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# Removal of Cr(VI) from waste water using hyacinth roots: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

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log q e = log K f + 1 log C e n

(4)

The values for Langmuir, Freundlich constants and correlation coefficients (r2) obtained from Figures 8 and shown in Table 2. Experimental data on adsorption were best fitted to freundlich adsorption isotherm. 3.2.3 Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) isotherm The linear from Dubinin- Radushkevich isotherm model (18) was described as,

ln Cabs ln X m =

(5)

## is the Polanyi potential (19) which is equal to:

= RT ln(1 +

1 ) Ce

(6)

From the plot of Cabc vs. 2 gave a straight line from which the values of and X m for hyacinth roots was calculated. Using the value of , the mean sorption energy, E, was evaluated as

E =

1 2

(7)

If E < 8 KJ/mol, the adsorption process is physical in nature and in the ranges from 8 to 16 KJ/mol, it is chemical in nature (20). The estimated value of E for Cr(VI) sorption was 11.5942 KJ/mol for hyacinth roots, which suggests the adsorption process is carried out chemical in nature. 3.3 Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption Adsorption experiments to study the effect of temperature were carried out at 30, 40 and 550C at optimum pH value of 2 and adsorbent dosage level 10 g/L. The equilibrium contact time for adsorption was maintained at 4 hr. 0 The thermodynamic equilibrium constant ( K c ) was calculated by determining the apparent equilibrium constant, K c at different initial concentration of Cr(VI) and extrapolating to zero. C K c' = a (8) Ce The Gibbs free energy, G0, enthalpy, H0, and entropy, S0 were computed using following equation 0 G 0 = RT ln k c (9) H 0 S 0 (10) ln k c = + RT R The value of standard free energy, G0, was calculated using Equation 9. The value of slope and intercept of the plot ln kc0 vs. 1/T, gave standard enthalpy, H0, and standard entropy, S0, respectively (Table 4). Conclusions The optimum pH for removal was found to be 2. Increase in the concentration of adsorbent, initial Cr(VI) concentration and contact time were found to be increase the percentage removal of Cr(VI). The kinetics of the Cr(VI) adsorption was found to follow pseudo second order rate
'

[20] Malik, U.R., Hasany, S.M., Subhani, M.S., 2005. Sorptive potertial of sunflower stem for Cr(III) ions from aqueous solutions and its kinetic and thermodynamic profile. Talanta 66, 166-173

Table 1 Rate Kinetics for the adsorption of Cr(VI) ion onto hyacinth roots Lagergren 1st order model Kad r2 (min-1) 0.02655 0.87512 Pseudo 2nd order model K2 r2 [(mg/g)min] 0.01238 0.99728

Table 2 Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants for Cr(VI) removal Langmuir constants qmax mg/g 14.3575 b L/mg 0.2268 0.9659 2.923 5 3.0262 0.9927 r2 Kf Freundlich constants n r2

Table 3 Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm parameter and activation energy for the removal of Cr(VI) D-R constant Activation energy KJ/mol 11.5942 0.9759 r2

-0.00372

Table 4 Thermodynamic parameters for the sorption of Cr(VI) onto adsorbents Thermodynamic parameters Temperatur e K 303 313 328 - G KJ/mol 5.2345 7.2084 9.8501 48.874 0.2835 H KJ/mol S KJ/mol

100

90

80

% removal of Cr(VI)

70

60

50

40

30

10

Initial pH

100

100

## Percentage removal of Cr(VI), %

90

80

% removal of Cr(VI)

80

60

40

70

60

20 0.0

3.5

7.0

10.5

14.0

70

140

210

280

350

0.6

0.0

-0.6

log(qe-qt)

-1.2

-1.8

-2.4

-3.0

60

120

180

240

300

## Fig. 6. Lagergren plot for Cr(VI) adsorption

125
1.2

100

1.0

0.8

75
0.6

t/q

50

log qe
0 70 140 210 280 350

0.4

0.2

25
0.0

-0.2

-2

-1

log Ce