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Sony Corporation

Type Traded as Industry Founded Founder(s) Headquarters Area served Public company TYO: 6758 NYSE: SNE Conglomerate 7 May 1946[1] Masaru Ibuka Akio Morita Minato, Tokyo, Japan Worldwide Howard Stringer[1] (Chairman, President & CEO) Ryji Chbachi[2] (Vice Chairman) Kazuo Hirai[3] (Executive Deputy President) Masaru Kato[2] (EVP & CFO) Consumer & professional electronic equipment Communication & information-related equipment Semiconductor Electronic devices & components Battery,Chemicals,PlayStation,Blu-ray, Financial services Internet service US$ 86.64 billion (2011)[4] US$ 2.41 billion (2011)[4] US$ -2.96 billion (2011)[4] US$ 155.94 billion (2011)[4] US$ 30.74 billion (2011)[4] 168,200 (2011)[4] List of subsidiaries Sony.net

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Sony Corporation ( Son Kabushiki Gaisha?) (TYO: 6758, NYSE: SNE), commonly referred to as Sony, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan and the world's fifth largest media conglomerate with US$86.64 billion (FY2011)[clarification needed].[4] Sony is one of the leading manufacturers of electronics, products for the consumer and professional markets.[5]

Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, which is engaged in business through its six operating segments Consumer Products & Services Group (consumer electronics, game & network services), Professional, Device & Solutions Group (B2B products & services), Pictures, Music, Financial Services and Sony Ericsson.[6][7] These make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. Sony's principal business operations include Sony Corporation (Sony Electronics in the U.S.), Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Computer Entertainment, Sony Music Entertainment, Sony Ericsson, and Sony Financial. As a semiconductor maker, Sony is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders.

The Sony Group ( Son Gurpu?) is a Japan-based corporate group primarily focused on the Electronics (such as AV/IT products & components), Game (such as PlayStation), Entertainment (such as motion pictures and music), and Financial Services (such as insurance and banking) sectors. The group consists of Sony Corporation (holding & electronics), Sony Computer Entertainment (game), Sony Pictures Entertainment (motion pictures), Sony Music Entertainment (music), Sony Financial Holdings (financial services) and others.Its founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka derived the name from sonus, the Latin word for sound, and also from the English slang word "sonny", since they considered themselves to be "sonny boys", a loan word into Japanese which in the early 1950s connoted smart and presentable young men.[5]

edit] History Masaru Ibuka, the co-founder of Sony In late 1945, after the end of World War II, Masaru Ibuka started a radio repair shop in a bomb-damaged department store building in Nihonbashi of Tokyo. The next year, he was joined by his colleague, Akio Morita, and they founded a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo K.K.,[8] (Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation). The company built Japan's first tape recorder, called the Type-G.[8]

The old sony logo, used from 1955-1957 In the early 1950s, Ibuka traveled in the United States and heard about Bell Labs' invention of the transistor.[8] He convinced Bell to license the transistor technology to his Japanese company. While most American companies were researching the transistor for its military applications, Ibuka and Morita looked to apply it to communications. Although the American companies Regency Electronics and Texas Instruments built the first transistor radio as joint venture, it was Ibuka's company that made them commercially successful for the first time.In August 1955, Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo released the Sony TR-55, Japan's first commercially

produced transistor radio.[9] They followed up in December of the same year by releasing the Sony TR-72, a product that won favor both within Japan and in export markets, including Canada, Australia, the Netherlands and Germany. Featuring six transistors, push-pull output and greatly improved sound quality, the TR-72 continued to be a popular seller into the early sixties.In May 1956, the company released the TR-6, which featured an innovative slim design and sound quality capable of rivaling portable tube radios. It was for the TR-6 that Sony first contracted "Atchan", a cartoon character created by Fuyuhiko Okabe, to become its advertising character. Now known as "Sony Boy", the character first appeared in a cartoon ad holding a TR-6 to his ear, but went on to represent the company in ads for a variety of products well into the mid-sixties.[8] The following year, 1957, Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo came out with the TR-63 model, then the smallest (112 71 32 mm) transistor radio in commercial production. It was a worldwide commercial success.[8]University of Arizona professor Michael Brian Schiffer, PhD, says, "Sony was not first, but its transistor radio was the most successful. The TR-63 of 1957 cracked open the U.S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid 1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5,000,000 units by the end of 1968.Sony's headquarters moved to Minato, Tokyo from Shinagawa, Tokyo around the end of 2006.[10][11] [edit] Origin of name Another early name that was tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Morita discovered that there was an American company already using Teletech as a brand name.[12]The name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words. One was the Latin word "Sonus", which is the root of sonic and sound, and the other was "Sonny", a familiar term used in 1950s America to call a boy.[5] The first Sony-branded product, the TR55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name did not change to Sony until January 1958.[13]At the time of the change, it was extremely unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji. The move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, Mitsui, had strong feelings about the name. They pushed for a name such as Sony Electronic Industries, or Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however, as he did not want the company name tied to any particular industry. Eventually, both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval.[8] Sony VAIO fashion show in 2008 In 2004, Sony built upon the MiniDisc format by releasing Hi-MD. Hi-MD allows the playback and recording of audio on newly-introduced 1 GB Hi-MD discs in addition to playback and recording on regular MiniDiscs. Recordings on the Hi-MD Walkmans can be transferred to and from the computer virtually unrestricted, unlike earlier NetMD. In addition to saving audio on the discs, Hi-MD allows the storage of computer files such as documents, videos and photos. Hi-MD introduced the ability to record CD-quality audio with a linear PCM recording feature. It was the first time since MiniDisc's introduction in 1992 that the ATRAC codec could be bypassed and lossless CD-quality audio could be recorded on the small discs. Sony was one of the leading developers and remains one of the strongest proponents of the Blu-ray Disc optical disc format, which eventually emerged as the market leader over the competing standard, Toshiba's HD DVD, after a 2 year-long format war. The first Blu-ray players became commercially available in June 2006, and Sony's first Blu-ray player, the Sony BDP-S1, debuted in December 2006 with an MSRP of US $999.95. By the end of 2007 the format had the backing of every major motion picture studio except

Universal, Paramount, and DreamWorks.[15][16][17] The Blu-ray format's popularity continued to increase, solidifying its position as the dominant HD media format, and Toshiba announced its decision to stop supporting HD DVD on 19 February 2008. Over the years, Sony has introduced these standards:

Umatic (~1968) Betamax (1975) Betacam (1981) Compact Disc with Philips (1982) 3.5 inch Floppy Disk (1982) Video8 (1985) DAT (1987) Hi8 (1988) MiniDisc (~1990) Digital Betacam (~1990) miniDV (1992) DVD with others (~1995) DVCAM (1996) Memory Stick (1998) Digital8 (1999) Universal Media Disc (~2003) HDV with JVC (~2004) Blu-ray Disc with Panasonic and others (2006)

[edit] Products Sony's retail store, Sony Style Sony offers a number of products in a variety of product lines around the world. Sony has developed a music playing robot called Rolly, dog-shaped robots called AIBO, humanoids, and QRIO. [edit] PlayStation The Slimline PlayStation 2 with controller In late 1994 Sony launched the PlayStation to compete with other consoles. This successful console was succeeded by the PlayStation 2 in 2000. The PlayStation 2 has become the most successful video game console of all time, selling over 150 million units as of 2011. The PlayStation brand was extended to the portable games market in 2005 by the PlayStation Portable (PSP). Sony developed the Universal Media Disc (UMD) optical disc medium for use on the PlayStation Portable. Although Sony tried to push the UMD format for movies, major-studio support for the format was cut back in spring 2006, though as of 2009 some major-studio titles continue to be released on UMD.Sony released the PlayStation 3, a high-definition console, in 2006. It later introduced the PlayStation Move, an accessory that allows players to control video games using motion controllers. Sony announced that on 1 April 2010[18] it was electronically removing Linux[19] functionality from the first generation PS3.[20] A class action has been taken out in California challenging the legality of "the disablement of valuable functionality originally advertised".[21] [edit] Laptop batteries dys function In April 2006, a Sony laptop battery exploded in Japan and caught fire. A Japanese couple in Tokyo sued both Sony and Apple Japan for over 2 million (US$16,700) regarding the incident. The suit argues that the man suffered burns

on his finger when the battery burst into flames while being used, and his wife had to be treated for mental distress due to the incident.[28] On 14 August 2006, Sony and Dell admitted to major flaws in several Sony batteries that could result in the battery overheating and catching fire. As a result they recalled over 4.1 million laptop batteries in the largest computer-related recall to that point in history. The cost of this recall was shared between Dell and Sony Sony's former slogans were "It's a Sony", "like.no.other" and its current slogan is "make.believe". [edit] Regional manufacturing and distribution Slightly more than 50% of the electronics' segment's total annual production during the fiscal year 2005 took place in Japan, including the production of digital cameras, video cameras, flat panel televisions, personal computers, semiconductors and components such as batteries and Memory Sticks. Approximately 65% of the annual production in Japan was destined for other regions. China accounted for slightly more than 10% of total annual production, approximately 70% of which was destined for other regions.Asia, excluding Japan and China Sony's Sales and Distribution by Geographical Regions in 2009[48]Geographic Region Japan United States Europe Other Area Total Sales (yen in millions) 1,873,219 2,512,345 2,307,658 2,041,270

On 9 December 2008, Sony Corp. said it will cut 8,000 jobs, drop 8,000 contractors and reduce its global manufacturing sites by 10% to save $1.1 billion a year.[49] [edit] Finance and Revenue In May 2011, Sony expected to lose a total of 260 billion yen ($3.2 billion) for the year, due to the effects of the Japanese earthquake. The forecast of a $3.2 billion loss was quite different than its earlier projection of a profit of 70 billion yen ($857 million) for the year.[50] [edit] Environmental record In October 2010, Sony was ranked 6th (jointly with Panasonic and Motorola), including all models of the VAIO PC, and many models of video recorder, Walkman, camcorder and digital camera.[52]The company has committed to removing PVC in all new models of mobile products (excluding accessories), and BFRs in the casing and main PWBs of all new models of mobile products by April 2011. However for the improvement in its ranking it still needs to set a timeline for eliminating all phthalates, beryllium copper and antimony and its compounds.[52]Sony publishes on its website a list of products, for which the company had (as of February 2010) or intended to replace PVC and BFR with alternative substances by the end of FY 2010 (April 2011), nevertheless as of January 2011 the list does not identify which products are fulfilling these criteria at the moment.[53]