1. Study any one of the JFET models, draw the output characteristics.

Draw equivalent circuit and describe. An Improved Model for Four-Terminal Junction Field-Effect Transistors: [1] JFET has two distinct advantages. Due to direct contact with the substrate and absence of oxide, there are no surface effects and hence surface traps. The absence of the trapping states reduces the fluctuation of free-carrier transport, thus resulting in a very low noise in the JFET. Second, the JFET has two isolated gate terminals, which allows for two different inputs to be applied simultaneously for signal mixing purposes. Conventionally the JFET model that we use has only three terminals where the top and bottom gate are connected to a common gate voltage. The source-to-drain current ISD, including both the linear and saturation regions, for a p-channel JFET is given by: 𝐼𝑆𝐷 = 𝐼𝑆𝐷𝑆 tanh Where, 𝛼𝑉
𝑆𝐷 𝐡1

1 + πœ†π‘‰π‘†π·

---- (1) ---- (2) ---- (3) ---- (4) Where, ISDSβ€”source to drain saturation current Ξ± -- parameter merging the linear and saturation regions VSD is the source-to drain voltage Ξ» is the parameter accounting for the channel length modulation VP is the pinch-off voltage VGS is gate-to-source voltage ISDSO is ISDS at VGS = 0 VP is the threshold voltage For a three terminal JFET definition of VP is straightforward. 𝐼𝑆𝐷

= 𝐼𝑆𝐷𝑆0 (1 βˆ’ 𝐡2 )2 𝐡1 = 𝑉𝑃 βˆ’ 𝑉𝐺𝑆 𝐡2 = 𝑉
𝐺𝑆 𝑉 𝑃

For a four-terminal JFET having two different gate voltages (see Fig. l), however, the definition of the pinch-off voltage becomes less clear. For a 4- terminal JFET the parameters change to B1 = VPT βˆ’ VGST ---- (5) B2 = VGST/VPT ---- (6)

1

On the other hand. The pinch-off voltage VPT was derived under the condition VGSB is fixed. The problem becomes less complicated if the doping concentration in the top gate is much higher than that in the bottom gate. h = XT + XB ---. V-T is the top gate-to. The model developed will be valid for a wider range of impurities N DB and NDT. which use V PT as the pinch-off voltage is valid for JFET’s in which the doping concentration in the bottom gate is much smaller than that in the top gate. In other words. If the doping concentrations in the top and bottom gates are the same. and XT and XB are the depletion region thicknesses in the channel associated with the top and bottom gate junctions (Fig. then the thickness of depletion region in the channel associated with the top gate will be smaller than that associated with the bottom gate.source voltage VGST which causes the entire channel to become depleted (channel cutoff) for a given VGSB. and VPT will be smaller than V PB. and the obvious choice for the single pinch-off voltage is VPT because VGSB is in effect fixed. In such a device. the single-pinch-off-voltage model implicitly assumes that the effect of VGSB on XB is much less significant compared to that of VGST on XT and that the pinch-off voltage VPB associated with the bottom gate can be omitted. Since only a single pinch-off voltage is used in the JFET model (3). While I SD in such a model is influenced by both VGST and VGSB. considering VGSB as the fixed gate voltage and VGST as the varying gate voltage: 𝑉𝑝𝑑 = [𝑕 π‘ž 2πœ€ 𝑠 𝐾1 βˆ’ 𝐾2 πœ“ 𝐡 +𝑉 𝐺𝑆𝐡 𝐾1 ]2 βˆ’ πœ“ 𝑇 ---. (4) selecting V PT or VPB as the pinch-off voltage is crucial because it can give rise to a large difference in the current-voltage characteristics. Thus.(7) ---. An improved four-terminal JFET model is developed including both VPT and VPB. Because of the two independent gate voltages in the four-terminal JFET. B1 and B2 get modified to: 𝐡1 = [(𝑉 1 𝑃𝑇 βˆ’ 𝑉 𝐺𝑆𝑇 ) + 𝑉 + 1 𝑃𝐡 βˆ’ 𝑉 𝐺𝑆𝐡 ]βˆ’1 ---. Consider a four-terminal JFET biased with VGST = 2 V and VGSB = 4 V. and the bottom gate-to-source voltage that causes the channel to cutoff is VPB. the effect of VGSB on the depletion region in the channel associated with the bottom gate is minimal. the expressions given in (5) and (6).Here VPT is the pinch-off voltage associated with the top gate of JFET and is a function of the bottom gate-to-source voltage VGSB.(9) Where h is the channel height. and the top gate-to-source voltage that causes the channel to cutoff is V PT. two different pinch-off voltages VPT and VPB were derived by making following considerations.(10) 2 . By way of MEDICI simulations. the pinch-off voltage VPB was derived under the condition VGST is fixed. More detailed discussions on the physics underlying the use of VPT and the development of (5) and (6) are given below.(8) 𝐡2 = 𝑉 𝐺𝑆𝑇 𝑉𝑃𝑇 𝑉 𝐺𝑆𝐡 𝑉𝑃𝐡 The two pinch-off voltages can be derived using the condition that at VSD = 0. Thus. 1).

provided VGST is not very large.3 x 1017 cm-3 (e. because such a voltage results in a small VPB and thus invalidates the approximation of VPB >> VPT even if NDB << NDT. respectively. 2(b)).g. For such a device. (7) and (8) reduce to (5) and (6). 𝑉𝑝𝑑 = [𝑕 π‘ž 2πœ€ 𝑠 𝐾1 βˆ’ 𝐾2 πœ“ 𝐡 +𝑉 𝐺𝑆𝐡 𝐾1 ]2 βˆ’ πœ“π΅ ---. where the present model predicts slightly smaller drain currents than the previous model (Fig. and the VPB >> VPT assumption used in the previous model becomes questionable.25 Β΅m. 2(a) and (b) shows ISDS-VGST and ISD-VSD characteristics. Fig. 3(a) and (b) shows ISDS-VGST and ISD-VSD characteristics. but otherwise identical structure as JFET-1. NDT >> NDB).5 x 1017 cm-3 (e. Fig. NDT = 1. ψT and ψB are the top and bottom gate junctions. VPB is much larger than VPT due to the fact that only a very small portion of the bottom-gate junction depletion region is extended into the channel.g. channel thickness of 0. calculated from the previous model. calculated from the present model. smaller effective pinch-off voltages). This results because a large V GST gives rise to a relatively small VPB. the two 3 .. Next we consider a four-terminal JFET (JFET-2) having NDB = 1 x 10l6 cm-3. NDT not much larger than NDB). top-gate doping concentration NDT = 1. respectively. the model given by (5) and (6) may still fail. except for large VGST. and simulated from MEDICI. calculated from the present model. respectively. As a result. the inclusion of the effect of bottom-gate depletion region in the improved model will lead to channel cutoff at smaller gate voltages (e. Physically.g. For a large VGST. and simulated from a two-dimensional (2-D) device simulator MEDICI. average channel doping concentration NA = 9 x 1016 cm-3. At VGSB = 0. calculated from the previous model. bottom-gate doping concentration NDB = 1015 cm-3 and.(11) For a JFET having NDB << NDT.. Consider a four-terminal p-channel JFET (JFET-1) having a channel length of 4 Β΅m. Thus considering VGSB as the fixed gate voltage and VGST as the varying gate voltage. the previous and present models yield very similar results..Where K1 = NDT/[NA(NA + NDT)] and K2 = NDB/[NA(NA + NDB] Ξ΅s is the dielectric permittivity.

VPT is considerable larger than VPB for JFET-1. the results in Fig. We point out several important observations. VPT can be larger or smaller than VPB for JFET-2. Second. This is due to the fact that the JFET considered here has a relatively small difference between the top. Finally... VPT and VPB for JFET-1 are larger than those for JFET-2 for all VGST due to the fact that JFET-1 has a lower bottom-gate doping density than JFET-2. about 40% at VGST = 2V) if the single-pinchoff-voltage approach is used. and the single-pinch-off-voltage approximation employed in the previous model becomes erroneous. 3(b) indicate that the drain current can be greatly overestimated (i.g. VPT is constant versus VGST because VGSB is fixed. which are consistent with device physics mentioned earlier.g. the degree of discrepancies of the two models increases with increasing VGSB and VGST.and bottom-gate doping concentrations. VPB can be omitted).e. suggesting that (7) and (8) reduce to (5) and (6) for this device (e. however. First.models have the same saturation drain current (Fig. 4 .. The results further suggest that the effective pinch-off voltage of the four-terminal JFET is smaller than that predicted by the previous model. whereas VPB decreases with increasing VGST. indicating the model given by (5) and (6) is not applicable for this device (e. For a constant VGSB of 4 V. 3(a)). As VGSB is increased. Fig. On the other hand. 4 shows the relative magnitudes of VPT and VPB calculated as functions of VGST and VGSB for JFET-1 and JFET-2. both VPT and VPB are important).

Electrical equivalent circuit: Fig. Fig 5. The associated parasitic capacitances arising out of the substrate and gate electrode is shown. Two gates have been shown denoted by TG(top gate) and BG(bottom gate).terminal JFET. Electrical equivalent of a four-terminal JFET 5 . 5 shows the electrical equivalent circuit of a 4.

Leff – Effective channel length VTo. 1. However. draw the output and transfer characteristics. Fig. table look-up models. a new model. the model is not accurate in the short-channel region because it neglects the velocity saturation effects of carriers. The validity of (3) for various MOSFET’s is shown in Fig. πœ† = πœ†0 βˆ’ πœ†1 𝑉𝐡𝑆 𝑉𝐷𝑆 β‰₯ 𝑉𝐷𝑆𝐴𝑇 : π‘†π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘”π‘–π‘œπ‘› 𝐼𝐷 = 𝐼𝐷3 = 𝐼𝐷5 2 βˆ’ 𝑉 𝑉 𝐷𝑆 𝐷𝑆𝐴𝑇 𝑉𝐷𝑆 /𝑉𝐷𝑆𝐴𝑇 ---. and so on. The subscript 3 and 5 for ID denotes a triode and a pentode operating region. there are more precise MOS models like the SPICE LEVEL3 model.(5) 𝑉𝐷𝑆 < 𝑉𝐷𝑆𝐴𝑇 : π‘™π‘–π‘›π‘’π‘Žπ‘Ÿ π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘”π‘–π‘œπ‘› Where Vgs.(3) ---.(2) ---. some of them are time-consuming in evaluating models and some of them need a special system with a hardware/software combination for extracting model parameters and the number of parameters is large. Study one of the mosfet models. The objective of this model is to provide a simple model which is placed just above the Shockley model. the nth power law MOSFET model has been discussed. Ξ»o and Ξ»l are related to the finite drain conductance in the saturated region. Vds.(4) 𝐡(𝑉𝐺𝑆 βˆ’ 𝑉𝑇𝐻 )𝑛 𝐼𝐷 = 𝐼𝐷𝑆 = 𝐼𝐷𝑆𝐴𝑇 1 + πœ†π‘‰π‘†π· . I D is the drain current. Draw an equivalent circuit and describe. respectively. BSIM. Ξ³. Parameters K and m control the linear region characteristics while B and n determine the saturated region characteristics. bulksource voltages respectively W – Channel width.2. and 2Ο†F are parameters which describe the threshold voltage. 𝑉𝑇𝐻 = 𝑉𝑇0 + 𝛾( 2πœ™πΉ βˆ’ 𝑉𝐡𝑆 βˆ’ 𝑉𝐷𝑆𝐴𝑇 = 𝐾(𝑉𝐺𝑆 βˆ’ 𝑉𝑇𝐻 )𝑛 𝐼𝑆𝐴𝑇 = 𝐿 π‘Š 𝑒𝑓𝑓 2πœ™πΉ ---. A simple MOSFET model for circuit analysis: [2] SHOCKLEY model for MOSFET is widely used in analytical treatments of MOSFET circuits. 1. However. In order to fill the gap between the simple Shockley model and the more precise models. Measured n value for different MOSFET’s 6 . drain-source. Model: The proposed model equations are as follows.(1) ---. Vbs are gate-source. namely. On the other hand.

Fig. It is better for MOS model to incorporate these resistance effects by just modifying parameters of the model. The salient feature of GaAs FET is that VDSAT is constant and not a function of VGS. An example is shown in Fig. 7 . without adding extra nodes which are necessary when the resistor effects are modelled by lumped external resistors. VGS-lD characteristics of 0.25-Β΅m PMOS VDS-ID and VGS-ID characteristics with and without source and drain resistance. The present model does not give a very good approximation near and below the threshold voltage as seen in Fig. which can be expressed by setting m = 0. The modelling of the region is important in estimating the charge decay characteristic of charge storage nodes but in this case a statistical model should be used since it is very sensitive to process variation. PMOSFET. 3 and 4. 3. the contact resistance.25-Β΅m MOSFET’s is shown in Figs. 4:0. The near. which includes lumped resistors whose value is 10% of the effective MOSFET resistance inserted in the drain and the source.25-nm NMOS ( VBS = 0V) Fig. drain/source diffusion resistance. 2.and sub-threshold region modelling is not important in calculating delay of most VLSI’s. In the sub micrometer devices.25-Β΅m Fig. and hotcarrier-induced drain resistance are important. Solid lines in the figure are calculated ID-VDS curves using the present model with the modified parameter set and without any resistors inserted in the drain and the source. This means that the present model can be fitted to the measured MOSFET I-V characteristics which include inseparable resistor effects. The model is quite general and can be applied for GaAs FET as well.An application of the model to 0.25-nm NMOS V). 3. Vds-Id characteristics of 0. 4. Dotted lines in the figure are simulated ID-VDS curves of a 0.

and mixed analog-digital circuits using submicron CMOS technologies. low-current analog. This model is dedicated to the design and simulation of low-voltage. For quasi-static dynamic operation. This figure represents the intrinsic and extrinsic elements of the MOS transistor. EKV MOSFET model is a scalable and compact simulation model built on fundamental physical properties of the MOS structure.Electrical equivalent of MOSFET: The electrical equivalent of MOSFET is as shown in the figure. only the intrinsic capacitances from the simpler capacitances model are shown here. 8 . Here the circuit is prepared using the EKV model.

IEEE Transaction on electron devices Vol. 9 . 1309 August 1996. ―A Simple MOSFET model for circuit analysisβ€–. J. [2]. ―An Improved Model for Four-Terminal Junction Field-Effect Transistorsβ€–.REFERENCES [1]. Yue. 38 no. Takayasu Sakurai and A. 887 April 1991. Liou and Y. J. Richard Newton. 43 no. 8 p. 4 p. IEEE Transaction on electron devices Vol.

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