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20

AddlLlonal
MaLhemaLlcs
ro[ecL Work 2

WrlLLen by !uWAl8lAP 8ln1l
MuS1AAP
l/C num 941211146080
Angka Clllran
School SMk 8L8lS AnCPC8
uaLe 30 !uL? 2011

Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011

1A8LL Cl CCn1Ln1S



Num. Question Page
1 Part I
2
Part II
~ Question 1
~ Question 2 (a)
~ Question 2 (b)
~ Question 2 (c)
~ Question 3 (a)
~ Question 3 (b)
~ Question 3 (c)
3 Part III
4 Further Exploration
Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011


PART I

History oI cake baking and decorating
Although clear examples oI the diIIerence between cake and bread are easy to Iind, the
precise classiIication has always been elusive. For example, banana bread may be properly
considered either a quick bread or a cake.The Greeks invented beer as a leavener, Irying
Iritters in olive oil, and cheesecakes using goat's milk. In ancient Rome, basic bread dough
was sometimes enriched with butter, eggs, and honey, which produced a sweet and cake-like
baked good. Latin poet Ovid reIers to the birthday oI him and his brother with party and cake
in his Iirst book oI exile, %789,.Early cakes in England were also essentially bread: the most
obvious diIIerences between a "cake" and "bread" were the round, Ilat shape oI the cakes, and
the cooking method, which turned cakes over once while cooking, while bread was leIt
upright throughout the baking process. Sponge cakes, leavened with beaten eggs, originated
during the Renaissance, possibly in Spain.
Cake decorating is one oI the sugar arts requiring mathematics that uses icing or Irosting and
other edible decorative elements to make otherwise plain cakes more visually interesting.
Alternatively, cakes can be moulded and sculpted to resemble three-dimensional persons,
places and things. In many areas oI the world, decorated cakes are oIten a Iocal point oI a
special celebration such as a birthday, graduation, bridal shower, wedding, or anniversary.
Mathematics are oIten used to bake and decorate cakes, especially in the Iollowing actions:
O Measurement oI Ingredients
O Calculation oI Price and Estimated Cost
O Estimation oI Dimensions
O Calculation oI Baking Times
O ModiIication oI Recipe according to scale





Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011




PART II

1) 1 kg 3800 cm
3

h 7 cm

5 kg 3800 x 5
19000 cm
3

V Hr
2
h
19000 3.142 x r
2
x 7
r
2
19000 .
3.142 x 7
r
2
863.872
r 29.392 cm

d 2r
d 58.783 cm

2) Maximum dimensions oI cake:
d 60.0 cm
h 45.0 cm

a)


















b) i) h 7 cm , h ~ 45 cm
This is because any heights lower than 7 cm will result in the diameter oI the cake
being too big to Iit into the baking oven while any heights higher than 45 cm will
cause the cake being too tall to Iit into the baking oven

h/cm d/cm
1 155.5262519
2 109.9736674
3 89.79312339
4 77.76312594
5 69.5534543
6 63.49332645
7 58.78339783
8 54.98683368
9 51.84208396
10 49.18171919
11 46.89292932
12 44.89656169
13 43.13522122
14 41.56613923
15 40.15670556
h/cm d/cm
16 38.88156297
17 37.72065671
18 36.65788912
19 35.68016921
20 34.77672715
21 33.93861056
22 33.15830831
23 32.42946528
24 31.74666323
25 31.10525037
26 30.50120743
27 29.93104113
28 29.39169891
29 28.88049994
30 28.39507881
h/cm d/cm
31 27.93333944
32 27.49341684
33 27.07364537
34 26.67253215
35 26.2887347
36 25.92104198
37 25.56835831
38 25.2296896
39 24.90413158
40 24.59085959
41 24.28911983
42 23.99822167
43 23.71753106
44 23.44646466
45 23.18448477
Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011
b) ii) I would suggest the dimensions oI the cake to be 29 cm in height and approximately
29 cm in diameter. This is because a cake with these dimensions is more
symmetrical and easier to decorate.
c) i) V Hr
2
h

V 19000 cm
3

r
d
/
2

19000 3.142 x (
d
/
2
)
2
x h

d
2
19000 .
4 3.142 x (d
2
/4)

d
2
76000 .
3.142 x h

d 155.53 x h
-1/2


log
10
d -
1
/
2
log
10
h log
10
155.53







c) ii) a) When h 10.5 cm, log
10
h 1.0212
According to the graph, log
10
d 1.7 when log
10
h 1.0212
ThereIore, d 50.12 cm

b) When d 42 cm, log
10
d 1.6232
According to the graph, log
10
h 1.2 when log
10
d 1.6232
ThereIore, h 15.85 cm
log
10
h log
10
d
1 1691814
2 1191814
3 0691814
4 0191814
Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011





Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011
3) a) h 29 cm
r 14.44 cm
























To calculate volume oI cream used, the cream is symbolised as the larger cylinder and
the cake is symbolised as the smaller cylinder.

V
cream
3.142 x 15.44
2
x 30 19000
22471 19000
3471 cm
3


1 cm
1344 cm
ulagram 1 Cake wlLhouL Cream
1444 cm
ulagram 2 Cake wlLh Cream
1 cm
30 cm
29 cm
Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011
3) b) i) Square shaped cake









Estimated volume oI cream used
30 x 27.6 x 27.6 - 19000
22852.8 19000
3852.8 cm
3


b) ii) Triangle shaped cake









Estimated volume oI cream used
x 39.7 x 39.7 x 30 19000
23641.4 19000
4641.4 cm
3

b) iii) Trapezium shaped cake









Estimated volume oI cream used
x (2842.5) x 22 x 30 - 19000
23265 19000
4265 cm
3

* All estimations in the values are based on the assumption that the layer oI cream is
uniIormly thick at 1 cm

c) Based on the values I have obtained, the round shaped cake requires the least amount
oI Iresh cream (3471 cm
3
)
PART III

Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011
Method 1: By comparing values oI height against volume oI cream used

h/cm
volume of cream
used/cm
3
h/cm
volume of cream
used/cm
3
h/cm
volume of cream
used/cm
3

1 1998361 18 330366 33 362934
2 1034604 19 330498 36 363746
3 747442 20 331062 37 368367
4 398737 21 331986 38 371413
3 313007 22 333212 39 374281
6 438313 23 334694 40 377167
7 421700 24 336392 41 380067
8 393820 23 338274 42 382979
9 377141 26 340314 43 383901
10 363438 27 342489 44 388830
11 333303 28 344780 43 391763
12 343802 29 347171 46 394704
13 340296 30 349647 47 397646
14 336328 31 332198 48 400388
13 333370 32 334812 49 403331
16 331773 33 337481 30 406472
17 330733 34 360197


According to the table above, the minimum volume oI cream used is 3303.66 cm
3
when h
18cm.

When h 18cm, r 18.3 cm


Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011
Method 2: Using diIIerentiation

Assuming that the surIace area oI the cake is proportionate to the amount oI Iresh cream
needed to decorate the cake.*

Formula Ior surIace area
Hr
2
2Hrh

h 19000 / 3.142r
2

SurIace area in contact with cream
Hr
2
2Hr(19000 / 3.142r
2
)
Hr
2
(38000/r)

The values, when plotted into a graph will Irom a minimum value that can be obtained
through diIIerentiation.

dy 0
dx

dy 2Hr (38000/r
2
)
dx
0 2Hr (38000/r
2
)
0 6.284r
3
38000
38000 6.284r
3

6047.104 r
3

18.22 r
When r 18.22 cm, h 18.22 cm

The dimensions oI the cake that requires the minimum amount oI Iresh cream to decorate is
approximately 18.2 cm in height and 18.2 cm in radius.

I would bake a cake oI such dimensions because the cake would not be too large Ior the
cutting or eating oI said cake, and it would not be too big to bake in a conventional oven.

* The above conjecture is proven by the Iollowing

When r 10,
~ the total surIace area oI the cake is 4114.2 cm
2

~ the amount oI Iresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 4381.2 cm
3
~ the ratio oI total surIace area oI cake to amount oI Iresh cream needed is 0.94

When r 20,
~ the total surIace area oI the cake is 3156.8 cm
2

~ the amount oI Iresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 3308.5 cm
3
~ the ratio oI total surIace area oI cake to amount oI Iresh cream needed is 0.94

ThereIore, the above conjecture is proven to be true.
Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011
lu81PL8 LxLC8A1lCn


a) Volume oI cake 1 Volume oI cake 2
Hr
2
h Hr
2
h
3.142 x 31 x 31 x 6 3.142 x (0.9 x 31)
2
x 6
18116.772 cm
3
3.142 x (27.9)
2
x 6


14676.585 cm
3

Volume oI cake 3 Volume oI cake 4
Hr
2
h Hr
2
h
3.142 x (0.9 x 0.9 x 31)
2
x 6 3.142 x (0.9 x 0.9 x 0.9 x 31)
2
x 6
3.142 x (25.11)
2
x 6 3.142 x (22.599)
2
x 6
11886.414 cm
3
9627.995 cm
3

The values 118116.772, 14676.585, 11886.414, 9627.995 Iorm a number pattern.
The pattern Iormed is a geometrical progression.
This is proven by the Iact that there is a common ratio between subsequent numbers, r 0.81.

14676.585 0.81 11886.414 0.81
18116.772 14676.585

. 9627.995 0.81
11886.414



b) S
n
a(1-r
n
) 18116.772 ( 1-0.8
n
)
1-r 1-0.8

15 kg 57000 cm
3


57000 ~ 18116.772(1-0.8
n
)
0.2

11400 ~ 18116.772(1-0.8
n
)

0.629 ~ 1-0.8
n


-0.371 ~ - 0.8
n


0.371 0.8
n


log 0.371 n log 0.8

log 0.371 n
log 0.8

4.444 n

n 4
VeriIication oI answer

Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011
II n 4

Total volume oI 4 cakes
18116.772 cm
3
14676.585 cm
3
11886.414 cm
3
9627.995 cm
3
54307.766 cm
3


Total mass oI cakes
14.29 kg

II n 5

Total volume oI 5 cakes
18116.772 cm
3
14676.585 cm
3
11886.414 cm
3
9627.995 cm
3
7798.676 cm
3

62106.442 cm
3

Total mass oI cakes
16.34 kg

Total mass oI cakes must not exceed 15 kg.
ThereIore, maximum number oI cakes needed to be made 4


Alvln Soo Chun klL AddlLlonal MaLhemaLlcs ro[ecL Work 2 2011
ReIlection

In the process oI conducting this project, I have learnt that perseverance pays oII, especially
when you obtain a just reward Ior all your hard work. For me, succeeding in completing this
project work has been reward enough. I have also learnt that mathematics is used everywhere
in daily liIe, Irom the most simple things like baking and decorating a cake, to designing and
building monuments. Besides that, I have learned many moral values that I practice. This
project work had taught me to be more conIident when doing something especially the
homework given by the teacher. I also learned to be a more disciplined student who is
punctual and independent.