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TheoreticaI foundations

Grammar TransIation Method:

Leaders: Johann Seidenstiicker, Karl Plotz, H. S. Elmendorf, and Johann
Meidinger. Grammar Translation approaches the study of a foreign language
first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, foIIowed by application of
this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the
target language.
Direct Method:
The direct method was an answer to the dissatisfaction with the older grammar
translation method, which teaches students grammar and vocabulary through
direct translations and thus focuses on the written language.
There was an attempt to set up conditions that imitate mother tongue
acquisition, which is why the beginnings of these attempts were called the
natural method. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Sauveur and Franke
proposed that language teaching should be undertaken within the target-
language system, which was the first stimulus for the rise of the direct method.
udio LinguaI Method:
harles Fries, the director of the English Language nstitute at the University of
Michigan, the first of its kind in the United States, believed that learning
structure, or grammar was the starting point for the student. n other words, it
was the students' job to orally recite the basic sentence patterns and
grammatical structures.
SiIent Way:
The Silent Way is a language teaching method created by aleb Gattegno that
makes extensive use of silence as a teaching technique. t is not usually
considered a mainstream method in language education.
t was first
introduced in Gattegno's book %eaching Foreign Languages in Schools: %he
Silent Way in 1963.
Gattegno was skeptical of the mainstream language
education of the time, and conceived of the method as a special case of his
general theories of education.
Suggestopedia is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian
psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov. t is used in different fields, but mostly in the
field of foreign language learning. Lozanov has claimed that by using this
method a teacher's students can learn a language approximately three to five
times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods.

TotaI PhysicaI Response:
Total Physical Response (TPR) is a method developed by Dr. James J. Asher,
a professor emeritus of psychology at San Jos State University, to aid learning
second languages. The method relies on the assumption that when learning a
second or additional language, language is internalized through a process of
codebreaking similar to first language development and that the process allows
for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production.
Students respond to commands that require physical movement. TPR is
primarily used by ESL/EAL teachers,
although the method is used in
teaching other languages as well.
The method became popular in the
1970s and attracted the attention or allegiance of some teachers, but it has not
received generalized support from mainstream educators.
According to Asher, TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a
biological program for acquiring any natural language on earth - including the
sign language of the deaf.
Community Ianguage Iearning:
The LL method was developed by harles A. urran, a professor of
psychology at Loyola University in hicago.
This method refers to two roles:
that of the knower (teacher) and student (learner). Also the method draws on
the counseling metaphor and refers to these respective roles as a counselor
and a client. According to urran, a counselor helps a client understand his or
her own problems better by 'capturing the essence of the clients concern ...[and]
relating [the client's] affect to cognition...;' in effect, understanding the client and
responding in a detached yet considerate manner.