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PR 9406 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

A TRAINING REPORT

Submitted by

ARAHVINTH O. L. K. (20082606)

In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN

PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY MADRAS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMPUS, CHENNAI-44

ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI


NOVEMBER 2011

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025


BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that the Industrial Training Report is the bonafide work of ARAHVINTH O. L. K. (20082606) who carried out the training work in the following industries: DATE FROM 16-12-2009 27-05-2010 06-12-2010 TO 22-12-2009 11-06-2010 10-12-2010 NUMBER OF DAYS 6 14 5 14 5 44

S.NO. 1 2 3 4 5

INDUSTRY DETAILS

THE HINDU DELPHI TVS CIPET RANE MADRAS 02-05-2011 19-05-2011 LIMITED PERFECT 23-05-2011 27-05-2011 CALIBRATION CENTRE PVT. LTD TOTAL NUMBER OF DAYS

SIGNATURE PROF.A. JOTHILINGAM HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Professor and Head of the Department Department of Production Technology Madras Institute of Technology Anna University Chennai-44

SIGNATURE Mr. P.GANESH STAFF INCHARGE ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Department of Production Technology Madras Institute of Technology Anna University Chennai-44

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I feel it is a great pleasure and privilege to thank our Head Incharge, Prof. A. JOTHILINGAM, Department of Production Technology, MIT, Anna University for his constant encouragement and involvement he has shown to me.

On

completion

of

my

industrial

training,

wish

to

thank

Mrs. CATHERINE BINA, placement and training officer, Department of Information Technology, MIT, Anna University for granting permission and encouraging us to carry out industrial training.

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Mr. P. VENKATESAN, Deputy Manager, THE HINDU, for spending his valuable time and guiding me to gain knowledge in their firm.

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Mr. V. TAMIL RAJAN, Quality Engineer, DELPHI TVS, for spending his valuable time and guiding me to gain knowledge in their firm.

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Mr. R. RAMESH, Manager Administration, RANE MADRAS LIMITED, for spending his valuable time and guiding me to gain knowledge in their firm.

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Dr. K. PALANI VELU, Deputy Director, CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF PLASTICS ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, for spending his valuable time and guiding me to gain knowledge in their firm.

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to, Mr. SRINIVASA RAO, Chairman, PERFECT CALIBRATION PVT LIMITED, for spending his valuable time and guiding me to gain knowledge in their firm.

I would like to thank Mr. P. GANESH, Course Co-ordinator, Department of Production Technology, MIT, Anna University for his immense guidance in preparing this Inplant training report.

ARAHVINTH O. L. K. 20082606

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES TITLE PAGE NO

COMPANY NAME: THE HINDU


CERTIFICATE DETAILS 1 2 3 4 5 PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY PRODUCT RANGE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE PLANT LAYOUT PROCESS 5.1 Pre process 5.2 Press process 5.3 Post process 5.4 Equipments 5.5 Devices 6 7 8 PERSONNEL WELFARE SCHEMES DETAILS OF THE TRAINING UNDERGONE LEARNING POINTS

COMPANY NAME: DELPHI TVS


CERTIFICATE DETAILS 1 2 3 4 5 PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY PRODUCT RANGE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE PLANT LAYOUT PROCESS 5.1 Supplier Part

5.2 Machining 5.3 Heat Treatment 5.4 Testing 5.5 Sub Assembly And Main Assembly 5.6 Packing And Despatch To Customers 6 7 8 PERSONNEL WELFARE SCHEMES DETAILS OF THE TRAINING UNDERGONE LEARNING POINTS

COMPANY NAME: CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF PLASTIC ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


CERTIFICATE DETAILS 1 2 3 4 PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY PRODUCT RANGE PLANT LAYOUT PROCESS 4.1 Plastic Technology 4.2 Testing 4.3 Design 4.4 Tooling And Mould Manufacturing 4.5 Consultancy And Advisory Services 5 6 DETAILS OF THE TRAINING UNDERGONE LEARNING POINTS

COMPANY NAME: RANE MADRAS LIMITED


CERTIFICATE DETAILS 1 2 PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY PRODUCT RANGE 2.1 Manufacturing Branches 2.2 Products 3 4 5 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE PLANT LAYOUT PROCESS

5.1 Steering Gear Product 5.2 Steering Suspension Linkage Division 5.3 Testing And Evaluation 5.3.1 Test For Steering Gears 5.3.2 Test For Steering And Suspension Linkage 6 7 8 PERSONNEL WELFARE SCHEMES DETAILS OF THE TRAINING UNDERGONE LEARNING POINTS

COMPANY NAME: PERFECT CALIBRATION PVT LIMITED


CERTIFICATE DETAILS 1 2 3 4 PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE PLANT LAYOUT PROCESS 4.1 Mechanical Measurement 4.2 Electro Technical Measurement 4.3 Thermal Measurement 4.4 Force Measurement 4.5 Humidity Measurement 5 6 7 PERSONNEL WELFARE SCHEMES DETAILS OF THE TRAINING UNDERGONE LEARNING POINTS

ABSTRACT

THE HINDU The training undergone gave an idea about how the newspaper industry collects current information from places, how the facts are segregated, how it is corrected, evaluated, selected and then printed. This training also made me to gather information on how the printed copies are distributed from the places where it got printed.

CENTRAL

INSTITUE

OF

PLASTIC

ENGINEERING

AND

TECHNOLOGY The training in CIPET (Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology) gave an intense knowledge about the Polymer product fabrication techniques and about standard procedures for inspecting the quality of the product manufactured. The well developed and advance facilities in CIPET aids in finding optimized solutions for future challenges.

DELPHI TVS In the period of training, knowledge was gathered in sections like Supplier Quality, Machining (Manufacturing unit where all products are produced), Heat Treatment plant, Sub-assembly, Main assembly and Inspection respectively. The knowledge was gained in areas like how the products are manufactured, inspected and delivered. In addition to this, this training taught how poka-yoke techniques and 2 bin system are employed and used.

RANE MADRAS LIMITED Rane madras is a leading manufacturer of critical automotive components like steering linkages, ball joints, axial joints, suspension joints and manual steering gears. The sequence of operations required manufacturing manual steering gears, steering linkages, suspension components and other products are observed. The testing techniques and evaluation methods which are followed in the company to maintain their quality control are also observed.

PERFECT CALIBRATION PVT LIMITED Thus on my completion of the training period in Perfect Calibration Lab, I gathered knowledge on how various measuring devices are calibrated, what are all the difficulties in calibrating devices which are of different standards, environment while calibrating instruments etc. Additionally, the training gave idea about how on-site calibration can be done, how devices are collected and delivered after calibration and so on.

LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TITLE Specification of DIAMOND SPIRIT printing press Training details The Hindu Training details Delphi TVS Major Projects undertaken by CIPET Products Inspected in CIPET Major consultancies on Plastic products Training details CIPET Customer and Products RANE Madras Training Details RANE Madras Training details Perfect Calibration Lab PAGE NO.

LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TITLE Organization Structure of The Hindu Plant Layout of The Hindu Detailed printing process flow Organization Structure of Delphi TVS Plant Layout of Delphi TVS Overall processes in Delphi TVS Heat treatment process work flow Sub assembly and Main assembly Plant Layout of CIPET Organization Structure of RANE Madras Plant Layout of RANE Madras Organization Structure of RANE Madras PAGE NO

THE HINDU- CHENNAI


FROM 16-12-2009 TO 22-12-2009 NO OF DAYS 6

1. PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY The Hindu is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Chennai since 1878. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 1.46 million copies as of December 2009. The enterprise employed over 1,600 workers and gross income reached $40 million in 2010. According to the Indian Readership Survey (IRS) 2010 The Hindu is the third most widely read English newspaper in India (after the Times of India and Hindustan Times) with a readership of 2.6 million people. It has its largest base of circulation in Southern India, especially in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is the most widely read English daily in Kerala. Headquartered at Chennai (formerly called Madras), The Hindu was published weekly when it was launched in 1878, and started publishing daily in 1889. The Hindu became, in 1995, the first Indian newspaper to offer an online edition. The Hindu, National Newspaper of India was started in the year 1878 as a weekly newspaper and became daily in the year 1889. The first issue of The Hindu was published on September 20, 1878, by a group of six young men, led by G. Subramania Aiyer, a radical social reformer and school teacher from Thiruvaiyyar near Thanjavur. N. Ram was appointed on June 27, 2003 as its editor-in-chief with a mandate to "improve the structures and other mechanisms to uphold and strengthen quality and objectivity in news reports and opinion pieces", authorised to "restructure the editorial framework and functions in line with the competitive environment". On September 3 and 23, 2003, the reader's letters column carried responses from readers saying the editorial was biased.

An editorial in August 2003 observed that the newspaper was affected by the 'editorialising as news reporting' virus, and expressed a determination to buck the trend, restore the professionally sound lines of demarcation, and strengthen objectivity and factuality in its coverage. The Hindu, like many other Indian publishing houses, is familyrun. It was headed by G. Kasturi from 1965 to 1991, N. Ravi from 1991 to 2003, and by his brother, N. Ram, since June 27th 2003. Ananth Krishnan, who is the first member of the youngest generation of the family to join the business, has been working as a special correspondent in Chennai and Mumbai since 2007.

2. PRODUCT RANGE The Hindu Newspaper The Hindu Business Line - Business Daily Sportstar - Weekly Sports magazine Frontline - Fortnightly magazine Survey of Indian Industry - An annual review on Indian Industries Survey of Indian Agriculture - An annual review on Indian Agriculture Survey of the Environment - An annual review of the Environment The Hindu Index - Monthly and Cumulated Annual Special Publications under the series THE HINDU SPEAKS ON Libraries: Information Technology, Management, Education, Religious Values, Music, And Scientific Facts. Special Publication under the series FROM THE PAGES OF THE HINDU: Mahatma Gandhi - The Last 200 days.

Along with Newspaper there are many supplements provided and these are classified based on days.

Monday Metro Plus Business Review Education Plus Saturday Metro Plus Weekend Tuesday Metro Plus Young World Book Review Sunday Weekly Magazine Downtown Wednesday Metro Plus Job Opportunities Retail Plus Classifieds Open Page Literary Review , every first Thursday Metro Plus Nxg Science, Engineering, Technology & Agriculture Sunday Property Plus

Friday Friday Features Cinema Plus

3. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

GENERAL MANAGER

DEPUTY GENERAL MANAGER

SENIOR MANAGER

ASSISTANT MANAGER

JUNIOR MANAGER

SUPERVISOR

FOREMAN

AID Fig 1 Organization structure of The Hindu

3.1 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

PRE PRESS PROCESS

SYSTEM

POST PRESS PROCESS


Printing Dispatch/ Circulatio n

BUSINESS & ADMINISTRATION


Finance Personnel department

Production CPU/Remote transmission

Advertisement

Packing

Electronics Editorial Graphic s Photo Composing

Maintenance

Marketing

Stores

News Desk

Transportatio n Advertisement

Plate Making

Wire Services

4. PLANT LAYOUT

Plate making room

Inspection room
Diamond spirit press 2

Colour supply
Diamond spirit press 3

Diamond spirit press 1

S t o r a g e

Control room

Packing and despatch

Canteen

Power room

Entrance

Fig 2 Plant Layout of The Hindu

5. PROCESS / MACHINES/ EQUIPMENTS

Images from Photogra pher News from Reporter s

PRESS PROCESS

Editing

Composing

Plate Making

Graphics - Design

Printing

PRE-PRESS PROCESS

Despatch

Circulation POST-PRESS PROCESS

Fig 3 Detailed printing process flow

PRINTING PROCESS The machine used for printing newspaper in The Hindu Maraimalai nagar plant is DIAMOND SPIRIT which is designed by Mitsubishi Company. SPECIFICATIONS OF THE MACHINE PRINTING SPEED CUT OFF INKING T44 unit & T11 unit DAMPENER REEL STAND FOLDER DRIVE PAGINATION 80,000 IPH 546 mm Open fountails Spray bar Independent 2 arm 2:3:3 Double faw folder Shaftless drive system 32 pages with 24 pages colored (single delivery) 16 pages with 12 pages colored (double delivery) HEAT SET PACKAGE Gas dryer, chill roll, silicon applicator, chill roll tacking system. Inline tabloid sticher on both operation slide folder and drive slide folder

OTHERS

Table 1 Specification of DIAMOND SPIRIT printing press

The raw material used in this industry is paper which is imported from foreign countries such as Finland, Canada, Japan etc.. 5.1 PRE-PRESS PROCESS All the processes which are done before the printing processes are called as the pre-press processes. There are various departments in THE HINDU which are dedicated for this process. The Departments which handle pre press process are 1) Graphics 2) Editing and Reporting 3) Composing

Graphics Department Graphics department comprises of the following Sections. Scanning Color Correction Production Quality Control

Scanning Scanning sections receives the pictures, papers and drawings which are to be scanned. The main function of this section is to convert a scanned picture from RGB to CMYK. The Hindu has two types of scanners namely Horizontal type scanner and Vertical type scanner. The horizontal type used scanners are Purup Eskoflat, Duo scan T2000XL and Cezanne.

The vertical type used scanner is ICG. After scanning the pictures are dropped into NICA (Network Interactive Content Access) software developed by IBM.

Color correction Color correction section involves editing the pictures according to their standards so that the printed quality will be high and this section also magnify the pictures between 200-300 for safety purpose inorder to avoid any distortion in the printing . This section also periodically calibrates the computer monitor for exact values so that the pictures look same in all the monitors used in this department. The device commonly used for this calibration is Eye One. The editing is usually done by Photoshop and light zone softwares.

Quality control Quality control section checks periodically the printed editions by means of measuring the printed density at the bottom of newspaper where there will be dots of different color. The density is measured by special equipment termed as densitometer. This section also checks the dot gain. The density is calculated by the formula Density= log [1/R] where R is the Reflectance of light

Production Production section entirely takes care of the weekly and fortnightly magazines. This section mainly does the following Placing advertisement Processing advertisements Typesetting page

Editing and reporting Department The reporters from reporting department gather news from worldwide and give the news with key points to the editing Department. The editing department then frame a story based on their report and inform to the composing department. The editing department decides the page in which news should be added.

Composing Department The Composing department does the following Display advertisement processing Classified advertisements processing Set up Advertisement processing( VDT- Visual Display Terminal) Proof Reading Pagination The main source for advertisement processing is franchisees, Advertisement agencies and individual booking in head office. The

advertisement is generally provided to The Hindu by means of a CD, FTP or through email. The pagination section of the composing department creates the page plan which is decided by the number of advertisements. It coordinates with editorial and graphics. Then it checks the pages before typesetting. Then typesetting is done. The Composing department has Electronics section which acts as a backbone to THE HINDU as it provides the intranet facilities and enables link within various branches. The electronics section also solves software or other problem which occur in various departments. This department sends the news and advertisement as a pdf file to the press through network.

5.2 PRESS PROCESS This is the process in which the exact printing of newspaper is done. This press process involves the plate making, printing and despatch. The Offset printing is carried out in Hindu. Plates serve as a tool in printing and are made up of aluminum (generally anodized). These plates carry the images and the texts which are to be printed on a paper. Plate making is done by CTP (computer to plate) machine designed by AGFA Corporation which gets the text from the pdf files onto the plates. Basic procedure for the PLATE MAKING is given below: A blank aluminum plate of thickness 0.25 to 0.35mm is preferred. The plates are initially exposed to infra-red (IR) radiation for better printing quality.

After exposure, the plates are heated up to high temperature about 600oC to accelerate the cross linking of photopolymer coating. The pre-heat setup is required to complete the hardening of the printing layer and it is done using IR radiation, hot air or both. The overcoat of the plates is continuously washed off by water. SIZE TOLERANCE: Web all widths and lengths: 0.5mm. Sheet fed widths < 1500mm (60 inch): 0.9mm. Sheet fed widths > 1500mm (60 inch): 1.5mm for width and 1.0mm for length. SQUARENESS TOLERENCE: Maximum deviation over 1mm: 0.9mm GUAGE TOLERENCE: For 0.15mm plates: 0.01mm For 0.2mm plates: 0.02mm For 0.24, 0.3 and 0.35mm plates: 0.025mm

The plates after CTP process, is bent and punched at the edges to provide perfect fixing (it doesnt need any provision to fix the plates to the machine) of plates in the printing machine. Generally, for a single paper to be printed, the machine requires four plates (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) with same texts and images. A colored image can be produced by the combination of all these four colors only. The text which is made on the plates is of a chemical and it is developed in such a way that it absorbs only a particular amount of ink in it and press against the paper. All these processes are carried out by CTP machine itself.

This process is done under low or dim light (Yellow) conditions as bright light may spoil the development of plates and may result in poor printing. Printing process is done in DIAMOND SPIRIT which is designed by MITSUBISHI Company. There are three such printing machines in Maraimalai nagar such as press A, press B and press C. Each machine is of 49.2 meters in length and of 13.37 meters in height having four color towers and a black tower. It has a printing speed of producing a maximum of 80,000 individual copies of newspaper per hour (80000 IPH). A color tower has four groups (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) and each group has two plate holders and dampening rollers where the ink is continuously received from the stock and a stirrer stirs it to avoid solidification. There are six paper reel holders and each reel is roughly of one meter in diameter and 55 inches web length. These rollers are automatically cleaned by rotoclean device which is permanently fixed to the blanket which transfers the ink from the plate to the paper. The complete process of DIAMOND SPIRIT is given below as follows: The plates are fixed correctly and locked in the plate holding roller and the same is done in the opposite side as a paper has to be printed in its either sides. Ensure the flow of ink in the collector. Once the plate is fixed, the paper reel is fixed in the reel stand in both the independent arms. The paper rolls though the cylinders from the bottom to the top. Firstly, it enters through the black plate cylinder and then to the cyan plate cylinder, then to magenta plate cylinder and finally to the yellow plate cylinder.

Generally all the texts are present only in the black plate as they are just black in color. After all these steps, the printing is started. The black ink roller which is at the bottom of the color tower rolls with the plate holding roller. Here, the ink-water mixture is sprayed or applied on the plate surface where the image portions of the plate absorb the ink where the blank portions of the plate is left undisturbed. Then, the blank paper which runs in-between the cylinders (two plate holding rollers) gets the black ink from the plate and the paper is passed on to the next color arrangement. The next color is cyan which is the same process as the black roller. Then, it passes to magenta and to yellow. After a paper passes through all the four color arrangement, the complete newspaper is ready but it will be a damp. So, soon after the yellow inking process, the paper is let to pass through a heating arrangement of very high temperature where the ink dries to an optimum level. After the heating process, it is let into a chiller arrangement where the paper passes through chill rolls in order to bring it to room temperature. Then, the paper requires folding which is done in the same machine itself. The default folding setup ratio in the machine is 2:3:3 (double jaw folder) and they are run at high speeds. Each roller runs at different speeds for high quality production. For this reason, shaft-less drive system is used (all the rolls run on their independent shaft). After folding is done, the printed papers are delivered through the conveyers.

In the case of magazines, inline tabloid sticher is provided where the magazines are pinned or stapled at its centre. At the delivery of the machine, it is provided with the sensor arrangement where it checks for errors. The copies with errors (printing errors, folding errors etc) are disintegrated and are piled aside. There are console rooms in front of each machine where the very first and the very copy of that machine are checked for printing color density and register accuracy. After the printing process, the printed copies are directly handled by the conveyers with clips which hold individual newspaper from the delivery end from each of the machine and runs to the DESPATCH section and gets collected in a machine where it counts for certain number of copies and bundled.

5.3 POST-PRESS PROCESS All the processes which are carried out after printing are the postpress processes. After the printing process, the printed copies are directly handled by the conveyers with clips which hold individual newspaper from the delivery end from each of the machine and runs to the DESPATCH section and gets collected in a machine where it counts for certain number of copies and bundled. These are then distributed to all the places which are controlled by CIRCULATION department. The circulation Department has direct contact with the agencies and based on the requirement the copies are circulated.

FEATURES: 1. High Print Quality A) B) Three dampening roller arrangement. Narrow gap cylinder.

2. High Folding accuracy A) B) C) Adoption of high speed jaw folder. Reduced lap distortion caused by changing number of pages. Reduced waste copies.

3. Stable web tension A) Fine adjustment of each drag roller speed due to Shaftless

driving system. B) C) Shorter web path length with compact angle bar nest. Web tension stabilization with optimum drag roller

arrangement. 4. Improved workability & Maintenance A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) Tool less plate lock up Auto register control Auto ink roller cleaning Ink agitator Auto paster Auto cut off control Auto imposition Tension logging function

For a data to be printed on paper, a material called plate is used. Plates are made by Computer to paper (CTP) mechanism and this is carried by a machine designed by AGFA Company. Plates are generally made of thickness ranging from 0.24mm to 0.35mm and the material used is ANODISED ALUMINIUM. The plate consists of a

PVA overcoat, emulsion layer of sensitivity 35 J/cm2 and peak sensitivity 405nm.

Reason for using Aluminum Substrate: The following are the reasons why aluminum substrate is used: Abundant, easily mined and purified. Comparatively inexpensive. Non-corrosive. Light, but comparatively strong. Good dimensional and thermal stability. Good flexibility and tensile strength on press. Can be easily recycled. Can be easily grained and anodized.

Various methods adopted in graining of plates: Mechanical graining. a) With steel brushes (dry). b) With nylon brushes (wet). Electro Mechanical Graining a) With nitric acid small pores, highest resolution but small press latitude. b) With hydro chloric acid- wider pores, low water and ink demand. Multi Graining It is the combination of both brush graining and electro mechanical graining.

The Anodizing is carried out by deposition of porous layer of aluminum oxide on the grained surface and the typical thickness is 1-2 m. Benefits of using Anodized plates: The following benefits of anodized plates are as follows To stabilize surface chemically To make it durable To make it scratch resistance To enhance adhesion for the coating To enhance the hydrophilic properties.

5.4 EQUIPMENTS The equipments used in Hindu industry is Spectro photometer, Calorimeter and Electronic weigh bridge. Spectrophotometer A spectrophotometer is a photometer (a device for measuring light intensity) that can measure intensity as a function of the color (or more specifically the wavelength) of light. Important features of spectrophotometers are spectral bandwidth and linear range of absorption measurement. Perhaps the most common application of spectrophotometers is the measurement of light absorption, but they can be designed to measure diffuse or specular reflectance.

Calorimeter A calorimeter is a device used for calorimetric measurement, the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. Electronic Weigh Bridge Electronic Weigh Bridge is equipment used to measure the weight of very huge objects and the values are electronically displayed.

5.5 DEVICES Densitometer Densitometer is a device which measures the density of the color printed.

Scanner Scanner is a device which scans the pictures, papers and drawing. There are two types of scanners used in this industry namely Horizontal type scanner and Vertical type scanner. The horizontal type used scanners are Purup Eskoflat, Duo scan T2000XL and Cezanne. The vertical type used scanner is ICG.

6. PERSONNEL WELFARE SCHEMES 1. Education grants for the children of employees of varying rates from Rs.1350 -3000 per child according to the class of study. 2. A cup of free coffee / tea for every employee daily 3. If an employee has served for 10 years, He is given a wrist watch with a certificate 4. If an employee completes 20 years of service, he will be presented with a pair of silver kuthuvilakku; for 25 years of service, he will be presented with 8 grams gold coin; for 30 years of service, 10 grams of gold coin; for 35 years of service, 12 grams cold coin and for 40 years of service, 16 grams gold coin. 5. When an employee retires, he is presented with a silver bowl. 6. Medical Reimbursement facilities to employees in administration or working journalist and their family members if they are not covered by ESIC Scheme. Others are being paid Rs.500 per month as Medical allowance as per the recommendation of the Manisana Wage Award. 7. Presentation of a pair of eight cubic dhotis to all employees at the time of pongal, apart from the yearly allotment of two sets of terry cot pant and shirts, Chappals, shoes, etc every year. 8. Every employee who has to wear a spectacle, the cost would reimburse once in ten years. Cost of the change of lens will be borne in the event of change in power also as and when necessary. 9. Supply of complementary copy of The Hindu, Sportstar, Front Line and Business Line to all permanent staff and supply of complementary copy of the Hindu for retired employees. 10.Leave travel allowance (LTA) every year at varying rates for all the permanent staff. For administration and editorial cadre from Rs.11000 15000, others from Rs.6500-8500 depending upon their salary.

11. Service recognition allowance to recognize the service of the employee at Rs.2000 per year-minimum 5 years of service. 12.For employees or spouse underwent family planning operation, a sum of Rs.150 will be paid. 13.If an employee or a retired employee dies, the management gives Rs.10000 for meeting the funeral expenses. 14.If an employee dies while in service, then his/her spouse will be given Rs.100000. 15.Medical centre is being run for benefit of employees and their dependants. 16.A sum Rs.1000 will be given for the farewell party of the employee retired from the service. 17.When an employee gets married, a gift cheque of Rs.500 will be given. 18.An adhoc amount of Rs.1500 per month is being paid as a pension for retired employees. 19.An ex-gratia amount ofRs.2000 is given to all retired employees for diwali. 20.A pair of eight cubic dhotis for retired employees at the time of pongal.

7. DETAILS OF THE TRAINING UNDERGONE S No. 1 DAY DAYS 1 to 3 DETAILS Scanning, Colour correction and Quality Control 2 3 DAY 4 DAY 5 & 6 Advertisement, Circulation and Graphics DIAMOND SPIRIT Printing press, Maraimalai Nagar Table 2 Training details The Hindu

8. LEARNING POINTS At the completion of this training, it gave an idea about how the newspaper industry collects current information from places, how the facts are segregated, how it is corrected, evaluated, selected and then printed. This training also made to gather information on how the printed copies are distributed from the places where it got printed. Also, how the previous days work is inspected for quality and to bring effective optimal changes in their future work.

DELPHI TVS
FROM 27-05-2010 TO 11-06-2010 NO OF DAYS 14

1. PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY Delphi TVS is a joint venture between Delphi Corporation, USA and T V Sundaram Iyengar & Sons, India manufacturing Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment for Cars, Sports Utility and Multi Utility Vehicles, Light Commercial Vehicles, Tractors, Single & Two Cylinder engines. Delphi is a largest automotive systems supplier in India. The company has a track record of sustained growth since it was set up. Delphi-TVS have obtained ISO/TS 16949 and ISO 14000 certifications. The company has been honored by the ACMA Gold Award for Manufacturing Excellence, ACMA Technology Award, Manfacturing Excellence Gold Award from Frost & Sullivan and Delphi Asia Pacific Environmental Excellence Award. Delphi-TVS has laso won the JIPM TPM Excellence Award (First Category). Delphi is the largest automotive supplier in the world and TVS is the largest automotive systems supplier in India. It was started in the year 1989. Delphi has invested extensively on facilities, which include engine test cells, emission test equipment, endurance test rigs, pump calibrating rigs and Cad systems to develop products and applications to meet ever increasing demands of customer requirement. The company has been honored by the ACMA gold award for manufacturing excellence, ACMA technology award, manufacturing excellence gold award from frost and Sullivan.

AWARDS Delphi global environment award 2004 ACMA excellence in technology certificate of merit 2004 Frost & Sullivan IMEA Gold award 2004 TPM Excellence Award First Category 2005 Quality circle convention-2005 SAE 2004-environmentel excellence in transportation award ACMA gold award Manufacturing Excellence 2005-2006 Best kaizen award Delphi Asia pacific environmental excellence award -2006 Best display award in the Industrial and Development Exhibition at Rudrapur. Lean Challenge Competition

2. PRODUCT RANGE Delphi TVS produces products such as Rotary pump, Mechanical unit pump, Nozzle and Injector, Filters. (1) DPCN: Electronic rotary. Applications Passenger car, SUV and light van. Meets EURO-III emission norms. Boost control for turbo charged engines. Inbuilt diagnosis/EOBD.

(2) STP II: Injection pressure 650 bar. Applications Tractor up to 6 cylinders. Meets TREM II, TREM III emission norms. Electric shut-off. Flexible torque curve shaping.

(3) DP 210: Injection pressure 800 bar. Applications Tractor, on & off Highway vehicle. Meets TREM IV emission norms. Flexible torque curve shaping. Boost control for turbo charging. Excess fuel for hot and cold starting.

(4) DPC: Mechanical rotary. Application Passenger cars, mini trucks & SUVs. Meets EURO II and EURO III emission norms. Speed and load advance.

(5) STP: Injection pressure 450 bar. Application Tractors. Meets TREM II emission norms. Speed and light loading advance.

(6) SVP: Injection pressure 800 bar. Application MUVs. Meets EURO II emission norms. Flexible torque curve shaping.

(7) UPCR (Unit pump common rail): System capacity 1450 bar. Applications Small cars, Light transport vehicles, three wheelers, gen set. Meets BS IV emission norms. Suitable for 1, 2 and 3 cylinder engines. Fully flexible multi injection capability. Simple construction, cost effective system. Advanced adaptive strategies 13 C & APC for consistent performance.

(8) MUP (Mechanical unit pump system): System capability 1000 bar. Applications Light transport vehicles, three wheelers and gen set. Meets BS III emission norms. Suitable for 1 and 2 cylinder engine. Slim 17mm injector with VCD nozzle.

MILESTONES 1989 Start of project. 1996 ISO 9000/EAQF 94/QS 9000 certification. 2001 Introduction of Indias first electronic FIE system o meet BS III emission norms. 2003 ISO 14001 environment certification. 2004 One millionth rotary FIE production. 2005 Established manufacturing facilities for common rail: Filters, rails & sediments at plant I. Establishment of state of the art Technical centre. Plant II established at Uttarakhand. Plant III established at Oragadam, Chennai for common rail systems.

Certification of excellence The organization has implemented many Quality programs like TPM. Implementation of such programs will have a drastic improvement in terms of product quality. Due to extra ordinary service and performance the organization earned many certifications which include ISO 9001, EAQF and QS 9000.

3. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

Fig 4 Organisation Structure of Delphi TVS

4. PLANT LAYOUT

Fig 5 Plant Layout of Delphi TVS

5. PROCESS The basic layout of the whole plant is provided as follows:


Supplier Part Machining Heat Treatment

Hot stage- Grinding Sub Assembly

Assembly & Inspection

Packing

Dispatch to Customers

Fig 6 Overall process in Delphi TVS

5.1 SUPPLIER PART Here, the finished unassembled components are checked for quality and for accurate dimensions. The components are checked with having the part/component drawing as the reference. There are about 450 parts which should be assembled to a single injection pump. Parts which are fabricated using casting, turning, forging etc. are inspected using different techniques. Each and every part is checked for dimensional accuracy. Even plastic and rubber components are also checked here. Inspecting of parts can be broadly classified into 2 types:

1. Manual methods 2. Electronic methods MANUAL METHODS (gauges): This type of inspection techniques involves the use of manual methods. It is a direct and simple way of checking the components for dimensional accuracy. There are further two classifications in manual method. They are (a) Variable gauge: Simple and most commonly used gauges (where the scales can be varied to check the dimension of a part) such as vernier scale, screw gauge, micrometer, spring tester, height gauge etc are used. These means of inspecting parts are easy as the output readings are digitized in order to reduce the visual errors. Inner diameter, outer diameter, linear lengths are measured using vernier, screw gauges and micrometer. Surface flatness is checked by height gauge where the deflection in the order of micron level (0.01mm) can be detected. Stiffness, solid length and other mechanical properties of spring parts are inspected using spring tester (applies load about 1000kg).

(b) Attribute gauge: Some gauges which has got no moving parts such as GONOGO limit gauges, thread gauges etc. fall under this category. Such gauges consume less time in inspecting components as they are just simply placed in the two limit ends. Thread gauges are used to check the threads which are cut in the parts. External threads are checked using ring gauges (provided with internal threads) and internal threads

using plug gauges (provided with external threads). Components are just placed or screwed in these devices for inspection.

ELECTRONIC METHODS: In this category, electronic equipments are used (a). Profile projector and Quadra check: This is a type of an electronic method used in this company where the component is made to hold above the light source and the shadow of it is processed and made to display on the screen which is provided with the marking scales and the operator can adjust the shadow image to coincide it with these scales. Then, by using QUADRA CHECK, the dimensions are measured. Various measuring options such as linear, circular, angle etc. can be chosen for inspection. This equipment is provided with X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis movements with 10X zooming facility which allows the user to inspect the component with higher accuracy. However, the calibration and checking may vary from man to man.

(b). Potentiometer checking equipment: This method employs the supply of voltage to the component under the application of high pressurized air. It is used to check the potentiometer linearity and hysteresis characteristics. All the preadjustment settings are automated and not done manually.

(c). Solenoid testing equipment: This method is much similar to that of Potentiometer checking equipment. Here, it is used to conduct cycle test and leak test. The component to be tested is supplied with voltage and pressurized air, and the setup is dipped into the oil tank and checked for leak.

(d). Cutting machine: This device cuts the component and checks it for any internal flaws and blind holes. Only one piece in a batch is cut and tested.

5.2 MACHINING In this section, the raw materials are collected from the input through suppliers quality. All the rough cutting operations such as turning, milling, drilling, tapping, reaming, boring etc. are done here. At the end of each of the machining operation, the quality of the part is inspected where the parts which are out or (components with dimensional errors or above the tolerance limit) are rejected from the line. HYDRAULIC HEAD: BARREL: Barrel or hydraulic head is an essential part of the rotary fuel injection pump. It is a cylindrical member which holds the sleeve and a rotor inside

the sleeve. This part is machined with numerous holes (about 20) with various dimensions. The design and shape of the barrels differs with the application in which it is used. Holes are drilled in a sequence as follows: The input or the barrel is firstly sent to a hydraulic roll marker machine where the barrel is marked with the coding numbers in which they are specified. The marked barrels are drilled to make MV(metering valve) hole using CHIRON M03006 CNC. This hole is used as a reference for making the other holes. In this hole a short rod is fitted which is latter used to clamp the part in fixtures for drilling the other holes. LLA(light load advance), HLF(head locating or fixing hole) and XS holes are simultaneously drilled by CHIRON CNC. Then, a series of drill spindles are used to drill HTR holes of 2mm, 6mm and 5mm respectively. These drills are powered by hydraulic systems provided with two-hand safety actuation. TP cross holes of 5mm and 6mm are drilled using CHIRON M03011 CNC. ESO(electro solenoid orifice) hole of 4mm dia is drilled using CHIRON M03006 CNC. HP(high pressure outlet) cross hole is drilled using horizontal drill. HP1(1mm), HP2,HP3,HP4 of (2mm) cross holes are made depending upon the application in which it is used. M6 and M5 holes are drilled and tapped using KITAMURA CNC. ESO(electro solenoid orifice) cross hole is drilled using horizontal drill of CHIRON CNC.

Groove milling is done at the inner side of the barrel using AMS CNC. A disc shaped tool is used to cut annular slots at the inner surface of the barrel. Reaming is done to finish the hole. This process is usually done after every drilling operation. MV(metering valve) cross hole is drilled with AMS CNC. Manual de-burring is done after drilling all the holes. Here, the scraps and burrs which are retained in the holes are removed. After de-burring process, the barrels are inspected and checked for holes with correct dimensions and accurate finish. Rejected components are sent to scrap. Cleaning is done with a high pressure aqueous or coolant wash The barrels are then dried with the supply of compressed air. After drying, the barrels are fitted into barrel inspecting machine where after a particular processing time, the display of the machine gives out outputs PASS or FAIL. All the components which have passed the test are sent to a heat treatment plant for hardening the component. Other failed parts are removed from the line and sent to scrap. After inspection, the parts are sent to heat treatment plant where the parts are hardened and further rough machining cant be done over it.

SLEEVE: Sleeve is the part which is fitted inside the barrel. Since the raw material which is obtained from the supplier is already machined with necessary holes, it is just de-burred, cleaned and dried and sent for heat treatment.

ROTOR: The raw material for the rotor is collected from the supplier as input and machining processes are made on it as follows: Firstly, undercut broaching is done behind the two fins of the rotor by PROTEL broaching machine. Then, the top surface of the rotor is grinded using PARISHUDH profile grinding CNC machine to obtain a better polished finish. This machine operates using M codes. The rotors are then sent to roll marking machine where rotors are marked with specification codes. Centre axial hole is then drilled using a NAGEL M40056 CNC. This operation is generally known as deep hole drilling Plunger hole is drilled using AMS M03021 CNC. This CNC has 12 tool holding turret. FA hole and dowel hole are drilled using BROTHER M03042 CNC. Input hole, output hole and notch are machined using AMS M03020 CNC. These three port holes are drilled using the tools in a 12-tool holding turret. This is followed by groove milling. This equalizing groove is drilled using PROTEL CNC which is controlled by M codes. Then, auto de-burring is done where the rotor is fixed in the auto deburring machine M06034 for removing away of the burrs the scraps from the part. Washing is followed by de-burring. The components are

simultaneously dried after washing. Lastly, the machined rotors are sent to the inspection area where the part is inspected using a digital projector.

After inspection, the parts are sent to heat treatment plant where the parts are hardened and further rough machining cant be done over it.

ALUMINIUM CASING: It is the part in which the hydraulic head, rotor, injector etc. are fitted. The raw material of this product is just a rough cast where further machining such as drilling, tapping and reaming are done on it to finish the product in this section. This aluminum casing are of different specifications based on their applications such as IDI(Indirect injection), DI(Direct injection) etc. The procedure followed for IDI casing is given below: Firstly, the aluminum casing is roughly turned, spigot dia turning using HMT, NAKAMURA(6) and FANUC(8) CNCs. Boring is followed by turning. Here, primary bore, secondary bore and cam bore are machined using NAKAMURA CNC. This CNC employs 3 tools holding in a 8-tool turret for these operations. Then, milling is done over its base. This operation is called as spot facing done using NAKAMURA and FANUC CNCs. The milled components are then drilled with M3, M32, LLA and XLF holes using BROTHER 1, 2, 3 and 4 CNCs each of it employing with 21-tool turrets. The drilled parts are simultaneously reamed or tapped or counter-sunk by their respective CNC machine itself. Then, the parts are drilled with 2.5mm, 3mm, 1.5mm, 32mm, 28mm and LLR holes using BROTHER machining centre. All the parts after drilling are sent to washing section where the parts are fixed in the part washing machine and the coolant oil is forced to

flow through the cam bore which allows removing all the burrs stuck inside the part. The washed parts are then dried using the supply of high pressure air. The finished components are sent to leak tester and to the inspection section. After inspection, the parts are sent to heat treatment plant where the parts are hardened and further rough machining cant be done over it.

The machining procedure for DI type casing is given as follows: Initially, it is turned in a horizontal spindled CNC lathe (spigot turning). It is done using FANUC CNC having 8-tool turret. After turning, bushing is done in the casing. Boring is done after bushing. This operation is done using TAKISAWA CNC (horizontal machining centre). Milling and tapping is done using BROTHER CNC (vertical machining centre). Then, the part is reamed and milled using FANUC vertical machining CNC which employs 12-tool turret. The components are then drilled, reamed, tapped and bored using FANUC vertical machining CNC. This CNC machine employs 24tool turret with an ATC (automatic tool changer) for transferring the tool in the spindle head. The parts are then milled, drilled and reamed using TAKISAWA CNC which employs 20-tool turret After this operation, manual drilling (THAKOOR drilling) is done. All the drilled parts are then sent for washing where pressurized coolant oil is sent through spigot (keeping oil seal cam bore closed).

After washing, the parts are transferred to a vibrating bed which is pre-loaded with shells or stones which blunts the sharpened edges. On the completion of this process, the parts are sent for inspection. After inspection, the parts are sent to heat treatment plant where the parts are hardened and further rough machining cant be done over it.

INJECTOR BODY: It is a part of the fuel injection system which injects the fuel into engine for power generation. This component has got several parts such as nozzle, body, adaptor, shim etc. which are then assembled in the subassembly section. NOZZLE: It is a sub-part of the injector which is actually responsible for the injection of fuel. It has a pin and an external spring arrangement which pulls the pin and allows the fuel to expel through the outlet port. The raw material for this part is a simple long circular steel rod (BS 970 31815/M17) of 17.5mm diameter where 92 individual nozzles can be made using a single rod (53 individual DI nozzles from a single rod). Machining is done in this part as given: The part is initially fed into a lathe where blank turning operation is done over it. This WICKMAN lathe has got 6 separate spindles and employs 14 tools for this turning operation where each spindle performs single operation at a time. DI parts are turned in CITIZEN lathe which has a single spindle employs 6 tools performs facing, turning, parting, drilling, counter-sinking and reaming operations.

Then, the turned parts are washed with the coolant supply. Feed hole drilling is done over the washed components using NIKRAN drilling machine which has 3 drill spindles which drill holes of 1.7mm on the part. Then, ECM operation (non-conventional machining) is done over the parts where the annulus or gallery is cut in its inner side. A gallery is a place where the fuel is stored in small quantity in its body before injection. It is done in EMBUR machine which has got copper electrodes (20V, 200A) along with the supply of heated salt-water solution for 2 to 3 minutes. The salt corrodes the part making the annular hole wider to 8.5mm. Seat and injection hole(0.9mm) is drilled in the part using PROTECK CNC. Loading of parts are through gravity fed magazines where it can hold more number of parts. This CNC uses 3 different tools which are held in a 9-tool turret. This machine uses both hydraulic and pneumatic pressure. Pneumatic pressure is used for opening and closing operations of the chuck and hydraulic pressure (about 50 bar) is for feed, turret indexing etc. This machine operates at 2500rpm and a feed of 0.04mm/min completing each cycle for every 38 seconds. The machined parts are then washed and dried. Final inspection is done over the machined parts. The parts where injection hole is missing, injection face not washed, pressure face damage are rejected and sent to scrap.

INJECTOR BODY: It is the part which houses the nozzle, adaptor and other components. The machining operations which are done over the injector body are given as follows: Firstly, drilling is done over the supplied raw material. Here, cross hole and feed hole are drilled using SPM 1 and 2 of CON CNC(horizontal machining centre). It employs 2 spindles which simultaneously drills out these holes. The drill bit used for this operation is of high speed steel and it completes a cycle for every 8090 seconds. Other specifications of cross hole and feed hole:

CROSS HOLE 1. Drill diameter: 2.5mm 2. Hole size: 2.45 2.6mm 3. Angle: 198 - 2122 4. Position: 1.43 1.83mm 5. Depth: 28 28.3mm FEED HOLE 1. Drill diameter: 2.1mm 2. Hole size: 2.05 2.2mm 3. Angle: 01 - 20 4. Position: 8.025 8.175mm 5. Depth: 37.47 37.73mm

The same above operation is done on parts of other specifications such as MDI, TBT, NLS(needleless lift sensor), LSR in other machining centers. These machines employ gun drills for machining. After drilling, induction hardening is done over the pressure base using ELVA induction machine. The induction coils heat the injector base for 3sec, quenched primarily with coolant oil for 41sec, air blasted for 3sec and again quenched for 1.51sec. It yields hardness of 39 50 for LCR and 30 62 for DI parts and checked using Rockwell hardness tester. After the hardening process, the horns are pressed over the injector body using horn pressing or nipple pressing machine. This process is most similar to welding. This machine employs a hydro-pneumatic cylinder which uses pneumatic feed and hydraulic pressing of nipples in the injector body. These horns are used to expel out the excess fuel flown through the nozzle. Washing of parts, Flushing is done where a fluid of high pressure about 100 bar is applied to wash out the burrs left out during machining. After inspection, the parts are sent to heat treatment plant where the parts are hardened and further rough machining cant be done over it.

ADAPTOR: This is a part of injector in which the nozzle seats on it. The raw material is a cylindrical solid part, collected from the supplier is grinded and lapped in this section.

Rough grinding or lap grinding is done on the part using ZUSAMMER machine. It grinds on both sides of the part. Here, the parts are loaded in circular slots of a toothed circular plate which rotates between two large grinding surfaces which enables double side grinding. This machine has got two grinding wheels(AA40015BRT) running at 1440rpm cuts material at the order of 4 microns, works at a pressure of 10.5 bar, balance pressure of 7.3 bar and low pressure of 6 bar. Fine lapping is done after the grinding process. This process is done in PETER WOLTER machine. The lap rolls machine the surfaces of the adaptor to yield high quality surface finish. This machine is operated in low temperature conditions. Then, the components are sent for brush de-burring. This process is done using PFS(precision finishing system). After finishing this operation, the parts are sent to sub-assembly section.

5.3 HEAT TREATMENT Heat treatment is a group of industrial and metal working

processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitatio

strengthening, tempering and quenching. It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally, heating

and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding. Some of the heat treatment process is Annealing Hardening and Tempering Case hardening Precipitation hardening

HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS- WORK FLOW Thermal Debugging M/c SQF Hardening

Washing

De Burring

Post Washing

H P washing

Visual inspection

Unloading

Washing

Loading

Pre Heating

Hardening

SQF post Washing

Sub zero Parco lubricating

Tempering Low/ High Water Rinse 3&4 Hot Water Rinse De Embrittlement

K A N B A N I N P U T M A T E R I A L

GNF Gas nitriding Parco Lubrication plant Surface Treatment plant

Loading

Gas Nitriding Solvent cleaning

Unloading

Inspection

Activation

Loading

Ultrasonic cleaning Water Rinse

Alkali degreasing Acid pickling

Water Rinse 1 Cold Water Rinse

Water Rinse 2

Oiling

Inspection

Loading

Alkali degreasing 1 & 2

Chemical blackening 1&2 De Embrittlement

Hot Water 1&2

Cold Water Rinse Hot air dry

Brazing Plant

Prewashing

HP Washing/Oiling

Brushing / Cleaning (cap nut only)

Inspection

Unloading

Loading

Nitro Carburizing

Quenching

Alkali Washing

Unloading & Inspection Cu Ring placing stem and valve end

Centrifugal Cleaning

Brush Cleaning

Spray Cleaning

Oiling

Fluidised Bed Furnace

Aqueous Washing

Pre heating

Cu Ring placing stem and mobile core body

Brazing

Unloading

100% inspection with 5kg load test

Vacuum Hardening plant

Pre Washing acetone

Loading

Hardening

Tempering

Unloading

Inspection

Aquous washing machine (old)

Injection flood wash 1

Ultrasonic rinse 1

Injection flood wash 2

Ultrasonic rinse 2

Spray rinse

Hot air dry

Vacuum dry

Aquous washing machine (new)

IFW process Tank

Ultrasonic Rinse

Rinse Tank

HAB process Tank

Vacuum Dry

5.4 TESTING EMISSION TEST In this test, the amounts of following gases are found and the volumes of co2 in percentage are found. Nitric oxide Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Hydrogen Nitrogen(high purity) Propane Oxygen(pure grade) The amount of these gases present in the exhaust is found by an emission analyzer.These are the activities carried out in the engine testing cell. ENGINE TESTING CELL Here the diesel fuel pumps are tested in Simpsons, Tata, and Hindustan motors engine , according to the requirements specified by the diesel engine manufacturers. The various equipments which are used in the engine testing cell are Engine mounting stand Dynamometer Angular encoder Light pulse converter Fuel conditioner Fuel meter

Manometer Barometer Smoke meter Emission analyzer The method of testing a fuel pump in Simpsons engine is described below: The engine is mounted on the engine mounting stand The alignment is done so that the centre of the flywheel is in line with the centre of the dynamometer The propeller shaft id fitted between the flywheel and the dynamometer The load on the engine is varied by means of the dynamometer For different loads different torques are obtained From this test the values of FSN are also obtained The amount of particular emission is found by micro balance MICROBALANCE In microbalance, a thin circular filter paper is weighed and its weight is taken as W1. The same filter paper is kept in the device which is connected to a tube taken from the exhaust manifold. The exhaust gas sample is then allowed to pass through this device. After some time the filter paper is removed. The particular matter would be deposited in a concentric manner in the filter paper. This filter paper is kept in the micro balance and its weight is measured as W2. The weight of particulate is measured as W=W2-W1. It gives the accurate particulate mass. Then the particulate matter is compared with the emission standards. After comparing with emission standards, the emission is given standards such as BS or Euro based on particulate masses.

The emission standard test is done in two methods: 8 mode tests is done for tractors 13 mode tests is done for cars

PUMP TESTING CELL In the pump testing cell, the various parameters of the fuel injection pumps are tested. The parameters tested are transfer pressure, advance, delivery and boost pressure. The operation of diesel injection system is given below: Fuel from the fuel tank is pumped on to the main filter by the fuel feed pump. The fuel is filtered off dust particles and sends to the fuel injection pump. The fuel injection pump pressurizes the fuel and sends the high pressure fuel to the fuel injectors The back leak fuel from the injector is sent to the header tank and then it sends to the fuel tank. Advance device: A hydraulic operated piston opposes a pre loaded spring to advance the timing of fuel injection by partially rotating the cam ring against the direction of rotation. Governor: Axial movement of the metering valve under the influence of transfer pressure or the control lever arm governs the volume of fuel supplied to the pumping plungers during the charging stroke. A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor that controls

the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel admitted, so as to maintain a near constant speed whatever the load or fuel supply conditions. It uses the principle of proportional control. Charging sequence: The transfer pump pressurizes incoming fuel to a valve regulated pressure called transfer pressure. Fuel at transfer pressure is fed to the metering valve which produces a controlled pressure drop designated as metering pressure. As each rotor inlet ort comes sequentially into register with the metering port, fuel at metering pressure charges the centre of the rotor and pushes the pumping plunger apart giving the specific fuel charged required. Injection sequence: Rotation of the rotor moves the inlet port put of register with the metering port and aligns the single distributor port with the appropriate outlet ports. Simultaneously the pumping plungers are forced inwards by the cam rollers contacting the cam lobes and fuel injection takes place.

5.5 SUB ASSEMBLY AND MAIN ASSEMBLY After carrying out various operations, the components are send for sub assembly. The process in sub assembly is charted below.

Sub assembly parts stream

Housing sub assembly

Cam valve Assembly

MAIN ASSEMBLY

Snubber assembly (DI & IDI)

New head & rotor Assembly (DI)

Sub Assembly parts stream (DI) Head & rotor assembly

Boost assembly

Small parts

Fig 8 Sub assembly and main assembly In the main assembly the parts obtained from sub assembly are assembled

5.6 INSPECTION, PACKING AND DISPATCH TO CUSTOMERS Product is tested with standard parameters. In most of the cases the product is inspected in processing stage itself. Then the pump is packed and dispatched to the customers.

6. PERSONNEL WELFARE SCHEME Each employee is subjected to group insurance policies Each employee is covered by health insurance Personal and other allowances are provided by company Company provides incentives during festival seasons.

7. DETAILS OF TRAINING UNDERGONE The training has been undergone for about 14 days in DELPHI TVS. In this period, training was provided in sections like Supplier Quality, Machining (Manufacturing unit where all products are produced), Heat Treatment plant, Sub-assembly, Main assembly and Inspection respectively. The knowledge was gained in areas like how the products are manufactured, inspected and delivered. In addition to this, this training taught how poka-yoke techniques and 2 bin system are employed and used. S No. 1 2 DAY DAY 1 DAYS 2 to 4 DETAILS Brief Introduction and Orientation Supplier part incoming quality inspection department 3 DAYS 5 & 6 Hydraulic Head BARREL and SLEEVE rough machining 4 DAY 7 ROTOR of Hydraulic Head and Aluminium casing 5 6 7 8 DAY 8 to 10 DAY 11 DAY 12 DAY 13 & 14 Injector Body and Adaptor machining cell HEAT TREATMENT division Filter paper production unit Sub assm., Assm., and Final Testing

Table 3 Training details Delphi TVS

8. LEARNING POINTS In the period of training, knowledge was gathered in sections like Supplier Quality, Machining (Manufacturing unit where all products are produced), Heat Treatment plant, Sub-assembly, Main assembly and Inspection respectively. The knowledge was gained in areas like how the products are manufactured, inspected and delivered. In addition to this, this training taught how poka-yoke techniques and 2 bin system are employed and used.

CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF PLASTIC ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


FROM 06-12-2010 TO 10-12-2010 NO OF DAYS 5

1. PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY Equipped with state-of-the-art facilities, CIPET renders Technology Support Services (TSS) in Processing, Testing, Quality Assurance & Inspection and Design (CAD/CAM/CAE) & Tooling, to the plastics and its allied industry in India and abroad. The Plastics Testing Centers of CIPET are recognized as one of the best plastics testing facilities in Asia, recognized by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), National Accreditation Board for Testing & Calibration Laboratories (NABL), Customs etc. CIPET is playing a vital role and rendering 3rd Party Inspection Services for plastics products across the country particularly in the agriculture/irrigation sectors. CIPET has been accredited by NABCB for undertaking inspection services. CIPET has installed latest designing software in CAD/CAM/CAE and its Tool-Room is equipped with most modern machinery to impart hands on practical exposure to students & carry out technology support services to Industries. Project consultancy, technology consulting and assessment in the field of Plastics are the other important service portfolio of CIPET. CIPET is an ISO 9001:2008 QMS, NABL, ISO/IEC 17020 accredited premier national Institution devoted to Academic, Technology Support & Research (ATR) activities for the growth of Plastics & allied industries in the country. CIPET operates on hub & spokes model with 22 locations spread across the length & breadth of the country. CIPET has 15 centres at Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Aurangabad, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Hajipur, Haldia, Jaipur, Imphal, Lucknow, Mysore and Panipat.

All the CIPET centres have state of art infrastructural facilities in the areas of Design, CAD/CAM/CAE, Tooling & Mould Manufacturing, Plastics processing, Testing and Quality control to cater to the needs of plastics & allied industries in the country. CUSTOMERS Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Govt. of India. Department of Family Welfare, Govt. of India. Research Design And Standards Organization (RDSO), Govt. of India. Rail India Technical & Economic Service (RITES), Govt. of India. Director General Supplies & Disposals (DGS &D) Govt. of India. Department of Telecommunication (DOT), Govt. of India. Small Industries Service Institute (SISI) , Ministry of Industries , Govt. of India. Dept. of Science & Technology (DST), , New Delhi, Govt. of India. Department of Customs, Govt. of India. Food Corporation of India, Govt. of India. Telecom Engineering center (TEC), Govt. of India. Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) Govt. of India. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Govt. of India. Central Forensic Science Laboratory (C.F.S.L.), Govt. of India. Bureau of Police Research & Development (B.P.R.D.), Govt. of India. Central Institute of Fresh Water Aquaculture(CIFA), Govt. of India. Gas Authority of India Limited, Govt. of India. S.G.S. India, New Delhi UNICEF, New Delhi K.F.W. (A German Aided Project) Oil India Limited, Govt. of India. Andaman Public works Department (APWD) Narmada Canal Project , Govt. of Rajasthan

Gujarat Water Supply Sewerage Board (GWSSB), Gujarat Rural Development Department, Govt. of Orissa. Urban Development Department, Govt. of Orissa Revenue & Excise Department, Govt. of Orissa Export Promotion & Marketing (EPM), Govt. of Orissa. Orissa Small Industries Corporation Ltd., (OSIC), Govt. of Orissa. Orissa Lift Irrigation Corporation (OLIC), Govt. of Orissa Orissa Water Sewerage Board, Govt. of Orissa. Orissa Agro Industries Corporation Limited, Govt. of Orissa State Relief Commissioner, Dept. of Revenue, Govt. of Orissa. Orissa Oil Federation Ltd., (Oil Orissa), Govt. of Orissa. Orissa Co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd., (OMFED), Govt. of Orissa

MAJOR PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY CIPET ON CAD/CAM S.NO NAME OF COMPANY 1 Shri Gajananana Industries Pvt. Ltd,Mumbai 2 Vectra Corporation, Michigan, USA Injection Mould Design of Automotive Part 3 L & T Limited, e- Engineering solutions, Chennai 4 Polyene general Industries private Ltd, Chennai Product Development of Plastic Railway water Tank 5 LUCAS- TVS, Chennai Mould Flow analysis for Brush Box 6 Philips India Ltd, Loni Product development for Bobbin Flow analysis of Cartridge NAME OF PROJECT Flow analysis on rear fender part

part 7 Hindustan Motors, Chennai Mould Flow analysis for radiator water tank top end lower 8 Motherson Automotive Technology and Engineering, Kancheepurm 9 L & T- demag Plastics machinery private Ltd, Chennai 10 Product development study for Blanking cover radio Component Mould Flow analysis for PP Components

Crompton Greaves Ltd, material and Product development of Plastic Process center Corporate R & D and quality, Mumbai fan Blade

Table 4 Major Projects undertaken by CIPET

2. PRODUCT RANGE Dustbins Shampoo bottles Washing machine parts Sterilized needles Ice cream cups Agricultural equipments Standard pipes Pipe joints Plastic valves

3. PLANT LAYOUT

Fig 9 Plant Layout of CIPET 1. Security 2. Reception 3. Conference hall 4. Administrative office 5. Lawn 6. Injection moulding section 7. Blow moulding section 8. Mechanical Testing lab 9. Electrical Testing lab 10.Canteen 11.Lawn and Parking

4. PROCESS 4.1 PLASTIC TECHNOLOGY PLASTIC PROCESSING Plastics Processing Departments at CIPET centres have wide range of facilities which includes conventional plastic processing machinery, stateof-the-art advanced microprocessor controlled machinery to augment not only the academic needs but also the industry specific requirements. Processing division is also competent enough to undertake mould proving and molding job woks. The processing divisions provides the following customer services: Job works for producing plastic products and proving of moulds Tailor made / modular training programs on the specific topics as per the requirement of plastics industry Consultancy and Advisory services to the plastics industries on trouble shooting of processing defects and improvement in productivity Technical guidelines & support to the entrepreneurs for setting up Plastics processing industry Facilities available: Microprocessor injection molding machinery All Electric Injection Moulding Machine Tube, Pipe and blown film extruders Compression molding machine Thermoforming machine Rotational Molding Machine Micro processor controlled Blow molding machine Stretch Blow Molding machine FRP Demonstration facility

Pad printing machine Ultrasonic welding machine High speed mixer Impulse heat sealing machine Hot air welding facility Plastics recycling facility HAND INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE Parts of Injection Moulding machine are detailed and discussed as follows: 1. Hopper Hopper is made up of brass or bronze. The purpose of hopper is to feed material on the barrel. It is screwed on top of the barrel.

2. Barrel It is made up of EN18 or EN24. This is the body of the machine. The material melts in the barel. The raw materials in the form of granules are in the barrel and the barrel is heated by the electrical heating elements. Due to the heat supplied and pressure applied by the material, the plastic gets melted in the barrel.

3. Torpedo or Spreader It has number of fine holes, placed inside the barel, and before the nozzle made up of steel. The function of the torpedo is to branch the solid melt into thin cross section to increase the efficiency of heat and also get a homogeneous condition. Torpedo is fixed at a suitable position above the nozzle to accommodate the required quantity of melt for inspection into the mould.

Function of Torpedo: Stock the granular form of plastics and it allows only homogenous material so as to get even flow of materials. It spreads the heat to the plastic material connation of heat, so that the efficiency of the heat increases. Frictional heat will increase due to compression of plastic granules between the torpedo and the plunger.

4. Nozzle It is made of steel, fixed at the bottom of the barrel. The melted moulding plastic material passes through the nozzle hole from the cylinder The different types of nozzles are available. They are: Straight nozzle Side nozzle/ End nozzle Tape nozzle Tape nozzle is one of the special nozzles for nylon material. 5. Heater It is very important one for injection moulding machine without heat in rotation, nothing will do. Depending upon the capacity of the injection moulding machine, the capacity of the injection moulding machine the wattage and the voltage to be supplied is calculated. The size of the heater is calculated by the cylinder size. Normally, this type of heater is called Band heater.

6. Spring A tension spring is used to get back the cylinder to its original position after the injection is over. It is for easy removal of mould from the machine. And the nozzle with cylinder will come and coincide with the mould sprue hole when the materials are injected. The spring is generally made up of spring steel.

7. Plunger The rack and pinion mechanism is involved for the movement of plunger in the downward and the upward motion. It is achieved by rotation of handle in the injection moulding machine. A reciprocating plunger is introduced into the barrel for compacting the material and generating the pressure in melt for injecting the plastic melts into the mould. The plunger will slide into the barrel by a mechanism called rack and pinion assembly. The tip of the plunger is made of brass.

8. Stand This is the main body of the machine. Vertical stand is made up of Mild Steel channel. It is welded with the base of the machine. The main function of the vertical stand is to hold the injection unit (barrel, hopper, spring, nozzle etc.). The base of the stand acts as a clamping unit.

9. Clamping screw or Clamping unit A screw is used for clamping the mould in the machine. At one end of the screw, handle is attached and the other end is round block which is fixed freely for clamping the mould. The rotation of the

handle screw make forced locking the mould and turn counter-clock wise when releasing the mould. The mould clamping is used against the injection pressure. Always the clamping pressure is greater than that of the injection pressure.

OPERATION OF INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE Operation of the hand injection moulding machine requires mould setting and temperature control. Out of this, the operator has to first set the mould in a suitable position for aligning the mould with the nozzle hole and clamp it. 1. Mould Setting Normally, hand moulds are with sprue and runners in the parting line from one edge of the mould. The injection nozzle centre will be around 50 60mm from the vertical clamp surface. Therefore, the centre of the runner to be matched with the centre of the nozzle by providing pusher blocks with suitable thickness behind the injector half of the mould. Another axis is set by adjusting the set screw provided. Now the mould is set in line with the injector nozzle which can be clamp by the screw.

2. Nozzle Setting Now the barrel nozzle is to be brought to sit on the mould sprue hole. This is done by loosening the screws of the barrel holder. After positioning the barrel, the barrel holder is clamped by re-tightening the screws. Now, the barrel nozzle hole and mould sprue hole should coincide.

3. Temperature Setting In a Hand injection moulding machine, the temperature of the melt is controlled indirectly be using the timer, to switch ON/OFF the timer. That is, the direction of the heater or the heating period is maintained constant where the heat input is related to the required melt temperature.

OPERATION All the above settings make the machine and mould ready for operating. Firstly, switch ON the heater and wait until the appropriate temperature is reached. Now through the hopper, fill the material in the barrel and purge-out the melt by bringing down the plunger. This operation is repeated till we get the new material out of the nozzle. Now the mould is clamping with position and approximate weight of material loaded to the barrel. By forcing the material in to the barrel using rack and pinion mechanisms, the melted plastic material is injected into the mould. This process is the injection part of the cycle. Now, the melt material is allowed to cool inside the mould. After cooling, the mould is unclamped and it is taken out. The mould is opened and the moulding is ejected. Then the mould is closed and clamped again on the machine. This is the complete cycle of operation. This process is repeated for production.

To maintain the quality of the product, operator attention is very important delay in the cycle will lead to problem. A good operator should maintain the speed of the operation and application of force as far possible at a constant level, otherwise it will reflect on the products quality.

PLASTIC TESTING AND QUALITY The plastics testing centres (PTC) of CIPET are well equipped and fully devoted for fulfilling the objectives of offering best services to the plastic industries by undertaking testing assignments namely: plastics materials/ products/ composites testing as per the National and International standards.

4.2 TESTING AVAILABLE Characterization lab: FTIR-Spectrometer Thermo Gravimetric Analyser (TGA) Thermo Mechanical Analyser (TMA) Diffrential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

Mechanical lab: Microprocessor Based universal Testing Machine Izod Charpy Impact Tester Dart Impact Tester with Vacuum Arrangements Hardness Tester (Rockwell, Barcol, Shore A & D) Moisture Vapour Transmission Rate Tester Creep Tester Tear strength Tester

Durometer hardness tester Rockwell hardness tester Falling weight impact tester FRP Demonstration facility Dart impact tester for pipes and films Xenon arc weatherometer Burst strength tester Climatic chamber Folding endurance tester Gas permeability apparatus Stiffness tester

Thermal lab: Heat Distortion temperature/Vicat softening point Melt flow indexer Flammability Tester Low temperature brittleness apparatus Thermal Conductivity Apparatus Coefficient of thermal expansion apparatus Moisture analyzing equipment Oxygen index tester Martins heat resistance apparatus Low temperature calibration bath Flammability tester Temperature sensors with indicator

Optical lab: Haze meter Gloss meter Opacity tester Clarity meter Micro-macro projection microscope Digital Gloss reflectance Meter

Electrical lab: Arc Resistance Tester Comparative Tracking index Tester Dielectric Constant tester Dielectric Strength Tester High Voltage AC Tester High Voltage DC Tester Precision LCR meter Electrostatic field meter Teraohm meter Electronic slip gauge calibrator

PRODUCTS BEING INSPECTED S.NO NAME OF PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

Specification for fabricated PVC fittings for potable water supplies: Part I General requirements PART ( 1 13)

IS 10124:1988 PART ( 1 13)

Specification for unplasticized PVC screen and casing pipes for bore/tube well

IS 12818:1992

Flexible reinforced water suction and delivery PVC Hose

As per CIPETs specification IS 4984:1995

Specification for high density polyethylene pipes for potable water supplies

Flexible reinforced water suction and delivery PVC Hose

As per CIPETs specification IS 14151 1999 (part 1 &2)

Irrigation Equipment - Sprinkler Pipes Specification Part 1 : Polyethylene Pipes Quick Coupled Polyethylene Pipes

Specification for Low Density Polyethylene Films

IS 2508:1984

Table 5 Products Inspected in CIPET

4.3 DESIGN CIPET provides a world class Technology support services in the areas of CAD/ CAM/ CAE by complementing customers efforts to fulfill their design and Engineering requirements and to deliver them optimum solutions with high quality. The design and CAD/ CAM/ CAE Departments in all CIPET centres are facilitated with good infrastructure. Based on the combination of engineering knowledge and software skills & industrial experience, CIPET offers spectrum of services in CAD, CAM, and CAE. The department provides services to the plastic and allied industries in the following areas. 3D solid Modeling Plastics Product Design and Mould Design Plastics Flow analysis Failure analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Reverse Engineering Rapid tooling Product/ mould design validation Optimization of process parameters Manufacturing Automation Rapid prototyping and Rapid tooling CAD/ CAM/ CAE software training Major software resources: MASTERCAM x2 Solid Edge IDEAS CIMATRON UG MOLD WIZARD

LS DYNA Pro- Engineer Unigraphics CATIA AutoCAD ANSYS Hypermesh Moldflow

4.4 TOOLING AND MOULD MANUFACTURING FOR PLASTICS Tool rooms at CIPET centers are well equipped with state-of-theart CNC machinery and extended its facilities for taking up commercial job assignments for mould fabrication, high precision machining and manufacturing of standard mould bases. Besides fabrication of moulds, the tool rooms also undertake job orders of varying magnitude such as repair of moulds and dies, CNC machining, CNC spark erosion, grinding, drilling, designing, development of jigs and fixtures, tool parts etc. Machines available: Universal milling and boring Machine Die sinking- EDM Universal lathe with hydrobar feeder High precision surface and profile grinder Wire cut EDM CNC EDM Spark erosion Machine Jig boring machine Co-ordinate drilling and boring machine Rigid die sinking machine

Cylindrical grinder Optical profile grinding machine Co-ordinate measuring machine Profile projector Ultrasonic flaw detector Surface tester

4.5 CONSULTING AND ADVISORY SERVICES As per the specific needs of the plastic industries, CIPET undertakes consultancy assignments on long term and short-term basis. The services are rendered by deputing technical personnel to the industry to study and solve the problems on the spot. The major areas of consultancy services includes: Material selection for newer products substitution Setting up of Tool Room/ Processing units/ Testing laboratory Process optimization and formulation development Analysis, characterization and large scale development of materials and products Turnkey consultancy on major projects Plastics sector survey on technical aspects

THE MAJOR CONSULTANCY ON PLASTIC PROJECTS NAME OF COMPANY Indian petrochemicals Corp. Ltd (IPCL) Reliance industries Ltd. Ford India Ltd. DESCRIPTION OF WORK Testing of raw material, finished products and Material evaluation for application Development Testing of Products and Materials

Brakes India Ltd. Optel Telecommunication ltd.

Application/ material development Design and Development of moulds and molding services for manufacturing injection molding components

National Small industries corporation Ltd. Lucas TVS Ltd.

Consultancy on machine selection and inspection Product design and CAE analysis of automotive components

Plastics and rubber institute (PRI) Ltd Reserve Bank of India

Technical consultancy on plastic industries

Testing on Polymer Notes for introducing in India

Oil India Ltd, Guwahati

Third party Inspection of HDPE Telecom Duct for OFC application

Department of Environment, NCT, Govt. of. DelhiThirumala Tirupathi Devasthanam Trust (TTDT), Thirumala, A.P

Testing of Biodegradability of Plastics/ bags

Table 6 Major consultancies on Plastic projects

5. DETAILS OF THE TRAINING UNDERGONE The training undergone includes a period of 5 days in CIPET. This training has resulted in good understanding of Plastic processing, Injection moulding and other manufacturing methods, Tooling required for production, and Testing of the finished products.

S No. 1 2

DAY DAY 1 DAY 2 & 3

DETAILS Introduction to CIPET Injection moulding, Blow moulding and other plastic processing techniques

DAY 4 & 5

Mechanical and Electrical Testing Lab, Tooling, and Despatch

Table 7 Training details CIPET

6. LEARNING POINTS The training in CIPET (Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology) gave an intense knowledge about the Polymer product fabrication techniques and about standard procedures for inspecting the quality of the product manufactured. The well developed and advance facilities in CIPET aids in finding optimized solutions for future challenges.

RANE MADRAS LIMITED


FROM 02-05-2011 TO 19-05-2011 NO OF DAYS 14

1. PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY Rane madras is a leading manufacturer of critical automotive components like steering linkages, ball joints, axial joints, suspension joints and manual steering gears. It has three manufacturing plants- Chennai, Mysore and Pondicherry. All plants are certified to QS 9000 and TS 16949 standards. RML used to store its standard operating procedures and other quality control documents or an engineering server and provide hard copies when required. Whenever a change is made, multiply copies of the new document were redistributed and older versions were retrieved and rendered obsolete. The quality department maintains 800 SOPs. Managing the change, redistribution and collecting of older versions to be marked obsolete were very tedious. Version control and sharing the ever increasing number of Sops was a big problem. Manufacturer of steering and suspension systems for every segment of automobile industry, passenger cars, multi utility vehicles, light commercial vehicles, farm tractors. Strategic technical partnerships with M/S TRW Inc, USA products. Hold major market share in India both in manual steering gear systems and suspension systems. Core design philosophy of GETTING IT RIGHT AT THE FIRST TIME contemporary computer aided and engineering applications. Finite element analysis of critical parts, vehicle steering simulation for real life conditions. Inception in the year 1929 as a trading house Strategic technical alliance Access to best technology Group turnover of 375 million USD for the year 2009-10 Preferred supplier to major OEMs in India and abroad

Serves a variety of industry segments Passenger cars, Multi utility vehicles Light commercial vehicles Medium and heavy commercial vehicles Farm tractors Three wheelers Two wheelers Stationery engines

2. PRODUCT AND BRANCHES Rane holdings limited Holding company Rane Madras limited Manual steering and suspension systems Rane engine valve limited Engine valves, valve guides, tappets Rane brake lining limited Brake linings, disc pads, clutch facings, composite brake blocks Rane TRW steering systems limited Power steering systems, seat belt systems Rane NSK steering systems limited Steering columns and electric power steering Kar mobiles limited Large engine valves for automotive and defence applications Rane die cast limited High pressure die casting products

QUALITY ISO/TS 16949:2002 certifications for each of its manufacturing locations ISO 14001 certified plants OHSAS 18001 certified Deming application prize winner in the year 2007

2.1 MANUFACTURING UNITS The production plants at Chennai (2 plants), Mysore, Puducherry each address a specific industry segment. Independent manufacturing cells produce specialised high end components. Chennai plant- Light commercial vehicle, heavy commercial vehicle and utility vehicle segments. Mysore plant- tractor and commercial vehicle segment. Pondicherry plant: passenger car segments. Varanasi plant- exports market. Uttarakhand plant- caters specifically to the customers in the north of India.

CUSTOMERS AND PRODUCTS RML is a major supplier of steering and suspension systems. It supplies all over the world. RML has diversified into manufacturing many civilian products as well. A brief list of the customers in different segments and the products and services offered to them is given below:

PRODUCTS SERVICES

AND DOMESTIC

EXPORTS

Heavy commercial vehicles Light commercial vehicles Utility vehicles

Tata, Eicher, Ashok Leyland Ashok Leyland, Tata, Piaggio, Ford Tata, Mahindra

NIL

Zamyad

TRW, John Deere

Passenger cars

Ford, Fiat, Tata, Suzuki

TRW automotive

Tractors

Escorts, Mahindra, Eicher

Kubota

Table 8 Customer and Products RANE Madras 2.2 PRODUCT RANGE The products produced by RML falls under three categories: Manual steering gears Steering linkages Suspension components MANUAL STEERING GEARS Re circulating ball type Fork type Open and closed type Sector type Constant ratio & variable ratio with single or double lever

Rack and pinion For all passenger cars available with single end take off Double end take off

STEERING LINKAGES Tie rod assemblies Ball joint with greased nipple (metallic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 24, 26, 28.5, 30, 35 & 40 dia Greased for life Ball joint (metallic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 26, 30, 35 & 40 dia Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 22, 25, 25.4, 28 & 30 dia Drag link assemblies Ball joint with greased nipple (metallic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 24, 26, 28.5, 30, 35 & 40 dia Greased for life Ball joint (metallic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 26, 30, 35 & 40 dia Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 22, 25, 25.4, 28 & 30 dia.

Centre link assemblies Ball joint with greased nipple (metallic bearing / cups) Ball head size 26 dia Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head size 25.4 dia For Utility Vehicles

Gear shaft assemblies Ball joint with greased nipple (metallic bearing / cups) Ball head size 24 dia Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 19 & 22 dia For Commercial Vehicles Outer ball joints Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 20, 22, 25, 25.4 & 28 dia Inner ball joints Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 22, 24, 25 & 28 dia

SUSPENSION COMPONENTS Lower control arms Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 22 & 25.4 dia For passenger car with Mcphersion strut type suspension Suspension ball joints With cylindrical socket housing for press fitting & Flange socket housing for bolted assembly Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 25.4, 27, 30, 35 & 38 dia For Passenger Cars & Utility Vehicles

Axle ball joints With cylindrical socket housing for press fitting Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 32 & 38 dia For Utility Vehicles Stabilizer link ball joints Greased for life Ball joint (plastic bearing / cups) Ball head sizes 16 & 19 dia For Passenger Cars & Utility Vehicles

3. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

Fig 10 Organization Structure of RANE Madras

4. PLANT LAYOUT

Fig 11 Plant Layout RANE Madras 1. Security 2. Reception 3. Conference hall 4. Administrative office 5. Lawn 6. Injection moulding section 7. Blow moulding section 8. Mechanical lab 9. Testing lab 10.Canteen 11.Lawn and Parking

5. PROCESS The manufacturing department is divided onto three sub division or units, they are 1. SGD( steering gear division) 2. SSLP( Steering suspension linkage product) 3. ASSY(Assembly)

5.1 SGD( STEERING GEAR DIVISION) This steering gear division is divided into three sections they are: Box casting Rocker shaft Worm and nut Drop arm

BOX CASTING In this box casting section, the outer casket is manufactured in cells or separately, the sequence of operations which is required to manufacture the outer box is below Face milling 4 hole drilling and tapping Boring operation Bush pressing Fitting

ROCKER SHAFT In this section the I section rocker shaft is made, this component is used to connect the other two components such as steering and the connecting rod. Turning Gear shaping Splash hobbing Thread rolling Fitting Grinding

WORM This component is used to have the relative motion between the steering and the other component it is assembled with nut and the nut is perforated with balls to have a smooth rotation. Serration rolling Thread cutting and fitting Hardening Thread grinding Assembled with nut

NUT The nut is assembled with worm. It is of square shape with two holes on the extreme ends to insert the balls in the gap formed by the grooves in the worm. This must be ensured with the smooth movement between worm and the nut.

Rack milling Internal diameter thread cutting Tube hole drilling Retainer hole drilling and tapping Fitting Hardening Internal diameter thread grinding Sub assembly with worm

5.2 SSLP( STEERING SUSPENSION LINKAGE PRODUCT) In this SSLP section, we are manufacturing two components which are helpful in linking the components. They are Socket Ball pin

SOCKET The sequence of operation for the above product is given below Forging Centering Socket machining Turning Back opening Thread forming

BALL PIN The sequence of operation for the above component is Forging Turning Pinhole drilling Burnishing Ball head hardening Thread rolling

5.3 TESTING AND EVALUATION The testing capabilities at RML reflect the company commitment to deliver products that bring with them a life time of safe, reliable performance. Independent testing facilities for each product division Simulating of demanding and adverse conditions Complete design validation tests

5.3.1 TEST FOR STEERING GEARS Steering gear endurance test Input torques test Impact test Rack and pinion endurance test

5.3.2 TEST FOR STEERING LINKAGE AND SUSPENSION LINKAGES Ball joint endurance test Ball joint fatigue test Ball joint performance test Linkage buckling test Dust seal muddy water test Environmental integrity test High pressure car wash test

STANDARDISATION Standardisation and quality are two inseparable parts of TQM process and they play a complementary role. A corporate standards department established four decades back has evolved more than 4000 standards on drafting, materials, systems and procedures, manufacturing processes, quality and workmanship...etc these standards have provided effective support in design, manufacturing, vendor development and process standardisation.

6. PERSONNEL WELFARE SCHEMES Medi-claim insurance Provident fund Health center Bonuses during festivals.

7. DETAILS OF THE TRAINING UNDERGONE The training undergone includes a period of 14 days in RANE Madras Limited. This training has resulted in good understanding how steering systems are manufactured. S No. 1 2 3 DAY DAY 1 DAYS 2 to 5 DAYS 6 to 10 DETAILS Introduction and Safety precautions Incoming part segregation and Inspection Machining of Drop arm, Drag link and Pittman arm 4 DAYS 11 & 12 Machining of Worm, Nut, Steering gear and Rocker Shaft 5 6 DAY 13 DAY 14 Heat treatment and Sub assembly Assembly and Testing

Table 9 Training details RANE Madras

8. LEARNING POINTS Thus the importance and the various processes involved in the production of control equipments for tankers are taught to me during this training period. I am very thankful to workers of the company who have been very helpful for me through the training period. Once again i thank all of them for helping me to gain knowledge.

PERFECT CALIBRATION PRIVATE LIMITED


FROM 23-05-2011 TO 27-05-2011 NO OF DAYS 5

1. PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY Perfect was established during 2002 mainly to render calibration services to Industrial units in southern State of India. It is registered as SSI unit. The Lab is also registered under the Registrar of Companies Act 1956 it is also covered under the ESI and PF and has been duly accredited by the National Accreditation Council, i.e. National Accrediation Board for Testing and Callibration Laboratories (NABL). Perfect is equipped by highly qualified and specially trained personnel, who are all well acquainted with latest version of ISO/IEC/17025-2005 An accredited lab under NABL for Mechanical, Electro-Technical, Thermal Calibration Parameters etc., All the personnel of this Lab are all well qualified, trained and highly experienced in calibration activities. All reference used during calibration are traceable to National Standards Well maintained Lab, carrying out calibration activities at controlled environment conditions. Calibration of Torque transducer up to 700Nm Servicing of Instruments / equipments, reconditioning of Cast iron & Granite Surface plates. Training of personnel in Calibration & Quality System Undertaking site calibrations for CMM, Profile Projector, Lathe Machine. Providing technical consultancy in Calibration for NABL Accreditation Sale of Precision Instruments, gauges etc., Mobile Calibration @ your site. Environmental Testing

CALIBRATION Calibration is the comparison of an instruments actual measurement performance to a standard of known accuracy. With calibration, you can achieve the following:

Ensure accurate measurements Trace measurements back to known and accepted standards Increase production yields Meet quality program requirements such as ISO 9001 Provide a basis for comparing measurements between different users

SELF-CALIBRATION Self-calibration, or internal calibration, uses onboard signal references to adjust measurement accuracy. During self-calibration, the instrument measures the onboard references and adjusts its measured performance to account for changes due to environmental effects such as temperature. The adjustment of measured values during self-calibration does not account for the drift of the onboard signal reference and does not replace the need for external calibration. Performing regular external calibration helps ensure the onboard reference signals are accurate and maximizes overall measurement performance.

EXTERNAL CALIBRATION There are a number of reasons to send an instrument to the manufacturer or a suitable metrology laboratory for external calibration, including when you need to verify performance, when the calibration interval has expired or your

predefined service time has elapsed, when the instrument has been operated in an extreme environment, or when measurements appear questionable. External calibration includes verification of the instruments capabilities and provides for adjustments to measurement circuitry and onboard signal references if needed. Typically, a calibration certificate is issued verifying the instruments measurement performance at the time of calibration.

SYSTEM CALIBRATION System calibration, the most comprehensive method of calibration, quantifies and compensates for the total measurement error in a system. By applying known inputs and reviewing the resulting measurement, you can develop a model that represents the error of the system and compensate for this error by applying correction coefficients to your measured data. Computer-based data acquisition and instrumentation hardware is ideal for this type of compensation because you can quickly and easily apply your correction in software. System calibration does not completely replace the need to perform external calibration on individual system components in order to meet the requirements of quality programs.

The Importance of Traceability One of the most basic requirements of calibration is proof of traceability, an unbroken chain of comparisons between an instruments measurement and a known standard. Because these well-quantified standards are maintained by national and international organizations, they provide a reference for all traceable measurements. Traceability between your measurements and these standards provides the following advantages:

The ability to trace your measurement uncertainty back to an accepted standard Acceptance of your instruments measurement capabilities between countries

Ability to determine the maximum uncertainty of your measurements Correlation between your measurements and those of other traceable entities

Further down the chain, at the national level, each country has different legal metrology authorities. These bodies follow the guidelines defined by the BIPM and its associated committees to provide quality measurement standards for their associated countries.

SERVICES Mechanical measurements Force measurements Electro technical measurements Thermal measurements

Humidity measurements Onsite measurements Mobile calibration 2. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

Chairman

Managing Director

General Manager

Chief Engineer

Onsite inspection engineer

Offsite inspection engineer

Staffs

Staffs

Fig 12 Organization Structure of Perfect Calibration lab

3. PLANT LAYOUT

Fig 13 Plant Layout Perfect Calibration Lab

4. PROCESS 4.1 MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS THREAD MEASURING WIRES The wires are manufactured from high speed tool steel (Ml or M2) which results in a very uniform steel. Only after the degree of model ambiguity is determined to be within specifications can a meaningful measurement process commence. For a wire which is to be used in measuring 600 threaded plugs, the measuring algorithm for our concept means measuring the wire diameter between a flat contact and a cylinder (with a surface

roughness not greater than 2 micro inches AA). The stipulated conditions for calibrating a 600 thread wire are outlined below for all USA standard 600 thread wires, 290 Acme, and Buttress thread measuring wires.

PITCH

MEASURING FORCE

CYLINDRICAL SIZE 0.750 in 0.750 in 0.125 in 0.050 in 0.020 in

20 or less Above 20 thro 40 Above 40 thro 80 Above 80 thro 140 Above 140

2.5 lbs 1 lbs 0.5 lbs 0.25 lbs 0.125 lbs

Wires which are to be used where the contact is line contact, such a occurs when measuring the pitch diameter of gears, are standardized at I-pound force between plane parallel steel measuring surfaces.

When measuring a 600 threaded plug the wire presses on the flank with a force applied by the measuring instrument. Thus, it is desirable to calibrate the wire diameter under conditions which compensate for the deformation which will occur under actual use. The plane of the contacting anvil should be parallel to the cylindrical contact within 5 micro inches. To avoid permanent deformation caused by exceeding the elastic limit of the wire, the measuring force must be limited. The 60 thread wires that are used as reference masters are calibrated with an uncertainty of +-5 micro inches. The wires used for the actual measurement of gages, or working wires, are normally calibrated with an uncertainty of +-10 micro inches.

DEPTH MICROMETER The depth micrometer is used to measure the precise depths of holes, grooves, and recesses by using interchangeable rods to accommodate different depth measurements. When using a depth micrometer, you must make sure the base of the micrometer has a flat, smooth surface to rest on and that it is held firmly in place to ensure an accurate measurement. When reading a depth micrometer, you will notice that the graduations on the sleeve are numbered in the opposite direction of those on an outside or inside micrometer. When you are reading a depth micro meter, the distance to be measured is the value that is covered by the thimble. For example consider below figure; consider the reading shown. The thimble edge is between the numbers 4 and 5. This shows a value of atleast 0.400 inch on the sleeves major divisions. The thimble also covers the first

minor division on the sleeve; this has a value of 0.025 inch. The value shown on the thimble circumference scale is 0.010 inch. Adding these three values together results in a total of 0.435 inch, or the total distance that the end of the extension rod has travelled from the base. This measurement added to the length of the extension rod. FEELER GAUGE A feeler gauge is a tool used to measure gap widths. Feeler gauges are mostly used in engineering to measure the clearance between two parts. They consist of a number of small lengths of steel of different thicknesses with measurements marked on each piece. They are flexible enough that, even if they are all on the same hinge, several can be stacked together to gauge intermediate values. It is common to have two sets for imperia units (typically measured in thousandths of an inch)

andmetric (typically measured in hundredths of a millimetre) measurements. HEIGHT GAUGE A height gauge is a measuring device used either for determining the height of something, or for repetitious marking of items to be worked on. The former type of height gauge is often used in doctor's surgeries to find the height of people. These measuring tools are used in metalworking or metrology to either set or measure vertical distances; the pointer is sharpened to allow it to act as a scriber and assist in marking out work pieces. They may also be used to measure the height of an object by using the underside of the scriber as the datum. The datum may be

permanently fixed or the height gauge may have provision to adjust the scale, this is done by sliding the scale vertically along the body of the height gauge by turning a fine feed screw at the top of the gauge; then with the scriber set to the same level as the base, the scale can be matched to it. This adjustment allows different scribers or probes to be used, as well as adjusting for any errors in a damaged or resharpened probe. There are two types of height gauges: Vernier height gauges and electronic height gauges. The vernier height gauge has the additional refinement of a vernier scale for greater accuracy in reading or setting the tool. The electronic height gauge has a digital readout that gives the height.

Other Instruments covered under mechanical measurements for calibration is as follows. Dial Snap Gauge Plunger Dial Gauge Lever Dial Gauge Bore Dial Gauge Dial Thickness Gauge Thread Plug Gauge Taper Thread Plug Gauge Thread Ring Gauge Pistol Caliper Depth Vernier Internal Micrometer / Stick Micrometer Vernier Height gauge (Analog /Digital / Dial Plain Ring Gauge

4.2 ELECTRO TECHNICAL MEASUREMENTS With fluke 5520A Multiproduct Calibrator, we provide from basic necessity of all Electrical calibration required by customers as per their specification. Some of the instruments which we cater are includes. OSCILLOSCOPES / SCOPE METERS An oscilloscope (also known as a scope, CRO, DSO or, an O-scope) is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional graph of one or more electrical potential differences using the vertical or 'Y' axis, plotted as a function of time, (horizontal or 'x' axis). Although an oscilloscope displays voltage on its vertical axis, any other quantity that can be converted to a voltage can be displayed as well. In most instances, oscilloscopes show events that repeat with either no change, or change slowly. Oscilloscopes are commonly used to observe the exact wave shape of an electrical signal. In addition to the amplitude of the signal, an oscilloscope can show distortion, the time between two events (such as pulse width, period, or rise time) and relative timing of two related signals.

Other devices used in Perfect Calibration Lab include: Burden Box Power Meter Digital multimeter upto 6.5 digits Function Generators Frequency Generators Relay testing equipments Analog Multimeters Insulation Tester Panel meters (Analog or Digital)

Frequency Meter Ammeter, Voltmeter AC/DC Voltage & Current Sources Timer Internal Meter

4.3 THERMAL MEASUREMENTS THERMO COUPLE A thermocouple is a device consisting of two different conductors (usually metal alloys) that produce a voltage proportional to

a temperature difference between either end of the pair of conductors. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control and can also be used to convert a heat gradient into electricity. They are inexpensive, interchangeable, are supplied with standard connectors, and can measure a wide range of temperatures. In contrast to most other methods of temperature measurement,

thermocouples are self powered and require no external form of excitation. The main limitation with thermocouples is accuracy and system errors of less than one degree Celsius (C) can be difficult to achieve. Other devices are:

Baking / Portable oven Thermometer Temperature Controller Temperature Indicator RTDs Temperature Bath Temperature gauge Temperature Switch Wet & Dry Thermometer

4.4 FORCE MEASUREMENTS Load cell with indicator, Universal Testing Machine, Push Pull Gauge LOAD CELL A load cell is a transducer that is used to convert

a force into electrical signal. This conversion is indirect and happens in two stages. Through a mechanical arrangement, the force being sensed deforms a strain gauge. The strain gauge measures the deformation (strain) as an electrical signal, because the strain changes the effective electrical resistance of the wire. A load cell usually consists of four strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration. Load cells of one strain gauge (quarter bridge) or two strain gauges (half bridge) are also available. The electrical signal output is typically in the order of a few milli volts and requires amplification by an instrumentation

amplifier before it can be used. The output of the transducer is plugged into an algorithm to calculate the force applied to the transducer.

4.5 HUMIDITY MEASUREMENT Humidity Meter, Humidity Chamber

HUMIDITY METER Moisture meters are used to measure the percentage of water in a given substance. This information can be used to determine if the material is ready for use, unexpectedly wet or dry, or otherwise in need of further inspection.

Wood, Metals and paper products are very sensitive to their moisture content. Physical properties are strongly affected by moisture content. Dimensioning also changes with moisture content.

HUMIDITY CHAMBER An environmental chamber is an enclosure used to test the effects of specified environmental conditions on biological items, industrial products, materials, and electronic devices and components. Such a chamber can be used: as a stand-alone test for environmental effects on test specimens as preparation of test specimens for further physical tests or chemical tests as environmental conditions for conducting testing of specimens

5. PERSONNEL WELFARE SCHEMES Each employee is subjected to group insurance policies Each employee is given travel allowances and other allowances once in two years Each employee who completes an year or two in company is appreciated by increasing their salary. Each employee is also covered by health insurance policies. Employees even gain benefits through festival bonuses.

6. DETAILS OF THE TRAINING UNDERGONE The training undergone includes a period of 5 days in Perfect calibration lab. This training has resulted in good understanding of calibration, how an instrument is checked against standards and error are recorded. S No. 1 DAY DAY 1 DETAILS Introduction to Company, Principles and methods of Calibration 2 3 4 DAY 2 & 3 DAY 4 DAY 5 Mechanical measurement section Electrical and Thermal measurement Method of Collection, Calibration, segregation and Despatch Table 10 Training Details Perfect Calibration Lab

7. LEARNING POINTS Thus on completion of the training period of 5 days in Perfect Calibration Lab gathered knowledge on how various measuring devices are calibrated, what are all the difficulties in calibrating devices which are of different standards, environment while calibrating instruments etc. Additionally, the training gave idea about how on-site calibration can be done, how devices are collected and delivered after calibration and so on.