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ChapLer 7 1he Pouse uraln

nouse dra|n ls Lhe porLlon of Lhe plumblng sysLem LhaL recelves dlscharges of wasLe and soll sLacks wlLhln Lhe bulldlng and Lhen conveys Lo
house sewer lL ls also referred Lo as Lhe Co||ect|on ||ne of the |umb|ng system

1o assure scourlng acLlon Lhe house draln should be slzed correcLly Lo have a flow about S0 of Lhe plpe dlameLer

ClasslflcaLlon of Pouse uraln

1 Comb|ned ra|n ls a Lype of house draln LhaL recelves boLh sLorm and wasLe waLer lL ls already phased ouL
2 an|tary ra|n a Lype of draln LhaL recelves Lhe dlscharges of sanlLary and domesLlc wasLe only SLorm waLer ls noL allowed ln Lhls
3 torm ra|n conveys all sLorm clear waLer or surfaces waLer excepL sanlLary wasLes lL LermlnaLes lnLo lakes rlvers dry run or
naLural basln
4 ndustr|a| dra|n draln LhaL recelves wasLe from lndusLrlal equlpmenL whlch have ob[ecLlonable acld wasLes lL LermlnaLes on a
separaLe dralnage basln

Un|t system ls Lhe mosL pracLlcal meLhod of deLermlnlng Lhe slze of a house draln lL was found LhaL Lhe smallesL Lype of plumblng flxLure
would dlscharge 7 Z gallons ln one mlnuLe lnLerval whlch ls close Lo one cublc meLer

1he commlLLee adopLed LhaL Lhe washbasln would be one f|xture un|t (30 llLers of waLer)

8efore flndlng Lhe slze of Lhe house draln we musL deLermlne lLs servlce flrsL lf Lhe purpose ls for sanlLary wasLe Lhe llxLure unlL value wlll be
Lhe basls for deLermlnlng Lhe slze lf Lhe purpose ls for sLorm draln Lhe roof area wlll be Lhe basls wlLh reference Lo a Lable

Cn house draln lumblng Code provldes LhaL

1 -o waLer closeL shall dlscharge a draln less Lhan 73mm (3 ln) dlameLer plpe
2 -o more Lhan Lwo waLer closeLs shall dlscharge ln one 73mm soll branch house draln or house sewer

1he house draln belng a horlzonLal plpellne musL produce Lhe necessary veloclLy and dlscharge capaclLy aL a cerLaln lncllnaLlon Lo aLLaln
scourlng acLlon lL ls recommended LhaL 2 slope should be malnLalned for Lhe house draln

lnsLances where less Lhan 2 slope should be adopLed

1 When Lhe depLh of Lhe sewer llne ln relaLlon Lo Lhe depLh of Lhe basemenL floor llne ls low
2 Long sewer llne would requlre plLch buL noL less Lhan 1
3 lf sewer llne slope ls very llghL lnsLallaLlon of Lhe plpe should be gulded by levellng lnsLrumenL for accuracy Lo prevenL sags or
Lrapped plplng
A slope more Lhan 2 wlll lncrease veloclLy and dlscharge capaclLy of Lhe plpe ln effecL lL could be

1 lL mlghL decrease Lhe depLh requlred Lo creaLe scourlng acLlon
2 lL mlghL cause mlnus pressure lf Lhe draln ls overloaded Lo a flow capaclLy

Change ln dlrecLlon ls governed by Lhe followlng condlLlons

1 Changes from verLlcal Lo horlzonLal horlzonLal Lo horlzonLal should be made wlLh long radlus flLLlngs
2 Soll 8ranch should be run rlghL angle Lo Lhe maln
3 llxLure connecLlon musL run aL rlghL angle Lo Lhe branch

Cn house draln cleanouL

1 Pouse draln shall be provlded wlLh adequaLe number of cleanouLs Lo prevenL breaklng of floor or sLoppage
2 LocaLlon should depend upon Lhe good [udgmenL of Lhe plumber where lL should be readlly accesslble
3 Any branch of Lhe house draln should be provlded wlLh 100mm dlameLer plpe exLended aL leasL 2 ln above Lhe floor lnserLed ln a 43
degrees ? branch ln dlrecLlon of draln flow
4 1he cleanouL shall be equlpped wlLh Lhreaded screw cover provlded wlLh ralsed head
3 A cleanouL exLended above Lhe floor shall noL be uLlllzed as floor draln
6 A Lrap of a floor draln shall be placed noL more Lhan 30cm below Lhe flnlsh floor llne
7 A cleanouL shall be lnsLalled aL every 20m lnLerval dlsLance and also aL Lhe base of all soll and wasLe sLack

Pouse uraln Appllances

1 Pouse 1rap
a Pouse 1rap Assembly
b 8ack llow valves
c 8alanced valves
d unbalanced valve
2 Area uraln
3 lloor uraln
4 ?ard CaLch 8asln
3 Carage CaLch 8asln

Carage CaLch 8asln lncludes

1 uraln 1lle 8ecepLor
2 Sewage L[ecLor
3 AuLomaLlc WaLer Slphon
4 Sump lL
3 Crease 8aslns

Pouse 1rap lL ls lnsLalled lmmedlaLely lnslde Lhe foundaLlon wall of Lhe bulldlng lL serves as Lhe barrler LhaL prevenLs gasses from publlc sewer
and sepLlc Lank
8ack llow valve ls a devlce LhaL prevenLs Lhe reversal of flow lL ls consLrucLed ln Lwo paLLerns

1 8alance valve lL ls mosL preferred because lL has characLerlsLlcs on nonlnLerferences ln Lhe movemenL of alr lnslde Lhe dralnage
2 unbalance valve lL ls noL Lhe preferred Lype because of lLs record of poor performance

Area uraln conslsLs of runnlng Lrap lnsLalled under Lhe basemenL floor Lo proLecL lL from freezlng 1he Lrap ls equlpped wlLh a cleanouL 1he
mlnlmum slze of an area draln ls 10mm or 4" plpe Lo draln basemenL enLryways loadlng plaLforms or drlve ways

lloor uraln ls a recepLacle used Lo recelve waLer Lo be dralned from Lhe floor lnLo Lhe plumblng sysLem

Cn floor draln Lhe plumlng code commlLLee recommends

1 An average resldence ls provlded wlLh Lwo floor dralns Cne locaLed near Lhe heaLlng equlpmenL and one near Lhe laundry area
2 Lvery room where laundry equlpmenL ls used should be provlded wlLh a floor draln
3 lloor draln should be locaLed where overflowlng waLer wlll noL Lravel a greaL dlsLance over Lhe floor before lL enLers Lhe draln lL ls
recommended LhaL Lhe floor draln should be locaLed aL one end of Lhe laundry Lub
4 Lvery floor draln shall be supplled wlLh runnlng waLer from a flxLure locaLed nearby lf Lhe flxLure ls less Lhan 13m from Lhe draln lL
should be Lapped buL noL necessarlly venLed
3 llxLure draln supplylng waLer Lo a floor draln should be connecLed Lo Lhe house slde and never Lo Lhe sewer slde of Lhe Lrap

Lxperlence plumber wlll noL lnsLall a floor draln less Lhan 73mm dlameLer

8emlnders ln lnsLalllng floor draln

1 lloor draln ls usually lnsLalled ln Lhe basemenL floor near Lhe heaLlng equlpmenL below Lhe klLchen slnk and vlclnlLy of Lhe laundry
2 73mm dlameLer Lrap ls Lhe mlnlmum recommended slze for floor draln lL should be lnsLalled noL more Lhan 20cm below Lhe floor
3 Lrap should be deep seal Lype
4 Low lnleL hub paLLern Lrap ls commonly used as floor draln

?ard CaLch basln ls a recepLacle used Lo caLch surface waLer dralned from Lhe cemenLed courLs drlveways and yard lL could be a Lermlnal for
draln Llle lnsLallaLlons used Lo draln waLer from aLhleLlc flelds

Carage CaLch 8asln ls a devlce deslgned Lo convey wasLe from garage wash rack grease plLs and repalr floor lnLo Lhe house draln

Crease baslns should be cleaned regularly Cn large esLabllshmenLs lL ls cleaned almosL dally

lnsLalllng grease basln

1 Crease Lrap shall be lnsLalled as close Lo Lhe flxLure as posslble More Lhan one flxLure can dlscharge as long as wasLe ls noL very long
and Lrap slze ls sufflclenL
2 LarLhcooled grease Lrap ls used ln large esLabllshmenLs and mosL deslrable Lype
3 8asln wldLh should noL be less Lhan 60cm LengLh should be from 3 Lo 4 Llmes lLs wldLh Lo aLLaln smooLh nonaglLaLed flow
4 Mlnlmum depLh of concreLe grease Lrap should noL be less Lhan 120cm below Lhe ouLleL lnverL
3 Slze of grease Lrap should be measured uslng Lhe volume of flxLure unlLs Lo be dlscharge

ChapLer 8 Pouse Sewer

Pouse Sewer ls deflned as Lhe porLlon of Lhe horlzonLal dralnage sysLem whlch sLarLs from Lhe ouLer face of Lhe bulldlng and LermlnaLe aL Lhe
maln sewer ln Lhe sLreeL or sepLlc Lank (90cm from Lhe ouLslde face of Lhe bulldlng) lL ls someLlmes called bulldlng sewer

Maln sewer ls malnLalned by Lhe governmenL Pouses wlLh maln sewer on Lhe sLreeL are requlred Lo connecL Lhelr house sewers Lo Lhe publlc
sewer llne

1he house sewer ls connecLed Lo Lhe maln sewer by borlng a small hole Lhrough Lhe concreLe plpe 1he house sewer plpe ls connecLed Lo Lhe
maln sewer aL a 43 degrees angle or dlrecLly from Lhe Lop

Ceneral CondlLlons ln lnsLalllng sewer plpe

1 Secure permlLs from sewerage auLhorlLles
2 verlfy Lhe depLh of Lhe house draln lnleL
3 ueLermlne Lhe depLh of Lhe connecLlon wlLh Lhe maln sewer ln Lhe sLreeL and Lhe grade of Lhe house sewer
4 uepLh ls found by measurlng Lhe lengLh of Lhe longesL branch of house draln mulLlplled by Lhe preplanned plLch per meLer
3 Add 30cm ground coverlngs from Lhe Lop of Lhe concreLe floor or 40cm of ground coverlng wlLhouL concreLe floor
6 verlfy Lhe depLh of connecLlon Lo be made wlLh maln sewer 8emove manhole cover on boLh end and measure Lhe depLh
7 Crade of Lhe house sewer can be found Lhrough Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe house sewer and Lhe depLh of Lhe maln sewer Levellng
lnsLrumenL wlll glve saLlsfylng resulL AddlLlonal grade can be made wlLh Lhe use of 1ce/8 bend

Slze of Pouse sewer

1he old pracLlce ls Lo use 130mm dlameLer cemenL or vlLrlfled clay plpe Powever lf plasLlc plpe ls used wlLh smooLh lnLerlor surface or plpe
wlLh slmllar lnLerlor surface ls used Lhe dlameLer ls reduced Lo 100mm

Chapter 9 torm ra|n

torm ra|n ls Lhe unlL of Lhe plumblng sysL em LhaL conveys sLorm waLer Lo a sulLable Lermlnal SLorm waLer ls normally dlscharged lnLo sLreeL
guLLer conveyed by Lhe publlc draln

SLrom draln ls noL permlLLed Lo dlscharge waLer lnLo Lhe sepLlc Lank or Lhe maln sewer llne WaLer comlng from Lhe roof lf noL dlverLed properly
mlghL creaLe problems llke

1 SeLLlemenL of Lhe sLrucLure caused by eroslon
2 Sub[ecLlng Lhe basemenL floor and walls Lo unnecessary ground waLer pressure and posslble leakage
3 8undown waLer may creaLe wall and wlndow leakage
4 Lrode Lhe surroundlng grounds and cause dlsflgurlng of Lhe landscape areas

Splash an ls Lhe collecLor of waLer comlng down from Lhe downspouL

ClasslflcaLlon of SLrom uraln

1 ns|de torm ra|n ls someLlmes locaLed under Lhe basemenL floor or wlLhln walls of Lhe bulldlngs 1hls ls commonly seen ln
buslness dlsLrlcLs lor large bulldlng SLorm uralns are lald ln Lwo or more llnes Lo convey noL only Lhe waLer comlng from Lhe roof
buL also Lhose accumulaLed from lnslde courL or open areas
2 uts|de torm ra|n ls lnsLalled ouLslde Lhe foundaLlon wall of Lhe bulldlng
3 erhead torm ra|n ls adopLed when sLreeL dralnage ls hlgher ln elevaLlon Lhan Lhe basemenL floor of Lhe bulldlng 1he plpes are
well flLLed and suspended lnslde Lhe celllng by sulLable hangers spaced aL close lnLervals

|ze of trom ra|n |s determ|ned by the fo||ow|ng cond|t|ons

1 Cauglng Lhe ralnfall over a glven perlod
2 Conslder Lhe varylng roof areas Lhe slope and Lhe dlsLance of waLer Lraveled before lL reaches Lhe conducLors of Lhe roof
3 WaLer dralns fasLer on hlgh plLch roof
4 1he helghL of Lhe bulldlng
3 use of lmproper flLLlngs and shorL offseLs LhaL wlll affecL Lhe flow of waLer musL be avolded

1he maxlmum ralnfall ln Lhe hlllpplnes ls abouL 0mm ln a 3 mlnuLe lnLerval

torm dra|n should be lnsLalled wlLh grade noL more Lhan 2 Change ln dlrecLlon should be done wlLh long radlus flLLlngs

koof Leader or popularly known as waLer conducLor or downspouL ls elLher concealed or exposed Lype lL connecLs Lhe roof Lermlnal Lo Lhe
sLorm draln

ChapLer 10 1raps for lumblng llxLures

@rap ls a devlce ln plumblng sclenLlflcally deslgned Lo prevenL back flow of gasses comlng from Lhe sepLlc Lank or sewer llne passlng Lhrough Lhe
ouLleL of Lhe flxLure 1he baslc funcLlon of Lrap ls Lo prevenL ob[ecLlonable gases from enLerlng Lhe plumblng sysLem

lL was 1836 when Lrap was flrsL paLenLed Lrap ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes was lnnovaLed Crlglnally Lrap was called Gooseneck

1he column of waLer reLalned beLween overflow and Lhe dlp of Lhe Lrap ls called trap sea| or someLlmes called water sea|

C|ass|f|cat|on of Water ea|ed @rap

1 Common seal has 3cm deep waLer seal beLween Lhe overflow and Lhe dlp LhaL wlll offer reslsLance agalnsL abnormal condlLlons
2 ueep Seal Lrap has 73cm10cm column of llquld conLenL beLween overflow and Lhe dlp lL ls purposely deslgned for abnormal
slLuaLlons such as
a LxLreme heaL condlLlon ln Lhe area
b lncrease and decrease aLmospherlc condlLlon
c ClrcumsLances where LoLal venLllaLlon cannoL be obLalned

1he advanLage of ueep Seal over Lhe common seal ls Lhe resea||ng qua||ty

1he trap ls Lhe mosL common and pracLlcal shape avallable wlLh varlous slzes form 3mmS0mm dlameLer 1hese are common slzes for
flxLures LhaL are suspended from walls or supporLed on a pedesLal such as

1 LavaLorles
2 Slnks
3 Shower baLh wlLh less amounL of waLer dlscharge
4 urlnals
3 urlnklng founLalns

lorms of waLer sealed Lrap

1 ermlsslble 1raps
a ermlsslble 1ypes of 1raps
l Lrap
ll urum 1rap
b CLher Lypes of ermlsslble 1raps
l SLand 1rap
ll 8rass 1rap
lll Plgh Pub 1rap
lv Low Pub 1rap
v LxLra heavy hub 1rap
vl Slnk or LavaLory 1ype

2 Cb[ecLlonable 1raps
a lull Slze S and Lhe SLrap
b 8ag 1raps
c Mechanlcally Sealed 1raps
d LlghL MeLal arLlLlon 1raps

1rap lnsLallaLlon

1 All Lraps shall be selfcleanlng
2 Lrap shall be lnsLalled as near Lhe flxLure as pracLlcal noL Lo requlre Loo long verLlcal leg beLween Lhe Lrap and flxLure proper
3 ShorL verLlcal legs ellmlnaLed hlgh veloclLy of waLer dlscharge LhaL creaLes slphon Lhe ma[or cause of Lrap seal loss
4 Lrap shall be lnsLalled wlLh 60cm of Lhe flxLure lL wlll serve lL shall be accesslble for cleanlng Lhrough Lhe boLLom openlng closed by
a screw
3 All Lraps are sub[ecL Lo sLoppage Lhus musL be provlded wlLh cleanouL
6 Long 8un PorlzonLal lpes could be used only near Lhe draln of Lhe floor area or yard lL ls also called 8unnlng 1rap
7 1he dlp porLlon of Lhe Lrap should be as shorL as posslble Lo avold reLarded flow of waLer Llkewlse Lhe horlzonLal leg connecLlon Lo
Lhe wasLe plpe shall be reasonably shorL for effecLlve venLllaLlon
8 Cverflow lpe from Lhe flxLure shall be connecLed Lo Lhe lnleL slde of Lhe Lrap
9 Lach flxLure shall have lLs own Lrap WlLh Lhe excepLlon of
a 1wo laundry Lrays are connecLed Lo a slngle Lrap
b -oL more Lhan Lwo laundry Lray should be served by one Lrap
c 1hree lavaLorles on one Lrap

urum 1rap ls classlfled as a waLer seal devlce

1 urum Lrap ls lnLended for flxLures seL on Lhe floor
2 lL ls used on flxLures LhaL dlscharges subsLanLlal amounL of waLer lL ls effecLlve where Lrap seal loss ls prevalenL
3 lL can serve as Lermlnal for soda founLalns bar wasLe and any oLher Lype of lndlrecL wasLe
4 1wo Lypes of drum Lraps
a 100mm x 123mm
b 100mm x 200mm

AdvanLages of urum 1rap

1 CreaL amounL of waLer can pass Lhrough lL on shorL lnLerval
2 Plgher reseallng quallLy Lhan Lrap

ulsadvanLages of urum 1rap

1 Large and cumbersome
2 unslghLly lf exposed
3 CleanouL mechanlsm ls above Lhe waLer seal
4 1o Lrap needs lubrlcanL and flber washer aL Lhe [olnL beLween Lhe cover and Lhe body of Lhe Lrap Lo clean

llxLures Lo be lnsLalled are classlfled lnLo Lhree

1 Class 1 rlvaLe use flxLures ln resldenLlal houses PoLels rlvaLe baLhroom
2 Class 2 Semlubllc use flxLures ln offlce bulldlngs facLorles and dormlLorles
3 Class 3 ubllc use Schools gymnaslum hoLels rallroad and bus Lermlnals

ChapLer 11 lumblng venLllaLlon

Ient||at|on ls Lhe porLlon of Lhe dralnage plpe lnsLallaLlon deslgned Lo malnLaln a balance aLmospherlc pressure lnslde Lhe sysLem Lo prevenL
problems llke

1 1rap Seal loss
2 8eLardaLlon of flow
3 ueLerloraLlon of MaLerlals

1hls porLlon of plumblng sclence ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL yeL commonly regarded by average plumblng mechanlcs

venLllaLlng a dralnage sysLem requlres knowledge of Lhe prlnclples governlng naLural laws such as

1 1he prlnclples governlng Lhe aLmosphere
2 1he prlnclples of gravlLy
3 1he prlnclples of slphon pressure and vacuum

A waste p|pe of smaller dlameLer could serve more flxLures lf a balanced aLmospherlc pressure lnslde ls malnLalned aL all Llmes

ALmospherlc pressure and Lhe dralnage sysLem

Accordlng Lo sclenLlflc flndlngs surface of earLh ls sub[ecLed Lo aLmospherlc pressure of abouL 6347 -ewLon aL sea level Any elevaLlon above
or below sea level would be sub[ecLed Lo mlnus or plus pressure as Lhe LoLal volume of alr above lL ls lesser or greaLer accordlngly

Compress|b|||ty ls one of Lhe properLles of alr When compressed pressure greaLer Lhan one aLmosphere ls produced

@rap ea| |oss occurs when waLer seal escape from Lhe Lrap lL can be aLLrlbuLed Lo lnadequaLe venLllaLlon lL ls among Lhe common and
serlous problems belng encounLered ln a dralnage sysLem

1rap Seal loss may be aLLrlbuLed Lo any of Lhe followlng facLors
1 Slphonage
2 8ack pressure
3 LvaporaLlon
4 Caplllary acLlon

|phonage ls Lhe resulL of mlnus pressure ln Lhe dralnage sysLem lf Lhe Lrap of a common seal ls open and exposed Lo Lhe aLmosphere boLh
lnleL and Lhe ouLleL orlflces wlll be under unbalanced aLmospherlc pressure

Slphonage ls classlfled lnLo Lwo Lypes
|rect or se|fs|phon|ng occur ln unvenLllaLed Lraps whlch serves as oval boLLom flxLure llke lavaLory or slop slnk lL ls creaLed when
rapld flow of waLer passlng Lhrough Lhe plpe slphon down Lhe waLer seal lnslde Lhe Lrap wlLh no provlslon
nd|rect or Momentum |phon|ng ls Lhe resulL of a mlnus pressure ln Lhe plpe creaLed by heavy dlscharge of waLer from a flxLure
lnsLalled on a llne servlng anoLher flxLure aL a lower floor

8ack pressure ls caused by plus pressure When large amounL of waLer flow rapldly down Lo form slug llke alr lnslde wlll be compressed and wlll
escape aL a weaker polnL whlch ls commonly a Lrap seal wlll glve away and blow ouL of Lhe flxLure

Laporat|on ls consldered mlnor problem and ls less probable Lo draln Lhe waLer lnslde Lhe Lrap Powever lL only happens on floor draln whlch
are noL regularly used Lo admlL waLer and exposed Lo exLreme LemperaLure

W|nd Lffect ls a wlnd veloclLy passlng over Lhe Lop of Lhe soll plpe may affecL Lhe Lrap seal

Cap|||ary Act|on ls a klnd of Lrap seal loss whlch also seldom occurs and ls rarely experlenced by home owners lL ls Lhe dralnlng of waLer caused
by forelgn ob[ecL suspended and exLended over Lhe ouLleL arm of Lhe 1rap

8eLardaLlon of llow

8eLarded flow of waLer lnslde Lhe venLlng sysLem

1ypes of venLllaLlon ln Lhe lumblng SysLem
1 Maln and soll wasLe venL
2 Maln venL
3 lndlvldual venL
4 unlL venL
3 ClrculL or loop venL
6 8ellef venL
7 ?oke venL
8 WeL venL
9 Looped venL
10 Local venL
11 uLlllLy venL

Ma|n o|| and Waste ents are used Lo venLllaLe soll and wasLe sLack

1he maln venL and oLher subsldlary form of rellef venLs are classlfled accordlng Lo Lhe funcLlons Lhey perform (8ellef and yoke venL)

CLher Lypes of venLs are used Lo proLecL flxLures from back pressure and slphonlng 1he examples are
1 lndlvldual or back venL
2 unlL venL
3 ClrculL or loop venL
4 WeL venL
3 Looped venL

Ceneral CondlLlons ln lnsLalllng Lhe Maln soll and venL SLack
1 MusL be lnsLalled as dlrecL as posslble
2 ShorL radlus flLLlng should be avolded
3 Long horlzonLal llne musL be avolded
4 lL should have Lhe same dlameLer as Lhe soll or wasLe plpe

All exLenslons of soll or wasLe sLack shall run full aL leasL 30cm above Lhe roof and m lf used oLher Lhan weaLher proLecLlon
8oof sLack lf wlLhln 3m of wlndows door scuLLle or alr shafL shall be exLended 1m above Lhe same

Maln venL ls someLlmes called co||ect|ng ent ||ne

ra|nage system ls a comblnaLlon of wasLe plpe venL plpe and waLer supply

Ceneral CondlLlons for lnsLallaLlon of Maln venL
1 Maln venL shall be exLended from Lhe base Lo Lhe maln soll wlLh slze undlmlnlshed or maybe connecLed Lo maln soll venL aL leasL 1m
above Lhe hlghesL flxLure
2 Maln venL wlll serve as rellef venL for anLlclpaLed back pressure so offseLs should be avolded

nd||dua| ent or back venL serves only a slngle Lrap

-aLlonal lumblng code on dlsLances of venL from Lrap seal provldes LhaL
1 -o Lrap shall be placed more Lhan 130m horlzonLal developed lengLh from lLs venL
2 ulsLance should be measured cenLer Lo cenLer
3 venL openlng from Lhe soll or wasLe plpe excepL for waLer closeL or slmllar flxLure sould noL be Lhe dlp of Lhe Lrap

-o venL shall be less Lhan 38mm (1 Z") dlameLer excepL for a 3mm (1 x") dlameLer wasLe plpe

Un|t ent venLllaLes Lwo flxLure Lraps LhaL dlscharge lnLo a sanlLary cross wlLh deflecLors

C|rcu|t or loop venL ls employed when Lwo or more flxLure Lraps are lnsLalled ln a soll branch

-o more Lhan 8 water c|osets are allowed on a clrculL or looped venL

ke||ef ent ls lnsLalled Lo venLllaLe soll and wasLe plpe

Cn rellef venL code provldes LhaL
1 WasLe branches shall be provlded wlLh rellef venL
2 8ase of soll sLack on Lall bulldlng should have rellef venL
3 8ellef venL shall be lnsLalled aL lnLerval on Lhe soll plpe havlng changes ln dlrecLlon
4 Cn long verLlcal soll plpe rellef venL shall be lnsLalled aL 3 Lo 3 floor lnLervals 1hls ls someLlmes called ?oke or 8ypass venLllaLlon
3 A rellef venL used on change ln dlrecLlon should have a dlameLer equal Lo Lhe maln venL 8ellef venL musL noL be less Lhan 30mm
6 ?oke venL beLween Lhe maln venL and soll plpe should be equal ln dlameLer as Lhe maln venL

Looped Ient ls a Lype of venLllaLlon used on flxLures ln a room away from parLlLlons

WeL venLllaLlon boLh has afflrmaLlve and negaLlve sldes lL ls a porLlon of venLllaLlon sysLem where llquld wasLe regularly flows

ChapLer 12 1he SovenL SysLem

@rad|t|ona| two ||ne dra|nage system or double llne dralnage sysLem ls also called uWv

lncorporaLlon of venL plpe ln Lhe plumblng sysLem also broughL numerous problems such as
1 8ouLlng of dlfferenL venL plpes
2 AddlLlonal cosL for labor and maLerlals
3 Space requlremenLs

oent ystem (slngle soll sLack dralnage sysLem) ls new concepL on plumblng whlch ls sulLable Lo Lall bulldlngs lL ellmlnaLes Lhe venL sLack and
oLher forms of venLllaLlon buL reLalned Lhe same funcLlon and efflclency lL was lnLroduced by Ir|tz ommer of SwlLzerland lL was flrsL presenL
ln 96 and 968 ln Lhe uS

Pow sovenL SysLem works

1 1wo klnds of forces are pressure and suct|on
2 ownward force ls called plus pressure
3 uct|on force ls called mlnus pressure
4 1he sovenL luncLlon ls Lo change Lhe solld naLure of Lhe effluenL by scaLLerlng Lhem lnLo drops or small blobs Lo fall llke llquld ln
3 1he negaLlve pressure should be neuLrallzed
6 1he sovenL acLlon of reduclng poslLlve and negaLlve pressure ls done ln every floor by aeraLor lnsLalled loam ls formed by aeraLor Lo
avold Lhe posslblllLy of effluenL fluld Lo flll Lhe enLlre plpe
7 LffluenL LhaL was exposed Lo alr falllng from upper floors ls dlverLed ln Lhe soll sLack aL Lhe lower floor
8 AeraLor scaLLers Lhe effluenLs ln blobs whereln Lhey are mlxed wlLh alr 1he new composlLlon cannoL creaLe elLher plus or negaLlve
pressure more Lhan 23mm
9 AL Lhe boLLom parL of sovenL Lhe effluenL ls packed and may creaLe pressure Lhus provlde wlLh dlscharge area Lo relleve pressure

SovenL ueaeraLor conslsLs of
1 Alr separaLlon chamber
2 SLack lnleL
3 ressure rellef ouLleL aL Lhe Lop
4 SLack ouLleL aL Lhe boLLom

eaerator funcLlons wlLh aerator Lo make Lhe selfvenLlng sLack of sovenL ueaeraLor ls deslgned Lo overcome Lhe Lendency of falllng wasLe Lo
sLock up excesslve back pressure aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe sLack when Lhe flow ls deceleraLed by Lhe bend lnLo horlzonLal draln

Copper ls orlglnally used as maLerlal for aeraLor and ueaeraLor flLLlngs

Aerator ls used as Lermlnal of Lhe soll branch ln each floor and Lhe eaerator ls lnsLalled aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe sLack

ChapLer 13 Cold WaLer supply

Water ls a comblnaLlon of Lwo chemlcal compound hydrogen and oxygen 1he Lhree naLural sLaLe llquld (waLer) solld (lce) and gas (vapor or
sLeam) WaLer ln llquld form ls 839 (ln llquld form) Llmes heavler Lhan alr and 133 Llmes llghLer Lhan alr (ln gas form) WaLer welghs 377 kg per
uS gallon or 1000kg per cublc meLer

Sources of waLer (8u-)
1 8aln waLer
2 underground waLer
3 -aLural Surface waLer from sLreams and rlvers

Common lmpurlLles ln WaLer (8LuS)
1 kad|oact|e Mater|a|s comlng from mlnlng or processlng ores by wasLe from lndusLrlal use of radloacLlve maLerlals
2 Lntra|ned Gases carbon dloxlde hydrogen sulflde meLhane
3 |sso|ed M|nera|s calclum magneslum sodlum lron and manganese
4 uspended and Co||o|da| Mater|a|s bacLerla algae sllL proLozoa

Lead ls among Lhe chemlcals presenL ln waLer Lhrough arLlflclal means SoluLlon of waLer and lead can cause lead polsonlng

ubllc waLer supply

1o avold posslble conLamlnaLlon of waLer
1 Wells supplylng waLer for publlc should have mlnlmum dlsLance of 00m radlus from resldenLlal areas
2 All resldenLs wlLhln Lhls area shall have sLrlcL sanlLary sewage faclllLy
3 -o concreLe sanlLary sewers should exlsL wlLhln Sm radlus of Lhe well
4 -o prlvy cesspool sepLlc Lank or draln flelds wlLhln Sm radlus of Lhe well
3 1he area shall be well dralned
6 Abandoned well near Lhe slLe of for a new chosen well should be plugged and properly sealed

Sprlng waLer ls a very shallow well wlLh waLer

Sprlng waLer used for household should be proLecLed from (ulWSS)
1 uusL
2 lnsecL
3 Wlldllfe
4 Surface WaLer
3 SLock

1he flssure whereln Lhe sprlng waLer shall flow should be enclosed compleLely
1 uepLh of reservolr walls shall peneLraLe downward Lhe lmpeneLrable formaLlon beneaLh Lhe waLer produclng sLraLum
2 8eservolr shall be lnsecL proof
3 Manhole of Lhe ralsed curvlng Lype shall be provlded wlLh locklng
4 8eservolr should be dlslnfecLed wlLh chlorlne soluLlon
3 WaLer from reservolr shall be declared safe only afLer bacLerlologlcal LesL

ulfferenL Lypes of sprlng wells (u88u)

1 uug Well
2 urllled well
3 8ored Well
4 urlven Well

PealLh regulaLlons ln drlnklng waLer lnclude
1 Source waLer shall meeL Lhe sLandard of Lhe PealLh ueparLmenL servlce for drlnklng waLer
2 lrequenL bacLerlologlcal LesL shall be conducLed for waLers dellvered and resulLs musL sLrlcLly comply wlLh Lhe healLh sLandard
3 CompleLe analysls of each Lype of waLer shall be done Lwlce a year
4 lood and urug auLhorlLles shall prescrlbe rules on
a Washlng and ulslnfecLlng Lhe conLalner
b MeLhods ln handllng and dellvery
c MalnLalnlng cleanllness of Lhe employees
d Labellng of waLer conLalner as Lo Lhe Lype of waLer (uuS)
l ulsLllled
ll uemlnerallzed
lll Sprlng WaLer
e 1herapeuLlc or medlcal clause prlnLed on Lhe label should noL be permlLLed

lannlng Lhe waLer dlsLrlbuLlon ln bulldlngs for a saLlsfacLory chemlcal and bacLerlologlcal quallLy lncludes
1 SysLem musL provlde adequaLe supply of waLer
2 SafeLy and quallLy of waLer should noL be lmpalred by defecLs ln Lhe sysLem
3 1here should be no unproLecLed open reservolr or cross connecLlons wlLh lnferlor waLer sysLem Lo Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon sysLem
4 1he waLer sysLem should be LlghL agalnsL leakage Maln and branches connecLlons should noL be submerged ln surface waLer or any
source of conLamlnaLlon
3 WaLer sysLem deslgn shall afford effecLlve clrculaLlon of waLers wlLh mlnlmum dead end malns
6 1he sysLem shall be guarded ln any conLamlnaLlon durlng malnLenance
7 When new malns are lnsLalled old malns should be fllled wlLh chlorlde soluLlon 40 Lo 60mg per llLer for aL leasL 24 hours and Lhen
flushed wlLh waLer from normal supply
8 As much as posslble waLer maln should be lald above Lhe elevaLlon of concreLe sanlLary sewers lf noL posslble Lhe mlnlmum parallel
dlsLance ls 3m horlzonLally lf sLlll lmposslble Lhe maln waLer should be encased ln concreLe wall

ClasslflcaLlon of publlc waLer ulsLrlbuLlon (ul)
1 |rect ressure |str|but|on obLalns lLs supply of waLer Lhrough a large lnLake plpe lnsLalled ln a lake basln exLended down Lhe
2 nd|rect ressure |str|but|on ls when Lhe waLer drawn from drllled dlsLrlbuLlon ls by lndlrecL pressure

ClasslflcaLlon of plpes LhaL conveys waLer from Lhe maln Lo Lhe household and bulldlngs (P88)
1 nouse Servlce plpe connecLlon from waLer maln Lo bulldlng served
2 k|ser ls Lhe verLlcal plpe exLended upward
3 8ranches are horlzonLal plpes LhaL serve flxLures

WaLer maln refers Lo Lhe publlc waLer connecLlons whlch are lald underground along Lhe sLreeLs

1ypes of cold waLer dlsLrlbuLlon (-CA)
1 -orma| water pressure from pub||c ma|n
2 erhead feed system supplles waLer Lo Lhe plumblng flxLures by gravlLy
a AdvanLages
l WaLer ulsLrlbuLlon ls noL affecLed by peak load
ll ower lnLerrupLlons doesn'L affecL waLer dlsLrlbuLlon
lll 1lme requlred Lo replace parLs durlng breakdown does noL affecL waLer dlsLrlbuLlon
b ulsadvanLages
l WaLer lnslde Lhe Lank ls exposed Lo conLamlnaLlons
ll Plgh malnLenance cosL
lll lL occuples spaces
lv 8equlres sLronger foundaLlon and oLher sLrucLure Lo susLaln welghL
3 A|r pressure d|str|but|on system
a AdvanLages
l 8equlres llmlLed space
ll 1he sysLem ls a sanlLary one due Lo belng alr LlghL
lll Compressed alr passlng Lhrough waLer llne becomes a purlfylng agenL
lv Cffers economlc advanLage by lnsLalllng smaller dlameLer plpe
v LesL lnlLlal and consLrucLlon cosL
vl WaLer dlsLrlbuLlon sysLem ls well accepLed ln small medlum and large bulldlngs
vll Can serve up Lo 10 sLoreys
b ulsadvanLages
l uurlng power fallure waLer supply ls greaLly affecLed buL can be helped wlLh sLandby generaLor
ll AddlLlon of sLandby generaLor can be cosLly addlLlon Lo Lhe sysLem
c lour mechanlcal devlces ln Lhls sysLem (SALA)
l Large SLorage Lank
ll Slngle or duplex cenLrlfugal pump
lll Alr compressor
lv AuLomaLlc pressure conLrol swlLch

lor small waLer supply lnsLallaLlons a p|ston pump ls generally used

Alr ls compresslble and elasLlc whlle waLer lsn'L (See page 230 for more lnfo)

|rect up feed pump|ng system ls a Lrlplex pump LhaL operaLes ln sequence dependlng on Lhe volume of demand

1he smaller pump ls called ockey As demand lncreases Lhe pump ls shuL down and Lhe nexL larger pump Lurns on lncreaslng unLll lL reaches
Lhe flnal pump when Lhe demand ls aL lLs peak Lach pump ls equlpped wlLh sensor

AdvanLages of ulrecL up feed pumplng sysLem (LAL)
1 LllmlnaLed Lhe consLrucLlon of large waLer Lank
2 Avolded cosL of heavy sLrucLures
3 LllmlnaLes perlodlc cosL

Ir|ct|on ls Lhe reslsLance produced by Lhe flowlng waLer Lo Lhe flLLlngs and lnLerlor surface of Lhe plpes

lrlcLlon can be mlnlmlzed by (uul)
1 lpes wlLh smooLh lnLerlor surface should be used
2 use of 1urns Lraps and offseLs should be mlnlmlzed
3 use of flLLlngs and sLops should be mlnlmlzed
4 llLLlngs and [olnLs should be connecLed properly
3 lpes should be lnsLalled sLralghL and dlrecL as posslble

ressure ls Lhe force requlred Lo move Lhe waLer lnslde Lhe plpe

ressure exerLed by waLer aL resL ls called stat|c pressure

-orma| ressure ls Lhe range of measured pressure over a 24 hours perlod -ormal pressure for household ls 30 Lo 40 psl

ressure reduc|ng a|e helps mlnlmlzed pressure

Cr|t|ca| pressure ls Lhe maxlmum and mlnlmum pressure aL whlch proper funcLlon of Lhe waLer supply can be malnLalned

Ir|ct|on head |oss ls Lhe loss of raLe of flow because of frlcLlon beLween waLer and lnLerlor walls of Lhe plpes

CLher causes of pressure loss (SPlMv)
1 SlmulLaneous use of waLer
2 PelghL or dlsLance of waLer flow
3 varlaLlon of waLer pressure from Lhe waLer maln
4 Mlnerals LhaL adhere Lo Lhe lnLerlor of Lhe plpe
3 lnadequaLe slze of lpe

Maxlmum demand ls Lhe maxlmum waLer dlscharge of flxLures ln Lerms of flxLure unlLs

robab|e demand or eak load ls anoLher facLor ln deLermlnlng Lhe slze of Lhe waLer servlce plpe

@he m|n|mum s|ze of water ser|ce p|pes from curb to the bu||d|ng sha|| be 38mm ( x") d|ameter for the fo||ow|ng f|xtures
1 Slll cock
2 PoL WaLer 8oller
3 Laundry 1ray
4 Slnk
3 LavaLorles
6 8aLhLub
7 WaLer CloseL

Aerage water pressure ls 30 psl whlch can serve up Lo 3 sLoreys hlgh

1ypes of ump (C)
1 1he p|ston pump ls used on small waLer dlsLrlbuLlon sysLem
a 1hree Lypes of plsLon pump (Suu)
l Slngle acLlon pump
ll uouble acLlon pump
lll uuplex or Lwln plsLon pump
2 Centr|fuga| pump ls assoclaLed wlLh Lall bulldlng waLer dlsLrlbuLlon sysLem

ulfferenL Lype of valves (SCAlCC)
1 Gate a|e ls used Lo compleLely close and open Lhe waLer supply
a 1ypes of gaLe valve (uW)
l Wedge shape ls used where sLem musL be lnsLalled downward
ll oub|e d|sc valve closes Lhe same manner as Lhe wedge Lype excepL LhaL lLs parallel faces drop ln Lhe verLlcal
2 G|obe a|e ls acLuaLed by a sLem screw and hand wheel sulLed ln lnsLallaLlons LhaL calls for LhroLLllng
a 1ypes of Clobe valve (CC)
l |ug type |sc Ia|e has a wlde bearlng surface produclng good reslsLance Lo Lhe cuLLlng effecLs of scale dlrL
and any oLher klng of forelgn maLLer found lnslde Lhe plpe
ll Conent|ona| |sc a|e has a pressure LlghL bearlng beLween Lhe dlsc and Lhe seaL recommended for cold
waLer and any LemperaLure servlce
lll Compos|t|on |sc Ia|e ls used for varlous Lypes of servlces on oll gasollne sLeam and hoL or cold waLer
3 Ang|e a|e operaLes Lhe same manner as globe valve
4 Check valve prevenLs Lhe flow of gas or llquld ln Lhe llne
3 Ioot a|e ls locaLed aL Lhe lower end of Lhe pump used Lo prevenL loss of prlmlng Lhe pump lL ls someLlmes referred Lo as
retent|on a|e
6 SafeLy valve used o cold waLer sysLems heaLlng sysLems compressed alr llnes and any oLher plpes wlLh excesslve pressure

CLher waLer servlces flLLlngs and devlces
1 Corporat|on stop ls lnserLed lnLo Lhe waLer maln lL serves as a conLrol of Lhe waLer servlce
2 Curb stop ls lnsLalled beLween Lhe curb and Lhe sldewalk llne accesslble Lo casL lron sLop box equlpped wlLh removable cover
3 Curb stop box
4 Meter top ls Lhe conLrolllng sLop of Lhe enLlre waLer supply ln Lhe bulldlng
3 Water meter ls used Lo measure Lhe amounL of waLer LhaL passes Lhrough Lhe waLer servlce

ChapLer 14 Pow waLer supply ln Lhe bulldlng

1ypes of hoL waLer ulsLrlbuLlon (Cu)
1 up feed and gravlLy reLurn sysLem ls commonly used ln small resldenLlal houses and lndusLrlal lnsLallaLlons wlLh Lhe followlng
a rovldes consLanL clrculaLlon of hoL waLer
b PoL waLer ls qulckly drawn from flxLures aL any glven Llme
c rovlde economlcal clrculaLlng reLurn of unused hoL waLer
d LllmlnaLes wasLe of waLer
e Construct|on of the up feed gra|ty return system
| PeaLlng unlL and sLorage Lank are placed below Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon plpellne
|| PeaLlng unlL should be near and accesslble Lo serve Lhe plpe sysLem efflclenLly
||| ulsLrlbuLlon maln plpe ls suspended ln Lhe celllng
| ulsLrlbuLlon maln plpe ls connecLed Lo Lhe Lapplng on Lop of Lhe sLorage Lank closer Lo Lhe flow from Lhe
Maln plpe and flow rlsers are equlpped wlLh gaLe valve only
| 1he flow rlser ls provlded wlLh dlp aL lLs base for dralnlng
2 erhead feed and gra|ty return system ls generally used ln bulldlngs of exLreme helghLs
a perat|ng pr|nc|p|es
l WaLer dlsLrlbuLlon ls dependenL on expanslon of hoL waLer and gravlLy
ll 1he waLer wlll clrculaLe even lf Lhere ls defecL ln Lhe mechanlcal parLs
b Construct|on of oerhead feed and gra|ty return system
l SLorage unlL ls placed ln Lhe lowesL polnL of Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon plpe
ll Cverhead feed ls connecLed on Lhe Lapplng aL Lhe Lop of sLorage unlL
lll 8lser should be exLended as much as posslble free from any offseLs -o flxLure should be connecLed dlrecLly
Lo Lhe rlser
lv ulsLrlbuLlon plpe ls connecLed on Lop of Lhe rlser
v PorlzonLal runs of Lhe rlser should be shorL
vl PorlzonLal branch ls connecLed Lo Lhe maln dlsLrlbuLlon plpe wlLh 43 degrees flLLlng sloped Lo Lhe verLlcal rlser
vll PorlzonLal rlser branch ls equlpped wlLh a valve lnsLalled closer Lo Lhe maln
vlll 8lser ls exLended downward Lhrough Lhe dlfferenL sLorey of Lhe bulldlng where Lhe lavaLorles shower baLh
and Lhe llke are connecLed
lx A gaLe valve and a drlp are connecLed Lo Lhe base

ComparaLlve analysls

erhead feed system ls lnsLalled aL Lhe Lop of Lhe rlser whlle up feed system ls lnsLalled aL Lhe boLLom

ump c|rcu|t system ls a mechanlcal devlce use Lo clrculaLe hoL waLer lnLo Lhe plumblng flxLures u|sat|ng moement ls produced by plsLon
pumps unllke Lhe cenLrlfugal pump LhaL creaLes an even flow of waLer

ClrculaLlon pump ls recommended on lnsLallaLlon LhaL has lnefflclenL clrculaLlon of waLer due Lo
1 8ulldlng defecLs compelllng Lhe plumber Lo Lrap runs on Lhe maln plplng
2 When sclenLlflc prlnclples could noL be applled Lo produce clrculaLlon

AdvanLages of uslng clrculaLlng pump agalnsL Lhe overhead feed or upfeed sysLem
1 lncreased efflclency
2 Lconomlcal
3 lasLer clrculaLlon of hoL waLer
LocaLlon and clrculaLlon of Lhe pump
1 ump ls lnsLalled ln Lhe clrculaLlng reLurn maln
2 Close Lo heaLer as much as posslble
3 ClrculaLlng reLurn ls connecLed Lo Lhe lnleL slde of Lhe pump
4 CuLer slde of Lhe pump ls connecLed Lo Lhe reLurn and Lhen Lo Lhe heaLer
3 rovlded gaLe valve on each slde of Lhe pump
6 ump musL be equlpped wlLh a bypass
7 ln case of pump Lrouble conLrol valves are closed
8 When pumps are funcLlonlng valves on boLh sldes should be opened

not water tank lLs purpose ls Lo serve Lhe domesLlc hoL waLer sysLem

2 classlflcaLlon of hoL waLer Lank
1 8ange boller (small hoL waLer Lank) ls made of copper and sLalnless sLeel Slze varles from 3060cm dlameLer and lengLh less Lhan
2 SLorage boller (large hoL waLer Lank) ls made of heavy duLy sLalnless sLeel sheeL wlLh dlameLer varylng from 60130cm and less Lhan
3m long ressure should noL exceed 83psl buL ln case lL does exLra heavy duLy Lank should be used

Slze of hoL waLer Lank should be consldered wlLh Lhe followlng facLors
1 klnd of bulldlng served
2 LxpecLed number of occupanLs
3 PeaLlng capaclLy of Lhe supply devlce

SuggesLlons on how Lo mlnlmlze hoL waLer and energy wasLe
1 PoL waLer plpellne should be as shorL as posslble
2 PoL waLer Lank should be near and accesslble
3 SmallesL slze of plpe would provlde a saLlsfacLory supply
4 10mm (3/8) copper Lube lf noL Loo long connecLlon ls Lhe mosL economlcal slze
3 lpe carrylng domesLlc hoL waLer should be lnsulaLed Lo conserve fuel cosL 12mm Lhlck flber glass ls an efflclenL lnsulaLlon
6 PoL and cold waLer supply parallel Lo each oLher should be separaLed aL a mlnlmum dlsLance of 12cm
7 Small sLorage Lank and heaLer ls preferred

1o rellef Lhe hoL waLer supply sysLem form excesslve waLer pressure temperature pressure re||ef valve can be lnsLalled

team re||ef a|e ls Lo proLecL Lhe hoL waLer space heaLlng sysLem

1ypes of waLer heaLlng sysLem
1 not water space heat|ng system where LemperaLure ln conflned wlLhln a sysLem aL a low LemperaLure
2 not water supp|y system noL ln a closed sysLem whlch operaLes on much hlgher LemperaLure

ChapLer 13 lumblng flxLures

|umb|ng f|xtures are recepLacles LhaL recelve waLer or dlscharge wasLe carrylng waLer lnLo Lhe dralnage sysLem

Water c|oset ls a plumblng flxLure used Lo convey organlc body wasLe Lo Lhe plumblng sysLem

ClasslflcaLlons of waLer closeL are accordlng Lo (uSCC)
1 ueslgn
a 1ypes of waLer closeL by deslgn
l a|| f|ush type ls Lhe cheapesL lL ls Lhe slmplesL form of waLer closeL deslgn
ll quat type ls anoLher slmple Lype of waLer closeL wlLhouL waLer Lank and ls lnsLalled flaL on Lhe floor
lll Wash down type has Lhe followlng characLerlsLlcs
1 llushes Lhrough slmple wash down acLlon
2 ulscharges wasLe lnLo a Lrap way
3 More sub[ecL Lo clogglng Lhan any oLher Lypes of waLer closeL
4 8ecognlzed by bulglng shape ln fronL
3 Pas small amounL of sLandlng waLer
6 CosL less buL nolslesL and lnefflclenL
lv keerse trap has Lhe followlng characLerlsLlcs
1 llushes down Lhrough slphon acLlon
2 8eLalns large amounL of surface waLer
3 LfflclenL buL moderaLely nolsy
4 A llLLle more expenslve Lhan wash down Lype
v |phon et has Lhe followlng characLerlsLlcs
1 CosLller Lhan wash down Lype and reverse Lrap buL more efflclenL
2 8eLalns large amounL of surface waLer
3 Less llkely Lo clog and flushlng ls sllenL LhaL oLher Lypes
4 very sanlLary and easy Lo clean
vl |phon ortex has Lhe followlng characLerlsLlcs
1 lL ls expenslve Lype of waLer closeL buL proven less nolsy and very efflclenL
2 llushlng acLlon of Lhls waLer closeL ls Lhrough a whlrlpool moLlon of waLer lnslde Lhe bowl followed
by a wash down llquld
3 8eLalns large amounL of waLer surface
4 very sanlLary and easy Lo clean
vll |rect f|ush a|e someLlmes referred Lo as ulv lL ls lnsLalled ln areas where pressure and waLer supply ls
sufflclenL use of waLer Lank ls ellmlnaLed
2 CuallLy
a WaLer closeL musL possess Lhe followlng quallLles
l llush down quleLly
ll llush down wasLe compleLely
lll MusL funcLlon efflclenLly
lv MusL aLLaln large amounL of sLandlng waLer surface lnslde Lhe bowl Lo prevenL foullng and conLamlnaLlon
3 Shape
a WlLh respecL Lo shape waLer closeLs are classlfled lnLo
l kound type ls lnLended for lnsLallaLlon of llmlLed space
ll L|ongated type ls comforLable buL occuples larger space
4 Color

Laatory ls a bowl or basln used for washlng face and hands

lorms of Lhe basln of lavaLory (11C88S)
1 8ounded
2 Square
3 Cval
4 8ecLangular
3 1rapezoldal
6 1rlangular

Slde elevaLlon ls elLher (S-)
1 Shallow or deep
2 -early verLlcal or gradually sloplng

MaLerlals could elLher be (ulL)
1 orcelaln
2 lormed SLeel
3 Lnameled CasL lron
4 under counLer lavaLory


8|det ls much more llkely closer Lo a shower Lhan Lo a LolleL lL appears more llke a LolleL alLhough lL ls deslgned for cleanlng dellcaLe parLs of
female body


k|tchen |nks are made of elLher (ClS)
1 CasL lron enamel
2 lormed sLeel coaLed wlLh porcelaln enamel
3 SLalnless sLeel

klLchen slnk conflguraLlons are (SS)
1 Slngle double or Lrlple well
2 Shadow or deep well

ChapLer 16 llre proLecLlon ln 8ulldlng

lacLors LhaL lncreased Lhe poLency of flre ln bulldlngs
1 LlghL maLerlals used ln consLrucLlon
2 -onlnLegrally consLrucLed floors
3 lalse celllng conLalnlng elecLrlcal wlres
4 unched hole for lnsLallaLlon of Lelephone and oLher relaLed servlces
3 CenLral alr condlLlonlng sysLem
6 use of plasLlc maLerlals for Lrlm and coverlng of lnLerlor sLrucLures
7 lurnlLure sLyle and lnLerlor deslgns

llre proLecLlon problems on hlgh rlse bulldlngs
1 1oo hlgh Lo be compleLely accesslble Lo flre flghL
2 1oo hlgh Lo make a compleLe evacuaLlon
3 1all enough Lo make posslble chlmney for alr and smoke passage

1he -at|ona| I|re rotect|on Assoc|at|on malnLalned a comprehenslve seL of sLandard rules ln plannlng Lo mlnlmlze flre hazard

I|re code conslders Lhe bulldlng denslLy ln Lhe locallLy and Lhe flammablllLy of Lhe sLrucLures and lLs conLenLs lL also lmposes Lhe followlng

1 llre reslsLance of Lhe bulldlng and lLs conLenLs
2 LlmlLaLlon of volume Lo Lhe ad[acenL bulldlng
3 LxlL and flre Lower sLalrs
4 roLecLlon agalnsL defecLlve elecLrlcal sysLem
3 LlghLnlng proLecLlon
6 ueLecLlon and alarm sysLem
7 SLandplpe and hose sysLem
8 AuLomaLlc smoke and heaL venLlng
9 Smoke and heaL shafLs
10 ConLrol of alr condlLlonlng ducLs
11 CommunlcaLlon ln hlgh rlse bulldlngs
12 LlevaLor conLrol
13 llre command sLaLlon on Lall bulldlngs

WaLer and waLer supply

Water ls Lhe number one enemy of flre

Cn hlgh rlse bulldlngs waLer ls supplled Lhrough
1 LlevaLed waLer Lank ls Lhe LradlLlonal deslgn of sLorlng waLer
a AdvanLages
l ConsLanL supply pressure
ll SLores sufflclenL waLer Lo balance Lhe supply from Lhe demand
lll revenLs excesslve sLarLlng and sLopplng of Lhe pump
lv rovlde dependable supply for flre reserve
b ulsadvanLages
l unslghLly ln appearance
ll Plgh cosL of consLrucLlon
lll 8equlres masslve sLrucLure and foundaLlon
2 underground reservolr ls a relnforced concreLe consLrucLed aL Lhe slde of Lhe bulldlng 1he reservolr ls covered wlLh earLh from 60
90 blended wlLh law and landscape shrubbery A elecLrlc powered pump should be used Lo dlscharge waLer SLand by power
generaLor should be avallable ln case of power breakdown

1he ldea of sLorlng waLer for flre flghLlng ls lmpracLlcal A waLer consumable for 30 mlnuLes should be enough [usL unLll Lhe flre flghLers arrlve

Up feed pump system provldes conLlnuous flow of waLer from deep well 20 gallons per mlnuLe waLer ls sufflclenL for sprlnkler sysLem
Sprlnkler sysLem sLarLs aL 730gpm and lf lnadequaLe a dlesel englne powered pump wlll operaLe

Senslng unlL whlch conLrols Lhe operaLlon of Lhe pumps are
1 8ubb|e contro| un|ts ln each of Lhe Lwo reservolrs
2 ua| contro| un|t LhaL regulaLes Lhe supply for Lhe pressure Lank

nydropneumat|c tank ls used Lo sLore alr under pressure LhaL wlll balance ouL surge from Lhe Lwo domesLlc pumps and reduce Lhe frequenLly
sLarLlng and sLopplng of moLor

1he dlsadvanLage of Lhls sysLem ls Lhe dlfflculLy Lo malnLaln 60 alr and 40 waLer raLlo

Pow Lhe conLrol sysLem operaLes
1 Slgnal from dual conLrol and double conLrol are processed ln Lhe cenLral cablneL
2 CenLral conLrol sysLem alLernaLes Lhe pump Lo even Lhe wear
3 ln case of low sucLlon conLrol auLomaLlcally shuLs off
4 AfLer lL shuLs off lL alarms Lhe malnLenance offlce
3 1he sysLem could run wlLhouL human aLLendance

tandp|pe p|pe lnsLalled ln Lhe bulldlng noL as parL of waLer supply buL used as waLer conveyance ln case of flre

I|re hose ls always locaLed near Lhe sLalrs for use of flremen ln case of flre lL ls labeled break g|ass |n case of f|re

SLand plpe and flre hose funcLlons as follows
1 SLand plpe Slamese Lwln ls connecLed Lo Lhe sLreeL flre hydranL
2 1hey wlll connecL Lhe flre hose Lo Lhe sLand plpe 1hey won'L have Lo carry Lhe flre hose on upper floors of Lhe bulldlng
3 WlLh flre hose and sLand plpe Lhe flreman ls now equlpped and ever ready for flre flghLlng
4 LengLh of flreman hose ls llmlLed Lo cerLaln helghL buL sLand plpe ellmlnaLed Lhls llmlLaLlon

AuLomaLlc sprlnkler sysLem conslsLs of horlzonLal paLLerns of plpe placed near Lhe celllng of lndusLrlal and commerclal bulldlngs Sprlnkler
heads auLomaLlcally open aL 133160 lahrenhelL

Sprlnkler sysLem lncludes
1 Wet p|pe refers Lo Lhe plplng lnsLallaLlons whereln boLh Lhe malns and dlsLrlbuLlon plpes are consLanLly fllled wlLh waLer
2 ry p|pe ls lnsLallaLlon whereln no sLandlng waLer ls presenL ln Lhe plpes excepL durlng occurrence of flre

Spaclng of sprlnkler heads depends upon Lhe followlng condlLlons
1 llre raLlng of Lhe bulldlng
2 ConsLrucLlon of Lhe celllng
3 1ypes of occupancy
4 1oLal area

Coverage of sprlnkler head ls 20 sq meLers for llghL hazard occupancy and 10 sq m for exLra hazard condlLlon -ozzles are seL 240 Lo 360
meLers aparL on Lhe supply plpes and spaced abouL 3 Lo 4 meLers aparL aL rlghL angle exposed beams or panels

Speclal lnsLallaLlon requlremenLs
O AL leasL one flre deparLmenL on each fronLage
O MasLer alarm valve for all waLer supplles
O Speclal flre walls beLween proLecLed areas
O Sloplng waLer proof floors wlLh dralns or cupper Lo carry wasLe waLer

When gra|ty tank ls used wlLh Lhe sprlnkler sysLem lL musL have waLer reserve Lo operaLe 23 of Lhe sprlnklers for 30 mlnuLes

Ient shaft ls necessary Lo qulckly relleve Lhe bulldlng of smoke and hoL gasses

Wet stand p|pe and |amese connect|on ls one of Lhe common Lypes of flre proLecLlon lnsLalled ln bulldlngs