Final Exam HDF 313 •  1. 2. 3. Exam 1 Chapter 1 What are the domains of development?

 Physical, Cognitive, Emotional and Social What is a Theory? An orderly, integrated, evidence-based set of statements that Describe, explains, and predicts behavior What is discontinuous development?  stages that occur fairly suddenly 4. What is continuous development?  process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills 5. How did Erik Erikson differ from Freud?  He recognized the life span and nature of development 6. Behaviorism focused on…. Nurture over Nature 7. Which condition deals with Stimulus-response?  Classical conditioning, Pavlov and his dogs, Watson and little albert 8. Which condition deals with reinforces and punishments?  Operant conditioning, children learn to do something because of it’s effects, Skinner and pigeons (rewards) and punishments 9. Which conditioning method deals with modeling?  Social theory, Bandera experiment, children were active in research 10. Harlow’s monkey study showed what about attachment?  expanded on “imprinting” to suggest that attachment are important during there first year of life (critical period) 11. Bronfenbrenner Theory suggests that:  series of nested structures…complex system of relationships, bidirectional (ever-changing system) Chapter 2 12. What is Naturalistic Observation? (systematic observation)  in the “field” or natural environment, where behavior happens 13. What is Structural Observation? (systematic observatioin)  laboratory situations set up to evoke behavior of interest 14. What is Event Sampling? (collecting systematic observatioin)  observer records all instances of a particular behavior during a specific time period

What is reliability? consistency.) 16. Genetic Counseling: those with a family history of inherited disorders or diseases 26. Vernix:  waxy that keeps skin from chapping 30. What is psychophysiological methods? Measures the relationship between physiological process and behavior. Correlations:  +1 means a strong positive relationships between the two variables  -1 means a strong negative relationship between the two variables Can not infer cause form correlational studies 23. What are teratogens?  consumed by mom that can hurt the fetus 31. repeatability of a measure by inter-rater or test-retest 20. Fetal Medicine:  Surgery 28. observations. Social Support is very important:  fewer birth complications and labor several hours shorter . etc. blood pressure. What is ethnography?  goals is to understand a culture or social group by living in community 18. What are some limitations?  bias results 19. psychophysciological measures)  Prodigies make-up answers 17. 15. What is validity?  how accurately the measure captures the characteristics the researcher is trying to study (internal validity and external validity (generalizability)) 21. expected to cause changes in another variable 24. measures autonomic nervous system (heart rate. Chorion:  protective membrane that surrounds the amnion 29. Independent variable manipulated. What is Clinical/Case Study Method?  information based on ONE child (interviews. Prenatal diagnostic methods: medical procedures that permits detection of problems before birth 27. degree to which condition internal to the design of the study permit an accurate test of the hypothesis 22. What is internal validity?  study conditions. Avoiding Confounding Variables:  Random Assignment: sometimes combined with MATCHING participants on key characteristics Chapter 3 25. scores.

impulses. researchers use head cooling devices and pre-cooled water blankets 33. and genes  development resulting from ongoing bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of environment •  Exam 2 Chapter 4 1. inhibition. A baby learns to reach for certain things…blahblahblah…  Proximodistal 9.?  Frontal Lobe  . Reflexes:  as the upper part of the brain matures. Increases probability of behavior occurring again  reinforcer 8. Oxygen Deprivations (Anoxia)  injury to brain. Perceptual development doesn’t become more and more simple with age 11. behavior. Hormones are released by:  pituitary gland 14.32. A baby smiles and a father smiles back at the baby: operant conditioning 7. changing an infant’s sleeping position and removing a few bedclothes can reduce the incidence of SIDS 5. Increasing complex systems of action with each skill. Social sex differences:  more athletic pressure on boys 13. 6. Interpretation of Cry: adults use cry intensity and context to respond to infant cries. Visual cliff tests depth perception Chapter 5 12. Importance of reflexes:  absence of reflexes or the presence of them after a particular development time period can be an indicator of some sort of Central Nervous System dysfunction 3.. reflexes are mostly replaced by voluntary movements 2. Rooting Reflex:  touch a baby in the corner of their mouth and they will turn their head in the direction of the stimulus.  Dynamic Systems of motor skills 10. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: quit smoking. accuracy improves with experience. Disappears around 3 months 4. etc. Which lobe is attention. Epigenetic: Bidirectional… environment. to prevent secondary damage.

Circular reactions are…. Breastfeeding has more nutritional value than breast milk 20. Disequilibrium means they realize the new information doesn’t match their current schemes and create new ones  accommodation 36. What factors influence time of menacrche?  geographical location. Stems from lack of parental love. Sensitive periods in brain development:  naturally occurring environments. infants have symptoms similar to marasmus?  nonorganic failure to thrive 22.  organization 37.  building schemes through direct interactions with the environment 34. Internal rearranging and linking of schemes…. orphanages 16. 15. family experiences 24. and accommodation 35. research shows:  have little or no effect on delaying having sex 31. attention-seeking 27.orphanage= earlier the better 19. assimilation. Adaptation. A characteristic of Piaget’s Theory is?  stages are invariant. Emotional Deprivation  gH and psychosocial dwarfism 21. Psychological distancing between parents and child are normal during adolescence 26. .no skipped stages 33. homosexuals and all adolescence (all of the above) Chapter 6 32. Biologically determined gay feelings:  ages 6-12 29. anxious. What is a way to take of diarrhea?  Oral rehydration therapy and zinc 23. Who has a high suicide rate?  obese. Early Maturing girls and late maturing boys are unpopular. Adaptation refers to….Expectant Growth:  dependent on ordinary experiences 17. Eating disorderstoo low of body weight 28. Experience. Texas is 3rd highest 30. Promoting abstinence. Conceptions of Adolescence:  Biological perspective and social perspective 25. What is a secondary sexual characteristic?  female breast development 18... SES.

changes is one area is compensated in another Follow. children must:  understand the basics of human biology Vygotsky’s theory about cognition is due to social interactions with more knowledgeable individuals. 44. Make-Believe play increases:  social and language skills Egocentrism: failure to distinguish others’ views Animistic Thinking belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities Limits on conservation  centration: focus on one aspect and neglect another Achievements of the Concrete Operational Stage:  decentration. animals cannot acquire and produce language skills similar to that of preschoolers Correlational procedure of factor analysis to…. •  Exam 3 Chapter 8  schemas that infants try to repeat chance motor behaviors again and again Primary circular is centered around own body.up research shows that:  profoundly affected by cultural conditions Abstract thought To accurately understand death. 42. 51. Low SES children who attend early prevention programs:  are less likely to be placed in special ed. Private speech is used more when tasks are difficult Children’s learning takes place withing:  Zone of proximal Development Scaffolding (supporting a child in a hard task but directing) 2. Crystallized Intelligence:  skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience still looks at original dropping point Sociodramatic play results in more socially competent with teachers. identify the mental abilities that cluster together 3.38. 47. 49. 52. 41. 1. 43. SAT is an amplitude test and multiple choice tests are achievement test 6. 50. Gardner’s multiple intelligence is most consistent with…  the core knowledge perspective 5. Head start saves money in the future . Test for infants are used as:  labeled developmental quotients 8. 45. 39. 46. secondary circular is due to the surroundings and environment A-Not-B search error. 48. 40. Or held back 7.

Jet will have greater English profiency than Mr. or cross the deep side of the visual cliff. Hormone mentioned for implications in social relationships:  oxytocin 19. Deaf toddlers whose parents discouraged manual signing and addressed verbally…. And the nurse:  infant-parent intervention conducted in a home 20. Intervention must have: parent involvement. education. Li 15. Children who are anxious. development 17. Learn language by capitalizing on there social strengths 16. emotionally reactive with reduced capacity regulating have…  parents who wait to intervene until she becomes extremely  for agitated . Talking to a child with pauses and repetition of new words is:  child-directed speech 22. Who would have the most advanced vocabulary?  outgoing girl 14.. system 18.  way strangers lay with an unfamiliar toy. Williams Syndrome will: prob. and support  Chapter 9 10. (TRUE) Chapter 10 23. Deaf children develop language even when they have:  homesign: strong support for the nativist perspective of lang.  spontaneously produced gestural comm. Interactionist:  inner disposition and environmental influences 21. A kid adding (-ed) to the end of words is using: morphology 12. Many studies shows that caregivers emotional expression influences. Grammar is made up of…  syntax and morphology 11. Chomsky’s LAD is: innate system that permits children to combine words in to grammar consist.9. novel utterance 13. Intensity of reaction:  energy level of response 24..

 secure attachment 37... Parent’s view their _____ that influential on their children… own childhood 43. Parental mental health:  Child outcomes have been found to differ depending on the sex parent 26.. Shyness in China is due to…  rapid expansion of a market economy maybe responsible 33. consistent and appropriate responding to infants moderately related to:  attachment security 39. Cry’s when mom leaves shows. back to mom. Disorganized attachment is.evaluation strongly influenced by her mother’s feedback 32.  interactional synchrony 44. Sympathy:  Feelings of concern or sorrow for another’s plight 30. Social Referencing:  Allows toddlers to compare their own and other’s assessment of 29. Attachment doesn’t depend on hunger satisfaction 34... Fathers are viewed as. 28. self. Infant cry’s and you pick it up to calm it down while walking and talking is. Environmental influences on temperament: nutritional and emotional deprivation 31. Strange situation measures. Involves prompt. . Relationship between temperament and social behavior is influenced by///  way people respond to child’s emotional style 42. Babies detecting other’s emotions is…  emotional contagion 27. Child is afraid of something.. Most common attachment is. parents should allow…  child to approach it at own pace// show that they shouldn’t be 40. then back is using…  Secure base 36. interacts briefly with uncle.  infants responses to caregivers during reunion 38. Wanders to aunt.of the social events 25. Caregivers voice combined with facial expression reassures baby using referencing.  separation anxiety 35.  mom’s emotional problems and past conflicts allows non- to mom signals is afraid attachment 41.

Inductive discipline is used in positive guidance Inductive discipline helps child notice others’ feelings 14. intentions. Around age 2. withdrawing privileges. power is…  good models of moral behavior 15. Alternatives to punishment:  time outs. Highly committed to NOT exploring is…  identity foreclosure Chapter 13 10. identification of the self as a physically unique being is called…  self-recognition 2. I am wearing red. “life story” of autobiographical memories are…. beliefs and emotions 4.  remembered selves 5.” Is… development of self-concept 7. Biological is…  prewired emotional reactions 11. and mothers are caregivers 45. consistent negative outcomes for children…  parents are wise to refrain from hard discipline  . Factors that affect attachment:  quality of child care •  Exam 4 Chapter 12 1. The fact that pride. provide commentary about mental states. Describing themselves as “I am Tommy. other people. Perspectives on moral development…. responsiveness. and objects 3. including desires. Working models of attachment…  doesn’t become more specified and specific to relationships 46. Nonverbal infants shows…  infants prefer an individual who helps to one who hinders others 13. 8. playmates. Preschoolers tend to make optimistic attributions because they can’t distinguish between success and failures. empathy…require strong caregiver support shows…  morality can’t be fully explained by it’s biological foundations 16. guilt. competence. positive discipline 17. Children are active thinkers about social rules and right vs. To have mastery-oriented parents must: Emphasize individual progress and self-improvements 9. notice effects that help them sort out self. If child thinks dog is in the bathroom not in room is called…  False-belief task 6. Warmth. wrong…  Cognitive-Development 12.

31. are contributed to one sex is… preschool years 24. approach that explains how environmental pressures and child’s cognitions work together to shape gender typing…. Fully understanding that biological sex remains the same regardless of hair. delicate) 25.  gender constancy 28. Kohlberg’s stages were based on.. Toys.  gender intensification 32. Both girls and boys say men have high job status 30. A child who is focused on punishment and reinforcements and adheres to authority is in…  preconventional level 22. although they exert a profound impact .  gender schemas 33. parents are not the sole influences on children development.18.  didn’t like his doctor 27. etc. Masculine characteristics (rationality and assertiveness) and feminine characteristics (sensitive. Difficulty in grasping the permanence of sex is due to…  cognitive immaturity 29. assertiveness. etc. With fearless. a Child’s beliefs about how to divide material goods fairly is using… development of distributive justice  Chapter 14 23. parents with a boy and girl will most likely…  use directive speech with daughter and grant their son more autonomy  Chapter 15 34. leadership and creative use of materials.  social dilemmas 21.. Country that hold’s gender equality high is…  Sweden 26. Harsh punishment models aggression 20. cloths.  modify some classroom activities to require lesser degree of adult structure.. impulsive children…  gentle discipline has little impact 19. David was the boy who received the first reassignment on a genetically and hormonally normal child. A girl who was a tom boy becoming more a lady in highschool….

and physical punishment are…  low SES and coercive discipline 37. relationshipbased approach. non compulsory = not required 39. natural environment 42. a stressful.centered philosophy. routines-based approach. Age of children in ECSE  0-3 41. struggle with financial problems. Skeels. Expert of child is the parents . Reason for families having less number if children are…  mothers working longer  ECSE 38.35.  high SES male lives in the suburbs 36.Skodake  interventions have the potential to help children’s outcome 40. Alcohol is…. Which teenager is more likely to use cigs. Foundations of ECI:  family.

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