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The NOOSPHERE TECHNOLOGY CENTER center is located near Itiquira, 100km north of capital of Brazil, Braslia, with coordinates 15 deg 23 South, 27 deg 28 West.

State of Gois, Brazil

Salto Itiquira

The Salto Itiquira is a waterfall in Brazil. They are located 34 kilometers north of Formosa in the state of Gois and 115 kilometers from Braslia on a paved road. The falls have a height of 168 meters, making them possibly the highest accessible waterfall in Brazil and the second highest overall. The falls are formed by the drop of the Itiquira River from the higher central plateau north of Formosa into the deep Paran River valley. The waters are unpolluted and a bottling plant name Indai is located on the river above the falls.


Boris Petrovic. Whole Earth System Scientist and Noospheric Philosopher. engineer of teleautomation systems, a researcher into Tesla's "World system", Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and magnetic reconnection. Boris is an associate of The Serbian "Nikola Tesla" Society in Belgrade, the Tesla Science Foundation in Philadelphia and founding member of the Noosphere Forum. He worked in a number of embedded tech and automation systems start-ups as a software engineer and architect. As a founding member of the Google Lunar X Prize Team Synergy Moon, he is involved in private space exploration, focusing on outer-space settlement. Through cooperation with the International Scientific Research Institute for Cosmic AnthropoEcology in Novosibirsk and the Foundation of the Law of Time in Oregon he works on the study of cosmic consciousness, access to intensified consciousness and altered states, including nonlinear time and telepathy. Research of Teslas wireless energy transfer, in his Belgrade laboratory, uncovers the potential energy field of instantaneous locality that underlies our reality, and facilitates communication with Earths cosmic neighborhood. Currently, he is involved in ecological and cultural projects in biosphere design and self-sustainable communities, promoting the integrated model of self-sustainable habitat in Portugal the Tamera Solar Village and working in Brasilia through the Brazilian Ecovillage Movement focusing on new models of living systems and long-term survival of the human species and civilization.

The living water

Aqua Vivens (Living Water water of life) is a term which is seldom fully understood in Western healing modalities today. It refers to the most important substance for life on this planet, but most people understand water to be the lifeless chemical composition H2O. This is wrong because water is a living energy. Few people give much thought to where used water goes and even fewer people give any conscious consideration to the fact that nowadays much of our drinking water is recycled. Research investigation into the microstructure and memory capability of water to store a very wide spectrum of vibrational imprinting lets us see photographically just how damaged chemically treated water is. The water they intend to recycle is dead and toxic, without life force. Maybe water authorities are not aware that water is a living energy and supply only dead water to their customers. The systems and methods of orthodox water management, the construction of artificial straight water courses and chemical treatments combine to lessen the energy in water. Compulsory fluoridation, chlorine, acid rain contamination, high levels of agricultural pesticides, nitrates, fertilisers, lead and trihalomethanes turn this dead water into a highly toxic cocktail. These effects have killed or turned off the life force in water. This happens because water is a living energy and when poisoned with chemicals, the life force leaves.

Viktor Shauberger and Water Vortex Technology

Viktor was born on 30th June 1885 in Austria into a family who had been foresters for over 400 years. Viktor was happy to continue his family tradition as a forest warden like my father, grandfather, great grandfather and his father before him. From this background, Viktor learnt to trust his observations and intuitive awareness, as had his father and grandfather. He learnt from them that water in shaded mountain areas produced plants and vegetation at their richest, and that fields irrigated by water transported to them at night yielded greater harvests than neighbouring meadows and fields. From his research in adult life Viktor was able to explain the significance of waters properties and he devised various methods for maintaining water at its optimum level of purity and vitality. This was because he understood water as a living energy.

Water vortex generation Viktor Shauberger began to perceive water as the lifeblood of the earth and surmised that it must be allowed to follow its own course to keep its energy. He saw that a natural water course is shaped by winding curves and shaded banks to protect itself from direct sunlight and that its low temperature and natural flow were the conditions necessary for water to preserve its supportive and carrying strength, or its energy. He concluded that continued world wide deforestation had a drastic effect upon the availability of good drinking water and today, we see the effects as frequent landslides and flooding. His main truth about water is that it is a living energy. The truth today is that almost all water consumed in our civilised world is not good for you because it has no life force and has been damaged by chemicals. Only water that has been naturally filtered by percolation deep into the earth, maybe 8 or 10,000 feet, heated under pressure to super steam at the mantle and re-imprinted by the clays, gravels and minerals that it passes by on its way to the surface at 4 C is fully mature and full of light. Viktor designed and patented many amazing subtle energy devices, including a vortex implosion energiser machine for restoring the life force to water. This is what

makes this work so important water can be resuscitated and brought back to full life using vortex circulation and resonance.

Ozonation in Water Treatment

Ozone was first used in water treatment in the late 1800s and ozone is more widely used in Europe and Asia then the United States. Ozone is an unstable gas comprising of three oxygen atoms, the gas will readily degrade back to oxygen, and during this transition a free oxygen atom, or free radical is form. The free oxygen radical is highly reactive and short lived, under normal conditions it will only survive for milliseconds. Ozone is a colorless gas that has an odor similar to smell of the air after a major thunderstorm. Ozone has greater disinfection effectiveness against bacteria and viruses compared to chlorination. In addition, the oxidizing properties can also reduce the concentration of iron, manganese, sulfur and reduce or eliminate taste and odor problems. Ozone oxides the iron, manganese, and sulfur in the water to form insoluble metal oxides or elemental sulfur. These insoluble particles are then removed by post-filtration. Organic particles and chemicals will be eliminated through either coagulation or chemical oxidation. Ozone is unstable, and it will degrade over a time frame ranging from a few seconds to 30 minutes. The rate of degradation is a function of water chemistry, pH and water temperature.

Ozonation Process
The formation of oxygen into ozone occurs with the use of energy. This process is carried out by an electric discharge field as in the CD-type ozone generators (corona discharge simulation of the lightning), or by ultraviolet radiation as in UV-type ozone generators. In addition to these commercial methods, ozone may also be made through electrolytic and chemical reactions. In general, an ozonation system includes passing dry, clean air through a high voltage electric discharge, i.e., corona discharge, which creates and ozone concentration of approximately 1% or 10,000 mg/L. In treating small quantities of waste, the UV ozonators are the most common, while large-scale systems use either corona discharge or other bulk ozone-producing methods.

The raw water is then passed through a venturi throat which creates a vacuum and pulls the ozone gas into the water or the air is then bubbled up through the water being treated. Since the ozone will react with metals to create insoluble metal oxides, post filtration is required.

Primary Advantages to Ozone

1. Ozone is effect over a wide pH range and rapidly reacts with bacteria, viruses, and protozoans and has stronger germicidal properties then chlorination. Has a very strong oxidizing power with a short reaction time.

Disadvantages to Ozone
1. There is a higher equipment and operational cost and it may be more difficult to find professional proficient in ozone treatment and system maintenance.

2. Ozonation provides no germicidal or disinfection residual to inhibit or 2. The treatment process does not prevent regrowth. add chemicals to the water. 3. System may require pretreatment 3. Ozone can eliminate a wide variety for hardness reduction or the of inorganic, organic and additional of polyphosphate to prevent microbiological problems and taste formation of carbonate scale. and odor problems. The microbiological agents include 4.Ozone is less soluble in water, bacteria, viruses, and protozons (such compared to chlorine, and therefore as: Giardia and Cryptosporidium). special mixing techniques, like vortex energizing are needed.

Ozone Generation
Ozone generator is the most effective solution for water purification and food sterilization. Ozone generator products are being used with great success for breaking down contaminations in water, removing harmful pesticides, bacteria, and chemicals found on most fruits and vegetable as well as removing residual antibiotic and hormone in meats. Ozone often forms in nature under conditions where O2 will not react. Ozone used in industry is measured in g/Nm or weight percent. The regime of applied concentrations ranges from 1 to 5 weight percent in air and from 6 to 13 weight percent in oxygen.

Corona discharge method of generating Ozone

This is the most popular type of ozone generator for most industrial and personal uses. While variations of the "hot spark" coronal discharge method of ozone production exist, including medical grade and industrial grade ozone generators, these units usually work by means of a corona discharge tube. This kind of ozone generators are typically very cost-effective, and do not require an oxygen source other than the ambient air. However, they also produce nitrogen oxides as a by-product. Use of an air dryer can reduce or eliminate nitric acid formation by removing water vapor and increase ozone production. Use of an oxygen concentrator can further increase the ozone production and further reduce the risk of nitric acid formation due to removing not only the water vapor, but also the bulk of the nitrogen.

Ultraviolet (UV) light method of generating Ozone

UV ozone generators employ a light source that generates the same narrow-band ultraviolet light that is responsible for the sustenance of the ozone layer in the stratosphere of the Earth. While standard UV ozone generators tend to be less expensive, they usually produce ozone with a concentration of about 2% or lower. Another disadvantage of this method is that it requires the air to be exposed to the UV source for a longer amount of time, and any air that is not exposed to the UV source will not be treated. This makes UV generators impractical for use in situations that deal with rapidly moving air or water streams (in-duct air sterilization, for example).

Cold plasma method of generating Ozone

In the cold plasma method, pure oxygen gas is exposed to plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge. The diatomic oxygen is split into single atoms, which then recombine in triplets to form ozone. Cold plasma machines utilize pure oxygen as the input source, and produce a maximum concentration of about 5% ozone. They produce far greater quantities of ozone in a given space of time compared to ultraviolet production. However, because cold plasma ozone generators are very expensive, and still require occasional maintenance, they are found less frequently than the previous two types. The discharges manifest as filamentary transfer of electrons (micro discharges) in a gap between two electrodes. In order to evenly distribute the micro discharges, a dielectric insulator must be used to separate the metallic electrodes and to prevent arcing. Some cold plasma units also have the capability of producing short-lived allotropes of oxygen which include O4, O5, O6, O7, etc. These anions are even more reactive than ordinary O3.

US PATENT 568177 Nikola Tesla Apparatus for producing Ozone Nikola Tesla was the greatest inventor the world has ever seen. His fertile brain produced the original designs for all of the electrical apparatus now used to transmit AC power, for motors, generators, lighting, radio, radar, etc. The information about Tesla's genius has finally been spreading in the last two decades, after decades of suppression. Less well known is Tesla's involvement with ozone. Nikola Tesla stated that oxygen is the only gas that will pick up and carry electrical energy. In doing so, it becomes tremendously active and seeks to combine with all other substances. The list of substances that are inert to ozone is a very short list, and includes glass, Teflon, Kynar, Viton, Lexan and silicone. Therefore any ozone generator and auxiliary equipment must be composed of these substances only. There are several different techniques used to produce medical grade ozone, where freedom from contamination is critical. One type of generator uses an ultraviolet lamp as its source. It produces a very small amount of ozone with a narrow frequency bandwidth of ultraviolet light. This method is suited to air purification, because in that bandwidth, UV only reacts with oxygen, but it is too weak for medical purposes. Also, the UV lamp degrades over time and eventually burns out.

The second method of ozone production is corona discharge, where a tube with a hot or cold cathode is surrounded by a metal anode. Sometimes it is called cold corona or silent discharge. The best ones are called dual dielectric, because they have a layer of glass separating each component from the gas stream. This prevents contamination of the ozone, but due to the current draw to the metal, they are prone to electrical arcing and burnout. In addition, corona discharge generators make a lot of heat and must have large cooling fans to prevent them from overheating. You can always tell a corona discharge generator by the large cooling fan. Lack of durability has always beset corona discharge ozone generators, and was a major reason for doctors mostly abandoning ozone therapy in the US during the Forties, in the face of increasing pressure from the FDA and the AMA. The manufacturers of these generators show that they know of their limitations by offering only three-year warranties. Fortunately, there is a third method of producing clean, medical grade ozone. That method is called cold plasma. It uses glass rods filled with noble gases, excited by high voltage. The voltage jumps between the rods, forming an electrostatic plasma field which turns the oxygen into ozone. Since there is no appreciable current, there is no arcing or burnout. Thus the generator will last a very long time, limited only by the quality of the transformer. The original cold plasma generators were invented by Nikola Tesla in the 1920s and they still work 80 years later. Many companies claim to have cold plasma generators, but examination always shows they use a metal anode, which makes them corona discharge, dependent on current, and prone to failure. COLD PLASMA OZONE GENERATION In 1896, Tesla was issued a patent for a corona discharge ozone generator using charged metal plates to act on ambient air. He formed the Tesla Ozone Co. in 1900 and went into production of these units. His customers were naturopaths and allopaths who welcomed this powerful therapy into their practices. Breathing of ozone bubbled through olive oil and other oils was widely practiced at this time, and the Sears catalog of 1904 offered a unit for this purpose using eucalyptus, pine and spearmint oils. Tesla produced a gel made by bubbling ozone through olive oil until it solidified, and sold it to doctors. One hundred years later, we are doing the same thing, with Nature's Gift ozonated olive oil. After a while, Tesla began to get complaints from some doctors that his ozone generators were burnt out. Tesla was upset by this, so he put on his thinking cap to invent a method of generating ozone that would be immune to failure. He realized that it was current flow to a hot spot on the metal anode that caused the short and the subsequent burnout, and reasoned that the way to achieve long life was to eliminate the current by eliminating the metal. That left him with an electrostatic approach, which he was fully conversant with, featuring high voltage jumping a gap, with almost no current draw. To carry the electrostatic charge, he used inert gases in glass rods. This produced a cold plasma field which energized oxygen into ozone, and resulted in a generator that proved impervious to burnout. The unit used ambient air, and produced a small

amount of ozone as it was waved over a recumbent patient, who breathed it in. Tesla farmed out production of these generators to a Canadian company. There are still some of these units from the 1920s which have been kept in use and are still working as air purifiers today, 80 years later. Tesla felt that this invention was of such importance to human health that he did not patent it; instead he donated it freely to all of mankind. Unfortunately, this meant that eventually the idea was lost, because there was no recorded patent to look up. THE PLASMAFIRE GLASS TUBE The Tesla ozone generator from the 1920s, operated on air, using pure oxygen as the source, producing the highest quality medical ozone generator available. Since then, over 3000 of these all-glass Plasmafire tubes have been sold, and none has ever failed. The advantage of this system is its inherent longevity and the absolute purity of the O2/O3 output stream. There are no metallics of any kind, therefore there is no possibility of contamination, or of the tubes shorting out. The tubes can run continuously without fan cooling, even when run 24 hours per day, which we do as we make ozonated olive oil. Many competitors claim to have all glass generators, but we are the only manufacturer of medical ozone generators with true cold plasma tubes. This technology tolerates an accidental entry of water into the tube without burning out. If this happens, simply run oxygen through the tube until it dries out. The cold plasma technique has its own idiosyncrasies, one of which is its maximum concentration (about 70 ug/cc). It is interesting to note that the strongest response by the immune system (the production of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon) occurs with ozone concentrations of 30 - 55 ug/cc (The Use of Ozone in Medicine - Rilling and Viebahn, 1987). Tesla's instinct about cold plasma being the best method of ozone production for medical use has now been verified in modern times.

What is a dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD)?

Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs) comprise a specific class of high-voltage, ac, gaseous discharges that typically operate in the near-atmospheric pressure range. Their defining feature is the presence of dielectric layers that make it impossible for charges generated in the gas to reach the conducting electrode surfaces. With each half-cycle of the driving oscillation, the voltage applied across the gas exceeds that required for breakdown, and the formation of narrow discharge filaments initiates the conduction of electrons toward the more positive electrode. As charge accumulates on the dielectric layer(s) at the end(s) of each filament, the voltage drop across the filament is reduced until it falls below the discharge-sustaining level, whereupon the discharge is extinguished. The low charge mobility on the dielectric not only contributes to this self-arresting of filaments but also limits the lateral region over which the gap voltage is diminished, thereby allowing parallel filaments to form in close proximity to one another. Thus, the entire gas-filled space between parallel electrodes can become, on average, uniformly covered by transient discharge filaments, each roughly 0.1 mm in diameter and lasting only about 10 ns.

Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Water Ozonisator

Ozone generation and dissolution in water

A coaxial Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge (DBD) as an ozonized water reactor system operates in the air at an atmospheric pressure. In the reactor one of the dielectric layers is flowing water. Ozone and ozonized water are generated in the same volume of the discharge. The ozone production and its dissolution in the water simultaneously occurs leading to increases of the reactor efficiency. Water flows up through a vertical hollow cylindrical electrode and flows down making thin dielectric film over the electrode. Filamentary 50 Hz DBD has been performed using up to 20 kV applied voltage. Filamentary discharge is generated in air within 4 mm gap between the dielectric and the water layer. The inner electrode is 400 mm length and 20 mm in diameter. A measured power, under such condition, using a method of Lissajous figures is found to be 7-9 W for the flow rates in the range of 200-500 ml/min. The obtained ozone concentrations correspond to the values typically suggested for the

treatment of potable and wastewater. The efficiency can be further increased by addition of small amount of the oxygen in the DBD device.

High voltage Ozone electrodes DBD matrix setup

Ozone electrodes

Ozone generating electrodes

Practical applications of ozonization

Aquaculture (Fish farming) Ozone treatment of fish ponds eliminates water-borne diseases resulting in healthier fish and higher fish yields.

Agriculture Increasing pressure to reduce the amount of chemicals used in the farming of our food has led the agricultural industry to seek alternatives to pesticides. Ozone has been proven to be an effective agent and leaves no harmful residue on the produce. Bottling (Water, juices, beverages, wine) Ozone is used in the bottled beverage industry to treat the water used to make the beverages, to sterilize bottles and to disinfect the bottling and filling equipment. In the wine industry, ozone is used to clean the barrels used to age the wine. Disinfection Ozone is a stronger oxidant than all other commonly used disinfectants including chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and hydrogen peroxide. It leaves behind no harmful residue since unreacted ozone decomposes to oxygen. Drinking Water Ozone is ideal for drinking water treatment both for its ability to kill bacteria and viruses such as E.coli, cryptosporidium and rotavirus but also because it can precipitate heavy metals such as iron and manganese. Farming (Hogs, Poultry) Not only can ozone be used to treat the drinking water used for the animals and clean the wastewater produced by them, it has been shown to translate to higher productivity and profits for poultry and hog farmers.

Food Uses for ozone in food processing include the sanitization of fruits and vegetables, food storage, chilling, and the disinfection of equipment.

Hydroponics Treating the water used in hydroponics with ozone eliminates hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and pathogens resulting in higher crop yields.

Laundry The benefits of ozone in commercial laundries are almost too good to be true. Ozone can greatly reduce the amount of hot water used, reduce chemical usage and recycle wash water for reuse. Moreover, linen life is extended when compared to chlorine washing representing huge savings for hotels and hospitals. Pools & Spas Ozone offers a chemical-free way of treating pools and spas. Bathers will benefit from clear, chemicalfree, odourless water. Unlike chlorine, ozone will not bleach hair, damage bathing suits, dry skin, irritate eyes nor irritate the respiratory system. Soil Remediation Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons can be reclaimed on site with the use of ozone. Worthless land can become valuable real estate by using a special ozone ground injection technique. Wastewater The careless dumping of wastewater into the environment is taking a toll on our planet. More and more governments are putting in place and enforcing stringent environmental regulations to curb this practice.

Ozone Water Treatment / Purification

Municipal Water Treatment
Ozone is applied in large scale drinking water plants by means of porous diffusers placed strategically in large concrete contacting tanks. In smaller plants, ozone is usually applied via injectors. Control of ozone addition is by means of appropriate analytical instrumentation that measures ozone levels either in the liquid or gas phases sometimes in both phases. Application and control of ozone to water is similar regardless of the specific use of the treated water. UV optical ozone analyzers are typically specified in this application for ambient monitoring. They are mounted near large capacity ozone generators to shut the generators down in case of a leak. The level of accuracy offered by UV technology is over specified and more expensive than necessary when used simply as a leak detector in Municipal Water Treatment Plants.

Pharmaceutical Water Treatment

Ozone treatment of wastewater reduces the usage of energy, water, utilities and chemicals, and provides an effective alternative to traditional chemical treatments and older technologies. Pharmaceutical wastewater containing from 0.5% up to 10% formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde can be treated using ozone or ozone/peroxide/UV combinations. Up to 55% reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels are observed for solutions containing either formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde or a mixture of the two aldehydes when these solutions are treated using ozone or ozone/peroxide/UV combinations.

Pools & Spas

Ozone is an efficacious antimicrobial oxidizer that can be safely applied to public swimming venues. Its function in public recreational water is as a Secondary Disinfection System used in conjunction with chlorine. Water clarity and quality is improved in the pool after ozones potent and rapid oxidation (to which microorganisms cannot become immune). Ozone is effective at reducing chloramines in pool water that when left uncontrolled, 1) will reduce the ability of the pool water to protect itself against human pathogens; 2) contribute to structural/equipment corrosion (primarily as a function of off-gas); 3) potentially exacerbate swimmers asthma. Ozone is a potent broad spectrum antimicrobial oxidizer that when properly sized and applied to any swimming venue will:

control the chloramine levels in the water as well as provide significantly more oxidation than FAC provide a 3 log Cryptosporidium parvum inactivation in a side-stream applied single pass provide micro-flocculation which aids filtration allow residual FAC for continuous in-pool swimmer protection from pathogens

Aqueous Ozone as a Surface Sanitizing spray for locker rooms, shower, bathrooms and ancillary pool equipment is also possible.

An ambient monitor is required in the mechanical room in case of a generator leaks. Aeroqual ozone monitors can shut down the O3 generator with options to trigger an alarm and or display prior to entering the mechanical room. An additional alarm/display at the control room can be useful in the control room which may be some distance away.

Aquaculture Fish Farming & Hatcheries

Ozone disinfection plays an important role in the prevention and elimination of fish diseases in commercial aquaculture systems as well as in the ultimate processing and packaging of seafood products.

Eco-friendly water habitat Waste water treatment Surface sanitation Product processing and packaging

Aquariums & Zoos

Large municipal aquariums and zoos disinfect water with ozone to protect different species from infection and from water borne diseases. Ozone destroys bacteria, inactivates viruses, and oxidizes organics. The water is clean and clear and safe for the animals.

No odor No harmful residue Effective microbe control Water clarity

Agriculture Livestock Drinking Water, Greenhouses

Supplying clean drinking water to livestock by removing fertilizers, bacteria and pesticides from their water supply can improve weight gain and improve overall health and production. Increased health of livestock and crops lead to improved productivity, reduced costs and increased profits for producers. Studies by PFRA and other regulatory bodies indicate bacteria free and clean drinking water can increase weigh gains of farm animals by 20% or more. Eggs can have a bad odour if water is not clean. Chickens may stop laying or be less productive if their energy is spent fighting off infection. Supplying clean water to crops in green houses can improve yields and speed up growth rates.

The success of a hydroponics crop depends on the quality of the water being used to grow the plants. Water parameters that have a direct impact on crop success include:

Oxygen level: low levels limit plant growth Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) concentration: High levels reduce fertilizer effectiveness and promotes growth of anaerobic bacteria Microbial loading: High levels of bacteria in the water compete with the plants for nutrients. Root born pathogens are detrimental to plant health Algae growth

Benefits of Ozone to Hydroponics

The elimination of H2S The increase in oxygen levels The elimination of microbes, algae and root born pathogens including powdery mildew, Fusarium and Pythium Savings on chemical fertilisers Higher crop yields

Cooling Towers & Air Washers

Water treatment is the most important factor effecting the operation and longevity of cooling towers, air washers, compressors and other heat exchange equipment. Ozone water treatment equipment is modular, very reliable and in most cases more economical than a good chemical water treatment program. Ozone water treatment means no chemical discharge into sanitary sewer systems. The aim is to sterilise the water tank water to eliminate mould/scum which is potentially a health issue but mainly to save the cost and reduce environmental impact of cleaning with harsh chemicals.

Benefits of Ozone for Cooling Towers & Air Washers

Ozone is an oxidizing biocide approximately 3 times more powerful than chlorine but acts thousands of times faster. Ozone reverts back to oxygen in a very short time with only a small residual retained in the water. Ozone and tower water blowdown will provide the sole treatment with no additional chemicals added in most cases. Unlike non-oxidizing biocides bacteria cannot develop immunity to ozone. Alternating chemical treatment programs, (biocides) is not necessary. When properly dissolved and diluted ozone does not harm cooling system metals, pump or valve components. Cleaning the chiller tubes, (to remove biofouling) is eliminated, completely. No chemical residual in the blowdown means environmentally friendly operation with no environmental impact or discharge permit requirements. No chemical storage, handling, transportation, liabilities, secondary containment, MSDS records, eye wash stations or concerns for workers on site. Automated equipment can be tied into Building Management System for remote monitoring of ORP and water conductivity if required

Air Washers
Air washers are used in commercial buildings to humidify and dehumidify large volumes of air circulating throughout occupied areas. The same principle of air handling is used in mills and manufacturing plants to remove lint/fibers, dust and vapors from the building air. Air washers are also used to remove volatile organics from manufacturing processes through the exhaust fumes. Large air-handling washers can move in excess of 100,000 cubic feet of air per minute (cfm). An elaborate spray system inside of the air-handling room creates a wall of water in which all the air must pass through. As the name implies, air washers pick up organic and inorganic materials that eventually dissolve in the water. In almost all cases the spray water is re-circulated from a central tank. The reservoir must be treated with chemical biocides

both oxidizing and non-oxidizing to maintain a healthy working environment, reduce biofilm formation and insure proper heat transfer in the cooling/heating equipment. Chlorine/bromine combinations are almost always avoided due to the odor they impart into the air stream. Ozone is an effective biocide and air washer sump cleaning schedules are often no longer required.

Ozone Monitor Requirements

This application requires an ambient ozone monitor either on the skid or on the wall next to the generator to shut the generator down in case of a leak. The generator is usually in the same room as the water tank/cooling tower.

Commercial Laundries
Ozone is now being implemented in many commercial and institutional laundries. Not only because ozone is an environmentally-friendly alternative to chlorine, but because it makes economic sense. The advantages of a properly designed and operated ozone laundering system have been proven.

reduces environmental impact reduced effluent waste water improves laundry quality whiter, fluffier laundry, extended linen life, better deodorisation saves money saves energy and detergent, while providing superior disinfection. by using mostly cold water, business operational costs can be reduced up to 50%. Typically < 2-year payback time Shorter cycle times

Ozone generators can be added on to conventional laundries, so no major changes to existing installations are necessary.

Ambient Ozone Monitoring Requirements

Ambient ozone monitors should be installed near the ozone generator (on a skid or wall mounted) to shut the generator down in case of a leak and also in the laundry area where people are working.

Bottled Water
Ozone was introduced into the beverage industry as a residual disinfectant for bottled water. Its efficacy as a sanitizer prompted the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) to require ozone in certain types of bottled water. The use of ozone has now spread throughout much of the beverage industry where it is used in plants that bottle everything from beer and wine to soft drinks and juices.

Potable water preparation disinfect the bottled water from bacteria and viruses, precipitating heavy metals, removing colour, tannin and hydrogen sulfide Surface sanitation disinfect bottling equipment Container rinsing disinfect bottles and caps Water preservation

An ambient ozone monitor is recommended in the generator room to shut down the generator in case of leaks and also in the production areas where people work in case of off-gassing from the water.

Wineries & Breweries

Vintners and breweries today want to preserve the natural flavors of their products. They are quickly eliminating chlorinated water and other toxic sanitizers and turning to ozone as a safe, cost effective, and proven sanitizer in their wine and beer making process.

Benefits of Ozone for Wineries & Breweries

Safe For Operators vented ozone destruct Better Sanitation complete disinfection on contact with no chemical residue Saves Money reduces or eliminates chemical use and reduces hot water use Saves Time disinfectant produced on-site (no storage, mixing or handling of chemicals) Process water purification Sustainability ozone sanitation is the only natural product with proven efficiency without leaving any harmful by-products Mold & Mildew Control Eliminates T.E.A. precursors

Wastewater Treatment
Ozone waste water treatment is a thorough and effective oxidation process and is a suitable disinfectant for the organic matter found in waste water. The process will remove pesticides, organics (such as organic Nitrogen), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), and Sulfur. Plus, it will significantly decrease the associated odors. Finally, the benefits for using ozone in waste water treatment include use of a clean, environmentally friendly technology that is as effective and economical.

Benefits of Ozone for Wastewater Treatment

Safe and easy to use Low maintenance costs Ozone is produced on-site and requires no storage of dangerous chemicals Ozone requires no additional chemicals No cocktail of disinfectants necessary. Micro-organisms cannot build resistance to ozone even after prolonged usage Very effective in removing biofilms No persistent chemicals. Ozone breaks down to oxygen Does not continue oxidizing to the detriment of the fixture. Additionally, most Ozone will be consumed in interactions with the off-gassing from the sewage Ozone will oxidize a surface and form a patina which limits further oxidation Ozone is effective in a wide pH range

Wastewaters can contain high levels of organic contaminants and pharmaceuticals. Organic contaminants are usually easily biodegradable and as such are amenable to biological wastewater treatment. However, this type of treatment requires rather large land areas and time (~ 30 days or more) for completion. Biological treatment is the least costly method of wastewater treatment, requiring the least amount of added energy. When land is not available, or there is insufficient time for bioprocessing, ozone can provide a technology to reduce BOD and COD levels. Ozone has been shown to aid sludge dewatering, thus aiding filtration. Biotreated effluents can be disinfected with ozone, thus avoiding disinfection with chlorine, and also avoiding the formation of chlorinated organics that pass into the environment and enter the food chain.

Soil Remediation & Groundwater Remediation

Typical Ozone applications include:

residential & commercial gas and oil spill remediation gas station, refinery or oil well remediation shoreline & brown-field remediation salt & hazardous chemical spill contamination remediation train & tractor trailer spill remediation groundwater remediation

Systems are typically built into 20 steel cargo containers for stationary installation or a trailer for mobility, or can be provided as component assemblies to install in a job site building. An ambient monitor should be installed in the container/trailer to shut the O3 generators down in case of leaks.

Ozonated water from the trailers is carried by pipes or hoses and sparged into the soil via probes or wells. There are environmental, economic and time saving benefits. These include rapid treatment response, minimising the environmental impact of a spill. Each remediation site is different depending on the location, characteristics, contamination type, distribution and concentration. Ozone will rid contaminated soil of a variety of pollutants such as:

MTBE (Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Ether) Hydrocarbons Diesel Pesticides VOCs (Volatile Organic Carbons) Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene Tricholoroethylene Aromatics

Benefits of Ozone Soil Remediation

Treatment is done on site Treatment causes minimal physical disturbance to the site Low capital cost Low operating costs Fast reaction rates

Evapotranspiration Wastewater Treatment Systems

Evaporation beds are a low-cost technology that allows for a secondary treatment of different wastewater flow streams like partly treated wastewater from septic tanks, greywater from kitchen and showers, anal cleansing water and or in some cases even for urine from urine diversion toilets. The respective wastewater effluent can be discharged by gravity into sealed up planting beds, containers, inverted tires or the like where it will be absorbed by soil particles and moves both horizontally and vertically through the soil pores. The liquid fraction moves upwards by capillary action and either evaporates at the surface or is taken up by plants and transpires. The remaining nutrients are taken up by the plants and the dissolved organic material in the effluent is removed by bacteria living in the soil.

Ozone, Green Houses and Hydroponics

Application of Ozone to Waste Water Recovery and Disinfection In applications of full-scale wastewater recovery systems for greenhouses, ozonation systems are used for the complete elimination of bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores and parasites, as well as for the removal of organic waste. The ozonated water contains increased levels of oxygen that is desirable for the prevention of anaerobic pathogen growth on plant roots. The wastewater recovery system can incorporates two storage tanks, The ozone controller will treat one tank that is being supplied with the water returning from the greenhouse. The second tank serves as the recycled water supply. Typically, 50% of the plant food is recovered. When the treatment of the first tank is completed, water is left to sit for a few hours until all residual ozone is reduced to oxygen. Then the tanks are switched automatically. The second tank now collects and treats water from the greenhouse while the first tank supplies water to the plants. All of the wastewater is recovered; there is no discharge of any kind. The water savings range between 20% to 90% depending on the greenhouse operation and the season.

Sistema de hidroponia

Urban Automated Garden Systems

Although food production in cities has a long tradition in most parts of the world, the 20th century has seen agriculture in industrialized nations become, almost exclusively, a rural activity. As urban spaces have become more crowded, land prices have escalated and transportation and storage technology have improved. Therefore a discussion of the subject of urban agriculture may seem an odd topic for a planning department. However, our current unsustainable patterns of consumption and waste, and persistent hunger and inadequate nutrition in one of the richest countries in the world, are forcing us to examine some new approaches. Urban agriculture could be one of these approaches that forms part of a new direction in food and nutrition policy - one that focuses on health, ecological integrity, job creation and the creation of complete communities. Urban agriculture has the potential to make a significant contribution to the solution of many current urban problems that fall within the rubric of healthy communities and sustainable development. These include:

environmental degradation and ecological restoration resource consumption health and nutrition issues food security and access for lower income citizens ecological education local economic development and diversification community building

All these can be influenced in a profound way by the activity of food production in urban spaces. Add to that the increased freshness of locally produced food, lower transportation costs, dietary diversification, and responsiveness to local needs and the advantages of producing at least some of our food in cities becomes obvious. This is what makes the prospect of a city full of food gardens and overflowing with the bounty from urban greenhouses so exciting for Vancouver. Urban agriculture offers an immense opportunity to increase the welfare of all citizens and repair ecological damage and as we shall see a number of initiatives are already underway in this direction. Food is a complex subject so no single approach is recommended here. A diversity of approaches at different scales is presented that fits the existing configuration of the city as a dense urban space. Rather than assigning large areas of expensive urban land to food growing this report looks at the potential to grow food in the interstitial and under utilized spaces of the city - it is a greening of the city that emerges from the cracks left in the contemporary asphalt.

Aqua Farms
Aqua Farms offer sustainable & organic closed-loop urban farming systems on large commercial scale and availability. Aqua Farms combine a commercial-scale fish farm with a vertically integrated vegetable garden to reduce greenhouse gas emissions & provide sustainable and organic fresh food for an urban & progressive clientele of ecologically conscious consumers. In the Aqua Farm system, the nutrients from the fish farm are broken down by bacteria and other little helpers to provide a fertile ground for plant growth. At the end, the system is closed-loop, completely organic and sustainable in its use. Mother nature does the trick! Everything works in harmony and creates almost zero emissions in the process.

Fish farm provides nutrients for vegetable garden. Vegetable garden cleans water for the fish farm Aquaponics, the science behind this magic, have been used for centuries but have had limited adoption in modern world agriculture due to their complexity. The critical question now is not IF such system will have their commercial break-through, but WHEN. Think about this as the solar industry 10 years agoentrepreneurial pioneers leading the way, and money will follow. Aqua Farm will reside on urban rooftops and city buildings. Urban farming aims to bring food production closer to where consumption is happening. All systems recycle the water and use only approximately 10% of the water required to grow crops in the ground. Year round increased planting density producing more products in less space with a much faster maturing period. Completely pesticide free due to the use of natural predatory insects. No leaching of nutrients or waste to be pumped into the environment. Minimal Maintenance, time governed by the size of the operation. Ability to produce a large quantity of food in a small space compared to conventional in ground systems. Grow beds can be set at a comfortable working height allowing disabled and wheelchair bound persons to be hired for part time help as needed. Preparation of grow bed medium is much simpler and less expensive than conventional soil preparation

The Aquaponic Circle Although hydroponics and fish farms produce high yields, theyre also highmaintenance. Soil-free hydroponic systems require frequent nutrient replenishment, and fish tanks need constant flushing of fouled water. But pair the two in one aquaponic system, and the flaws become virtues: The fish waste becomes plant fertilizer, while the plants clean the dirty water.

This automated conveyor belt system, conceptualized by OrganiTech, an Israeli company that creates automated farming systems, takes aquaponics one step further. The tanks slow current carries floating trays of plants [1] past nutrient dispensers [2] and, by the end of the weeks-long trip, the plants are ready for harvest. Below them swim high-protein tilapia [3], whose ammonia-laden waste sinks to a gravel bed [4], where bacteria convert it to nitrogen. The system pumps this nitrogen-rich water to the plants, which consume the nitrogen and return clean water to the fish.

The Omega Garden Hydroponic Carousel A rotating cylinder houses rows of plants that grow toward the interior light source. The result is highly effective use of space, lumens, water, and nutrients. Omega Gardens compact cylindrical rotating housing can grow 80 plants herbs, vegetables, fruits and grains at once, within an enclosure that takes up less than 2 m2 of floor space. The device slowly rotates taking 45 minutes to complete one cycle.

Urban Vertical Garden