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I{.

Tech. (COMPUTER SCTENCE

& ENGINEERING)

29

JAWAIIARLALNEHRUTECHNoLOGICALUNIVERSITY
M.'tbch (CSE) DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING UNIT I Introduction

HYDERABAD II SEMESTER

.I.he

the meaning of different forms of computing - Monolithic, Distributed, Parallel and gooryrative computing, computing, Distributed computing, Examplei of Distributed systems, the strenglhs and wiaknesses of Distributed the architecture of distributed applications. operating system coricepts reievant to distributed computing,

'

UNIT II Distributed ComPuting Paradigms

" ApI), the peer-to-peer paiadigm,

paradigms for nistributed Rpplications

RMI, rnodel and the publish/subscribe message model; RPC mortel, The Distributed Objects Paradigms Paradigrn, The collaborative oRB, the objeci space paradigm, The Mobile Agent Paradigm, the Network Services application ( Groupware Paradigm) ,choosing a Paradigm for an application.

Message Passing Paradigm, The Client-Server Paradigm (Java Socket the point-to-point message Message system (or IvIOM) Paradigm

UNIT III Distributed Objects Paradigm (RMI)

object Message passing versusDistributed objects,AnArchetypal Distributed objggtfrchitecture, Distributed RMIApplication, steps for building Systems,h,p6, RMI,The Java RMIArchitecture, Java RMIAPI, Asample *n Rtutt application, testing and debugging, comparison of Rl'4I and socketAPI
'l'he basic Architecture, The CORBA object interface, lnter-ORB protocols, object servers and object clients, CORBA Naming Service and the Interoperable Naming Service, CORBA object services, object Adapters, Java IDL, An example CORBA application'

I)istributed Obiect Paradigm(CORBA)

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UNIT IV l)istributed Document-based Syste'ms WWW Lotus Notes, comparison of WWW and Lotus Notes, Distributed Coordination-based systems Introduction to coordination models, TIB, JIM, comparison of TIB and JINI
Software Agents, Agent Technology, Mobile Agents. I)istributed Muttimedia Systems - charactriristics of multimedia data, QOS of service management, Resource Management, Stream AdaPtation

'

..1

I.]NIT V Grid Computing l)efinition of gri$, grid types - computational grid, data grid, grid benefits and applications, drawbacks of grid
computing, grid iomponents, grid architecture and its relation to various Distributed Technologies-

Oluster Computing
n.uof ief -"o*puiing overview, clustercomputing-Introduction, and Paradigms, Applications of Clusters'

ClusterArchitecture, parallel programming models

TEXT BOOKS:

. 2. 3.
I

Distributed Computing, Principles andApplicqtions, M.L.Liu, Pearson Education' Distributed Systems, i'rinciptes and Paradigms, A.S.Tan6nbaum and M.V.Steen , Pearson Education' Clienyserve#rogrurn.ningwith Java and CORBA, second edition, R.Orfali & Dan Harkey, John Wiley

&

sons.

M. Tch' (COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEITRIN(;)

30
4.
5.

wph C'Fellenstein' Pbarson education' Grid computing, JJoseph & u'reltenslellr'r-trarD':-:]-1::;::^--^- -,r,,^ori^. -omputing' Rajkumal Buvva' Pearson education' 't

;il;ffi;ffi;bl;J;;

REFERENCE BOOKS: aa,.& cnns ANetworkingapptu"h toGridComputing'D'Minoli'WileY&sons' A'Abbas' Firewall Media" l. and Appliltions' ! Z. Grid Computing: APractical Guideto'Techl*togy O'Reilly' SPD' 2"d edition' 3. Java Netwottit"gttt"*ing, E'R'Harold' J.Dollimore andrimKindbirg'Pearson 4. Distributed systems, conceps andDes-igr;,i" "oi,ion, GCoulouris,

5.

Education.

Dreamtech. edition' brose' voget 39r edition, Brose, Vogel, Duddy, Wiley Java Progiamming with COREA'

ilr. Tech. (COMPIIIER'SCIENCE & ENGINEERING)

31

M.Tech(CSE);:i'ijrri

UNIVERSITY IIYDERAI}AI) JAWAHARLAL NETIRU TECIINOLOGICAL TI SEMESTEIT


.

:.,i

ilISTRIB {J}ED'D'AfAB

AS ES

UNIT

lDistributedDatabases; I-evets Of Distribution , r?a*r,.,(rprirmiire-rt Il r.:c"turaoroistributed versrrs,Gentraiized'DirtabrisesjPrinciple!,91?fH:.1t?1lift-lti1fl""ill#'Y#i Integrity .l,ransparency,.Reference Architectrre far DistIftiulto *'f tTyped of'l)ata'Fragmentatibn' Design in Distributed Databases, Distributed Database
C.onstiaints

.l.ranslation

IJNIT

II

Grobar Queries

for Queries'Transforming of Global Queries to Ftagment Queries, Equivaltince'transforinations Parametric i*" erig*"nt queriJs, Distri-buted Grouping and Aggregare Function rivaluation,

'Queries. for Query Optimizatibn, Join Queiies' General Queries Optimization'of Access Strategies, AFramework
'

I]NIT .l.heManagernent of Distributedrransactions, AFrameworkforTransactiolr Management; supportingAtomiciiy


forDistributed'fransactions,ArchitecturalAspects of Distributed'l ransactions, concurrency control
'l'ransactions

III

of Distributed

c..Ttttl:-?-l:1t::::9 Deadlocks' concurrency concunency Control, r*oundation of Distributed concurrencv Control gonrrol baseo onrimestoJpel,opi*it,i" rta"inoos forDistiibiiied Ctrncurrency

IINIT

Protocols' Re:liability and concunency Control, I)etermining Reliability, Basic Concepts' Nonblocking Commitrnent cold Rbstart'

IV

. cqnsistent,view,of

il;ilil

;;;"* ;;;;;;;#,

checkpoints and tlip Network;.Deiection'and Resolution of Inconsistency, dlofManagennnr iri Diitributed Databases, Auihorization and Protection

I'JNIT v .verArchitectures, Cache Consistency, object Management, object Architectural rsstres' Alternative-clie"utT::*l*;::H:,:l processing, ObjectStorage' ()bject euery ldentifierManage-"nL Pnin "rswiizling'ObjectMigration'Distributed Execution"fransaction Management' Issues, Query Object euery processor Architectures, Qu"ry Procissing .[.ransactionManagementinobjectnnuss'riansactionsasobjects Processing Query Processing Layers in Database Inregration, scherne.l'ranslation; ccheme'Integqation, Query and computation vtonog"tnelt J'rlnsaction Disrribured MuttiDgMssr,Qubry,opti'rhization'IssuesTiiinsaction object orieritation and Interoperability' Model, Multidathbase cotrcurrerity conirorr,'MultidatabaseRecovery Distributed component object Model' object ManagementArchitecture coRBAand Database interoperabiiity, (:olwolE and Database Interoperabil ity, PUSH-Based I'echnologies

'l'rlxr BooKs:'
I
I
!

: :

).'

"'r''i;-ti:'11t't'';-':i'i

l. 2.

Pelagatti,TMl-l' Distributed Databases Principles & Systems, Stefano Ceri, Giuseppe Tlner ozsu, Patrick Valduriez, Pearson Education' 2nd principles or nitiiuuted Daiabase Systems, M. Blition.

.32

M. Tech. (CONIPUTER SCII,NCI:

& IiNGIN};ERIN(;)

M.Tech

(CSE)

JAWAIIAIU,AI, NEHRU TECIINOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY IIYDERABAD


ADVANCBD COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

II SEMESTER

UNIT I
Fundamentals of Computer design, Changing faces of computing and task of computer designer,.Technology trends, Cost price and their trends, measuring and reporting performance, quantiulive principles of computer design, Amdahl's law.

Instruction set principles and examples- Introduction, classifyin-e instruction set- memory addressing- type and size of operands, operations in the instruction set.

UNIT

II

stage pipe line

Pipelines : Introduction ,basic RISC instruction set ,simple implenrentation of RISC instruction set, Classic five forRISC processor, Basic performance issues in pipelining, Pipeline hazards, Reducing pipeline

branch penalties.

Memory hierarchy dcsign : lntroduction, rcview of AIIC of cache, Cache performance , Reducing cache miss penalty, Virtual rnemory.

UNIT

III

Instruction lcvel parallclism the hardware approach - Instruction-level paralletism, Dynamic scheduting, Dynamic scheduling using'lbmasulo's approach, Branch prediction, high performance instruction deliveryhardware based speculation.

ILP software approach- Basic compiler level techniques, static branch predection,.Vltw approach, Exploiting ILP, Paralleilsm at compile time, Cross cutting issues -Hardware verses Software.

'shared mcmory architecture, Distributed shared

UNIT IV Multi Processors and Thread level Parallelism- Introduction, Charctersitics of application domain, Systematic

memory architecture, Synchronization.

UNIT V Inter connection and networks

interconnecting networks, Examples of interconnection, Cluster, Designing of clusters. FSIntel Architccture: intel IA- 64 ILP in ernbedded and mobile markets Fallacies and pit falls

Introduction, Interconnection network media, Practical issues ip

Text Books:
I

John I-. Ilennessy, David A. Patterson, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 3rd Edition, An

Imprint of Elsevier.
:

Refcrence Books

. 2. 3.
I

Miikko H. Lipasti, Modem Processor Design : Fundamentals of Super ScalarProcessors ComputerArchitecture ai.rd Parallel Processing, Kai Hwang, Faye A.Brigs., MC Graw Hilt., Advanced Computer Architecture - A Design Space Approach, Dezso Sima, I'erence iiountain, Peter Kacsuk. f;earson ed.
John P Shen and

f,{. Tcch. (CON{PLITER SCIIIJNC-E

&

ENGINTiERIN(;)

33

J,iI.WAIIAIILAI. NIlllRU I'IICIINO!,OGICAL IJNMiRSI'I'Y ttyDERAllAl) .,.i, ' Ir SEMESI'nR tvt.Tec[,1csfr,1,


,

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AD\ANCEI) COMPUT'IIR

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i'i:':l r -'-t -'-,it-,' NIIIIWORKS

Rcview UNIT I Computcr Networks and the Internet: What is the Internet,'fhe Nctwork edge, 'I'he Netrvork core, Access
Nerworks and Physical media, ISl,s and Intemet llackbones, Delay and l-oss in Packet-switched Networks,. Itistory of Computer Networking and the lntemet Fogndation of Networking Protocols: 5-layer'fCP/ll'Model, 7-Layer OSI Model, Internet Protocols and Addressing, Iiqual-Siz.cd Packets Model: Al'M Networking Devices: Multiplexers, Modems and lnternet Access l)evices, Switching and llouting Devices, Router Structure.

UNIT II 'the Link Layer and Local Arca Netrvorks: I-ink Layer: Introduction and Serviccs, Ilrror-Detection

and

lirror-Corection techniques, Multiple Accesi Protocols, Link Laycr Addressing. lithernet, [nterconnections: I Iubs and Switcbes, PPP: Thc Point-to-Point Protocol,I.ink Virtualization llouting and Intcrnctworking: Network-l,ayer Iloutin-e, Least-Cost-Path algorithms, Non-Least-(lost-Path algorithms, lntradomain Routing Prottrcols, Interdomain Routing Ptotocols. Congcsti<ln Control at Network layer

UNIT

III

l,ogical Addressing: IPv4 Addresses, IPv6 Atldressc.s - lnternet ltrotocol: Intcrnetworking, lPv4, IPv6, 'l\ansition from IPv4 to IPv6 -- Multicasting'fechniques and Protocols: Ilasic Definitions and lbchniques, lntradomain Multicast Protocols, Interdomain Multicast Protocols, Node-I-evel Multicast algorithrns -'fransport and End-to-End Protocols: 'l'ransport Layer,'Ii'ansmission Control Protoqttl ( I'CPi. [Jser Datagram Protocol (l.iDP), Mobile'lransport Protocols. 'fCP (,.ongcstitn Control - Applicutiort La-ver: Principlcs of Nctrvork Applications,'l'hb Wsb and IfI'fP, l:ilc'l'ransl'er: lrl'P, lilectronic Mail in tltc lntcrnct. I)omain Name System (l)NS). P2I, File Sharing, Socket.Programrning with'l'CP and Lil)l1 lluilding a Sirnplc rfrtb Server
I.JNIT IV Wireless Netrvorks and lVlobile IP: ln{tastructure of Wireless Networks. Wircless I.AN'l'eclrnolbgies,IEEE tt02.l I Wreless Standard, Cellular:Networks, Mobile IP. Wirclcss Mesh Networks (WMNs) - Optical Nctrvorks and WDM Systems: Overview of Optical Networks,13asic OpticalNetworking l)qvices,l.argc-Scalc Optical Switches. ., Optical Routers. Wavelength A.llocation in Networks. (lase Study: An All-Optical Switch
..:

V VPNs,lirnneling and Ovcrlay Nctworks: Virtual Privatc Networks (Vl'Ns). lvlultiprcltocol l.abel Switching (MPI-S), Overlay Networks - VoIP and Multimedia Netrvorking: Overvierv of IP'lclephony, VolP Signaling Prorocols, Real-'Iime Media 'I'ransport. Protocols, Distributcd lr{ultirnedia Netrvorking, Stream Control 'l'ransmission Protocol - Mobile A-IIoc Netrvorks: Overview ol Wireless Ad-lloc Networks, Routing in AdIloc Ngtworks, Routing Protocols lbr Ad-ltoc Networks -.\Yircless Scrsor Netrvorks: Sensor Netrvorks
TJNTT and Protocol Structurcs, Conrmunicirtion linergy Model, Clustering Protocols, l{outing I'rotocols

'l'[]XT BO0KS:
I

Computer Netrvorking: A'lbf-Dou'n Approach l:eaturing the [ntcrnct , .larncs 'l'hird lidition, Pcarson llducation. 2007
(-'omputer and Communication Networks. Nulct
Pcarsort

Il

Kuro:-<',

Kcillr tVllo.rs,

2041

34

(cOMPUTER sCIENCE & 'M'Tech'

ENGINEER'-"1I

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35
M. Tech. (COMPUTER SCIENCE

& ENGINEERING)

.IAWAHARLAL NEHRU

M.Tech (CSE)

E,CIINOLOGICALUNIVERSITYHYDERABAD TECHNOLUUIUATII SEMESTER

wEB SEBVICES ELECTIVE III


UNIT

I - n-.^r...:^; ^r,ricrri computing' Cor e distributed computing of distributed Evolution ahd Emergence of Web Services'Evolution in Distributed leva nwri, tuti"ro soriocotvt, Mon7i, cha'enges technorogie, .- ,iri"r,t7re*"r-coRgA, of web Services and service oriented computing, computing, rou orrzdtrrixr"u- i" distributed "rn"rg"rr"" Architecture (SOA)-

lJ*ll*."

services' of web services, basic_ operational model of web - web Services *"u u"rni*"r, u"n"no and challenges of using web services toors and technorogiJs of web services' stand'ards "i"uii"g and its characteristics, corl building biocks Architecture - web services Architecture andtechnologiesavailableforimplementingwebser-vl:e-s'webservicescommunication'basicstepsof

to web services

- The definition

lr"pf"*""ti*"*"U r"rui."t,

developing web servicese*abled applications

UNIT III Structurq corefrrndamentals of soAp-soApMessage

eAAnm soAP messageexchange models' SOAP - Building SO-Ap ioutity - Developing Web S"ryt::t^:ting SOAP communication and messaging, Servicei *sing Java' limitations of SOAP' SOApWeb S"*i""., O"u"ioping SOAP Web

- --^r:-sog encoding,

UNIT IV

_ in the world of web _ Describing web services wsDL wsDL

s.ervic1,]3! services

rife cycle, anaromy

of wsDLdefinitiondocunpnr,wsDlbili;r,*fDJ-Too.rs,limitations discovery mechanisms' UDDI * Service discovery role of service discovery in a soA, service uses of

uDDI Registry, prograqlming with UDDI, UDDI arrDDIRegistry, searching information ina IJDDIRegistry' Regisrries,Fubrirhi;;i!,j:p;tlilhi"g,nformationto limitations of UDDI' deleting information in a UDDIRegistry

ofwsDl-DiscoveringwebServices - IrDDI Registries' in UDDI data structures' suppoT for categorization

i^illilrvicei

of .NEt andJ2EE' web Intcroperability - Means of ensirring Inreroperabirilvaoy.elview.signature, XKMS structure' work, XML.n"ryition, XML digital services security - Jirrg- security frame guidelines for signifrg XML documents'
TEXT BOOKS: l.DevelopingJavawebServices,R.Nagappan,R'skoczylas'R'P'sriganesh'wileylndia'rp-20o8' Pearson Education' 2008'

2.

Developing;iil;t" y+l"rni""r,

5. Cnott"tlt", J' Webber'

3'XMLIWebServices,andtheDataRevolulion,F.P.Coyle,PearsonEducation. REFERENCE BOOKS: Edn'' 2008' l. ' 'Building web Services with Java,2nd Edition, s. G$ry and others' Pearson 2.JavaWebServices,D.A.Chappell&T.Jewell,o,Reilly,SPD. Publishers'2O05' 3. McGovern, et al., ..Java web services Architecture", Mlrgan Kaufmann 4. J2EE Web Slrvices, Richard Monson-Ilaefel, Peaxon Education

5.

Web Services, G. Alonso,

Casati and others' Springer' 2005'

36

M. Tech. (COMPUTER SCIIiNCE & ENGINLERING)

JAWAHARLAL NEIIRU TECIINOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY TIYDERABAD II SEMESTER M.'[cch (CSE) INFORMATION hETRIEVAL SYSTEMS ELECTIVE III

UNIT I

Introduction: Definition, Objectives, Functional Overview, Relationship to DBMS, Digital libraries and [)ata Warehouses,Information Retrieval System Capabilities - Search, Browse, Miscelladeou"

UNIT

Cataloging and Indexing: Objectives, Indexing Process, Automatic Indexing, Informatiop'Extraction, Data Structures: Introduction, StemmingAlgorithms,Inverted file structures, N-gram data structure, PAl'data stnrcturc, Signature file structure, Hypertext data structure - Automatic Indexing: Classes of automatic indexing, Statistical indexing, Natural language, Concept indexing, Hypertext linkages

II

UNIT

III

Document and Term Clustering: lntroduction, Thesaurus generation, Item clustering, Hierarchy of clusters - User Search Techniques: Search staternents and binding, Similarity measures and ranking, Relevance feedback, Selective dissemination of information search, Weighted searches of Boolean systems, Searching the Intemet and hypertext - Information Visualization: Introduction, Cognition and perception, Information
visualization technologies

UNIT IV Text Search Algorithms: Introduction, Software text search algorithms, Hardware text search systems. Information System Evaluation: Introduction, Measures used in system evaluation, It{easurement example TREC results.

UNIT V Multimedia Information Retrieval - Models and Languages - Data Modeling, Query Languages, Indexing and Searching - Libraries and Bibliographical Systems - Online IR Systems, OPACs, Digital Libraries.

TEXT BOOKS:

l. ' 2. 3. L

Information Storage and Retrieval Systems: Theory and Implementation By Kowalski, Gerald, Mark

MayburyKluwerAcademicPress, 2000. Modern Information Retrival By Ricardo Baeza-Yates, Pearson Education, 2007. Information Retrieval: Algorithms and Heuristics By David A Grossman and Ophir Frieder, 2d Edition, Springer Intemational Edition, 2004.
:

REFERENCE BOOKS

Information Retrieval Data Structures andAlgorithms By William B Frakes, Ricardo Baeza-Yates, Pearson

2. 3.

Education,l992. Information Storage & Retieval By Robert Korfhage - John rffiley & Sons. Introduction to Information Retrieval By Chiistopher D. Manning and Prabhakar Raghavan, Cambridge University Press, 2008.

ENGINITERING) M. Tech' (COMPIIIER SCIENQ'E &

38

M.Tech (CSE)

UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD JAWAIIARLAL NEIIRU TECHNOLOGICAL II SEMFSTER . COMPUTING WIRELESS NETWORKS AND MOBILE ELECTIVE - IV

UNITI:INTRODUCTIONToMOBILEANDWIRELESSLANDSCAPE of wireless Environment' challenges

components Definition of Mobile and wireless, ' '' Categories of Wireless Networks Overview of Wireles; Networks' IEEE 802' I I ' HIPERLAN' Infrasrructure unJeo+,* Network, ,*nr*ission, wireless LAN , tnrru ,"0 v, ,"oio
I

Bluetooth

GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE-COMMUNICATIONS(GSM) GSM Addresses?nd{dentifiers' cau nouing in GSM, PLMN l*rft""r' GSM Architecture, GsM Entities,
Aliocation, Authentication and security Network Aspects in GSM, GSM Frequency

UNIT

agent adve:rrisementanddiscovery and terminology, IP packet delivery, (DHCP)' Mobile Mobile IP (Goals, assumptions, entities Ory1*i" ftott Connluration Protocol regisrrarion, tunneling and encapsufu*"n,^opii*i*tt3{i Routing' Sffu"n"" Oitiance Vector' Dynamic Source Ad-hoc networks : Routing, destination rvrogiJr rRANsPoni . i :,- mm E^. retransmit/fast recovery' Transmission /timeTCP' Fast Indirect TCP' Snooping TCP' Mobile Traditional'fCP,

II: uorirlE NBiwonK LAYER

laynn

oui

oriented TCP' ir""ring, Selective retransmission' Transaction

UNIT III: BROADCAST SYSTEI\'IS .


and mobile communications'

, --^:-^.rr..,+i-azrianlrienr protocol' Digital broadcasting: Multimedia object transfer cyclical repetition of data, Digitar aucrio overview, of broadcasting forhigh*peei internetaccess, convergence videobroadcasting: DVB databroaacasti'ng,DvB
UNIT
PROTOCOLS AND TOOLS: protocols of all layers)' prorocor ar{tecture, and trearment of Apprication protocol-wAp. qntro{;r'lon, wireress and Tzl\lE ' MAC layer' networkgg'security' ttqTT*"ment) Bluetooth (User scenarios, physical layer, CgFWNAfIbN TBCTTNOLOGIIqS wIRELEsS LANGUACb iNO CbNTNNT - wML, HTML, cHTML, XI{[ML' VoiceXML. IIDML' Wireless Content Types, Markup Lunguages. serverPages'XML withperl, Javasenrets, Java serverpages,Active ct} :rtent_ GenerationTechnologies: cGI XSL Stylesheet wrth XSL Stylesheets, Xfnfl-pi"ument'

IY :

UNIT V: MOBILE AND WIRELESS SECURITY


creating
a

Securb Environment" securiry

T#;, ;ffiy

wAP security' Technorogies, orher security Measures,

irun iri"nt

SecuritY

TEXT BOOKS:

l. 2. 3.

2008' PearsonEducation' second Edition' Jochen schiller, "Mobile communications",

MartynMali"f.,
Asoke

JftAolife andqrelessDesignEssentials"'Wiley' 2008'

f fufu[i"i"' ul, "MobileComputing"'TataMcGraw

Hill' 2@8'

REFERBNCE BOOKS:

l. 2.

a^^nart rir second Edition' 2007' william Stallings, " wireless communications 3.FrankAdelsteinetal,..FundamentalsofMobileandPervasiveComputing''''fM}I,2005. first-stef Pearson' 2005 ' J im Geier, "Wireless Networks 4. " 5.SumitKaseraetal,..2.5GMobileNetworks:GPRSandEDGE,''TMH,2008. ' Networks"' O'Reilly' Second Edition' 2006' 6. Matthew s-auri-ilioz' l I Wireless*ireless Networks anJMoUile Computing"' Wiley' 2W7: Ivan Stojmenovic , "Handbook of

Mobile

Comp",i.Sn'i Kamal'Oxford University Press' -,, D^-^^& Networks"' Person'

t
i\1. Tech. (COMPUTER SCIENCE

&

ENGINEERJNG)

37

"i' JAWAHARLAL:NE*IRU TECIINOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD II SEMESTER M.Tech (CSE)


SEMANTIC WEB AND SOCIAL NETWORKS
rf. ,i-'.
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Unit

.l:hirildng And.Intelligentlileb Applications,{he-InformationAge,The'World Wide Web, Limitations of Todays Web,The Next GenerationWeb, Machine Intelligence,Artifical Intelligence,Ontology,Inference engines,software

-I:

Web

Intelligence

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.

AgentS,BernerS.IJewww,SemanticRoad'Map,I.ogicontlitisemantic'Web.

, Unit -II: Knowledge Repr.esentation for the Semantic Web ' : Ontologies and theirrole inthe semantic web,OntologiesLanguages fortheSemanticWeb-ResourgeDescription l;ramewbrk@DF) / RDF Schema, Ontology Web I-anguage(OWL),UML,)C{IrffL Schema.
;

t-:

.r:..

Ll hit;Hl: Ontb logy Engineeiing OntologyEngineering,ConstructingOntology,OntologyDevelopmbntTools,OlitologyMethodspntotogySharing and Li.brlies 4trd Ontglpgy lv{apping,I.ogic,Rule and Inference Engines.

!. :i

$elglnqrlltolgeV

.tJnit-IV: Semantic Web Applications, Services and Technology Semantic Web applications and services, Semantic Search,e-learning,semantic Bioinformatics;I(nowledge Base .XMlBased,WebServieesrcreatiogan OWL-S Ontology forWeb Services,Semantic SearchTechnotogy,Web Searclr,."{gents and Semantic Methods,
(Jnit-V:.Social Network Analysis and semantic web '| .. . ': i l I What is social Networks analysis,developnrgnt of the social networks analysis, Electronic Sources for Network Analysis - Electronic DiScussion networks, Blogs and Online Communities,Web Based Networks.Building Semantic WebApplicaiions with social network featu[es.

,I'EXT

. 2.
I

BOOKS:

Thinking on the Web - Berners lre,Godel and Turing,Wiley interscience,20o8. Social Neworks and the Semantic Web ,PeterMika,Springer,2007.
.

LEFERENCE"BOOKS;,

l.

Semantic Web,Technologies ,Trends and Research in Ontology Based Systems, J.Davies, R.Studer,
P.Warren, lotrti Witey

2. .1. -1.

&

Sons.

Semantic Web and Semantic Web Services -Liyang Lu Chapman and HaIUCRC Publishers,(Taylor & Francis Group) ' Information.sharing on the semantic Web - Heiner Stuckenschmidt; Frank Van Harmelen, Springe.r

Publications

'

Programming the SemanticWeb,T.Segaran,C Evans,J Taylor,O'Reilly,SPD.

l,

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38

M' Tech' (COMPLJTER SCTENCE & ENGINITERING)

lii,

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M.Tech

(cSE)

HYDERABAD AWAIIARLAL NETIRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

II

SEMESTER

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ri

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WIRELESS NETWORKS AND MOBILE COMPUTING ELECTIVE - IV

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I'JNITI:INTRODUCTIONToMOBILEANDWIRELPSSLANDSCAPE
DefinitionofMobileandWireless,ComponentsofWirelessEnvironment,Challenges
wireress LAN : Inrra red vs radio transmission, Bluetooth

l.

ou".ui"*ofWirelessNetworks,CategoriesofWirelessNetworks,,.l HIPERLAN' Infrastructure and Ad-hoc Network, IEEE 802' I I ' Ciosal
SySTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS(GSM) in GSM, PLMN Interfaces, GSM Addresses'-and{dentifiers, GsM Architecture, GsM Entities, ca[ Routing
and security Network Aspects in GSM, GsMFrequencyAllocation,Authentication

NETWORK LAYER UNIT rr: MOBILE NETw{)l:.'::l,o:*i-^raorr

delivery, agent adver tisementanddiscovery, Mobile Ip (Goals, assumpions, entities and terminoloqv,_IP nac\et (DHCP)' Mobile Oynamic l{ost Configuration Protocol registration, tunneling oni -optimizationJj, "n"oprulation, Distance vector' Dynamic source Routing' Ad-hoc networks : Routing, destination sequence

rpnrnlre,

MOBTLT TRANSPORT LAYER ltaditional TCR Indirect TCP, Snooping TCP, Mobile

/timeTCP, Fast retransmit/fast re'overy', Transmission

orientedTCP' out freezing, Selective retransmission, Transaction

UNIT

BROADCAST SYSTENTS protocol'.Digital broadcasting: Multimedia objecttransfer Overvieq Cyclical repetition of data, Digitat audio DVB for high-speeJ int"*.t u"cess, convergence of broadcasting video broadcasting: ovg oatu uroadcasting,
and mobile communications'

III:

UNIT

iil
i
:i

PROTOCOLS AND TOOIS: protocol architecture, and treatment of protocols of all layers)' wirelessApplication protocol-wAp. Gntroouction, J2ME' h'yer' networking, securig link Tfl*em"nt) and Blueroorh (User scenarios, physical layeg MAC TECHNOLOGIES WTRBLESS.LANGUACb ANo CONTENT - CnNsnAIION HTML, cHTML, xI{rML' VoiceXML. Wireless ContentTypes, Markup Languages: IIDML, ryIut, Pages' XML Java sen'lets, Java Server Pages' Active server c,.l:rtent- Generation Technologies: cGI with Perl, Stylesheet w rttr XSL Stylesheets, XML Document, XSL

IV :

UNIT V: MOBILB AND WIRELESS SECURITY


creating
a Securb

other security Measures' wAP security, Environment, security Threats, security Technorogies,

il}"ffffi* .r!^-^', D-oecanErrrrnarinn (ecnnrtFrlition.2008. l. JochenSchiller, "Mobilecommunications",PearsonEducation, secondEdition' 2. MartynMallicK "Mobile andwirelessDesignEssentials",wiley' 2008' 3. Asoke KTalukder,et al, "Mobile computing",Tata McGraw Hill' 2008'
I

REFERBNCE BOOKS:

L 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Mobile Computing,naj Kamal,Oxford University ^ - -- r r:r second Edition, 2007' william stallingsj. wireless communications & Networks", Person, Pervasive computing""fMFl' 2005' FrankAdelstein et al, "Fundamentals of Mobile and 2005' Jim Geier, "Wireless Networks first-step"tsearson' ..2.5G Mobile Networks: GPRS and EDGE ,' TMH, 2008' sumit Kasera et al, *802.11 wireless Networks", o'Reilly, Second Edition' . Matthew S.Gast, Mobile computing"' wiley' 2007' and Ivan Stojmenovic , "Ifandbook of wireless Networks

Press'

2006'

''

39
ENGINEERING) I\{. Tech. (COMPUTER SCIENCE &

M.Tech (CSE)

JAWAIIARLALNEHRUTECHNOLOGICALUNIVBRSITYHYDERABAD II SEMESTER

I
UNIT I

INFORMATION'SECURITY '

ELECTIVE-IV

services r ^ ---^-r!^- rt^,tifi^'ii^. qnd Fatrric: Modification and Fabrication), security Attacks ontemrption, Interception, A Security Goars, security u:""r. conool andAvailability) and Mechanisms' (confidenriality, Autieriti*,ion, Integrity,Nonrrepuaiaiion,
model for

Internetw;;;"ttty'

ntJrnet Standaids and RFCs

II Cipher Modes of operation' I.-ocation & Algorithms(DES, AES, RC4), Block Conventional Encryption Principles
UNIT

i,llil?$:ffiJ;fiff"J,i.:$[::ili,*
I'Iellrnan, bCCj, KeY Distribution

RABIN, ELGAMAL, Difnekey cryptography argorithms(RsA,

xil:Jj[",

and HMAC Funcrions(srlA-512, WHIRLPOoL) of Message Authentication, secure }Iash Seryices' Attacks on Digital' pro""r,--N'"0 for'Keys' sign'ng ttt" Dtgest' Digital signatures: comparison, reru"tot' i'509 Directory Authentication Sbrvice

;i;;;";;'

UNIT IV Good rnvacy (PGP) a1O !nn$^n security: tinnil S""u.ity' Pretty Good Privacy \t"t',o'i:,-L-ii."i^.**"* Encapsulating itecture, Auttpntication 1leader' tp Security Overvie% n, S."*ity erJt

il''t

Seculritypayload,combining

#tly.illt':r',H;:i f1#:3*T;f,lr*
'fransaction (SET)

(ssl)

andrransport r-aver Securitv

(rls), secure Erectronic

|j$]jn""prs

relared rhreats' and SNMpv3,Intruders, viruses and of SNMp, sNMpvr community facirity

ffi
2.

:$:::'ffii1ffi

r"r,

r*st"d

ir*"*'

rntrusion Detection svsrems

'I'EXT BOOKS : L-.rr':r:^n er6*;nac T .l.Netwo4securityEssentials(ApplicationsandStandards)byWilliam.statlingsPearsonEducation,2003" S""*itv by Behrouz A' Forouzan' TMH 2007"

Crypto,lraphy';'N;;tk

REFERENCE BOOKS : -r"i";rn"rion s""urity by Mark Stamp' Wley - India' 2006' StudentEdition' Information Syrt"'sSe"urity'Godbole'Wrley Fourth Edition,Pearson Education 2007' and Nerwork si*ri.d;twiiri". ir"llings,

i." 2.. 3.
1.
).

cryptography

I. ;;.

punOamentals of Computer Security ' Springer' l\etrvurl\ revqr rlJ ' r Iv ev"rr'

itH:ffi;;il;fiil ";oi;i" "JrJ'r'i"*'*oFry BragsJv'ark Tg*:ly: a G.T.Gangemi Basics bv Rick Lehtinen' Deborah R ussett
;ilil"; 2006. il;;Secuiitv
2007' Cryptography by Wenbo Mao' Pearson Education Thomson' Principles of tnformation Security, Whitrnan'

SPD O'REILLY

4A
.l

lI.

l'cclr. ((-'Oi\ll't

il'ER SCtl:N(lU & IiNGINF:!:RIN(;)

ATVAI{AIII,,\ t.

}I

IR

U'l'

EC

tlNOLOGlC,lL LiNt\/IiRSITY IIYDIiITABAI)

M.Tech(CSE)IISIII\{ESTER
S'IORAGE AREA NEI'WORKS EI,ECTIVE,TV
Unit
Introduction to Storagc'l'echnclogy thc value of data to a business' data creation and th.-Jamount of Oata being created and understand Review stora,qe, core clements of a data tor data challen$es in tlaia srorage and data mana-Qiemcnt, SJlutions available elc'menr in supporting business activities center infrastructur", ,ui" of each

I:

Unit

used by cach physical components ol'a component ,physical and logical components of a conncctivity environment.Mirjor characteristics' and performance logical constructs of a physical disk, accr:ss

protocols and,concepts Hardware and softrvare compopents of thc host environnrcnt, Key

II:

Storage Systcms

Architecture

t'^

.-

disk drive and their function, and their suitability for different Implications, concept of RAID and its componenrs , Different RAID levels 5, RAID 0+l' RAID l+0' RAID 6' application environments: RAID 0. RAID l, RAID 3. RAID 4. RAID architecture and working of an Compare and contrast integraterl an<J nrodular storage systems ,lligh-level intelligent storage system

Unit tII: Ihtrodtrction to Networkcd Storage NAS, and IP-SAN Evolution of nerworked storage. Architecture, components, and topologies ol'l:C-SAN' long-term archiving solutions and" Benefits of the different networked storage options, undcrstancl the nee<J for networked storage options describe how CAS fulfills the need , understand the appropriatcness of the diffcrent
for different application environments

Unit IV: Infbrmation Availability & Monitoring & Managing I)atacenter downtime' Differentiate List reasons for plalned/unplanned outages and ihc impact of downtime, lmpact of Identify single points of failure between business continuity (llC) an<t disaster recovery (DIt) ,l{fo and RPO, of backup/recovery and the in u ,io.ng" infrastructu*. oni list solutions to mit igate these failures , Architecture in ensuring infonnation availability topologies , replication technologies and their role
,'i
'

different backup/recovery in providing disaster recovery and business and business continuity, nemlt" repiication technologies and their role continuity caPabi I ities monitoring and managenrent, Identify key areas to m0nitor in a data center, Industry standards fol data center management tasks in il data Key metrics to monitor for different components in a storage infrastructure, Key center

Unit V: Securing Storage and Storage Vinualization domains, I-ist and Information security. C'ritical security attributes for inlbrmation systems, Storage security and file-level virtualization analyzes thc common threats in each d<lmain, Virtualization technologies, block-levet
technologies and Ptocesses

solutions' The technologies ctescribed in the course are reinforcetJ with IIMC examples o{'actual fsr given sets of criteria' Realistic case stuclies enable the participant to design the most appropriate solution

Casc Studies

TEXT BOOKS

l. z. 3. 4.
I lt:

EMC Corporation, informati.n Storage and Manageme nt, Wiley. 'l'he Oompletc Ref'erence",'[ata McGraw Ilill ' osborne, 2003' Robert Spalding. "storage Nctrvorks: Marc lrarley, "Building Storege Nctworks",'l'ata McGlarv l-Iill ,Osborne. 2001. 2002' '' ' Mceta Gupra' Storage Area Netrvork l;undamentals' Pearson lidtrr;atiott I'imitcd'

i\1. Tcch.

(coMpuTER SCII'NC.E & ENGTNEERING)

4t

JAWAI.IARLAL NEIIRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY TIYDI'RAIIAI) M.l'ech (CSE) I SEMBSTER

DATABASES AND COMPILER LAB

DATABASES objective: This lab enables the students to practice the concepts leamt in the subject DBMS by developing a database for an example company named "Roadway Travels" whose description is as lbllows.'fhe student is cxpected to practice the designing, developing and querying a database irt'ihe conr'ext of example databaic "Roadway travel". Students are cxpected to use ,.Mysql" daiabase.

lloadway Travcls "Roadway Tbavels" is in business since 1997 with several buses eonnecting different places in India. Its main

:::il;J,t;#rize
.) ,' ?
Reservations 'l'icketing Cancellations

its operations in the ronowing

areas:

, r.

Reservations:
Reservations are directly handled by booking office. Reservations can be made 60 days in advance in either cash or credit. In case rhe ticket is not available, a wait listed ticket is issued to the customer..I'his ticket is confirmed against the canceilation.

Cancellation and Modifications: Cancellations are also directly handed at the booking office. Cancellqtion charges will bc chargcd. e- -' wait listed tickets that do not get confirmed are fulty reyunaed

l\'cekl: E-R Model

'Analyze the problem carefullyand'do*. up with the entities in it. Identify what data has to bc persisted in thc database.'Ihis contains the entities, attributes etc. the primary keys for alt the entities. Identify the other keys like candidate keys, partial keys, if any. lfntifl

I. 2 3. . 2.
I

lixample: Entities:
BUS

Passengdr

ickpt t

I'RIMARY KEY ATTRIBUTF*:


'ficker ID ('ticker Entiry)
Pas.sport

lD (passenger Entity)

Apart from the above mentioned entities you can identify more. The above mentioned are few.

Week2: Concept design with E-R Model

t'ntities(ifany)- Indicatethetypeof16lationships(total/partigl).lrytoincorporategeneralization,aggrcgation,
specialization etc wherevcr rcquired.

l{elate the entities appropriately. Apply cardinalities for each relationship. Identify strong entities and weak

42
Example: E-r diagram for bus

M. Tcch. (COS{IIUTER SCIENCIi & EN(JtNHtiRlN(;r

attributes as columns in tables or as tables based on the requirement. Different types of attributes (Composite, Multivalued. and Derived) have different way of

iWeek3: Relational Model Represent all the entities (Strong' weak) in tabular fashion.Represent relationships in a tabular fashion..l.herc are different ways of representing relationships as tables based on the cardinality. Represent

representation.

Example: The passenger tables look as below. This is an example. you can add more attributes based on your E-R model. Passenger Name

Age

Sex

Address

Passport ID

lVeek4: Normalization
namely data anomalies. For example, when muttiple instances of a given piece of information occur in a tablc, thc possibility exists that these instances will not be kept consisteniwhen the data within the table is update<I, leading to a loss of data integrity. A table that is sufficiently normalized is less vulnerable to problems of this kind. because its structure reflects the basic assumptions for when multiple instances of the same iirformation shoull be represented by a single instance only.
Database normalization is a technique for designing relational database tabtes to minimize dup!ication of information and, in so doing, to safeguard the database against certain types of logical or structural problenis,

weekS: Installation of Mysqr and practicing DDL commands Installation of MySql. In this week you will learn creating databases,I{ow to create tables, altering the database, dropping tables and databases If not required. You will also try
Example for creation of a table. CREAI'E IABLE Passenger (
Passport id

truncate, rename commands etc.

Age
Sex
);
I

INII:GER PRIMARY KEY Name CIIAR (50) NUII,


Integer, Char

M. Tech. (COMPUTER scIENcE & ENGINEERTNG)

43
. Note: Detailed creation of tables is given at the.end. Week6: Practicing DML commands I)ML commands are u.r"d ,: for managing.data within sche;na objects. some exampres: ? SELECI'- rerrieve dara from ttre a lati'base ? INSERT - insert data into a table LTPDAIE - updates existtrg data within a table J ? DELETE - deretes arr records from a tabre, the space for the records remain

Insert into Bus values

lnserting vGh,+s into Bus table: (ll34,,hyderabad,, .tirupathi,);


va I ues (23 4 5,,

lnsert into B us

hy derabd,,, Bangl ore,

);

tnserting values into Bus table: Insert into Passenger values ( l, 45,'ramesh,, 45,,M,, ,abcl23,); fnser{ into Passenger values (2, Zg,'geetha,, rc,;p1,, o}yji1.[l)l'
Fcw more Examplm of DML commands: :S:l::l:jrom Bus; (setects ail rhe attriUuies and disptay) UPDATII BUS SL-I Bus No I WHERE BUS NO=2; = Week7: Qucrying

l;.'$;J',T|ISi:f;tffiil3;ti:ffi;ffi:1"t:'"ng

with sub queries) usingANy ArL, rN, Exists, No.r.

Practice the following eueries: Display uniqucpNR_no of allpassengers. ! Display ?. Dispray all the names of male purr"ng".r. 3' the ticket numbers oni nur", of 4' Dispray the'source and destination having at the passengers. time r0 5' Find the ticket numbers o{ the passengers journey name more than .A,hours. whose start with and ends with .II,. 6' Find the names of passenge., *hor" age is between 30' and 45. <'ru +J. Display 7 Display all the pur*"ng"rr names beginning with .A the somed list of passengers names I 9' Dispray the Bus numbersihat rra'vet on sunday and wednesday to the details of passengers who u." ouu"rinf ;il". inAC or NON-AC(using onty IN opera_ :;t* lVcekS and weetg: (continued...)

euerying

;i.tffi
?

f,1:il1,

ffi

H',

H:fi:n;f fffi; :;':,'ff$::'

(couNr',

s rr

M, AVG and MAx and MrN),

ilH8[ t$:iil::?tisplav

the Information present in the passenger and canceilation tabres.

ninh

use

write a Query to display different travelling options I Display rhe number of days in a week on which the available in British Airways. 9w0r bus is avairabre. of tickets booked ro, pNR-no using cRoup By CLAUSE. Hint: use GRoup By on ;,ilIrl:tber "uor, ? Find the distinct pNR numbers tha[ are present.
?

:,{;1lrji:;.'#il;i1"ff111i,",$3 :;1.*r::$

where rhe'number orsears is srearer than

Hint: use

44

M. Tech. (COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING)

? Iiind thc total number of cancelled seats. ? Write a Query to count the number of tickets for the buses, which travelled after the date'l4l3l20fr9'. Ilint: Use IIAVING CLAUS$.

Weekl0: Triggers
In this week you are going to{vork on ltiggers. Creation of insert trigger, delete trigger, update trigger. P-ractice triggers using the above database.

Eg: CREATE TRIGGER updcheck BEFORE UPDATE ON FOR EACII ROW BEGIN IF NEW.TickentNO > 60 TIIEN SET New.Tickent no = Ticket no; ELSE SET New.Ticketno = 0; END IF; END;

passenger

Weekll: Procedures
In this session you are going to learn Creation of stored procedure, Execution of procedure and modification procedure. Practice procedures using the above database.

of

Eg:CREATE PROCEDURE myProco BEGIN SELBCT COUNT(Tickets) FROM Ticket WHERE age>=40; End;

Weekl2: Cursors
In this week you need to do the following: Declare a cursor that defines a result set. Open the cursorto establish the result set. Fetch the data into local variables as needed from the cursor, one row at a time. Close the cursor when done

CREATE PROCEDURE myProc(in-customer*id INT) BEGIN DECLARE v-id INT; DECLARE Y-name VARCHAR(30);

CURSOR std ld=i n_custome r-id I

DECLARE

cl

FOR SELECT stdld,stdFirstname FROM students WHERE

OPEN cl; FETCH cl into Close cl;

v id, v-namel
/

END;

'Tables BUS Bus No: Varchar: Pk


Source : Varchar Destination: Varchar

M, Tech. (COMPUTaR scIENcE & ENGINEERING)

45

Passenger

PNR_No:Numeric(9):pK
'Iicket*No: Numeric (9) Name: Varchar(15) Age : int (4) Sex:Char(I0) : Mate / Female PPNO: Varchar(15)

,,

Reservation
PNR_No: Numeric(9): FK Journey_date : datetime(g) No_of_seats : int (g) Address : Varchar (50) contact-No: Numeric (9) Integer
Status: Char (2) : yes

->

should not be less than 9 and Should not accept any other character other than

/ No

Cancellation l'NR_No: Numeric(9) : FK Journey_date : datetime(g) No_of_seats : int (g) Address : Varehar (50) contact-No: Numeric (9) -> shoulci not be less than 9 and shoutd not accept any other character other than Integer Status: Char (2) : yes / No

Ticket
Iicket_No: Numeric (9): pK
Journey_date : datetime(g) Age : int (4) Sex:Char( I0) : Male / F.emale Source : Varchar Destination: Varchar I)ep_time : Varchar

ii)COMPILER.
consider the following mini Language,
a simpl6. procedural

ilfi#i,i,ifJffiiffiT;-#:Hfljf
[{ <stis>
}

a simpri

crossed

high-level llngyage, only operating on integer

*iir, po,"ur. in"-,yn,u* oi,r,"

ron'guag" is-

<prograrn> ::=<block> <blocb ::= { <variabledefinition> <slisD

<variabledefinition> ::= int <vardeflisD ; <vardeflisD ::= <vardec> <vardec> | , <vardeflist> <vardec> ::= <identifie> lcidentifieD [ <constanD J <slis> ::= <statemen> l<statemen> : islis> <statemenb ::= <assignmenb <ifstatement> | - | <whilestatement> lcblocb f cprintstatement 1..*ptyJ ? <assignmenD ::= <identifieD 4s;pression> = f <identifie> [ <expressionr ] =."*p."..ion,

46

M. Tcrch. (COI\|P{.ITER SCIENCIi' & ENGINEERING)

<ifstatemen> ::! if <bexpression> then <slis> else <slis> endif Iif <bexpression> then <slis> endif <whilestatenrcnt> ::= while <bexpression> do <slis> enddo <printstatemenp ;;= print ( <expression> ) , , <term> <Lxpression> ::= <exPression> <addingop> <term> lcerm> lcaddingop> <beipression> ::= <expression> <relop> <expression>
<relop> t,=. l.= l== l>= I I <addingop> ::= + l.t"r*i,,=.term> <muttop> <factor> | <facto>

t t=

<multoP>::= * l/ <factop::=<constant> lcidentifieD l<identifieo [ <expression>] { ( <expressioo ) | <constanD ;;= <digiD lcdigi> <constant> <identifiep ::= <identifier> detterordigi> | <letter> <letterordigi> ::= <letter> | <digi> <letter> ::= <digi> : := ol t l2Fl4l51617l8le <empty> has the obvious meaning comment brackets / Comments (zero or more characiers enclosed between the standard C/Java-style arrays. The declaration *...*/) can be inserted. The language has rudimentary support for l-dimensional Note also that you should int a[3] declares an array of ttriee eternents, referenced as a[OJ, allJ and a[2J' worry about the scoPing of names' A simple program written in this language is: { int a[3],tl,t2; tl=2; a[0]=1 ; a[ I ]=2; a[tll=]; P=-(a[2]+tl *6/(a[2]-t I ) ;

albbldlelfleltrlitilklllmlnlolplqlrfslt[ulvlwlxlv[z

'

if t2>5 then print(t2);


else {

ir'

:i;

:...r:.));

t2=-25:

print(+l+t2*t3); lx this is acomment on 2lines */ ) endif I redundant spaces, tabs i. nesign a lrxical analyzer for the above language. The lexical analyzer should ignore states that identifiers can be and newlines. It should also ignore comments. Although the syntax specification arbitrarily long, you may restrict thelength to some reasonable value. generating tools' 2.Implement the lixical analyzer using JI-ex, flex or lex or other lexical analyzer
3. Design Predictive parser for the given language 4. Desiln LALR botiom up parser for the a\ove language'
tvr'r' lrllv l4w tllg lrl\L'lulsJ f,. \-ullvglL 5. Convert the BNF rules into Yacc form

and write code to generate abstract syntax tree' generated by the parser. The followinS j 6. Write program to generate machine code from the abstract syntax tree instruction set may be considered as target cdde. supporting a rorat or 17 instructions. It has three distincti -" "-Q ) --^^1^.^-^..^^J L,, rk^ i-,ti.,irhral incfnrntions as de.taile-rl helow thei ns detaileg betow:::l: internal storage areas. The first is the set of 8 registers, used by the individual instructions 'rhei l$ all alca u]cu rur u_rv storase vr vrv6rs'r' an(l tne lnlrq is an area used for the Drvto6v of prbgram' r "vi SeCOnd iS an afea USed fOf the Stgfage OI Vaflables uno ,t'" *riro !r and the label is followedl to instructions can be preceded by a tabel.'this consists of an integer in the range I 9999 i

1i:i:li;Tfi;iTffi':Hffi::#:fffi*H
.#il';;T;;;; r*;;;;;;;;;tdl"'

! : :

!\.t.'ftch. (COMPUIER SCIIINCTi & ENGTNEERING)

J7

by a colon to separate it from the rest of the instruction. The numerical label can be used as the argument to a jump instruction, as detailed below. ln the description of the individual instructions below, instruction argument types are specified as follows :

lfoin.,
L

a register in the form R0,

Rl,

R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 or R7 (or rO,

rl,

etc.).

specifies a numerical label (in the range

v
A

to 9999).

specifies a "variable location" (a variable number, or a variable location pointed to by a register - see below).
specifies a constant value, a variable location, a register or a variable location pointed to by a register (an indirect address). Constant valui:s are specified as an integer value, optionally preceded by a minus sign, preceded by a
14

# symbol: An indirect address is specified by an @ followed by a register. So, for example, an A.type argument could have the form 4 (variable number 4), #4 (the constant value 4), (register 4)or @r4 (the contents of register 4 identifies the variable location to be accessed). 'l'he instruction set is defined as follows:

LOAD A,R

sroRE R,v
OUT R

loads the integer value specified by A into register R. stores the value in register R to variable V.

outputs the value in register R. NEG R ncgates the value in register R.

ADD A,R
adds the value specified by A to register R, leaving the result in register R.

sult

A,R

subtracts the value specified by

MUL A,R DIV A,R JMP L

A from register R, leaving the result in register R.

multiplies the value specified byA by register R, leaving the result in register R.
divides register R by the value specified by A, leaving the result in register R.

causes an

unconditionaljump to the instruction with the labelL.

JEQ R,L
jumps to the instruction with the label L if the value in register R is zerb.

JNE R,L
JGE

jumps to the instruction with the label L if the value in register R is not zero.

R,L

jumps to the instruction with the label I- if the value in register R is greater than or equal to zero.

.lGT R,L

jumps to the instruction with the label L if the value in register R is grearer than zero.

JI,E R,L
.ILT R,L
NOP

jumps to the instruction with the label L if the value in register R is less than or equal to zero. jumps to the instruction with the label I. if the value in register R is less than zero.
is an instruction with no effect. It can be tagged by a label. ? STOP stops execution of the machine. All programs should terminate by exqcutinga STOp instruction.