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# ELEC 2200-001 Digital Logic Circuits

Class Test III, November 4, 2010 Total 20 points Broun 239, 11:00AM-12:15PM Instructions: Please read all problems before writing your answers. Attempt all five (5) problems. Be sure to revise your answers before turning them in. Please number your answer sheets, and on the first page identify the test as shown above, write
your name and the total number of pages, and staple them before submitting. Thank you.

Problem 1: 5 points Use Karnaugh map to minimize the following four-variable Boolean function: F(A,B,C,D) = m(5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14) + d(0, 4, 10, 15) Answer: The following Karnaugh map displays the function: A 0 1 5 1 3 C 2 6 1 B ELEC2200-002, Fall 2010, Test III Problems and Solutions 1 of 6 14 1 10 7 1 15 4 13 1 D 11 12 1 9 8

This function contains a single essential prime implicant that is B, which covers all minterms plus two of the dont cares. The minimized function is F = B. Problem 2: 5 points

Using the consensus theorem and absorption theorem to express the following threevariable Boolean function as a sum of prime implicants (PI):
F = ABC + AB

Determine which of the prime implicants (PI) are essential prime implicants (EPI). Sketch a gate-level circuit using minimum number of logic gates.

Answer: Applying the consensus and absorption theorems, in that order, we get:
F = A C + AB + B = AB + B B C C

Since no other variables can be eliminated, the two terms on the right hand side are PIs. Because there are only two terms, if we remove any term it will not be regenerated by the remaining term. Hence, both terms are EPIs. For minimizing gates, the function can be further expressed as:
F = AB + B = B ( A +C ) C

The following circuit implements this function using just three gates:

A C B F

## ELEC2200-002, Fall 2010, Test III Problems and Solutions

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Problem 3: 5 points A four-variable Boolean function is expressed as a sum of three prime implicants (PI):
F = ABC + AC D + BD

Classify each PI as either essential or non-essential. Either algebraically or using a Karnaugh map, find the minimum sum of products form. Sketch a minimized gate-level circuit. Answer: We check each PI by removing it from the function:
F { ABC } = AC D + BD = AC D + BD + ABC

## term ABC is regenerated, it is not an EPI.

F { AC D} = ABC + BD

. Because the term A D cannot be generated, it is an EPI. C Because the term BD cannot be generated, it is an EPI.

F {BD } = ABC + AC D .

The following Karnaugh map shows that the MSOP contains two EPIs and excludes one redundant PI (shown with broken line): A 0 4 12 8

EPIs

5 1

13 1

9 D

3 C 2

7 1 6

15 1 14 1 B

11

10 1

ABC Redundant PI

## ELEC2200-002, Fall 2010, Test III Problems and Solutions

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The minimized SOP is, F = AC D + BD , which is implemented by the following logic circuit: A C D F

Problem 4: Use the Quine-McCluskey method to minimize the Boolean function, F(A,B,C,D) = m(3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15) Show the final result on Karnaugh map. Answer: Step 1: Group minterms according to number of true minterms. Minterm ABCD 4 1000 3 0011 5 0101 9 1001 10 1010 7 0111 13 1101 14 1110 15 1111 Step 2: Find prime implicants (PI). List 1 List 2 Minterm ABCD Minterms ABCD 4 1000 X 4, 5 0103 0011 X 3, 7 0-11 5 0101 X 5, 7 01-1 9 1001 X 5, 13 -101 10 1010 X 9, 13 1-01 7 0111 X 10, 14 1-10 13 1101 X 7, 15 -111 14 1110 X 13, 15 11-1

5 points

## Groups 1: single 1 2: two 1s

3: three 1s 4: four 1s

PI1

## ELEC2200-002, Fall 2010, Test III Problems and Solutions

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15

1111

14, 15

111-

PI6

Step 3: Find essential prime implicants (EPI). Covered by x x x x EPI Minterm 3 4 5 7 PI1 x x EPI2 x x EPI3 x x EPI4 EPI5 PI6

x 9

x 10

x 13 x x

x 14 15 x

x x

x x

Step 4: Only minterm 15 is left. It can be covered either by PI1 or PI6. PI1 contains two literals and PI6 has three literals. Hence, we select PI1. MSOP is written below:
F ( A, B, C , D ) = EPI 2 + EPI 3 + PI 4 + EPI 5 + PI 6 = 010 +0 11 +1 01 +1 10 + 1 1 = ABC + ACD + AC D + AC D + BD

The following Karnaugh map illustrates the result. All four EPIs are selected. Of the two SPIs (shown with broken lines), larger one is selected.

## ELEC2200-002, Fall 2010, Test III Problems and Solutions

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Problem 5 (Bonus Question) 1 point Prove that the Boolean function F = ABCDE + A + B + C + D + E is always true. Answer: We first apply de Morgans theorem to the last five terms and then use the identity postulate:
F = ABCDE + A + B + C + D + E = ABCDE + ABCDE = 1

(always true)

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