet R.O. of Sewage Treatment Plant of RCF is further treated to make it demineralised water useful for boilers, by removing the organic impurities and hardness (detail schematic block diagram given in AnnII)by passing through resins bed. In this cycle of operation the resins get exhausted which needs regeneration periodically. Strong base Anion (SBA) resins are usually regenerated using 5 % Sodium Hydroxide solution (caustic lye ) The consumption is enormous , and is becoming costly affair. In view of this, it was thought to undertake the study, to find the cost effective substitute for the above mentioned process.

The role of Anion resin is to remove all anions from the water. Weak base anions can remove all the anions from the water, except Silica. Silica can be removed only by Strong base Anion resin. The Silica content of around 0 - 0.02 ppm is only permissible for preparing H.P. steam. Hence we have to go for combination of WBA & SBA resin.

Weak base anion resin requires around 4 % Ammonium Hydroxide solution for regeneration. We already have Ammonia hence the process can be made cost effective.

Pilot plant was installed to conduct trials at site on identical double packed bed system to evaluate the performance of the system proposed. The trials were conducted & the relevant data has been generated.The trials performed on double packed bed system are successful and are cost effective as Ammonium Hydroxide is partly used as regenerant.

The paper deals in detail about the design & details of the trial, Quality of water obtained, Output between regeneration, Reduction in effluent generation, with detail Economics of the scheme studied.

Water Treatment Plant (WTP) of RCF Ltd, Chembur supplies polished water to deaerators, boilers of Trombay-V and other downstream plants for generation of High Pressure steam.

At present in WTP, we have three streams, WTP-0, WTP-I &WTP-II having capacity

50 M 3/hr,

200 M3/hr, 350 M3/hr respectively. WTP-0 and WTP-II are in line where as W.T.P-I has been kept as a standby.

Water received from R.O. of Sewage Treatment Plant & in emergency from BMC (Analysis of the R.O. water as well as BMC water is given in Annexure-1.) is further treated to make it demineralised water useful for boilers, by removing the organic impurities and hardness by passing through resins bed. In this cycle of operation the resins get exhausted which needs regeneration periodically.

Strong base Anion (SBA) resins are usually regenerated using 5 % Sodium Hydroxide solution (caustic lye) The availability of the Quality material, its dependency for procurement and its cost effectiveness is becoming difficult.

In view of this, it was thought to undertake the study, to find the cost effective substitute for the above mentioned process.

The role of Anion resin is to remove all anions from the water. Weak base anions resins are regenerated by Ammonium hydroxide 4% and can remove all the anions from the water, except Silica. Silica can be removed only by Strong base Anion resin. The Silica content of around 0 0.02 ppm is only permissible for preparing H.P. steam. Hence we have to go for combination of WBA & SBA resin.

Weak base anion resin requires around 4 % Ammonium Hydroxide solution for regeneration. We already have Ammonia hence the process can be made cost effective.

Utilization of Ammonium Hydroxide (4 %) as a regenerant media is in practice in some of the industries as is mentioned in literature. We thought of exploring the possibility of the new system to be in-corporated in RCF. After primary discussion with plant personnel, it was observed that, there are only two options,

1. 2.

WBA resin to be used in combination with a SBA in a separate vessel. SBA resin along with WBA resin in a single vessel as a layered or starta bed,

We have studied the layout plan of our WTP, due to space constrains in the existing system it is advisable to go for alternative 2. i.e Double bed (SBA & WBA) system, with slight modifications with inlet / outlet provision for normal operation & regeneration, where partly NH4OH is used as regenerant.

Pilot plant was installed (Figure given in Annexure -2 ) to conduct the trials on double packed bed system to evaluate the performance of the system proposed. The trials were conducted and monitored round the clock.

Pilot plant set up details ; Specially fabricated Acrylic Column was used for the trials having ID of 48 mm & height 2.2 mts. This column was separated equally into two parts by strainer having opening of < 0.2 mm for keeping both resin in separated condition. Inert resin (4cms thickness) of higher size was put over the two resin bed so as to reduce the chances of strainer choking. Other details were as follows, Type of resin Resin name Resin qty ( lits ) Bed height (m) Approx. Regenerant used Regeneration level, gpl Regenerant Conc. Regeneration mode Weak Base Anion A-10X MP 2.0 1.07 NH4OH 74 4-5% Counter current Strong Base Anion A -23 1.5 0.9 NaOH 60 4-5% Counter current

Regeneration Steps for WBA & SBA : Steps Backwash ( Optional ) WBA Regeneration WBA Slow rinse SBA regeneration SBA Slow rinse Fast rinse Service Liquid used DGW 5% NH4OH DM 4% NaOH DM DGW DGW Flow (ml/min) 100 100 100 50 50 1000 1000 Volume (ml) 3000 3000 3000 1600 3000 20000 Time (min) 30 30 30 32 60 20

Water analysis before starting the trials.

Parameter Chloride Sulphate Nitrate CO2 Silica Load on WBA i.e EMA ( SO4+NO3+Cl ) Load on SBA i.e (Silica +CO2+Cl slippage)

mg/lit (ppm) 38.50 2.00 4.00 7.00 4.00 44.50 12.00

On the basis of above water analysis the desired output expected from pilot plant is @ 3600 lits. i.e 60 Hrs service runs. The desired treated water quality from column outlet during this trial should be as follows,

Parameter pH Silica Conductivity

Value <9 < 0.02 ppm < 20 uS/cm2

Sampling Schedule during the trial were as follows :

The Inlet feed water to column i.e Degasser outlet water analysis was done once in a day for pH, Conductivity, FMA, Silica & CO2.

The outlet feed analysis was done at 4 hrs intervals during the run for pH, Conductivity & silica.( 3.00pm, 7.00pm, 11.00pm, 3.00am, 7.00am, 11.00am)

Trial Results are as follows, Cycle :1 Started on 18/06/08 Date & Time 18/06/08 10.00 am 03.00 pm 07.00 pm 19/06/08 3.00 am 7.00 am 3.00 pm 11.00 pm 20/06/08 3.00 am 3.00 pm 7.00 pm 21/06/08 3.00 am Service flow ( lit/hr) 36 36 54 54 54 60 60 60 60 60 60 pH --8.7 8.0 7.4 8.4 8.0 8.0 7.8 8.1 8.1 7.9 4.0 6.2 1.7 4.1 5.0 2.5 2.7 3.0 2.5 2.0 ------0.009 --0.009 ------Anion Outlet parameters Cond. (uS/cm2) Silica (ppm) Output (lits) 00 180 396 828 1044 1524 2004 2244 2964 3204 3684

9.00 am

60

8.0

1.6

<0.02

4044

Cycle :2 Started on 24/06/08 Date & Time 24/06/08 1.30 pm 4.00 pm 7.00 pm 25/06/08 3.00 am 9.00 am 3.00 pm 11.00 pm 26/06/08 9.00 am 7.00 pm 3.00 am 9.00 am Service flow ( lit/hr) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 pH Anion Outlet parameters Cond. (uS/cm2) Silica (ppm) Output (lits) 00 9.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.5 8.5 8.6 7.8 8.4 6.8 6.7 1.5 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.5 2.0 3.9 2.7 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.1 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.006 < 0.01 0.006 150 270 750 1110 1470 1950 2550 3150 3630 3990

Cycle :3 Started on 05/07/08 Date & Time 05/07/08 5.00 pm 11.00 pm 06/07/08 3.00 am 07.07.08 10.30 am 08/07/08 9.30 am 2.30 pm 7.00 pm 09.07.08 3.00am 11.00am 4.30pm Service flow ( lit/hr) 42 42 42 42 42 42 36 36 36 33.6 33.6 pH Anion Outlet parameters Cond. (uS/cm2) Silica (ppm) Output (lits) 00 6.90 6.01 6.34 6.11 7.37 --6.16 6.14 6.00 6.25 6.4 7.2 7.0 3.0 5.4 --2.0 3.7 7.7 6.0 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.0058 0.0085 < 0.01 0.014 0.006 0.0084 0.0092 0.0168 00 252 420 1764 2730 2910 3054 3342 3612 3797

Inference :

The results obtained during the trials are reproducible. The operating capacity achieved by using anion strata bed is as per the anticipated value / performance.

Initially the Silica analysis was done in Laboratory manually, subsequently, the Silica analysis was taken on line on Silica analyzer for monitoring the exact Silica content in the output water.

Cost Benefit Analysis : Ammonia / Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration: Present Scheme: ACF / SAC / DGT / SBA/ MB Proposed scheme: ACF/SAC/DGT/ANION (WBA+SBA) /MB

Present Resin

Anion(WBA+SBA) A 10 XMP Weak Base Anion A 23 Strong Base Anion

Standard Flow m3/hr Ionic Load Ppm as CaCO3

200 per vessel As per data given = CO2 + Silica +Chloride + Sulphate =54.68 7800

200 for 1 vessel Ionic load Ionic load Chloride(38.5) + Nitrate (4.05) 3.32(Silica) +7(CO2) +2(Cl) + Sulphate(1.77) 12.32 ppm as CaCO3 = 44.36 ppm as CaCO3

Resin Qty(L)

4100 liters for layer bed

3700 liters for packed bed

Regenerant 540 kgs 100 % NaOH per cycle OBR (M3) 6000 m3

4.10 X 64.8 X1.2 X 0.7 = 223 Kgs NH4OH per cycle per stream 6000 m3

3.7 X60 = 222.0 Kgs NaOH

Number of cycles 300 X 24/34 per year 211.76 cycles Total Regenerant 211.76 X540/1000 per year MT per 114.35 of NaOH stream Regenerant cost 114.35 X 24000 27.44 lakh. @ Rs.24000 / MT

300 X 24/34 = 211.76 cycles 211.76 X223 /1000 =47.22 MT NH4OH 7000X 47.22 = 3.30 lakh @Rs.7000/MT

300 X 24/44 = 211.76 cycles 211.76 X 222.0 /1000 = 47.01 MT of NaOH 24000x 47.0 = 11.28 lakh. @ Rs. 24000/MT

Savings

27.44 - (3.30 + 11.28) 12.86 lakh on regenerant 97 11.5 X 4.2 = 48.3 211.76 X48.3 =10228.00 11.5 X 3.6 = 41.4 211.76 X 41.4 = 8766.86

Effluent generated per cycle m3 Effluent generated per year m3 per stream Reduction in Effluent. Net saving of Regenerant &Effluent Capital Expenditure Pay back period

211.76 X 97 =20540.72

M3 = 20540.72 (10228.0 + 8766.86) = 1545.86 Rs. Lakh per year = 40 X 1545.86 (@ Rs.40/m3) = 61834.4 = 0.62 Lakh (Savings) = 12.86 + 0.62 * = 13.48 lakh Rs.4.0 + 24.60 (WBA resin cost) Lakh. = Rs. 28.60 = 28.60 / 13.48 = 2.12 years

WBA resin required is 4100 x 2 vessels = 8200 x Rs. 300/- = Rs. 24.60 Lakh.

Capital cost estimated is Rs. 4.0 Lakh. Total capital expenditure will be Rs 28.60 Lakh. Proposed Scheme :1. It is proposed to conduct modifications in WTP-I system, as presently it is not in use and is kept as standby. The Details of the system is given in Annexure II. 2. 3. 4. Modification in the existing Anion Exchanger pipelines shall be required.(Ann -1) Ammonia storage tank 6-8 m3, with feed pumps (2 nos.) shall have to be procured We will have to procure WBA resin of 4100.0 Lits / vessel. However, the existing SBA resin of 3700 Lts / vessel will be used from the existing WTP-I system. The balance quantity (7800 3700) 4100 Lts / vessel will be used in WTP-II as and when required. Regeneration of Cation Resin will generate acidic effluent which will neutralize the

Ammoniacal effluent ( 2% Ammonia) generated by WBA, if generated simultaneously. All effluents can be handled by existing Neutralizing pit in WTP and no additional pumping; pipeline etc is required for the new system. With such unique combination of WBA and SBA, a high level of regenerant chemical efficiency can be achieved. Capital expenditure (estimated) : i ii. iii in Rs.

Requirement of pumps for pumping Ammonia solution. 2.0 Lakh Piping system Ammonia storage Tank 2.0 Lakh shall be taken from salvage. Total Cost : 4.0 Lakh.

Cost Benefit Analysis is as follows:

Capital Expenditure

Rs. 4.00 Lakh

Expenditure on WBA resin Resin Qty 8200 Lits @ Rs 300/lits. Total Expenditure

Rs. 28.60 Lakh

Rs. 28.60 Lakh

*Net yearly saving Payback period

Rs. 13.48 Lakh 2.12 years.

Conclusion :- From the trial data and the payback period of 2.12 years, it appears that the said system is cost effective and can be implemented without much modifications in the existing system.

Annexure - 1

Sr.No. Water Tests


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 pH Conductivity (. mhos) Turbidity ( NTU) TDS ppm M-alkalinity as CaCO3 ppm T-Hardness as CaCO3 ppm Ca-Hardness as CaCO3 ppm Mg-Hardness as CaCO3 ppm Chloride as Cl ppm

B.M.C.
6.8 -7.2 75 - 85 2-3 50 - 60 25 - 35 30 - 40 20 - 26 10 - 14 10 - 15

R.O.Permeate
5.8 77 - 80 0.41 35 - 40 1 -3 2-4 1-2 1-2 15 - 20

B.F.Water
8.8 9.0 <20 ------------------------

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Sulphate as SO4 ppm Silica as SiO2 ppm Nitrate Nitrogen as NN ppm COD ppm Iron as Fe ppm Ammonical Nitrogen as N Fluorine as F ppm Potassium as K ppm Sodium as Na ppm

3- 4 10 - 15 Nil Nil 0.1 0.2 Nil Nil -----

2-3 0.5 1.5 3-4 3-6 0.03 -0.04 Nil 0.1 0.15 1 1.2 8-1

---<0.02 ----------------------

MODIFICATIONS IN THE EXISTING ANION EXCHANGER PIPELINES

A1

A2

T1

T2

A1 & A2 are the existing Anion exchanger vessels T1 is the existing NaOH tank, T2 is the NH4OH tank with pipelines to be installed.
Annexure -II Pictorial presentation after desired modification Service Inlet

Effluent out

WBA

NH4OH NaOH SBA

Service outlet NaOH & NH4OH soln during regeneration

WATER TREATMENT PLANT I


(CAPACITY- 200m3/hr.)

Schematic Block Diagram P.S.F.


4 nos.

R..W.INLET

A.C.F.
2 nos.

Cation Ex.
2 nos.

DEGASSER
1 no.

P.W. Tank

M.B.1.1/1. 2
2 nos.

D.M.1.1
1 no.

Anion Ex.
2 nos.

P.S.F.- Packed Silica Filter. P.W.Tank Polish Water Tank D.M. Demineralised Tank. A.C.F. Activated Charcoal Filter. Cation Ex. Cation Exchanger. Anion Ex. Anion Exchanger. M.B. Mixed Bed.