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Indian J. Agric.

Res" 37 (4) : 299 - 302, 2003

EFFECT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IMPROVING CHEMICAL ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF GUAVA (PISIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) CV SARDAR
N.L. Sen, R.S. Lamba and Virendra Singh
Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur - 313 001, India

ABSTRACT
Spray ofdifferent photosynthesis improving chemical were tried to improve the growth, yield and quality of guava. Highest growth of shoot length, leaf area, fruit set and yield per plant were recorded with the treatment Mixtatol (600 ppm). Quality parameters (TSS, acidity and ascorbic acid) of fruitalso improved by the spray of different photosynthesis improving chemicals.

INTRODUCTION Guava, considered to be apple of the tropics is a rich source of vitamin C, iron, calcium, and phosphorus. Although the area under guava cultivation seems to be increasing, the proportionate increase in yield and quality is yet to be achieved. Productivity of guava can be increased by the use of Plant bioregulators. Photosynthesis improving chemicals (long chain aliphatic alcoholos) are reported to increase the yield of severalcereals, pulses and vegetables (Menon and Srivastava, 1984). Keeping this in view, the presentinvestigation were carried out on the winter crop of 1992 and 1993. MATERIAL AND METHODS The experiment was conducted on 15 years old guava plants at Horticulture Farm, Rajashtan college of Agriculture, Udaipur. Four photosynthesis improving chemicals having three levels of each and control constituted the thirteen treatments. The chemicals tried were Mixtatol (200, 400 and 600 ppm), Cytozyme (lOOO, 2000 and 3000 ppm), Miraculan (250, 500 and 750 ppm) andVipul (25, 50 and 100 ppm). All the treatments were applied twice, first three weeds before fruit set and another three weeks after fruit set. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Observations on shoot length and leaf area consisted of fruit set, fruit drop and yield per tree. Time of fruit set and drop was

August and September-October, respectively. Among quality parameters total soluble sugars (TSS), acidity and ascorbic acid were taken. All the observations were recorded on winter crop only. TSS was measured by Zeiss Hand Refractometer. Acidity was determined by titrating the pulp against standard NI10 NaOH solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator. Ascorbic acid content was determined by the method described by AOAC (l960). RESUTLS AND DISCUSSION Growth characters Shoot length and leaf area: The photosnthesis improving chemicals significantly increased. the shoot length over control at different periods of observations during both the years (Table 1). The maximum per cent increase (10.51 and 11.13% 60 days after spraying during 1992 and 1993, respectively) in shoot length was recorded in Mixtatol 600 ppm followed by Miraculan 750 ppm treatment in comparison to control (5.77 and 6.11% 60 days after spraying during 1992 and 1993, respectively). It is clear from the Table 2 that all the photosynthesis improving chemicals except Cytozyme 1000 ppm resulted in significant increase in leaf area at different periods (IS, 30, 45 and 60 days after spraying) of observation in comparison to control during 1992 and 1993. Statistical analysis revealed that the leaf area of guava increased significantly with the increasing

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Table 1. Effect of photosynthesis improving chemicals on per cent incr~ase in shoot length of guava
Treatments Mixtalol 200 ppm Mlxtalol400 ppm Mixtalol 600 ppm Vipul 200 ppm Vipul400 ppm Vipul600 ppm Cytozyme 1000 ppm Cytozyme 2000 ppm Cytozoyme 3000 ppm Miraculan 250.ppm Miraculan 500 ppm Miraculan 750 ppm Control
15 days .Iter sproying 30 days .Iter spt'.ying 45 days .Iter spt'Bying 60 days .fter spt'aying

SEm.
CD at 5%

1992 8.15 9;75 14.95 6.51 7.70 10.63 6.40 8.08 9.70 7.61 9.02 14.43 5.77 0.32 0.92

1993 8.74 10.41 16.03 6.94 8.26 11.40 6.86 .8.67 10.35 8.13 9.63 14.52 6.17 0.38 1.10

1992 7.58 9.38 12.43 7.07 7.95 10.39 6.33 7.83 9.60 7.42 8.80 11.30 5.83 2.62 0.74

1993 7.36 9.11 12.05 6.87 7.72 10.08 6.14 78.60 9.30 7.22 8.54 10.97 5.63 0.26 0.73

1992 7.67 8.75 11.38 6.44 7.53 9.05 6.13 7.16 8.81 6.93 8.83 10.72 5.62 0.27 0.74

1993 7.97 9.10 11.85 6.71 7.82 9.41 6.35 7.46 9.14 7.21 . 9.18 11.14 5.58 0.28 0;79

1992
i

1993 7.78 9.33 11.13 . 7.39 8.73 9.22 7.37 8.07 9.29 7.22 9.17 10.99 6.1l 0.30 0.86

7.32 '8.81 10.51 6.98 8.23 8.71 6.95 7.60 8.77 6.79. 8.66 10.35 5.77 0.23 0.65

Table 2. Effect of photosynthesisimproving chemicals on per cent increase in leaf area of guava
Treatments Mixtalol 200 ppm Mixtalol 400 ppm Mixtalol600 ppm Vipul 200 ppm V1pu1400 ppm Vipul600 ppm Cytozyme 1000 ppm Cytozyme 2000 ppm Cytozyme 3000 ppm Miraculan 250 ppm Miraculan 500 ppm Miraculan 750 ppm Control
15 days alter spt'aying 30 days .Iter spt'.ying 45 days .Iter spt'ayi!l9 60 days .fier spraYing

1992 21.18 22.84 34.11 16.89 20.06 23.89 16.21 18.22 20.28 17.36 21.74 25.94 14.51 0.69 1.97

SEm
CD at 5%

1993 19.91 21.46 32.03 15.89 18.86 . 22.47 15.23 17.14 19.08 16.32 20.43 24.39 13.65 0.65 0.19

1992 20.02 24.24 28.05 16.69 21.13 24.24 19.09 21.12 24.03 20.78 22.58 . 27.22 17.34 0.67 1.90

1993 21.40 25.95 30.01 21.08 22.58 25.95 20.44 22.58 25.68 22.26 24.19 29.11 18.57 0.72 2.03

1992 18.56 21.72 24.62 18.64 19.94 22.33 18.46 19.31 22.10 18.70 20.92 23.43 16.61 0.61 1.73

1993 17.83 20;86 23.64 17.90 18.85 21.44 17.73 '. 18.55 21.22 17.95 21.08 22.51 15.95 0.59 1.66

1992 12.40 .13.19 15.79 11.96 12.31 14.12 10.71 12.26 13.98 '12.29 13.42 15.11 10.72 0.40 1.14

1993 13.64 15.31 17.38 13.17 13.53 15.51 11.84 13.68 15.40 13.56 14.74 16.61 11.83 0.74 1.24

concentration of chemicals. Comparison of different chemicals showed that maximum leaf area was recorded under Mixtalol 600 ppm followed by Miraculan 750 ppm and minimum in control. The increase in shoot length and leaf area were due to photosynthesis improving chemicals can be attributed the increased rate of photosynthesis activity, accelerated translocation and efficiency of utilizing photosynthetic product, thus resulting in the cell elongation and rapid cell division in growing portion (Sargent, 1965). Another

reason for increasing growth might be due to stimulatory action of auxins which soften the cell wall by increasing its plasticity (Tagawa and Booner, 1957). Similar results have also reported by Erikson et al (1981) in tomato and maize and Mandai and Kumar 1989) in guava. Yield Attributes Fruit set and fruit drop: The fruit set increased and fruit drop reduced significantly due to spray of different concentrations of

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Table .3. Effect of photosYnthesis improving chemicals on fruit set, fruit drop and yield per plantof guava
Treatments Mixtalol 200 ppm Mixt2l10l 400 ppm Mixtalol600 ppm Vipul 200 ppm ' Vipul400 ppm Vipul 600 ppm Cytozyme 1000 PPm, Cytozyme,2000 ppm Cytozyme 3000 ppm Miraculan250 ppm , Miraculan 500 ppm Miraculan 750 ppm Control SEm CD at 5% Fruit set (Per cent) 1992 1993 58.8062.35 61.28 64.02 65.68 68.63 51.81 54.93 57.75 61.22 59.75 63.34 44.27 46.92 48.80 51.73 57.8561.32 51.77 54.89 54.00 57.24 56.67 60.07 40.70 43.15 15.23 1.61 4.32 4.58 Fruit drop (per cent) 1992 39.20 37.72 29.32 47.99 42.30 40.26 55.79 51.25 42.16 48.23 46.11 43.36 59.31 1.45 4.13 1993 38.75 35.37 31.37 51.36 45.26 43.08 59.69 54.84 45.11 51.64 49.33 46.40 63.48 1.56 4.42 Fruit yield per plant 1992 36.22 38.08 41.80 32.80 34.90 38.00 34.25 39.03 37,18 34.99 37.24 40.12 30.38 1.02 2.89 1993 34.08 35.98 39.24 30.10 32.81 35.84 32.12 36.85 34.47 32.83 35.10 38.31 28.17 0.99 2.83

Table 4. Effect of photosynthesis improving chemicals on quality parameters of guava


Treatments Mixtalol200 ppm Mixtalol400 ppm Mixtalol600 ppm Vipul 200 ppm Vipul400 ppm Vipul600 ppm Cytozyme 1000 ppm Cytozyme 2000 ppm Cytozyme 3000 ppm Miraculan 250 ppm Miraculan 500 ppm Miraculan 750 ppm Control SEm CD at 5% Acidity (%) 1992 0.36 0.40 0.38 0.35 0.36 0.39 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.31 0.01 0.03 1993 0.38 0.43 0.41 0.37 0.38 0.41 0.34 0.37 0.39 0.35 0.37 0.38 0.31 0.01 0.03 Ascorbic acid (mg/100g) 1992 334.65 337.09 338.10 333.10 335.45 336.80 332.17 334.02 335.75 331.02 335.54 336.57 326.05 5.40 1993 351.30 353.90 354.90 350.20 352.40 . 353.90 345.70 350.70 352.30 347.60 352.20 353.40 342.40 7.89 Total soluble solids (%) 1992 15.75 18.13 18.55 15.25 15.75 16.25 15.63 16.63 17.50 15.50 18.00 17.88 13.11 0.46 1.30 1993 15.14 17.41 17.80 14.66 15.12 15.60 17.99 15.97 16.80 14.88 17.28 17.15 12.58 0.86 2.43

NS

NS

photosynthesis improving chemicals except Cytozyme 1000 ppm (Table 3). During first year the maximum fruit set (65.68%) was observed in Mixtalol 600 ppm followed by Mixtalol400 ppm (61.28%). Vipul600 ppm (59.75%) and Mixtalol 200 ppm (58.80%). The minimum fruit drop (29.32%) was also reported in Mixtalol 400 ppm (37.72%), Mixtalol 200 ppm (39.20%) and Vipul 600 ppm (40.26%) during first year whereas minimum fruit set (40.70%) and maximum fruit (59.31%) were recorded in control. The similar

trend was observed in 1993. The increase in fruit set. and reduction in fruit drop in plants treated with chemicals may be due to the increased leaf area resulting in increased CO 2 fixation. Thus might have resulted in higher rate of photosynthesis which ultimately increased fruit set and reduced the fruit drop. The better fruit set and less fruit drop may also be due to increased endogenous auxin content of flowers (Virzilov and Mitheleva, 1968). Fruit yield per plant: Observations recorded in Table 3 in ,first and second year

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indicated that maximum fruit yield per plant (41.80 kg and 39.34 kg dUring 1992 and 1993 respectively) was in plants sprayed with Mixtalol (600 ppm) followed by Miraculan (750 ppm), Cytozyrne (2000 ppm) and Mixtalol (400 ppm) whereas minimum (30.38 kg and 28.17 kg dUring 1992 and 1993, respectively) in control. The increase in fruit yield by long chain aliphatic alcohols may be dut to increased translocation of organic material in treated plants (Shindy and Weaver, 1967). The mobilization or movement .of nutrients into flowers and fruits by the application of these chemicals might have improved the yield. These findings are in conformity with those of Mandai and Kumar (1989) in guava and Nagalakshmi and Gunasekaran (1989) in Poovan banana.

Quality attributes Among quality attributes, the ascorbic acid content was non-significantly affected by various treatments during both the years. However, the acidity and TSS were significantly higher over control but difference between various chemicals was non-significant. The maximum acidity (0.390AJ) and TSS (18.55%) were recorded in Vipul 600ppm and Mixtalol 600 ppm respectively dUring 1992 whereas the minimum acidity (0.31%) and TSS (13.11%) were recorded in control. The similar trend was followed in second year (Table 4). By the application of different photosynthesis improving chemicals, the increased acidity and TSS may be due to mobilization of food material. The similar results also reported by Pandita et ai. (1982) in muskmelon and Daulta etal (1986) in kinnow.

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A.O.A.C. (1960). Official and Tentative Methods of Analysis. 9'" Edn., Washington D.C. Daulta, B.S. et a/. (1986). HaTj/iJl1d J. Hort. Sci., 15: 1417. Erikson, A.B. eta/. (1981). Planta, 152: 4449. Mandai, BK and Kumar, R. (1989). IndianJ. Hort., 46: 449-452. Menon, K.K.G. and Srivastava, H.C. (1984). Indian Acad Sci. (Plant Sci.), 93: 359-378. Nagalakshmi, U. and Gunasekaran, N. (1989). South Indian Hort., 37: 242-243. Pandita, M.L. eta/. (1982). HAUJ. Res., 12: 75~79. Sargent, J.A. (1965). PI. Physiol., 16: 1-12. Shindy, W. and Weaver, R.S. (1967). Nature, 214: 1024-1025. Tagawa, T. and Booner (1957). PI. Physiol., 32:207-212. Virzilov, v.F. and" Mitheleva, L.A. (1968). Bull. Glav. Bot. Shada., 69: 37-42.