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Sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) NaPFO3

Composition: -The structure of the fluorophosphate anion consists of phosphorus at the center of a tetrahedron defined by three oxygen atoms and one fluorine. Formal representations depict a double bond between one oxygen atom and phosphorus, with single bonds for the other two oxygen atoms and the fluorine. In this very formal depiction, negative charge is localized on the O atoms of the single P-O bonds. Uses: -MFP is best known as an ingredient in toothpastes. It is claimed to protect tooth enamel from attack by bacteria that cause dental caries (cavities). -MFP is also used in some medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Origin: -Accordingly, one would expect that information on the history of fluorophosphates (at least sodium monofluorophosphate, abbreviated as MFP or SMFP) should most probably be found in dental publications. Indeed, there were a few history articles written in the early 1980s (13) on which more recent accounts still rely heavily. In a TV news program "Dont swallow your toothpaste" (Health Alert Series in Englands Channel 4, June 19, 1997) it was claimed that John Hein was the person who developed MFP at the University of Rochester. Where can be found: -Toothpaste -Ore fluorspar (calcium fluoride) in soil. -It can be found in both fresh and sea water, in food (fish, bone meal, tea), and in our bodies as part of the bone.

2. Sodium nitrate NaNO3

Composition: -It is a white solid which is very soluble in water. Uses: -Sodium nitrate was used extensively as a fertilizer and a raw material for the manufacture of gunpowder in the late 19th century. It can be combined with iron hydroxide to make a resin. -It can be used in the production of nitric acid by combining it with sulfuric acid and subsequent separation through fractional distillation of the nitric acid, leaving behind a residue of sodium bisulfate. Hobbyist gold refiners use sodium nitrate to make a hybrid aqua regia that dissolves gold and other metals.

-It is also used in the wastewater industry for facultative microorganism respiration. Origin: -The earliest known complete purification process for potassium nitrate was outlined in 1270 by the Arab chemist and engineer Hasan alRammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya ('The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices'). In this book al-Rammah describes first the purification of barud (crude saltpetre mineral) by boiling it with minimal water and using only the hot solution, then the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes) to remove calcium and magnesium by precipation of their carbonates from this solution, leaving purified potassium nitrate. This was used for the manufacture of gunpowder and explosive devices. Where can be found: -fertilizers -pyrotechnics -glass and potteryenamels

3. Sodium Nitrite NaNO2

Composition: -Sodium nitrite, an inorganic compound, appears as a white powder and is very soluble in water. It has one sodium atom, one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms in each molecule. Chemically, it acts as a reducing agent, and in the process it gets oxidized to sodium nitrate, NaNO3. Sodium nitrite is a hygroscopic compound, meaning it will absorb moisture from the air if left out in the open. Uses: -Nitrites are a normal part of human diet, found in most vegetables -As a food additive, it serves a dual purpose in the food industry since it both alters the color of preserved fish and meats and also prevents growth of Clostridium botulinum, the bacterium which causes botulism. -Recently, sodium nitrite has been found to be an effective means to increase blood flow by dilating blood vessels, acting as a vasodilator. -Sodium nitrite is used to convert amines into diazo compounds. -Sodium nitrite also has been used in human and veterinary medicine as a vasodilator, abronchodilator, and an antidote for cyanide poisoning. Origin: -Sodium nitrite was developed during the 1960's. Resistance to it quickly arose when its health effects were studied during the 1970s. In 1977, the U.S. Department of Agriculture considered banning it. Anti-

nitrite sentiment reached its peak between 1978 and 1981. The USDA's final ruling on the additive came out in 1984, allowing its use. Where can be found: -found in most vegetables

4. Sodium percarbonate 2Na2CO3.3H2O2

Composition: -has an active available oxygen content which is equivalent to 27.5% H2O2. Uses: -Sodium Percarbonate offers many of the same functional benefits as liquid hydrogen peroxide. It dissolves into water rapidly to release oxygen and provides powerful cleaning, bleaching, stain removal and deodorizing capabilities. -Sodium Percarbonate also is one disinfecting agent,it can kill coliform, staphylokinase, hepatitis bacterium and so on. Origin: Tianjin China (Mainland) Where can be found: -bleaching agent -deodorant

5. Sodium phosphate; Trisodium phosphate Na3PO4

Composition: -white, granular or crystalline solid, highly soluble in water producing an alkaline solution. Uses: -The major use for trisodium phosphate is in cleaning agents. Origin: -192025 Where can be found: -cleaning agents

6. Sodium silicate Na2SiO3

Composition: -a white powder that is readily soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. Uses: -Sodium silicate is used, along with magnesium silicate, in muffler

repair and fitting paste. -Sodium silicate can be used to seal leaks at the head gasket. -Sodium silicate solution is used to inexpensively, quickly, and permanently disable automobile engines. -Sodium silicate gel is also used as a substrate for algal growth in aquaculture hatcheries. Origin: -was defined in Von Wagner's Manual of Chemical Technology (1892 translation) as any of the soluble alkaline silicates, first observed by Van Helmont in 1640 as a fluid substance made by melting sand with excess alkali. Where can be found: -sodium silicate solution

7. Sodium sulfate Na2SO4

Composition: -the sodium salt of sulfuric acid. -it is a white crystalline solid of formula Na2SO4 known as the mineral thenardite; the decahydrate Na2SO410H2O has been known as Glauber's salt or, historically, sal mirabilis since the 17th century. Uses: -Sodium sulfate is mainly used for the manufacture of detergents and in the Kraft process of paper pulping. Origin: -The hydrate of sodium sulfate is known as Glauber's Salt after the Dutch/German chemist andapothecary Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604 1670), who discovered it in 1625 in Austrian spring water. He named it sal mirabilis(miraculous salt), because of its medicinal properties: the crystals were used as a general purpose laxative, until more sophisticated alternatives came about in the 1900s. Where can be found: -detergents

8. Sodium sulfide Na2S

Composition: -colorless water-soluble salts that give strongly alkaline solutions. When exposed to moist air, Na2S and its hydrates emit hydrogen sulfide, which smells much like rotten eggs or flatus. Uses: -It is primarily used in pulp and paper industry in the kraft process

-It is used in water treatment as an oxygen scavenger agent, in the photographic industry to protect developer solutions from oxidation, in textile industry as a bleaching, as a desulfurising and as a dechlorinating agent and in leather trade for the sulfitisation of tanning extracts. Origin: -China Where can be found: -rubber chemicals

9. Sodium sulfite Na2SO3

Composition: -Soluble sodium salt of sulfurous acid. It is a product of sulfur dioxide scrubbing, a part of the flue gas desulfurization process. Uses: -It is also used as a preservative to prevent dried fruit from discoloring, and for preserving meats, and is used in the same way as sodium thiosulfate to convert elemental halogens to their respective hydrohalic acids, in photography and for reducing chlorine levels in pools. Origin: -China Where can be found: -preservative

10. Stannous chloride (tin(II)chloride) SnCl2

Composition: -a white crystalline solid with the formula SnCl2. It forms a stable dihydrate, but aqueous solutions tend to undergo hydrolysis, particularly if hot. -SnCl2 has a lone pair of electrons, such that the molecule in the gas phase is bent. Uses: -used as a reducing agent (in acid solution), and in electrolytic baths for tin-plating. Origin: -1865-70 Where can be found: -tin cans

11. Stibine SbH3


-colourless gas is the principalcovalent hydride of antimony and a heavy analogue of ammonia. The molecule is pyramidal with HSbH angles of 91.7 and SbH distances of 1.707(170.7pm). This gas has an offensive smell like hydrogen sulfide (rotten eggs). Uses: -Stibine is used in the semiconductor industry to dope small quantities of antimony via the process of chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Origin: -In 1837 Lewis Thomson and Pfaff independently discovered stibine. It took some time before the properties of the toxic gas could be determined, partly because a suitable synthesis was not available. Where can be found: -dope semiconductors

12. Strontium chloride SrCl2

Composition: -The solid adopts a deformed rutile structure. In the vapour phase the SrCl2 molecule is non-linear with a Cl-Sr-Cl angle of approximately 130. Uses: -is used as a source of redness in fireworks. -SrCl2 is useful in reducing tooth sensitivity by forming a barrier over microscopic tubules in thedentin containing nerve endings that have become exposed by gum recession. -The radioactive isotope strontium-89, used for the treatment of bone cancer, is usually administered in the form of strontium chloride. Origin: -Named after the Scottish village of Strontian (Gaelic Sron an t-Sithein), having been discovered in the ores taken from the lead mines. Where can be found: -Pyrotechnics

13. Strontium nitrate Sr(NO3)2

Composition: -This colourless solid is used as an colorant (red) in pyrotechnics. Uses: -strontium nitrate is used to produce a rich red flame in fireworks and road flares. -It is used in electrophysiology experiments. Origin:

-Strontium nitrate is typically generated by the reaction of nitric acid on strontium carbonate. Where can be found: -fireworks

14. Sulfamic acid H3NO3S

Composition: -The greater length of the S-N distance is consistent with a single bond. Furthermore, a neutron diffraction study located the hydrogen atoms, all three of which are 1.03 distant from nitrogen. In the solid state, the molecule of sulfamic acid is well described by a zwitterionic form. Uses: -Sulfamates have been used in the design of many types of therapeutic agents such as antibiotics, nucleoside/nucleotide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase inhibitors, HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), anti-cancer drugs (steroid sulfatase and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors), anti-epileptic drugs, and weight loss drugs. -Sulfamic acid is used as an acidic cleaning agent, sometimes pure or as a component of proprietary mixtures, typically for metals and ceramics. Origin: -China Where can be found: -Lime-A-Way Thick Gel

15. Sulfane H2S

Composition: -a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs perceptible at concentrations as low as 0.00047 parts per million. Uses: -Several organosulfur compounds are produced using hydrogen sulfide. -Upon combining with alkali metal bases, hydrogen sulfide converts to alkali hydrosulfides such as sodium hydrosulfide and sodium sulfide, which are used in the degradation of biopolymers. -Hydrogen sulfide is used to separate deuterium oxide, or heavy water, from normal water via the Girdler Sulfide process. Origin: -Hydrogen sulfide is most commonly obtained by its separation from

sour gas, which is natural gas with high content of H2S. It can also be produced by reacting hydrogen gas with molten elemental sulfur at about 450 C. Hydrocarbons can replace hydrogen in this process. Where can be found: -natural gas -biogas -LPG

16. Sulfur Dioxide SO2

Composition: -It is released by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide unless the sulfur compounds are removed before burning the fuel. Uses: -Sulfur dioxide is an intermediate in the production of sulfuric acid, being converted to sulfur trioxide, and then to oleum, which is made into sulfuric acid. -Sulfur dioxide is sometimes used as a preservative for dried apricots and other dried fruits owing to its antimicrobial properties, and it is sometimes called E220 when used in this way. -Sulfur dioxide is an important compound in wine making, and is designated as parts per million in wine,E number: E220. Origin: -Sulphur dioxide is released naturally into the atmosphere from volcanoes and combustion processes. The anthropogenic impact on the environment primarily results from the combustion of sulphurous fossil fuels (e.g. coal, oil, natural gas) in power and heating plants, in industry, in household use and in traffic. The technical product is made from elemental sulphur, pyrite, sulphide ores of non-ferrous metals, gypsum, anhydrite and flue gases (ULLMANN, 1994 for processes involved). Where can be found: -coal -petroleum

17. Sulfuric Acid H2SO4

Composition: -a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4. -Pure sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid.

Uses: -Principal uses include lead-acid batteries for cars and other vehicles, ore processing, fertilizer manufacturing, oil refining, wastewater processing, and chemical synthesis. Origin: -Sulfuric acid was called "oil of vitriol" by medieval European alchemists. There are mentions to it in the works of Vincent of Beauvais and in the Compositum de Compositis ascribed to Albertus Magnus. A passage from Pseudo-Gebers Summa Perfectionis was long considered to be the first recipe for sulfuric acid, but this was a misinterpretation Where can be found: -batteries -oil

18. Sulfurous Acid H2SO3

Composition: -There is no evidence that sulfurous acid exists in solution, but the molecule has been detected in the gas phase. Uses: -used as a bleach. -used chiefly as a disinfectant and bleaching agent, and occasionally as a spray in tonsillitis; it has been used externally for its parasiticidal effect in various skin diseases. Origin: -There is no evidence that sulfurous acid exists in solution, but the molecule has been detected in the gas phase. Where can be found: -bleach

19. SO2Cl2
Composition: -Sulfur is tetrahedral in SO2Cl2, being bound to two oxygen atoms via double bonds and to two chlorine atoms via single bonds. The oxidation state of the sulfur atom is +6, as in H2SO4. Uses: -Sulfuryl chloride is often used as a source of Cl2. -SO2Cl2 is widely used as a reagentin the conversion of C-H C-Cl adjacent to activating substituents such as carbonyls and sulfoxides. -SO2Cl2 can also be used to treat wool to prevent shrinking. Origin:

-186570 Where can be found: -Pesticides

20. Tantalum carbide TaC

Composition: -They are extremely hard, brittle, refractory ceramic materials with metallic electrical conductivity. They appear as brown-gray powders which are usually processed by sintering. Uses: -tantalum carbides are commercially used in tool bits for cutting applications and are sometimes added to tungsten carbide alloys. Origin: -Scientists at Los Alamos have produced a tantalum carbide graphite composite material, which is said to be one of the hardest materials ever made. Where can be found: -machine tool bits -cutting tools -mining equipment and drill bits

21. Tantalum(V) oxide Ta2O5

Composition: -Both low and high temperature forms exist. The low temperature form is known as -Ta2O5, and the high temperature form is known as Ta2O5. The transition point between these two forms has been reported as 1360 C. The transition is slow but reversible. The structures of both forms consist of chains built from octahedral and pentagonal bipyramidal polyhedra sharing opposite vertices. These chains are further joined by sharing edges to yield the 3D structure. Uses: -Ta2O5 is used to make capacitors in automotive electronics, cell phones, and pagers, electronic circuitry; thin-film components; and high-speed tools. -In the 1990s, there was a very strong interest to do research on tantalum oxide as a high-k dielectric for DRAM capacitor applications. Origin: -The metal oxide discovered by Anders Gustaf Ekeberg was obtained from minerals taken frompegmatite (an igneous rock associated with tantalite or columbite) at Ytterby, Sweden, andKimoto, Finland. The

microlite-pyrochlore mineral series is also a source of tantalum oxide.Microlite contains approximately 70% of tantalum oxide, and pyrochlore contains approximately 10%. Where can be found: -Cellular phones -Pagers

22.Tellurium dioxide TeO2

Composition: -It is encountered in two different forms, the yellow orthorhombic mineral tellurite, -TeO2, and the synthetic, colourless tetragonal (paratellurite), -TeO2. Uses: -It is used as an acousto-optic material. -Tellurium dioxide is also a conditional glass former, which means it will form a glass with small molar additions of a second compound such as an oxide or halide. Origin: -Tellurium metal was first discovered by Franz-Joseph Muller von Reichenstein, but it was Martin Heinrich Klaproth who named the element in 1798 after the Latin word for earth, Telus. Where can be found: -Tellurite glasses

23. Tellurium tetrachloride TeCl4

Composition: -monomeric in the gas phase, with a structure similar to that of SF4. -In the solid state, it is a tetrameric cluster, Te4Cl16. The cluster with a Te4Cl4 core and three terminal chloride ligands for each Te. Alternatively it can be considered as a Te4 tetrahedron with facecapping chlorines and three terminal chlorines per tellurium atom, giving each tellurium atom a distorted octahedral environment. Uses: -Growth of uranium dioxide crystals. -TeCl4 has proven of occasional interest in organic synthesis. Origin: -discovered by Franz Joseph Mller von Reichenstein, a Romanian mining official, in 1782. Where can be found: -flash lamps and arc lamps,